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The aims of this experiment are to calculate the transformation ratio of the transformer, iron loss,
and magnetization current from the open circuit test and short circuit test. Then finally in the load
test calculate voltage regulation and the efficiency then we compare these results to the voltage
regulation and efficiency from the equivalent circuit.


To study the transformation ratio, iron loss, and magnetization current at a rated voltage
from non-load test.
To study the voltage regulation and efficiency of the transformer with varying load test.


Open-circuit test

The voltage ratio of a transformer may be obtained from the reading of two voltmeters, one of them
connected on the primary and the other connected to the secondary side.

The iron loss current ( ) and the magnetization current ( ) can be determined from the open-
circuit test, as the input power is equal to the transformer iron loss at a given voltage and frequency
as the copper losses is negligibly small, because of the small current pass through the transformer ar
no-load (0 ).

The no-load current includes two components:

The core loss current ( ) = is in phase with the supply voltage (0 )

Where, 0 is the iron loss of the transformer.

And the magnetization current = 0 2 + 2 is 90 lagging behind the supply voltage.

Load test

The transformer efficiency () may be written as:


0 0 0

For simplicity, consider the power factor (0 ) on the secondary side the same as that on
primary side.
The iron losses are considered constant independent of the load current as long as the
voltage applied to the transformer is kept constant.

The voltage regulation may be defined as the difference in the terminal voltage between the
no-load and load condition expressed in percentage of the no-load voltage.

|2 | |2 |
Voltage regulation =
|2 |


Open circuit test

1. Circuit was set up as shown in Figure 1.

2. The applied voltage was adjust up to a 1: 1 rated voltages and readings of all instruments are
taken down.
Load test

1. Circuit was set up as shown in Figure (2a, b and c).

2. All reading are taken down as the resistive load steps up to 1A with the primary voltage
rated at 120V.
3. Step 2 is repeated using reactive load.
4. Step 2 is repeated again using a capacitive load.