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18 ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

These relations are very much useful in evaluating the flux linkages and hence the
inductance of a given system of conductors.
Variation of the current in the conductors causes a change in the number of flux linkages.
According to Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction, this change in flux linkages induces
a voltage in the conductors which is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages.

2.2 INDUCTORS AND INDUCTANCE

An inductor is a device which stores energy in a magnetic field. By definition, the inductance L
of an inductor is the ratio of its total magnetic flux linkages to the current I through the
inductor or
N m
L= = (2.7)
I I
This definition is satisfactory for a medium for which the permeability is constant.
However, the permeability of ferrous media is not constant and for such cases the inductance
is defined as the ratio of the infinitesimal change in flux linkage to the infinitesimal change in
current producing it, i.e.,
d
L= (2.8)
dI
The unit of inductance is the henry.
Mutual inductance between two circuits is defined as the flux linkages of one circuit due
to the current in the second circuit per ampere of current in the second circuit. If the current I2
produces 12 flux linkages with circuit 1, the mutual inductance is
12
M12 = henries (2.9)
I2

The phasor voltage drop in circuit 1 caused by the flux linkages of circuit 2 is
V1 = jM12I2 = j12 volts. (2.10)

2.3 MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO A LONG CURRENT CARRYING


CONDUCTOR

Let us consider a long current carrying conductor with radius R as shown in Fig. 2.3. We will
consider here that the current is uniformly distributed across the section of the conductor. The
flux linkages here will be both due to internal flux and external flux. The magnetic field intensity
due to the current distribution inside the conductor is calculated as follows:
Consider a cylinder with radius r < R. The current enclosed by the cylinder will be

FG r IJ .
2
I = I
H RK (2.11)

where I is the current through the conductor.