Machine Learning with Python - The Basics

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Machine Learning with Python - The Basics

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with Python

The Basics

By David V.

Copyright2017 by David V.

All Rights Reserved

Copyright 2017 by David V.

in the case of brief quotations embodied

in critical reviews and certain other

noncommercial uses permitted by

copyright law.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1- Getting Started

Chapter 2- Python and

matplotlib for Data

Exploration

Chapter 3- Logistic

Regression

Conclusion

Disclaimer

verify the information provided in this

provided in this book is for educational

and entertainment purposes only. The

reader is responsible for his or her own

actions and the author does not accept

damages, real or perceived, resulting

publication of the trademark is

without permission or backing by the

trademark owner. All trademarks and

clarifying purposes only and are the

Introduction

of study in the world today. With Python,

create production systems employing the

concept of machine learning. This book

helps you learn this. Enjoy reading!

Chapter 1- Getting

Started

programming language, and very

powerful. This language can be used for

the purposes of research, as well as the

creation of production systems as it is a

The following are the best steps to

follow when doing a machine learning

project in Python:

1. Define Problem.

2. Prepare Data.

3. Evaluate Algorithms.

4. Improve Results.

5. Present Results.

how to use some new tools or a

platform.

First Project

possible for us to figure out on how

the loading and handling of data can

be done.

problem, and it needs a specialized

form of handling.

into the memory very well.

transformations or scaling so as to

get started.

platform.

5. Evaluating some algorithms.

6. Making predictions.

Installing Python and the

SciPy Platform

platform in your system if you have not

your system:

scipy

numpy

matplotlib

pandas

sklearn

throughout the installation process.

Installing via pip

In the case of Mac and Linux users, it is

possible for you to install the SciPy

your system. However, the installation of

does not work properly.

following command:

demonstrates how to do this:

matplotlib ipython jupyter pandas

sympy nose

directories.

In the case of user installs, please ensure

is on the PATH. In Linux, the PATH can

be set as follows:

~/.bashrc file

export

PATH="$PATH:/home/username/.local/

In OSX, the PATH can be set as follows:

~/.bash_profile file

export

PATH="$PATH:/Users/username/Libra

username.

Installation via Linux

Package Manager

quicker from the repositories of the

via pip.

For users of Ubunu and Debian, the

installation of the libraries can be done

the terminal:

python-scipy python-matplotlib

ipython ipython-notebook python-

pandas python-sympy python-nose

For users of Fedora 22 and the later

sudo dnf install numpy scipy python-

matplotlib ipython python-pandas

sympy python-nose atlas-devel

Installation via Mac

Package Manager

with a package manager, but there exists

can install.

Macports

The installation of the SciPy libraries by

by executing the following command:

scipy py35-matplotlib py35-ipython

+notebook py35-pandas py35-sympy

py35-nose

to the next step.

Start Python, Check for

Versions

the Python was installed properly and it

is running as expected.

following:

Python

is the script:

# Python version

import sys

print('Python: {}'.format(sys.version))

# scipy

import scipy

print('scipy:

{}'.format(scipy.__version__))

# numpy

import numpy

print('numpy:

{}'.format(numpy.__version__))

# matplotlib

import matplotlib

print('matplotlib:

{}'.format(matplotlib.__version__))

# pandas

import pandas

print('pandas:

{}'.format(pandas.__version__))

# scikit-learn

import sklearn

print('sklearn:

{}'.format(sklearn.__version__))

done successfully.

Load Data

We will be using the data set for the iris

flower. It is a very famous dataset,

almost everyone.

flower belongs. There are three species,

and each flower must belong to one of

these.

project as follows:

# Load libraries

import pandas

scatter_matrix

classification_report

from sklearn.metrics import

accuracy_score

DecisionTreeClassifier

confusion_matrix

KNeighborsClassifier

LogisticRegression

from sklearn.discriminant_analysis

import LinearDiscriminantAnalysis

GaussianNB

you have to stop and then begin to work

on your environment.

data visualization and descriptive

statistics.

# Load dataset

url =

"https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/machine-

learning-databases/iris/iris.data"

names = ['sepal-length', 'sepal-width',

'petal-length', 'petal-width', 'class']

dataset = pandas.read_csv(url,

names=names)

working directory and then use the same

mechanism so as to load it, but the

URLhas to be changed so as to reflect

below:

# shape

print(dataset.shape)

(150, 50)

We can then eyeball the data as follows:

# head

print(dataset.head(20))

which are contained in the file. This is

shown below:

sepal-length sepal-width petal-

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.2 Iris-setosa

4 5.0 3.6 1.4

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.4 Iris-setosa

0.3 Iris-setosa

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.2 Iris-setosa

9 4.9 3.1 1.5

0.1 Iris-setosa

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.1 Iris-setosa

0.1 Iris-setosa

14 5.8 4.0 1.2

0.2 Iris-setosa

0.4 Iris-setosa

0.4 Iris-setosa

0.3 Iris-setosa

0.3 Iris-setosa

19 5.1 3.8 1.5

0.3 Iris-setosa

is shown below:

# descriptions

print(dataset.describe())

Class Distribution

instances for the classes. This can be

viewed as an absolute count. This is

demonstrated below:

# class distribution

print(dataset.groupby('class').size())

Data Visualizations

Now that we have some basic idea

regarding the data, it is good for us to

Univariate Plots

individual variables. Suppose we have

numeric input variables, we can go

ahead to create some whisker and box

dataset.plot(kind='box',

subplots=True, layout=(2,2),

sharex=False, sharey=False)

plt.show()

This will help us have a good picture

regarding how the input variables are

distribution:

# histograms

dataset.hist()

plt.show()

Multivariate Slots

interact with each other. Scatterplots for

scatter_matrix(dataset)

plt.show()

grouping for some of the attribute pairs.

relationships.

Evaluation of Algorithms

then estimate their accuracy based on

unseen data.

Dataset

We want to know whether we created a

will then be used for determining the

created on unseen data. We need some

array = dataset.values

X = array[:,0:4]

Y = array[:,4]

validation_size = 0.20

seed = 7

X_train, X_validation, Y_train,

Y_validation =

model_selection.train_test_split(X, Y,

test_size=validation_size,

random_state=seed)

two, whereby 80% of it will be used for

training the models, and 20% of this will

be held as the validation dataset. The

X_train and Y_train for purposes of

used later.

Test Harness

The 10-fold cross validation will be

used for the purpose of estimating the

then be repeated. This is shown below:

# Test options and the evaluation

metric

seed = 7

scoring = 'accuracy'

instances which are correct divided by

dataset, and then multiplied by 100 so as

to get a percentage. We will use a

scoring variable when running build

Build Models

this kind of problem. There are 6

possible algorithms which we can use.

These include the following:

2. Gaussian Naive Bayes (NB).

3. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)

4. K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN).

5. Classification and Regression Trees

(CART).

6. Support Vector Machines (SVM).

We will be mixing the simple linear and

number seed will be reset before each

execution of each algorithm is done by

# Spot Check Algorithms

models = []

models.append(('LR',

LogisticRegression()))

models.append(('LDA',

LinearDiscriminantAnalysis()))

models.append(('KNN',

KNeighborsClassifier()))

models.append(('CART',

DecisionTreeClassifier()))

models.append(('NB', GaussianNB()))

models.append(('SVM', SVC()))

results = []

names = []

kfold =

model_selection.KFold(n_splits=10,

random_state=seed)

cv_results =

model_selection.cross_val_score(model,

X_train, Y_train, cv=kfold,

scoring=scoring)

results.append(cv_results)

names.append(name)

msg = "%s: %f (%f)" % (name,

cv_results.mean(), cv_results.std())

print(msg)

Currently, we have 6 models as well as

models. Our aim is to do a comparison

most accurate one. The program should

CART: 0.975000 (0.038188)

evaluation and then compare the mean

Note that the evaluation of each

algorithm was done 10 times.

# Compare Algorithms

fig = plt.figure()

fig.suptitle('Algorithm Comparison')

ax = fig.add_subplot(111)

plt.boxplot(results)

ax.set_xticklabels(names)

plt.show()

Making Predictions

set.

This will provide us with a final

best model. It is also good for us to

mistake occurs during training, such as

optimistic result.

directly on the validation set, and then

we summarize the result in the form of

one final score, a classification result,

below:

dataset

knn = KNeighborsClassifier()

knn.fit(X_train, Y_train)

predictions =

knn.predict(X_validation)

print(accuracy_score(Y_validation,

predictions))

print(confusion_matrix(Y_validation,

predictions))

print(classification_report(Y_validation

predictions))

confusion matrix will give the three

errors which are made. The

classification report will then give the

precision. Here is the result:

0.9

[[ 7 0 0]

[ 0 11 1]

[ 0 2 9]]

support

1.00 7

0.88 12

0.86 11

avg / total 0.90 0.90 0.90

30

Chapter 2- Python and

matplotlib for Data

Exploration

The Python libraries can be used

This should be the first step in machine

learning. This should be observed data,

scikit-learn, which is a Python library.

For the data to be loaded, we have to

sklearn. You can then make use of the

as to load in the data. This is shown

below:

# Load in `digits` data

digits = datasets.load_digits()

print(______)

methods for loading and fetching the

popular reference datasets, and one can

count on the module if they need

artificial data generators. If we needed

to pull the data from the latter, then we

import ______ as __

digits =

pd.read_csv("http://archive.ics.uci.edu/

learning-

databases/optdigits/optdigits.tra",

header=None)

print(______)

is split in this manner, the data will be

these are indicated by .tes and .tra

extensions. Both files should be loaded

so that the project can be elaborated.

load the training set.

Exploring the Data

data set, it is good for you to read its

particular data source, it will have a

description and this will be enough

information for you to gain enough

insights into the data. However, it is

good for you to have asufficient

works.

Gather Information on the

Data

folder with the data description. It is

information.

you loaded it through the scikit-learn

datasets module, you will notice that

there is too much information which is

available. You should now be aware of

the description of the data. The digits

DESCR attribute.

If you need to know the keys which are

available, you just have to execute

shown below:

print(digits.______)

print(digits.____)

print(digits.______)

print(digits.DESCR)

type of your data. If you want the

read_csv() to do the importation of the

data, you will have a data frame with all

component, but it will be possible for

The data attribute should be used for

digits data and the shape attribute

same can also be done for target and

used as shown below:

digits_data = digits.data

print(digits_data.shape)

`target`

digits_target = digits.______

print(digits_target._____)

number_digits =

len(np.unique(digits.target))

# Isolate the `images`

digits_images = digits.images

print(digits_images.shape)

using matplotlib

It is also possible for you to visualize

are multiple libraries in Python which

we will be using matplotlib. This can

# Figure out the size (width, height) in

inches

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(6, 6))

fig.subplots_adjust(left=0, right=1,

bottom=0, top=1, hspace=0.05,

wspace=0.05)

for i in range(64):

# Initializing the subplots, add

subplot in grid of 8 by 8, at i+1-th

position

ax = fig.add_subplot(8, 8, i + 1,

xticks=[], yticks=[])

# Display image at i-th position

ax.imshow(digits.images[i],

cmap=plt.cm.binary,

interpolation='nearest')

ax.text(0, 7, str(digits.target[i]))

plt.show()

that we began by importing the library,

We have also set the alignment of this on

then created a loop which is to help us

displayed on the grid ay a particular

time. We have also used binary colors

which will in turn give us white, black,

and gray values. We have used nearest

translates to the fact that the data is not

smooth.

printed at the coordinates (0,7) for each

subplot, meaning that these will be

visible on the bottom-left corner of the

subplot. The line plt.show() has been

be visible. To make it simple, it is

# Import matplotlib

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Join images and the target labels

into a list

images_and_labels =

list(zip(digits.images, digits.target))

list

enumerate(images_and_labels[:8]):

# initializing a subplot of the 2X4 at

i+1-th position

plt.subplot(2, 4, index + 1)

plt.axis('off')

plt.imshow(image,

cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,interpolation='near

plt.title('Training: ' + str(label))

# Show the plot

plt.show()

digits.images and a value of

digits.target.

Principal Component

Analysis (PCA)

digits data. You will then be working

on a high-dimensional data set.

located far from each other point, and

the distance between data points can be

uninformative.

used for the replacement of your two

original variables. You can see it as a

linear transformation method for

yielding directions for maximizing

variance of data.

shown below:

model which takes in two components

randomized_pca =

RandomizedPCA(n_components=2)

reduced_data_rpca =

randomized_pca.fit_transform(digits.da

pca = PCA(n_components=2)

# Fit and transform data to model

reduced_data_pca =

pca.fit_transform(digits.data)

reduced_data_pca.shape

print(reduced_data_rpca)

print(reduced_data_pca)

used the RandomizedPCA() method.

with a regular PCA model and observe

the difference you get.

passed with labels to PCA

transformation, since one needs to

investigate whether the PCA reveals the

distribution of different labels and

be separated from each other clearly. A

'yellow', 'white', 'lime', 'cyan',

'orange', 'red', 'gray']

for i in range(len(colors)):

x = reduced_data_rpca[:, 0]

[digits.target == i]

y = reduced_data_rpca[:, 1]

[digits.target == i]

plt.scatter(x, y, c=colors[i])

plt.legend(digits.target_names,

bbox_to_anchor=(1.05, 1), loc=2,

borderaxespad=0.)

plt.ylabel('Second Principal

Component')

plt.show()

can be modeled. The preparation step is

commonly known as preprocessing.

Data Normalization

demonstrates this:

# Import

scale

data

data = _____(digits.data)

distribution of each attribute will be

shifted so that its mean can be 0 and the

standard deviation can be 1.

Training Sets

training set. The first one will be used

for evaluating the system which has been

trained, while the second one will be

used for training the system.

# Import the `train_test_split`

________________

images_train, images_test =

train_test_split(data, digits.target,

digits.images, test_size=0.25,

random_state=42)

Note that in the above code, the

split is done so as to be the same.

Now that the data set has been split into

train and test sets, the numbers can be

print(_________)

print(__________)

n_digits = len(np.unique(y_train))

print(len(_______))

At this point, you must be aware that all

the known data has been stored. We have

three arguments are passed to the

module, and these include init,

n_clusters, and random_state.

reproducible results. Consider the code

given below:

clf = cluster.KMeans(init='k-

means++', n_clusters=10,

random_state=42)

# Fit training data `X_train`to model

clf.fit(________)

method and even after defaulting to k-

be formed by the data, as well as the

number of centroids which will be

generated. Note that a cluster centroid

which the algorithm will try. The images

making up cluster centers can be

visualized as shown below:

# Import matplotlib

fig.suptitle('Cluster Center Images',

fontsize=14, fontweight='bold')

for i in range(10):

# Initialize the subplots in some grid

measuring 2X5, at the i+1th position

ax = fig.add_subplot(2, 5, 1 + i)

ax.imshow(clf.cluster_centers_[i].reshap

8)), cmap=plt.cm.binary)

# Don't show axes

plt.axis('off')

# Show plot

plt.show()

shown below:

# Predict labels for the `X_test`

y_pred=clf.predict(X_test)

`y_pred`

print(y_pred[:100])

`y_test`

print(y_test[:100])

clf.cluster_centers_._____

the values of the test set, and this has

gone ahead so as to print out the first

100 instances of the y_pred and the

y_test, and some results should be

observed immediately.

as shown below:

# Import `Isomap()`

# Create an isomap and fit the `digits`

data to it

X_iso =

Isomap(n_neighbors=10).fit_transform(

then predict the cluster index for

every

# sample

clusters = clf.fit_predict(X_train)

# Create plot with the subplots in grid

measuring 1X2

4))

fig.suptitle('Predicted Versus the

Training Labels', fontsize=14,

fontweight='bold')

fig.subplots_adjust(top=0.85)

# Add the scatterplots to subplots

ax[0].scatter(X_iso[:, 0], X_iso[:, 1],

c=clusters)

ax[0].set_title('Predicted Training

Labels')

c=y_train)

ax[1].set_title('Actual Training

Labels')

# Show the plots

plt.show()

Isomap and see the effect. The solution

# Import `PCA()`

PCA

PCA model

X_pca =

PCA(n_components=2).fit_transform(X

then predict the cluster index for

every

# sample

clusters = clf.fit_predict(X_train)

in some grid of 1X2

4))

fig.suptitle('Predicted Versus the

Training Labels', fontsize=14,

fontweight='bold')

fig.subplots_adjust(top=0.85)

ax[0].scatter(X_pca[:, 0], X_pca[:, 1],

c=clusters)

ax[0].set_title('Predicted the Training

Labels')

ax[1].scatter(X_pca[:, 0], X_pca[:, 1],

c=y_train)

ax[1].set_title('The Actual Training

Labels')

# Show plots

plt.show()

Evaluating the Clustering

Model

performance of our model. In other

matrix:

`confusion_matrix()`

print(metrics.confusion_matrix(y_test,

y_pred))

You may also need to learn more

regarding the results rather than by use

correct labels. Consider the following

code:

from sklearn.metrics import

homogeneity_score,

completeness_score,

v_measure_score,

adjusted_rand_score,

adjusted_mutual_info_score,

silhouette_score

v-meas ARI AMI silhouette')

%.3f %.3f'

%(clf.inertia_,

homogeneity_score(y_test,

y_pred),

completeness_score(y_test,

y_pred),

v_measure_score(y_test, y_pred),

adjusted_rand_score(y_test,

y_pred),

adjusted_mutual_info_score(y_test,

y_pred),

silhouette_score(X_test, y_pred,

metric='euclidean')))

for measuring the extent to which the

data points are members of a given

class, and are also elements of a similar

cluster. V-measure score refers to the

the completeness.

samples and counting pairs are

considered which have been assigned in

different or same clusters in the true or

predicted clusterings.

the clusterings are equivalent, this will

take a maximum value of 1.

belongs to and worse matched to the

neighboring clusters. If there are many

points with a higher value, the cluster

configuration will be good.

the two neighboring clusters. This is an

indication that the samples might have

been assigned to the wrong clusters.

you can predict the labels for the

digits data.

Support Vector Machines

train_test_split

sets

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test,

images_train, images_test =

train_test_split(digits.data,

digits.target, digits.images,

test_size=0.25, random_state=42)

svc_model = svm.SVC(gamma=0.001,

C=100., kernel='linear')

svc_model.fit(X_train, y_train)

digits data. Also, note that we have

used the X_train and y_train so as to fit

the data into our SVC model. This is

very different from clustering. Also, the

manually. You can automatically obtain

grid search.

is the best way for you to adjust the

parameters. This can be done as shown

below:

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test =

train_test_split(digits.data,

digits.target, test_size=0.5,

random_state=0)

# Import GridSearchCV

from sklearn.grid_search import

GridSearchCV

parameter_candidates = [

['linear']},

{'C': [1, 10, 100, 1000], 'gamma':

[0.001, 0.0001], 'kernel': ['rbf']},

]

# Create some classifier with

parameter candidates

clf =

GridSearchCV(estimator=svm.SVC(),

param_grid=parameter_candidates,

n_jobs=-1)

clf.fit(X_train, y_train)

# Print out results

clf.best_score_)

print('Best

`C`:',clf.best_estimator_.C)

print('Best

kernel:',clf.best_estimator_.kernel)

print('Best

`gamma`:',clf.best_estimator_.gamma)

You should then use a classifier together

candidates which have just been created

second part. Next, a new classifier

search are working.

then view the accuracy of score

clf.score(X_test, y_test)

classifier with grid search parameters

svm.SVC(C=10, kernel='rbf',

gamma=0.001).fit(X_train,

y_train).score(X_test, y_test)

You will see that the parameters are

specifying the kernel which is to be used

rbf. There exist other types of kernels

which you can specify. Examples

include poly, linear, and others.

as we have in this case. In this case, we

have trained a model which is able to

categorize unseen objects to their

specific category. When using SVM, one

points.

gamma and the penalty parameter were

well specified.

print(svc_model.predict(______))

# Print the `y_test` to check for

results

print(______)

is shown below:

# Import matplotlib

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Assign predicted values to the

`predicted`

predicted = svc_model.predict(X_test)

`predicted` values in the

#`images_and_predictions`

images_and_predictions =

list(zip(images_test, predicted))

# For first 4 elements in the

`images_and_predictions`

for index, (image, prediction) in

enumerate(images_and_predictions[:4])

measuring 1 by 4 at the position i+1

plt.subplot(1, 4, index + 1)

plt.axis('off')

# Displaying the images in all the

subplots in a grid

plt.imshow(image,

cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,

interpolation='nearest')

plt.title('Predicted: ' +

str(prediction))

# Show a plot

plt.show()

together and predicted values, and only

images_and_predictions have been

performance of the model. This is shown

below:

# Import `metrics`

# Print classification report of the

print(metrics.classification_report(____

_________))

print(metrics.confusion_matrix(______,

_________))

You will notice that the performance of

clustering model which we used later. It

predicted and actual labels by use of

# Import `Isomap()`

# Create isomap and then fit `digits`

data to this

X_iso =

Isomap(n_neighbors=10).fit_transform(

then predict the cluster index for

every

# sample

predicted =

svc_model.predict(X_train)

# Create some plot with subplots on a

grid measuring 1X2

4))

fig.subplots_adjust(top=0.85)

ax[0].scatter(X_iso[:, 0], X_iso[:, 1],

c=predicted)

ax[0].set_title('Predicted labels')

c=y_train)

ax[1].set_title('Actual Labels')

# Add title

fig.suptitle('Predicted versus actual

labels', fontsize=14,

fontweight='bold')

plt.show()

Chapter 3- Logistic

Regression

of the cost and gradient functions is done

makes use of a logit or sigmoid

activation function rather than the

continuous output in a linear regression.

import numpy as np

import pandas as pd

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

%matplotlib inline

import os

path = os.getcwd() + '\data\data1.txt'

data = pd.read_csv(path,

header=None, names=['Exam 1',

'Exam 2', 'Admitted'])

data.head()

independent variables, and these are the

Admitted label represents our

A value of 0 is an indication that the

positive =

data[data['Admitted'].isin([1])]

negative =

data[data['Admitted'].isin([0])]

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(12,8))

ax.scatter(positive['Exam 1'],

positive['Exam 2'], s=50, c='b',

marker='o', label='Admitted')

ax.scatter(negative['Exam 1'],

negative['Exam 2'], s=50, c='r',

marker='x', label='Not Admitted')

ax.legend()

ax.set_xlabel('Exam 1 Score')

ax.set_ylabel('Exam 2 Score')

use of a straight line, but it is possible

It is now time for us to implement the

logistic regression so as to train the

def sigmoid(z):

return 1 / (1 + np.exp(-z))

by converting in a continuous format to a

together with a threshold value, we will

label prediction. This is good for

function so as to be able to see what is

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(12,8))

ax.plot(nums, sigmoid(nums), 'r')

your models performance on some

theta = np.matrix(theta)

X = np.matrix(X)

y = np.matrix(y)

first = np.multiply(-y,

np.log(sigmoid(X * theta.T)))

(len(X))

The output has to be reduced

should be the sum of the error quantified

the class probability which was

one statement, which is sigmoid(X *

theta.T).

matrix multiplication exercise easier

data.insert(0, 'Ones', 1)

variable)

cols = data.shape[1]

X = data.iloc[:,0:cols-1]

y = data.iloc[:,cols-1:cols]

initializing parameter array theta

X = np.array(X.values)

y = np.array(y.values)

theta = np.zeros(3)

X.shape, theta.shape, y.shape

represented as theta:

cost(theta, X, y)

Our cost function is working, and our

for computing the gradient of module

the parameters for improving the model

theta = np.matrix(theta)

X = np.matrix(X)

y = np.matrix(y)

parameters =

int(theta.ravel().shape[1])

grad = np.zeros(parameters)

for i in range(parameters):

term = np.multiply(error, X[:,i])

return grad

gradients. This is shown below:

result = opt.fmin_tnc(func=cost,

x0=theta, fprime=gradient, args=(X,

y))

cost(result[0], X, y)

dataset X by use of the learned

parameters theta. The function can then

be used for scoring the training accuracy

of the classifier.

probability]

theta_min = np.matrix(result[0])

predictions = predict(theta_min, X)

correct = [1 if ((a == 1 and b == 1) or

(a == 0 and b == 0)) else 0 for (a, b) in

zip(predictions, y)]

len(correct))

print 'accuracy =

{0}%'.format(accuracy)

Conclusion

That is how machine learning is done in

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