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DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

,.,.,,:;':. . .... (6-PASS) 905

TECHNOVATE DOUBLEP IPE HEAT EXCHANG ER, 6PASS, MODEL 9052


APPLICATION The Technovate DoublePipe Heat Exchanger, 6Pass Other valves control flow volume or isolate selected sections of system.
(M odel 9052) is one of a group of Heat Transfer and Fl uid Flow Education Bottom pass is a common return pass for the other five. It and pass im
Systems. It permits study of heat transfer between fluids at differing . mediately above constitute a stan dard twopass hori~ontal heat exchanger.
temperatures flowing on opposite sides of a thin tubewall. It provides Another pass uses a different tube metal for comparison purposes. Still
means to detect and measure the effects of the variables affecting (1) heat another provides either parallel or counterflow (tubeside) in combination
transfer coefficients at critical points in a variety of flow geometries and with turbulent crossflow. Then there is the pass for turbulent or laminar
(2) temperature gradients between hot and cold fluids in parallel, counter crossflow. The last pass is flexible and provides air convection cooling
and crossflows of the laminar, transitional, turbulent, and of the vortex outside the tube and vortex with pulsation flow inside the tube. All inlet
(with pulsation) type. and outlet streams are thermocoupled and means provided for measuring
the temperature of the shellside pipe in all passes (except the flexible
Experimental techniques provided for (and treated in detail in accom
pass) as well as tube wall temperatures in two lower passes. The experi
panying manual) enable the student to comprehend an d ap ply boundary menter can work with a wide range of temperature gradients and with
layer, as well as traditional theory. Analytical and graphical methods for
Reynold's numbers that run from laminar levels through the transition
determining corrections to mean temperature differences and for accur
range (2300 to app. 10(000) and on up into the 200,000 region. He can
. ately establishing nonl inear temperature gradients are pro vi ded . Much of
also work with liquids, with steam, with air, or with various combinations
this material is unavailable in current textbooks and well ah ead of indus of these. Builtin versatility is such that there is virtually no limit to the
trial practice.
number of experiments which can be performed. What's more, the unit
DESCRIPTION The equipment, shown above, is verticall y oriented on mal be operated as a pilot plant to evaluate proposed heat exchanger
a rigid, durable wall panel. Inlet ports for ho t and cold liquids and drai ns design characteristics.
are in bottom left corner. Mixer and flowm eter are at left center. Inlet Steam may be obtained by connecting in a Technovate Phase Heat Ex
;Jort for steam is in upper left corner. Two fou rway, leveroperated changer (boiler), Model 9058 . . . a procedure that broadens experi
valves control directions of flow in tube and in shell sides of the passes. mental capab ilities.
TECHNOVAT E DOUBLE-PIPE EXCHA~GER, 6-PASS, MODEL 90~2
EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES t.ubes as well as for a corrugated tube needed for heat flux and film
12. Total heat balance coefficient determinations together
Like other Technovate Professional
Development Systems for Education, with three thermocouple subselector
D. WITH PHASE HEAT EXCHANGER, switches and one main selector switch
the DoublePipe Heat Exchanger, MODEl 9058:
6-Pass, Model 9052 is applicable which channel temperature sensings to
from beginning courses on through 1. Heat bal~nce of combined Systems one pair of common potentiometer
2. Enthalpy ~f steam and other v~pors terminals;' (7) an instrument shelf;
grad~te work and into original
3. Hut losses in combined Systems (8) means to determine temperatures
research. As indicated overleaf, its
physical versatility is buill in. What's and in Phase He~t Exch~nger (boile r) of shell iluids at any point along the
more the unit will accept a wide 4. All above and other experiments tubes ; (9) means to determine flow
variety of coolants and vapors. The with various liquids, gases, vapors and of liqUId s and gases and amounts of
following suggests the breadth of work mixtures at or near dew points and . condensates; (10) rigid, rilliable,
which may be done with the unit ... we ll ~bove s.tme, including effects on verticallyoriented mounting panel
much of it involving boundary layer film coefficients due to pressure, complete with wall.mounting brackets
concepts. items in bold face type ar~ enthalpy, gas composition and and fastene" .
molecul~r structure of various vapors
additional capabilities available when
unit is used with the Phase Heat Det.1iled:
Excha nger (boiler), Model 9058. E. ADVANCED RESEARCH
PIPING (AND VALVES)
CAPABILITIES :
All nonexperimental piping is copper
1. Unsteady state heat transfe r
with wrought copper fittings and brass
A. Experirrient~1 Fluids: 2. Boundary layers as affected
valves and is secured to panel with
1. Hot and cold water a. By solid wall materials
heavyduty, thermoinsulated
2. Hot water and forced air b. Physical characteristics of fl uid
standoffs. Un io n couplers are provided
3. Steam and cold water 3. Stud,es of vortex-cavIty flow and its
at all connection points to external
4. Steam und forced air effect on the heat flux supply or dra inage lines. All fluid lines
4. Heat transfer for pulsating flows
tested to withstand bOlb water or wet
(flowdeterm ined, pulsating change in
B. Experiment~1 Flow Conditions: hydrodynamiC diameters)
steam pressure.
1. Counterflow in shell and tube 5. The hydrau lic entrance effects on
heat transfer GAGES (AND METERS)
assemblies
2. Parallel flow in shell and tube 6. Studies of noise resulling from Temperature
assemblies entrance effects of flow having Dial type (deg F range) 50-300
3. Crossflow in series with parallel or approximately 1000 pulsations per Flow
counterflow in shell and tube second in a corrugated tube Float type (scfm of H,O) 1.26
assemblies
4. High turbulence crossflows in tube INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
SPECIFICATIONS FOR ORDERING Solid, verticallytrue wall ; sources of
side with parallel flow Or counterflow (OR REQUESTING BIDS)
on shellside hot and of cold water ; drain. Source of
5. Vortex pulsating (cavity) flow with Condensed: DoublePipe Heat wet steam regulated' to 1S psig and
unstable, flowdependent, hydraulIC Exchanger shall include : (1 ) five capable of providing at least 6
diameter (in corrugated tube) shellandtube pa5ses and one
Ibs/hr as provided by Technovate Phase
6. Free convection crossflow of air, for aircoo led, corrugated tube pa ss each
noninsulated and so arranged that Heat Exchanger, Model 9058.
horizontal and for vertical single tubes
one shellandtube pass is a common *When not using Technovate Phase Heat
return leg of five doubleleg Exchanger, 60 psig steam may be used.
C. Determin~tions Of: configurations employ ing each of the
1. Logarithmic mean temperature other five passes, one of which is a OPTIONAL ACCESSORI ES
differences for parallel flows of flUids standard pass alike in all respects to A. Technovate Ph ase Heat Exchanger (boiler),
2. Logarithmic mean temperature the common pass, a second which Model 9058, to convert water, alcohols
differences for counterflows of fluids uses a different tube metal than the
3. Correciion factors for cross flows common pass, a third which is and other liquids into wet or dry vapor
relative to parallel flows or configured on the tube side to with or without superheat; controllable
counterflows introduce turbulent crossflow, a fo urth in 500watt steps from 500 to 2500
4. Mean temperature differences for
combined cross and parallel flows
which is configured on the shellside
to introduce laminar and turbulent
watts plus 160 watts for superheat. ...
110
5. The hydrauliC tube '~t rance effects
on heat fluxes
cross flow, a fifth whiQh is configured
Produces steam at rates up to 6
Ibs/hr*
...
0>

to provide air cooling and Gi


6. Thinmetalwall effect on free and vortexwithpulsation type flow ; (2) B. Digital temperature indicator, i;
forced convection heat exchange valving such that flow volumes may >
:!: 10 F accuracy. o
7. Boundary layer effects of different be controlled and such that each c
.r::
metal s on forced convection heat double-leg configuration may be C. Steam pressure regulator (for use with u
CI>
exchange operated independently of the others existing installed steam service (acilities) ~
8. The heat transfer coefficients for with the fluids in the shellandtube @
free and forced convection heat passes in either parallel or counterflow; D. Steam frap
transfer for laminar, transitional and (3) means for ut ili zing either the shell
turbulent flows SYSTEM DIMENSIONS
or the tube side to handle the hotter
3 . With change in phase fluid; (4) independent means for Height (in) 57
b. Betweentwo liquids introdUCing steam or other hot or cold Width (in) 81
c. Between liquid and gas vapors to all double leg configurations; Depth 14
9. The film coefficients for heat (5) means to effectively mix incoming Weight (Ibs) 238
transfer with changes in phase hot liquid with a portion of incoming
10. The film coefficients for liquids cold liquid and to so maintain a Shipping Weight,
and for air on shell side of the heat desired temperature as indicated on a crated (Ibs) 380
exchanger dial type thermometer; (6) nineteen
11. Heat transfer by free air convection fixed plus two test probe Available trom Technovate
for horizontal and vertical smooth chromelalumel thermocouples as

Technovate reserves the right to make, without prior notice, such changes
in this product as will improve its performance or broaden its capabilities.
. Available through:

7'h'CHNOVATE
910 SOtn'HWEST 12TH AVENUE POMPANO BEACH }>'L 33060 USA
CABLE TECHNOVA TEL 30~ 9 46 4470
)

IIIllIJ:l!:a~Ii4:t1:I;fJI:tJil:rJ~[tJ:UIID}D

~l\r-:H ~ H ".,,-4 ,;, :,'


",. . 'r'

."' ~. .~
1 I," :
... 't
C "' :""
.'

. t. .....f. .I .... ' ... ,J. ! i. ~
I
I
)2,,-
~7.~ .

'-9-
0
~
L ____
I
l _]
:

.oil ...... _. ' .... ~ . .. .... ~ ~ __

Figure 1. Six~PaBs, Double Pipe Heat Exchanger


I,--rrf ......
>
....
.....
OPERA11 ONAl INSTRUCll ONS

Fluid Flow
Fluid flow is controlled with 16 needle valves and two 4-way 2-position valves:
V-I Steam Inlet Valve
This valve controls steam to inner passes of tubes I, 2, 3, 4 and 5; and single pass #6.
V-2 Hot Water Inlet Valve
Controls hot water supply to the mixer tank .
V-3 Cold Water Inlet Valve to Mixer
This valve controls the flow of cold water to the mixer tank.
V-4 Mixer Output Control Valve
This valve controls the flow of fluid from the mixer tank to the inner passes and pass 6.
V-5 Cold Water Supply Valve
This valve controls the cold water supply flow to the outer passes.
V-6 Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through tube #6.
V-7 Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through the inner pass of#5 tube assembly.
V-8 Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through the outer pass of the #5 tube assembly.
V-9 Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through perforated tube and the inner pass of the #4 assembly.
V-IO Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through the outer pass of the #4 tube assembly.
V-I I Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through the stainless steel inner pass of the #3 tube assembly.
V-12 Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through the outer pass of the #3 tube assembly.
V-13 Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through the inner pass of the #2 tube assembly.
V-14 Flow Control Valve
Controls flow through the outer pass of the #2 tube assembly.
V-IS Flow meter ou tpu t Valve
Controls flow output of the flowmeter.
V-16 Drain Valve
Controls flow output from either V-17 or V-18.
V-17 Directional Control Valve
In the ccw position fluid flow is directed through the outer pass of the # 1 tube assem bly from
left to right. Fluid flow in the outer passes of" tube assemblies 2,3,4, and 5 will thus be from right
2
Caution : Do not run steam thru flowmeter.

(4) V-17 ccw; V-18 cw Counter flow, cold liquid is measured

Left end of outer passes 2, 3,4,5 Flowmeter

~ t
cold fluid ---;O)~ 0 ----------------:>-~ 0 ~ inner pass #1
~ ~
Left end ou ter pass #I ; and righ t drain
end of outer passes 2, 3,4,5

Parallel flow of inner and outer pass flui ds in tube assemblies 1,2,3,4 and 5:
The inner passes fluid supply 2, 3, 4, and 5, should always enter from the left end through the
respective flow control valve (V-7, V-9, V-II, V-l3). Exit of the inner pass fluid is from the right
end of inner pass of tube assembly # I.
Outer pass flu id supply is either from the left or right end depending upon the position of V-17
thus to obtain parallel flow of both the inner and outer passes of the tube assemblies 1,2,3,4 and 5.
V-I7 must be in the cw position and all or any of tube assem blies 2, 3, 4, 5 flow control valve
pairs V-7, V-8, V-9, V-10, V-II , V-12, V-l3, V-14, be open. V-6 in tube #6 should be shut.
Counter flow of the inner and outer pass fluids is accomplished by positioning V-17 in the ccw
position.

Parallel operation of tube assemblies:


Tube assemblies 2, 3, 4, 5 can be made to operate in parallel by opening the appropriate flow control
valve pairs: V-7, V-8, V-9, V-lO, V-II, V-12, V-l3, V-14. For example, if pairs V-7, V-8 and V-l3,
V-14 were open, tube assemblies #2 and #5 would be in parallel.

Series opera tion of tll be assem blies:


Series operation of tube assemblies 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 is always with tube assembly #1. Any tube
assembly can be put in series with #1 tube assembly by opening the flow control valve pair to that
particular assembly. (V-6 in the case of corrugated tube #6).

The standard model allows steady-state measurements only. The addition of a tank and
a circulation pump, however, provides the capability for studying the system in the
transitory state. Furthermore, the effects of viscosity and molecular structure of fluids
on the boundary layer, and consequently the (:hange of the heat transfer coefficient for

4
V-6 IT-I Tube 6 IT-2

V-I
Tube 5
V-7
Steam

V-9 Tube 4

Mixer Flow
~ Meter V-I I Tube 3

IT-8
V-3 ST-I Tube 2
V-13

IT-IO
ST-2
V-5
V-I7
Tube 1
V-2
V-IS V-16

Hot Cold Drains


Water

Figure 2a.

Model 9052 Flow Diagram


showing the designation of
tubes, valves and thermocouples.

IT - Inside Temp
-M- On-off and Control Valves
OT - Outside Temp
ST - Surface Temp
T-PT - Test Probe Temp.
~ Directional Valves

jL Thermocouples

5
8/

W~(( MO CJNrtNC 8[lCl'TS

/
'"
F(/.eA/t.:!J(E~ - /NSr." C 4Y c=ro"'~~

,-
~:I
- ~:!

~
6C
l
T[r1P F"
so -

~
300" .
,-..-...{

-
Lt
H'", Air.
TAj'" K'..
........ ~

f
-
- i S7
r-r f'-n" ...-.cu
'-'

J ffi "."'" ."''''H


@@@
.(i)o 0 ~~n5I" S!t'E'~

1-

~DR.'W~ Z>f?~/1o,/
Ct:lAl/ll~C ~
rlN<: PI. o~
:3fq'COPPC? r"l!J~ .5r1E1fr
.5lr-
rOlf'lr.
FlrrtlV~ -'/4 """'10/\/ ..sw''1T TYPr:(i) ffA1. . w~r-' P,f'ESSI.t>c- EiOa!u.
INLET ColO /'1A1: WET sr~~ ,t:'tf'f.'$SI/-f'E ~ot.6:3
HI/X r,H~-f'f r'/lr~ . 300''''
WUT 1101' .CONNEcTING ~/PC$/~C .
fz'Ct>P~~ T"lIlJ $",~r .T!'INr.
,rt rrtN'f ~'jHt()1V .$"',,1' rYp~(,)

Figure 2b. Piping Diagram

convection can be evaluated. Since the surface free energy of a solid affects the
boundary layer thickness of a fluid and therefore the film resistance for heat flow, a
stainless steel center tube is used in tube assembly No.3 instead of a copper tube.

The flow of all fluids is regulated with needle valves. The rate of flow for hot and cool
liquids and air is measured with a single glass tube -type flowmeter. The flowmeter is
equipped with a fixed scale which is calibrated in cubic feet per minute, and a second.
scale which is marked in percent of maximum flow. This scale is movable and can be
adjusted for changes in viscosity of fluids with temperature or for calibration purposes.
The flowmeter is connected to the system as desired with another four-way valve.

FollOwing the mixer, a dial-type thermometer allows the coarse reading of the mixing
temperature. All important temperatures for heat transfer calculations are determined
with thermocouples. Fluid temperatures are measured after turbulent mixing at the
entrance and exits of each tube. In two of the tube assemblies the wall temperatures are
measured for the determination of the film coefficients.

6
ACTUAL TEST DATA
Thl' following table shows the Reynolds numbers obtained for the flow of water and air
at room temperature for five pounds per squar~ inch pressure.

Table 1. Reynolds Numbers for Tubes

Water Air
Tube
4
Flow (cfm) Re x 10 4 Flow (scfm) Re x 10

Inside 0.48 2.1 14.2 3.8


No.1
Shell 0.44 2.5 13.0 4.0
Inside 0.48 2.1 14.2 3.8
No.2
Shell 0.44 2.5 13.0 4.0
Inside 0.4 8 2'. 1 14.2 3.8
No.3
&1ell 0.44 2.5 13.0 4.0
Inside 0.37 -3.0 11. 0 -4.0
No.4
Shell 0.44- 2. 5 13.0 4.0
Inside 0.48 2.1 14.2 3.8
No.5
Shell 0.44 2.5 13.0 . 4.0
No.6 0.44 2.5 13.0 4.0

The curves in figures 3 through 6 represent actual test data. The rate of flow for all
tests was 72 lb/hr of hot water and 107 lb/hr of cold water. Hot water flows in the
inner tube.

NOTE
All curves show test temperatures obtained without outer
(shell) insulation of the tube assembly. For determination
of temperatures for insulated tubes see suggested reports
and calculations.

Figure 3 shows temperature curves obtained for parallel flow having tube assembly No.2
and No.1 in series. The entrance turbulence, affecting the heat flow up to a length of
28 inches, is clearly demonstrated. .

Figure 4 shows the temperatures and entrance effect for counter flow in tubes No.3 and
No.1. Tube No.3, the stainless steel tube, is in series with tube No.1, a copper tube of
the same dimensions. '.

7
170 r
r-:--
, ~ . /
J J 1
INSIDE FLUID TEMERATURES CALCULA TED
1 J J

" i' I

160
,
"" \
......
....... .
150
\~, ,
,
~ foo..... ' .... HOT WATER INSIDE, 72 Iblhr
r'-- "-
............. COLD WATER IN SHELL, 107 Iblhr

140
~
........
i'- ..............
.........
101..
CL
!AI
r---- r----
130 .......
r-- ~
IX
:;)
t-

c:
w
Do..
~
W ' 120
t-

)
110 I

100
~
EHTUHCE EFFECT ZONE
,

.,.....--I--- -- l.---- ~ ----


-- -
----'
;~
~

90
V
-"
- V~
-" "SHELL-SIDE TEMPERATURES MEASURED
80
V I I I I I I I
.4 8 12 16 20 24 27 32 36 .40 .48 52 56 60 .4 68 72
TUBE LEH~TH (in.)

J . Figure 3. Temperatures for Parallel Flow in Tubes No.1 and No.2

8
170

~
, ~ ......
160

" ~
~
15 0-
"'" ~
.......... HOT WATER INSIDE, 72lblh,
COLD WATER IN SHELL, 1071blh,-
. ...............
14 0 ....... I
~
i'-..
I'-..........
~
I/..
C?- 130
w
Il:
...........
::J
I-
-c
........... " ......
~
w I
~ ......
~ 120
w
I-

110 "-
-..............

----- --- ..............


.
-----.............
\
100
..............
N "'-
..............
r-........ ~
90 ~
r-- ~

80
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 6.4
--- 68
r--, r--
72
TUBE LENGTH (in.)

Figure 4. Temperature:s for Counter Flow in Tubes No.1 and No.3

9
Figure 5 represents temperatures when tube assemblies No.4 and No.1 are connected in
series. The hot water is sprayed against the inside of the inner tube. This results in a
deviation of both temperature curves from the logarithmic characteristic for parallel
flow. The true temperature characteristic is obtained by measurement of the tempera-
tures of the outer wall of tube No.4 in downstream direction.

Figure 6 represents the temperatures for the cross flow tube No.5 in series with No.!.
The outside wall temperatures measured on tube No.5 characterize the 0P viation of
cross flow temperatures from the logarithmic characteristic for parallel flow.

10
170 I I I I I

~,~
V INSIDE FLUID TEMPERATURE CALCULATED

~
160 '-
"- --............
" ~ ..........
,
..... , '~
~
15 0
'"
..... ,
.... ,
\ I HOT WATER INSIDE, 72lblhr
COLD WATER OUTSIDE, 107 Iblhr
......
,

-- ---
....
140
r-- -..............
u..
r--.. ~

--- --.
~ 130 t--.
w
0:
::I
I-
<
0:
~ 120
I
~
w
I-

110

100

., ,..-
...... - -
7 V
--- f.-- --
90 ...- "" /
,.. "" .7
V
80
;.<
./
4
I--""'"

8
lL

---
12 16
)I-

2o 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72
TUBE LENGTH (in.) .

Figure 5. Temperatures for Tubes No.4 (Sprayed) and No.1

11
170
"
\

\' , ,
160
\ ,
,,
\
\ "
150 ~ "

"" ~
" r-. ...

- -
... ... ,
HOT WATER INSIDE, 72lbihr
COLD WATER OUTSIDE, 1041bihr

140
INSIDE FLUID '"
~ CALCULATED
.,/ ~ ,

-- --
r-- I'--
r-- r-- r--
'iL:'
'L
w
a.:
:;)
I-
~
a.:
130

I -
r--.F-
w 120
Q..
:(
W
I-

110

------
~

....--
11.

jV'" --
--
-'
100
x
./
/ ,. ..,
..-

I
/ . . '" '"

90

1/ /
/
/
/
/

Ir
80
8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 . 56 60 64 68 72
TUBE LENGTH (in .)

Figure 6. Temperatures for Tubes No.5 (Cross Flow) and No.1

12
SUGGESTED EXPERIMENTS

ThL' list of exrL'rin1l'nts is al'(omranil'd by instrudinlls for thl' tldw~ to he USl'll. till' valve positions,
inkt tL'mpcraturL's, !low ratl's and thL'rmOl'ouplL' rL':luings to bl' takl'n. Yahl', tube allU thermo(ouplc
dl'sign3tions are shown in Figllfl' ~a .

To I11ake the fullest U"l' ot" tIll' su~gest('d expL'filllcnts, thl'rc shoulu bl' avaibhk the following services:
Cold \\'atL'r (10F) - 10 G.P.~L
Hot W3ter (I (lO"F) _. Ma.\imull1 aV:libhk. up to 10 G .P.M.
Compressed Air (70"F 60 p.s.i. 1113.\) 4~ S.c.r.r-.1.
HL'ateu Compressed Air I I (lO "F flO psi . 1ll:IX) - 4~ S.C.F.M.
(or l'kdri( air healt'r of I ~/~ h W c:lp:l(ity)
S:lturated Slt'am (60 j1.s.i. max) - up to 100 Ib/hr.

Whl'rc Stt'3Ill or air i~ used. a suit:lbk prl'SSlIfl' regulation or r,'ducing v:t!\'l' should hl' fitted to the inlet
line . In aJdition, whl' n usin~ Sk,IIll, a steaIll trap should be fitlL'd to tht' aprropri:11L' ur:lin linl' .

PlJLSA TING FLOW ilEAl' TR:\NSFFR I Y AI L!ATION

Tutw (l of Slott ~loJ,'1 l)()~~ l':ln h~' rllfL'l'd inlo vihratilln hy tITl' rlll\\' llr tlllid IlHlllIgh it.
Thi, vibration t"Cl'lb b:l(k into Ihc Iluid 110\\' :lI1d C:lUSl'S il 10 plIJ...atl'. Tht' vibr:llllln (Licarly
1ll1tl(C:lbk by "singln~" of Iht' tllbl') l'xish fllr a very lilllilL'd 1111\\ r:llIgl': hoth :Iilu\'l' and Ill'll)'"
thi, rangl' viilr:llil)JJ :Ind j1l1kltilln arl' Il\ll prl'sl'nl. To l'valll:llL' th,' lrkll pI', plilsaling no\\" on
hl',l1 IransfL'r. USt' luh,', I :J11d (, ;IS for l'\j1L'rilllL'nt I .F.~ . Iktl'llllin: lite 11111\;11111" flow r:lngl' by
i1slt'ning fur till' '~lllrillg." Upl'\;IlL' tltl' l'ljlliplIlt' llt just helow tlti, r,l11gl', .ill\l ;Ihm ,' il. and in
tlh' Illiddk (lr it. Cllnlp:lrl' tht' rl'slilts rOI Ihl'St' 3 opl'ratin!! !low rale\.

PROCEDURE OF EXPERIMENTATION
A. SL'k(t rl'IJlih' flow dirl'ctiol1s for f1l1ius. This is dUIIl' hy setting IhL' four-wClY vJlve No. I
in posililln for l'ithn p:Ir:t1klfluw or sl'ries flu\\,. (Sel' t3hk of L':',Pl'fillll'IlIS).

B. RL':!ul:Jl,' flow or iiuids with thl' nl'l'dk \'Jivcs. (Aho l'stahlish tlll' tksirl'd hUI w;lter tempt'r-
al life lhi ng tht' mixl'r.l

C. Wait ft1r re:ldi11p lIntil 1L'lllpl'ralllfl'~ or fluids leaving thl' l'xdJangn altain a constant value.

RECORDING OF DATA
A. Dl'lL'rllline I1l1\\ LIlt' pn Illinu!l' ror both fluids.

B. \k:ISllrt' Il'Ill!ll'f:llurl's or bnth !luids at the l'ntrallL'l' and thL' exil for l'aeh tube.

C. \h,\ISllrl' lllltsidt' knlj)l'raturL's or thl' tUhl'S at four-indl intl'rvals in the dllwnstrl'am dirl'(-
lioll ot' Ihl' hut tluid.

27
SUGGESTED EXPERlfv'fNTS

I. Overall Heat Exchange Performance Estimotion


'''alv"s Valves For
Expt. Variable far Investigation Fixed Porameten

I.A EFFect af Flow Directian Fluids (Hot & Cold Water) O uter I Surface & Test p~
Flow Rotes ('::$ 3G,P.M . )
o
Inl"t T"mp DiH .( ~ 90 F)
HIT f-.Ioteriol (Copper)
HIT Surfac e IS "1Oath)
- --- - - I -- - . . . _.
I . A..I Pora lie I Flow V-I,3,
6,7,B,
V-2,4,
5, IS,
V-13,14 eL1 1 Both Ways IT-9,
10, II
OT-I,
5,6
9,10, II 16
12

I.A . '2 i
- -I-.;-;r- IT-5,6I OT- I ,

I A 4 \I
II
'"
3,6
1
1 ..
---- - -
1 . A , , r -- Crass
Cross Flow 1&5 V-I,3,6, V-2,4.IV-7.B
V-2.4, V-7,B I .. :.h ...
9,10,11 5, IS, IT-3,4 OT-I,
.__ L_ 1'2,13,14 I6 11 : 2,6
Tubes Valves Valves Valves far
Expt. Variable for Investigation Fixed Parar,,;;ters Used Closed Open Flow Control Directional Valves Thermocouples to read
V.I7 V.IB Inner Outer Surface 8. Test Probe

I.B Effect of Flow Rate


laminar ~O.I G.P.M. Fluids (Hot 8. Cold Water)
Transitionc:::O . 6 G.P.M. Flow Direction (Counterflow)
Turbulent ~3.0 G.P.M. Inlet Temp. Diff (~900F)
HIT Material (Copper)
HIT Surface (Smooth)
.' --
I.B.l laminar Hot Flow "
! laminar Cold Flow

I.B.2 I, lamInar Hot Flow "


i Transition Cold Flow
~ for Experiment I.A.2
I.B.3
I laminar Hot Flow
Turbulent Cold Flow
"

I.B.4 TransItIon Hot Flow "


lamInar Cold Flow

I.B.5 Transition Hot Flow "


Transition Cold Flow

1.8.6 TransItIon Hot Flow "


Turbulent Cold Flow

I.B.7 Turbulent Hot Flow "


laminar Cold Flow

1.B.8 Turbulent Hot Flow "


TransitIon Cold Flow

I.B.9 Turbulent Hot Flow "


Turbulent Cold Flow "
(Same a. Expt. I.A.2)

IV
\0
..

w
o

Tubes Valves Valves Valves for


Expt. Variable for Investigation Fixed Parameters Used Closed Open Flow Control Directional Volves Thermocouples to reod
V.17 V.18 Inner Outer Surface & Test Probe
1 Effect of Inlet Teme. Fluids(Hot & Cold Water)
Difference Flow Rates (::13 G.P.M.)
Flow Direction (Counterflow)
HIT M:Jterial (Copper)
HIT Surface (Smooth)

~
low Inlet Temp. 18.2 V-I,6,7, V-2,4, V-3,13,14 Both IT-9, O~-I ,51
I.C.I
o
Difference (~ 20 F) . 8,9,10 5,15, Wo'f$ 10,' I -
11 12 16
I.C.2 Medium Inlet Temp.
o . . . .. . . . . I
Difference ( ~ 50 F) 1&2
I -
I.C.3 High Inlet Temp. . I &2 V-l,3,6, V-2,4, V-13,14 " " " " I
I -
Difference ( 900F or 7,8,9,10 5,15 I
higher) 11,12 16
Same as Expt.
I.A.2 I
f .
Tube
, v ......... 5 Vol
valves Vol
Valves Valves far
Expt . Variable for Investigation Fixed Porometers Used Closed Open Flow Control Directional Valves 1her~ ~.flI~~ read
._._ ..... - . -_._---
- . --V. 17 --v:ra ....... Inner Outer . Surface 8. Test Probe
.
' .. ~

~ Effect of Fluid TlE! Flow Rates


(Water <::: 3 G .P.M.) i
(Air ::.13 S.C . F.M.) i
(Steam !::8 Ib/hr)
:
Flow Direction (Counterflow)
Inlet Temp. Diff (% 90"F) ,
H/ T fv'pterial (Copper)
. HIT Surface (Smooth) I
1.0 . 1 Hot and Cold Water
(Some As Expt. I.A.2) " As for Experiment I.A . 2

1. 0.2 Hot Water and Cold


AIr (Inlet at "Cold
Water") " As for Experiment I.A.2
-. ------. --
1.0.3 Hot Air (Inlet ot "Hot
Water") and Cold Water " As for Experiment 1 A.2
.-
1.0.4 Hot Air and Cold Air " As for Experiment I . A.2
- 1.0.5 Steam (Inlet at "Steam" ) "
etJ ,i
and Cold Water (except wate'r flow
~ 1 G.P.M.)
18.2 V-2,3,4
6,7,8,9
V-l,5,
15,16
V-13,14
~ Only!
IT-9,
10,11
OT-l
5,6
-
10,11,12

I . D.6 Steam
and Cold Air " 18.2 " " " " ~
Only!
" " -
..._------ - -- - - -.-

w
W
tv

.... .--.
Tubes Valves Valves . Vol __ F
. UI

Expt. Variable for Investigation Fixed Parameters Used Closed Open Flow Control Directional Valves Terrrocoupies to read
V.17 V.18 Inner Outer Surface 8. Test Probe

I.E Effect of HIT fv'pteria I Fluids (Hot & Cold Water)


Flow Rates (~3 G.P.M.)
Flow Direction (Counterflow)
Inlet Temp Diff ( ~ 900F)
HIT Surface (Smooth)

I.E .1 Capper HIT Surface " 1&2 V-I,3,6, V-2,4

~ -
7,8,9,10, 5, IS V-13,14 Both IT-9, OT-I,
11,12 16 Ways 10,11 5,6

1.E.2 Stainless Steel

~ -
HIT Surface " 1&3 V-I,3,6, V-2,4, ' ,V-II,12 " " "
7,8,9,10, 15,16
13,14

!..:. Effect of HI T Surface ! Fluids (Hot Water Only)


Flaw Rate(~1 G.P.M.)
Flow Direction (Crossflaw)
Inlet Temcf. of Water
( % 160 F)
HIT Mlterial (Copper
& bronze)

I.F.I Smooth tube "


(Hot Water inlet at
"Cold Water")
18.2 V-I,2,3,
4,6,7,8,
V-S,IS V-14 either
~ - OT-I,
5,6
-
9,10, II,
12,13,16
----- -----
I . F.2 Corrugated tube " 18.6 V-I,3,5,7 V-2,4, . V-6 either IT-I, - -
. (Hot Water Inlet 8,9,10,11 15,16 ~ 2,10
. at "hot water") 12 , 13,14 11

LQ Effect of Thermal
Insulation on Outer Repeat Experiments I.A.I through I .A.5 with the addition of Insulation to the shells of tubes
Tubes No . 1,2,4 and 5 .
2.1> I Effect of Flow Direction
2.A Repeat Tesf1 1 .A.l and 1 .A.2 with the addi. .01 Reading of -------------------------_________________________ -ST-I,2,3,4
-. -
2.8.1 ffFect Qf Elow Rate
2~B.2
2.B.3
2.B.4 Re peat Tesf1 1 B. 1 through 1 B. 9 with the add it lonal Read i ng of ---------------_________________________________ -ST-l,2,3,4
2.B.5
2.B.6
2.B.7
2.B.8
2.B.9

2.C.l Effect of Inlet


2.C.2 TemE!roture DIfference Repeat Tesf1 1 .C.l, 1.C.2 and 1 .C.3 with the addItional Reading of-------------------------------- ___________ -ST-l,2,3,4
2.C.3

2.D.l EHe~t of Fluid Type


2.0 . "
2 . 0.3
2.0.4
Repeat Test I .0.1 through I .0.6 with the addItIonal Read Ing ~f------------------------------------------ _____ ST-I,2,3,4

2.0.5
2.0.6

w
w
\'

w
~

3. Hydroullc Entronce Effech (Axial Temp. Profile Determlnatlan)


Tubes Val Val
. . -- Val
Expt. Variable for Investigation Fixed Parometers Used Closed
I I I I I V.17 I V.IB I Inner I Outer Surface & . Test Probe

3.A.I Effect of Flow Direc'tion Repeat 1 .A.I through 1 .A.5 with the additional Reading of -----------------------------------------~-------- - T-P:r
3.A.2 (at axial intervals of 3" on the bore metal strip of the tube shells)
3.A.3
3.Ao4
3.A.5

3.B.I Effect of Flow Rate Repeat Tesh 1 B.l through 1 B. 9 with the additional nead Ing of ---------------------------------------------- -T-PT
3.B.2 (at axial intervals of 3")
3.B.3
3.Bo4
3.B.5
3.B.6
3.B.7 '
3.B.8
3.B ,9

3.C.l Effect of Inlet ~peat Tesh 1 .C. 1, 1. C.2 and 1 .C .3 with the additional Reading 0,..------------------------------------------ -T-PT
3.C.2 Temp. Difference (at axial Intervals of 3")
3.C.3

3.0.1 Effect of Fluid T~E! Repeot Test~ 1.0.1 through I. D.6 with the additional Reading of--------------------------------------------- --T-PT
3.D.2 (at axial intervals of 3")
1 n 1
SUGGESTED REPORTS AND CALCULATIO N S

MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE

Establish the appropriate mean temperature difference for the two possible flows in the
double pipe heat exchanger: (1) for parallel flow of the fluids, (2) for counter flow of the
fluids, (3) for cross flow of the fluids, (4) for combined cross flow and parallel flow, and
(5) for corrugated tube and crossflow of air. The temperature difference between the
fluids is not constant along the tube assemblies. The factors affecting the mean tempera-
ture difference are to be found and evaluated.

EVALUA TION: Plot all temperatures as a functi on of the length of the tube assembly
(see figures 2, 3, 4 and 5). Determine mean temperatures for the following:

A. For parallel flow with equation (20), or the graphical method (see figure 11),

tJo - tJA
tJ =
ln In (tJOI tJA)

Figure 12 shows typical curves of the fluid temperatures with the length of
the heat exchanger in downstream direction and for parallel flow. The log-
arithmic mean temperature can be calculated for any selected length-section
of the heat exchanger.

For example, for the arbitrary length iA of the heat exchanger, in


figure 12,equation (20) will become

B. For counter flow with equation (22), use the following graphical method.

tJ o - tJA
t1ln =
In (tJOI tJA)

35
..-::..:

TUBE LENGTH (in.)

Figure 12. Fluid Temperatures for Parallel Flow and Graphical


Determination of Mean Temperatures

C. For cross flow, as mentioned before, usually the operation for parallel flow
is used, and a correction factor employed.

GRAPHICAL METHOD: A graphical method which can be used with acceptable accuracy
for the determination of the mean temperature for any flow condition is illustrated
in figure 12. For any selected length JA of a heat exchanger, the procedure is as
follows:

A. Divide the area under both curves into equal sections t::.} along the abscissa.

B. Draw parallel lines to the abscissa so that a rectangle with an area equal to
the function (temperature gradient) is formed.

t::.l t' = f (t~ t::.1,

where t' is equal to the area of equivalent temperature.

36
C. Calculate the area formed by the function f(th) for the length

area = fo A f (,,) dA

D. Calculate the area for the function f(t c )'

E. Determine the area between both curves for the arbitrary length by deducting
the area under the curve tc from the area under the curve ~.

37
where a is equal to the area between both curves for the length )=A, and
ah and a c equal the areas between curves f(t h ) and f(t c ) o\'er the length }=A.

F. Determine the mean temperature. With n equal sections, the area a can be
expressed as,

a =::.j I: (th - t~)


o--+A

The product n t:..P, however, represents the total length and the remaining
quotient represents the mean temperature difference ~ . Then,
m

a
= "fA

(31)

The same method applies for the evaluation of the three tube combination No.3
and the corrugated tube No.6.

SUGGESTED CALCULATIONS

A. Calculate the logarithmic mean temperature differences for parallel flow and
counter flow of various fluids:

(1) for hot and cold water,


(2) for steam and cold water, and
(3) for steam or hot water and forced air.

B. Calculate the logarithmic mean temperature difference for both flows and for
various Reynolds numbers:

(1) for Re 5 2,300,


(2) for Re <. 10,000, and
(3) for Re > 10,000.

This is preferably done with steam as the hot fluid and water or air as the
coolant.

38
CROSS FLOW AND QUASIEQUIVALENT PARALLEl flOW

This experiment treats the relationship between cross flow and its quasi -equivalent
parallel flow. To perform the experiment, tubes No.5 and No.1 are connected in series.
0
The heat exchanger is operated with hot water at approximately 170 F, flowing in the inside
tube at a rate of approximately 1.5 pounds per minute. Cooling water, at an approximate
rate of one to two pounds per minute, flows through the shell side. Temperature readings
are taken for both fl~ids at the beginning and end of the tube s, and at the outside wall of
the tubes at four-inch intervals.
.
Figure 13 shows typical temperature curves for the cooling fluid in cross flow (tube No.5)
to the hot fluid, and in parallel flow for tube assembly No. I.

tho = temperature of hot (inside) fluid at entrance of heat exchanger.

th ;)- = temperature of bot (inside) fluid at the end of tube No.5 and entrance
of tube No. 1.

th1 = temperature of hot fluid at the end of tube No. 1.

tc = equivalent temperatures at the shell side (cooling fluid).

u.
o
~

w
~
~ MEASURED TEMPERATURES
~ FOR CROSS FLOW I
~
W
0..
::E
w
I-

TUBE NO.5 ;) 1< TUBE NO.1

I
TUBE LENGTH (inches)

Figure 13. Temperature Characteristics for Two Tube Assemblies:


Cross Flow in Series with Parallel Flow

39
EVALUATION

A. Plot temperature curves as they would occur for parallel flow. (Sulid portions
at right side and dotted portion at left side in figure 13.

B. Enter measured temperatures of cross flow tube No.5, the outside wall tem-
perature t=f(!), and plot curve starting at teo'

C. Divide the curve for the cooling fluid into equal sections as shown in figure 12,
and establish ~Hc for each section.

D. Calculate ~ th for the sections ~tc' In this calculation, the losses of the out-
side tube by free air convection and radiation are minor, and for reasons of
simpliCity, they are disregarded.

With the heat balance concept,

[Btu/hr]

(with water in both cases, ('-


-~h
= Pc
C )

(32)

The temperature gradients for the hot fluid now can be calculated.

E. Enter calculated temperatures for th =f(j).

F. Proceed as shown in figure 12 and determine the mean temperature for cross
flow, as discussed in the previous paragraph, using equation (31).

(33)

COMBINED CROSS AND PARALLEl FLOW AND QUASIEQUIVALENT PARALLEL FLOW

This experiment compares the actual mean temperature difference for combined cross
and parallel flow with the equivalent parallel flow. For this experiment tubes No.4 and
No.1 are connected in series. The test conditions are the same as in the previous
experiment for cross flow. Figure 14 shows fluid temperatures as a function of length.

)
I
1
I
I
I
I
TUBE NO.1 >-1
TUBE LENGTH {inches}

Figure 14. Fluid Temperatures as a Function of Length


For Combined Cross and Parallel Flow

EVALUATION:

A. Plot the fluid temperature readings as a function of the length in a fashion


analogous to that for parallel flow.

B. Introduce the outside wall temperatures obtained on tube No.4.

C. Determine the mean temperature difference for tube No.4 by using the graphical
method of integration as described previously for cross flow. Then, the mean
temperature difference can be calculated with equation (33).

NOTE: Although it is realized that the method of outside temperature measurement has
errors involved, the characteristic of the temperature curve, the method calcula-
tion and the educational value are untouched. For more accurate temperature
measurements, as it would be required for advanced student and research work,
thermocouples should be placed inside the tubes.
41
CORRECTION FACTOR FOR CROSS FLOW

The true mean temperature difference for cross flo\\' can be expressed as,

~
true, mean
= J
In
f (34)

where f is the dimensionless correction factor, and J 1n is the logarithmic mean tempera-
ture difference for parallel flow. Since with the graphical method the true mean tempera-
ture difference for any flow can be determined, and the logarithmic mean temperature
difference for parallel flow can be calculated with equation (20), the correction factor for
cross flow (and other combinations of flow) can be determined.

~ true! mean
f = lJl n

-h [ i Ll L (t~ - t~ )]
O-+A
=
(~O '- lJA ) / [In(lJo/ ~A)J

In ( l} 0 / lJA )
LlJ r r
f = fA L
O+A
(th - t c )
l}O - lJA
(35)

ENTRANCE TURBULENCE EFFECTS

Figure 15 illustrates entrance turbulence effects on heat flow. Tubes No.1 and No.2 are
operated in series and for parallel flow, the hot water flowing in the inner tubes. All
water temperatures are measured as well as the outside wall temperature of tube No.2 in
intervals of three inches.

Usually the entrance turbulence is assumed to affect the heat flow to a length of travel
of,

where DR is the hydraulic diameter. Thus, using equation (28),

i = 50 (D 1 - D 2 ) .

42
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
" I
"
LL.
o
w
\
a::
....::>
<
a::
w
0...
~
W
.... l' I
.--.....-~ I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
TUBE NO.2 ~ I< TUBE NO. 1 ~
I I
TUBE LENGTH (inches)

Figure 15. Entrance Turbulence Effects on Heat Flow

Figure 3 shows the actually measured temperature variation as a result of the entrance
temperature relative to the logarithmic-mean temperature difference. The effective
length obtained by measurement is 28 inches, against the calculated length,

j = (0.5) (50) = 25 inches.

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

The general equation for the heat transfer coefficient between two fluids separated by a
wall is (using equation (1)),

q
h = (36)

43
The heat flo\\' is,

q = mC At (37)
P

The heat exchanger tubes are exposed to air and heat is transferred by free convection at
the outer (shell) tube. Therefore, the heat balance equation is,

[ Btu/hr]

where ql is the heat flow for the inner tube, q2 is the heat flow for the shell side of the
tube, and q3 is the heat flow for air convection. Hence, the fluid temperatures as ob-
tained by the experiment have to be corrected before the mean temperature difference for
the fluids can be determined. Considering the hot fluid in the inner tube and the cooling
fluid in the shell, the temperature gradient caused by q3 has to be added to both fluids.
In other words, with a perfect insulation there would be no heat flow through the wall of
the shell tube. This results in an increase of the temperatures for both fluids as shown
in Figure 16.

-
-- -- ----,I
I

I
I
I
I I
I I
I
I
TUBE NO. 1 <:;---
--:3:>"1.... TUBE NO.2 > 1
TUBE LENGTH {inches}

Figure 16. Determination of Temperature for Shell with Insulation

44
Using the heat balance equation,

= mc Cpc ~t c

,
Solving for ~th' the gradient for the hot fluid is,

roh Cph ~th - mc Cpc 6tc


~t'
h = (38)
IDhC ph

Likewise, the gradient for the cooling fluid is,

roh Cph 6th - mc Cpc ~ tc


~t' = (39)
c mcCpc

This way, any mounted points can be calculated and the curves as they would appear for
our insulated heat exchanger can be drawn. The appropriate mean temperature difference
t?mean will be determined with anyone of the methods describ ed, and the heat transfer
coefficient can be determined for any desired length of the heat exchanger.

h = q
A t?mean

where A is equal to the area of selected length J.

45
SUGGESTED C ALCl' L.-\TIONS : Detellnine the heat transfer ('oe lliden! 1'01'.

A. parallel flow ,,ith tubes No.2 and No.1,

B. counter flow with tubes No.2 and No.1,

C. a stainless steel tube No.3 compared with a copper tube No.1 (tubes No.3 and
No.1 are in series),

D. fluid sprayed against the inner wall of a tube (tubes No.4 and No.1 in series),

E. a corrugated tube (tubes No.6 and No.1 in series),

F. various fluids, and

G. various Reynolds numbers.

BOUNDARY LAYER FILM COEFFICIENTS

Considering the outer shell of the heat exchanger insulated, then, heat flows through the
wall of the inner tube only. On its path of travel, the heat has to overcome the resistance
of the inner and outer boundary layer of the fluid and the wall material of the tube. With-
in each zone of resistance the flow of heat results in a temperature gradient t. t. The
overall transfer coefficient U can be written (see manual for Scott Conduction System,
Model 9051) :

1
U = (40)

If the temperature gradient for each zone is lmo",m, the coefficient for the zone can be
calculated. At tube assembly No.2 the temperature of -the outside wall of the inner tube
is measured with thermocouples. Furthermore, t he fluid temperatures are lmovm .
MiSSing is the wall temperature inside the inner tube, which can be calculated, since the
conductivity of copper, the thiclmess of the wall, and the heat flow are lmown.

Calculation of the temperature gradient t. tw for the wall of a tube:

46
where

dx = dL ;

however,

A = (d+2x) 71"

With

d+2x = z ,

then

dz = 2dx ,

and

~t =
q
1I"k
1Z2 dz
2z
z1

=
q
211"k f2
z1
dz
z

The boundary conditions are:

For x =0,

z1 = d;

and for x =L,

z2 =d + 2L = D.

Then,

~t
w
=
q
271"k
[In z r=n zl=D

= -q- (In D - In d) ,
271"k

47
~t
w = (41 )

The coefficient for the outer film is now,

q
d2 = A~t
2 '

where

(42)

The coefficient of the inner film is,

q
= (43)

Figure 17 illustrates the heat transfer through the walls of a tube.

Figure 17. Heat Transfer Through Wall of Tube

48
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

A. What are the dominating factors affecting the temperature difference between
two fluids separated by a tube wall?

B. Is the heat transfer coefficient for a heat exchanger tube constant over the
total length of the tube?

c. How do film coefficients change with higher Reynolds numbers?

D. How is the heat transfer coefficient dependent upon the length -to-diameter
ratio of a tube?

E. Under what conditions will the mean temperature difference between the two
fluids of a heat exchanger increase as the flow rate increases?

F. How does the heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer with change in phase
(steam to water) compare with the one obtained for hot and cold water?

G. \\n en and why (for practical purposes) can a thin wall of a tube be neglected
for heat transfer calculations? What are the limiting factors?

H. The corrugated tube No.6, when at a higher flow rate, produces an audible
noise. What is the reason?

1. In the same tube, depending .on the flow rate, vortex-cavity waves are
produced. How do they affect the effective hydraulic diameter?

49