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# 4.3.8 5.

9 Design of Pavement

## 4.3.8.1 5.9.1 Design of New Flexible Pavement ( IRC-37)

1 Input Data:
Initial Traffic in each direction on counting year = 880 CV/day
Construction period since last traffic count = 4 Years
Design Life of pavement to be considered = 15 Years
Design CBR of subgrade soil to be employed = 6 %
Traffic growth rate = 6.76 %
Vehicle damage factor as per axle load survey = 4.76
Lane Distribution factor = 0.75
Directional Distribution = 0.50

2 Design Calculation:
Initial Traffic in each direction in the year of completion of construction
A=P(1+r)x
Where,
P= Numer of commercial vehicles as per last count
r= Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles
x=Constuction perod since last traffic count

## Cumulative number of standard axle to be carried during design life in msa

365 x [(1+r)n -1]
N= xA xDxF
r

## Where, A= Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction

D= Lane distribution factor
F= Vehicle damage factor
n= Design life in years
r= Annual growth rate

N= 365*((1+6.76/100)^15-1)*571.5*0.75*4.76/(6.76/100)/1000000
N= 18.3710903 msa = 18 Say 20 msa

## Total Pavement thickness for Traffic 20 msa and CBR of 6 %= 640 mm

However the thickness of the drainage layer has been incresed from 0.26m to 0.3m.

## Thickness of the component layers proposed are :

Provisions made to the Layers & Thk.
BC= 0.040 m
DBM= 0.090 m
WMM 1st Layer= 0.125 m
WMM 2nd Layer= 0.125 m
GSB 1st Layer= 0.150 m
GSB (Drainage Layer)= 0.150 m
Total= 0.680 m
5.9.2 Design of New Flexible Pavement ( AASHTO)

1 The design equation in AASHTO METHOD for design of flexible pavements is given as under :-

PSI
log10 4.2 - 1.5
Log10 Ns = Zr*So+9.36 *log10 (SN + 1) - 0.2 + + 2.32* log10 (MR) - 8.07
0.4 + 1094
(SN +1) 5.19 (1)
Where,

Ns = Predicted number of 18 Kips (8.16 MT) equivalent single axle load aplications.

## So = Combined standard error of the traffic prediction and performance prediction

PSI = Dfference between the initial design serviceability index and the terminal
serviceability index.
MR = Resilient modulus (psi)

## SN = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3 .. (2)

Where,

a1, a2 & a3 are the layer coefficients of surface course, base course and sub-base course respectively

## m2 & m3 are the drainage coefficients of base and sub-base respectively.

The input parameters selected and used in the design are as follows:

## Average value of layer coefficient for materials selected are :

Dense-Graded bituminous concrete surface course = 0.44
Crushed Stone / WMM base course = 0.14
Sandy-gravel sub-base course = 0.11
The drainage coefficients for Base m2 = 1
The drainage coefficients for Sub-base m3 = 0.9
a) Ns = 20 msa
b) CBR = 6%
c) Reliability (R) = 90 %
d) So = 0.45
e) Zr = -1.282
PSI = 1.7
2. Calculations for design thicknesses of new flexible pavements

For CBR value of 6%, MR (psi) is worked out from the following equation :-

MR (psi)=1500 X CBR

## For SN= 5.154

Zr*So = -0.5769
RHS= 9.36 *log10 (SN + 1) - 0.2 = 7.18651412
log10(PSI/(4.2-1.5))/(0.4+(1094/(SN+1)5.19)) = -0.41191446
2.32* log10 (MR) - 8.07 = 1.10384262
Total= 7.30154228

For Ns = 20 msa and using AASHTO design equation, the value of SN required has been calculated as 5.154. The
design thicknesses are worked out from equation. 2

SN= 0.44 x(BC+DBM thickness in inch) + 0.14 x 1 x(WMM thickness in inch) +0.11 x 0.9 x (GSB
thickness in inch)
SN= 0.44x (0.04+0.115)/0.0254 + 0.14x1x (0.125+0.125)/0.0254 + 0.11 x0.9x (0.15+0.15)/0.0254
= 5.232 > 5.15 Safe

## Provisions made to the Layers & Thk.

BC= 0.040 m
DBM= 0.115 m
WMM 1st Layer= 0.125 m
WMM 2nd Layer= 0.125 m
GSB 1st Layer= 0.150 m
GSB (Drainage Layer)= 0.150 m
Total= 0.705 m
5.9.4 Design of Overly on Existing Flexible Pavement

1 In the HDM-III method, the strengthening requirement of overlay can be obtained by following equation :

## SN needed = SN required - SN exit

For calculating the structural number of existing pavement based on deflection volume, the following equations
recommended in HDM-III model document.

SN exist = SN BBD - SN SG
SN BBD = 3.2 x (BBD)-0.63 ..(For Granular Base)
SN SG = 3.51x Log10(CBR) - 0.85 x (Log10(CBR)2 ) - 1.43
Where,
SN exist = Structural number of the existing pavement
SN BBD = Modified structural number contributed
SN SG = Structural number of the subgrade
BBD= Benkelman Beam Deflection under 8.16 T Axle Load Taking mean of mean of BBD values
to be 1.83 mm

## Input data required

Dense-Graded bituminous concrete surface course = 0.44
Crushed Stone / WMM base course = 0.14
The drainage coefficients for Base m2 = 1
The drainage coefficients for Sub-base m3 = 0.9
a) BBD (80% of max Value) = 1.83 mm
b) Ns = 20 msa
c) CBR = 6.00 %
d) Reliability (R) = 90 %
e) So = 0.45
f) Zr = -1.282
g) PSI = 1.7

## 2 Design calculation using the above equation

SN BBD = 3.2 x (1.83)-0.63
= 2.19
SN SG = 3.51x Log10(CBR) - 0.85 x (Log10(CBR)2 ) - 1.43
= 2.731 -1.323 -1.430
= -0.022 (Thus, the pavement has little residual strength left)
SN exist = 2.19- 0.0
= 2.19

## SN required = This will be calculated by AASHTO equation as follows

For CBR value of 6%, MR (psi) is worked out from the following equation :-

MR (psi)=1500 X CBR
or MR (psi)= 1500 X 6 = 9000 psi

## LHS= Log10 Ns = 7.30103

SN required = 5.154
Zr*So = -0.577
RHS= 9.36 *log10 (SN + 1) - 0.2 = 7.187
log10(PSI/(4.2-1.5))/(0.4+(1094/(SN+1)5.19)) = -0.412
2.32* log10 (MR) - 8.07 = 1.104
Total= 7.302
SN needed = SN required - SN exit
= 2.97

For Ns = 20 msa and using AASHTO design equation, the value of SN required has been calculated as 5.154. The
design thicknesses are worked out from equation. 2

## SN= 0.44x (0.04+0.135)/0.0254 + 0.14x1x (0+0)/0.0254

= 3.031 > 2.97 Safe

## 3 Thickness of the component layers obtained are :

Provisions made to the Layers & Thk. Equivalent Thickness for DBM
BC= 0.040 m DBM BM
DBM= 0.135 m 0.085 m 0.075 m
WMM 1st Layer= 0.000 m
WMM 2nd Layer= 0.000 m
Total= 0.175 m
5.9.5 Design of Overly on Existing Flexible Pavement(AASHTO method)

## Input data required

Dense-Graded bituminous concrete surface course = 0.44
WMM Overlay 0.14
Existing Bitumenous Crust layer = 0.19
Existing WBM layers = 0.11
The drainage coefficients for Base m2 = 1
The drainage coefficients for Sub-base m3 = 0.9
b) Ns = 20 msa
c) CBR = 6.00 %
d) Reliability (R) = 90 %
e) So = 0.45
f) Zr = -1.282
g) PSI = 1.7
Existing Bit. Crust= 0.120 m
Existing WBM = 0.275 m
SN exist = 0.19(Ext. Bit. thickness in inch)+0.11(Ext. Bit.WBM thickness in inch) 2.09
SN required = This will be calculated by AASHTO equation as follows

For CBR value of 6%, MR (psi) is worked out from the following equation :-
MR (psi)=1500 X CBR
or MR (psi)= 1500 X 6 = 9000 psi

## LHS= Log10 Ns = 7.30103

SN required = 5.154
Zr*So = -0.577
RHS= 9.36 *log10 (SN + 1) - 0.2 = 7.187
log10(PSI/(4.2-1.5))/(0.4+(1094/(SN+1) )) =
5.19
-0.412
2.32* log10 (MR) - 8.07 = 1.104
Total= 7.302

## SN needed = SN required - SN exit= 3.07

For Ns = 20 msa and using AASHTO design equation, the value of SN required has been calculated as 5.154. The
design thicknesses are worked out from equation. 2
SN= 0.44 (BC+DBM thickness in inch) +0.14 (WMM thickness in inch)
SN= 0.44x (0.04+0.14)/0.0254 + 0.14x1x (0+0)/0.0254
= 3.118 > 3.07 Safe

## 3 Thickness of the component layers are :

Provisions made to the Layers & Thk. Equivalent Thickness for DBM
BC= 0.040 m DBM BM
DBM= 0.140 m 0.090 m 0.075 m
WMM 1st Layer= 0.000 m
WMM 2nd Layer= 0.000 m
Total= 0.180 m
5.9.6 Design of Rigid Pavement as per IRC-58 2002

## 1 Estimation of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, k

Design CBR of subgrade soil = 6 %
Modulus of subgrade soil reaction = 4.5 kg/cm3
(From Table-2)
Provide dry lean Cement/Dry lean cement-flyash concrete
concrete as sub-base of thickness = 150 mm
Modified modulus of reaction on the subbase, k = 24.25 kg/cm3
(From Table-4)
2 Properties of Cement Concrete
Design flexural strength of concrete at 28 days in the field = 40 kg/cm2
Design flexural strength of concrete takent at 90 days = 45 kg/cm2
Modulus of elasticity of concrete (E) = 3.00E+05 kg/cm2
Poisson's ratio (m) = 0.15
Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete (a) = 10.0E-6 / 0C

## 3 Traffic Factors estimation of design msa

Number of commercial vehicles in both directions/day = 880 CV/day
Traffic growth rate per anum = 6.76 percent
Type pressure, (p) = 8 kg/cm2
Load safety factor (LSF) for major Highways = 1.2
No. of lanes = 2
Lane width = 3.625 m
Contraction Joint Spacing = 4.5 m
Factor for directional distribution = 0.5
Factor for lane disribution = 0.75
Vehicle damage factor as per axle load survey = 4.76
Percent truck traffic of the commercial vehicles (as per traffic survey) = 87 %
No. of trucks per day (2 axles, 3 axles, multi axles trucks) = 766
Design Life of pavement to be considered = 30 years
Constuction perod since last traffic count = 4 years

## 4 Initial Traffic in each direction in the year of completion of construction

A=P(1+r)x
Where,
P= Numer of commercial vehicles as per last cont
r= Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles
x=Constuction perod since last traffic count
A= 766 X(1+6.76/100)4= 995 CV/day

## 5 Number of Repetition of commercial vehicle during design period:

365 x [(1+r)n -1]
N= xA xDxF
r
Where, A= Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction
D= Lane distribution factor
F= Directional distribution factor
n= Design life in years
r= Annual growth rate
N= 365 x ((1+6.76 / 100)^30-1) x 995 x 0.5 x 0.75 / (6.76 / 100)
= 12322319
= 12 millions

## Single Axle Tandom Axle

1 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0 0 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0
3 13 3.171 % 781.4E+3 0 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0
5 47 11.463 % 2.8E+6 0 2 0.488 % 120.2E+3
7 20 4.878 % 1.2E+6 0 4 0.976 % 240.4E+3
9 18 4.390 % 1.1E+6 6 70 17.073 % 4.2E+6
11 5 1.220 % 300.5E+3 6 65 15.854 % 3.9E+6
13 15 3.659 % 901.6E+3 12 114 27.805 % 6.9E+6
15 1 0.244 % 60.1E+3 2 19 4.634 % 1.1E+6
17 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0 0 10 2.439 % 601.1E+3
19 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0 0 6 1.463 % 360.7E+3
21 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0 0 1 0.244 % 60.1E+3
23 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0 0 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0
Total 119 29.024 % Total 291 ###

## 7 Load Stress at the Edge Region

The load stress for edge region ( s le ) for different wheel loads with LSF = 1.2, are computed from IITRIGID
(IRC 58 - 2002) and are tabulated.

## P= Design wheel load in Kg.

h= Pavement slab thickness in cm.
m=Poissions ratio for concrete
E=Modulus of elasticity of concrete

## l = Radius of relative stiffness in cm =[(Exh 3)/(12 x (1 -m2 ) x K)] 0.25 = 78.460

b = Radius of equivalent distribution of pressure at bottom of slab in cm.= [1.6 x a2 + h2]0.5 - 0.675 x h
b= a for a/h>=1.724
a = radius of wheel load distribution in cm (assumed circular) = [ P / (p x p)]0.5 = 0.66

8 Fatigue Analysis
The fatigue analysis has been performed, taking the flexural strength of concrete equal to 45 Kg/cm for computing
stress ratios. The results are shown in the table.
Trial thickness = 33 cm
Axle A x 1.2 Edge load Stress Design Allow. Fatigue
(P) Rept. To resistance used
(A) S le ratio repetitions
Tonnes (kg/cm 2) fatigue (%) Col.5/Col.6
Tonnes (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) x 100 (7)
(1)
Single Axle
1 1.2 1.488 0.03 0.0E+0 Unlimited 0.00
3 3.6 3.88 0.09 781.4E+3 Unlimited 0.00
5 6 6 0.13 2.8E+6 Unlimited 0.00
7 8.4 7.991 0.18 1.2E+6 Unlimited 0.00
9 10.8 9.9 0.22 1.1E+6 Unlimited 0.00
11 13.2 11.745 0.26 300.5E+3 Unlimited 0.00
13 15.6 13.536 0.30 901.6E+3 Unlimited 0.00
15 18 15.279 0.34 60.1E+3 Unlimited 0.00
17 20.4 16.982 0.38 0.0E+0 Unlimited 0.00
19 22.8 18.649 0.41 0.0E+0 Unlimited 0.00
21 25.2 20.285 0.45 0.0E+0 62790761 0.00
23 27.6 21.893 0.49 0.0E+0 1286914 0.00
Total 0

## Axle W x 1.2 Edge load Stress Design Allow. Fatigue

(P) Rept. To resistance used
(w) Sle ratio repetitions
Tonnes (kg/cm 2) fatigue (%) Col.5/Col.6
Tonnes (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) x 100 (7)
(1)
Tandom Axle
1 1.2 0.693 0.02 0.0E+0 Unlimited 0.000
3 3.6 1.825 0.04 0.0E+0 Unlimited 0.000
5 6 2.81 0.06 120.2E+3 Unlimited 0.000
7 8.4 3.715 0.08 240.4E+3 Unlimited 0.000
9 10.8 4.571 0.10 4.2E+6 Unlimited 0.000
11 13.2 5.392 0.12 3.9E+6 Unlimited 0.000
13 15.6 6.186 0.14 6.9E+6 Unlimited 0.000
15 18 6.959 0.15 1.1E+6 Unlimited 0.000
17 20.4 7.713 0.17 601.1E+3 Unlimited 0.000
19 22.8 8.45 0.19 360.7E+3 Unlimited 0.000
21 25.2 9.172 0.20 60.1E+3 Unlimited 0.000
23 27.6 9.881 0.22 0.0E+0 Unlimited 0.000
Total= 0 OK

## 9 Temperature Stress for Edge Region

Temperature differential in Bihar (T ) = 15.8 (for h =33cm)
Temperature stress ( Ste) for edge region may be computed as under
Contraction joint spacing (L) = 4.5 m
L/I or B/I= 450 = 5.74
78.460
(IRC : 58 : 2002)
Temperature stress at edge region ( Ste) = Ea t C/2
Ste = 21.33 kg/cm2
( Sle+Ste)= 9.9+21.33
= 31.23 kg/cm2 <45 OK
Corner load stress (s c)= (3xP/h2)x[1- (a*squrt(2)/l)1.2]
For P = 10.8 Kg, h = 33cm. 1 =78.46 cm, a = 0.66 cm
s c= 0.030 kg/cm2 <45 OK

## Design Cross Section of New Rigid Pavement

Thickness of concrete slab 330 mm
DL C/ DLFC thickness as sub - base 150 mm
Granual Sub-Base 150 mm
Drainage laye (gravel - sand) 150 mm
Total= 780 mm
4.3.8.6 Design of Rigid Pavements by PCA Method
The Portland Cement Association (PCA) method has been used for thickness design of new rigid pavement and rigid overlay
on the distressed flexible pavement of the project road. This method is based on stress analysis techniques developed by
Westergard. in this method of design, thickness of concrete pavement is dependent upon the magnitude and number of
repeated loads, flexural strength of concrete, and the modulus of subgrade reaction.

In PCA method, for design of highway concrete pavements, use is made of fatigue characteristics of concrete in repeated
flexure. When plain concrete is subjected to repeated loading, the number of repetitions of load it will sustain depends upon
the magnitude of load. Research findings on fatigue behaviour of concrete under repeated loading have demonstrated that
the concrete will generally sustain an infinite number of stress repetitions, as long as the flexural strength of concrete. For
higher stress values, the concrete will sustain a lesser number of load repetitions. The data are presented in the form of
stress ratios and these values are used to modify the thickness determined using static loads.

Generally, the 28-days flexural strength of concrete is used for the thickness design of street and road concrete pavements.
In this method, however, designs are based upon a flexural strength of concrete at 90-days, that is taken about 112.5
percent of the 28-days strength.

This method recommends that the actual wheel load that will be applied to the pavement be increased by a factor of 20 per
cent. This increase accounts for possible increase of load due to impact and adds a factor of safety to the design as well.

The traffic is categorized, for design purposes, into axle - load groups and stress for assumed thickness of pavement are
determined. The allowable repetitions for each load are determined and this value is compared to the estimated number of
load applications. By applying the Minor's principle on cumulative damage, the consumption of concrete fatigue life generally
shall not exceed 100 per cent.

The type of the subbase under the rigid pavement has been considered. When extra drainage layer is installed under
concrete pavement, provision of a cement treated subbase such as lean cement concrete of adequate thickness is
beneficial because it is stronger than converntional untreated granular material, besides being erosion resistant. Such a
subbase would also serve many other functions : (1) control of pumping (2) provides uniform suport (3) control of shrink and
swell of the subgrade (4) Control of frost action (5) smooth working platform to expedite construction

In the case of jointed plain concrete pavement, design consideration for different types of joints in PCC pavement has also
be addressed for long-term performance of concrete pavements.

## Estimation of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, k

Design CBR of subgrade soil = 6 %
Modulus of subgrade soil reaction = 4.5 kg/cm3
(from PCA Charts)
Provide dry lean Cement/Dry lean cement-flyash concrete
concrete as sub-base of thickness = 150 mm
Adjusted soil support value, CBR = 35 %
Modified modulus of reaction on the subbase, k = 10.385 kg/cm3
(from PCA Charts)
Properties of Cement Concrete
Design flexural strength of concrete at 28 days in the field = 40 kg/cm2
Design flexural strength of concrete takent at 90 days = 45 kg/cm2
Modulus of elasticity of concrete (E) = 3.0E+05 kg/cm2
Poisson's ratio (m) = 0.15
Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete (a) = 10.0E-6 / 0C
Traffic Factors estimation of design msa
Number of commercial vehicles in both directions/day = 880 CV/day
Traffic growth rate per anum = 6.76 percent
Type pressure, (p) = 8 kg/cm2
Load safety factor (LSF) for major Highways = 1.2
No. of lanes = 2
Lane width = 3.625 m
Contraction Joint Spacing = 4.5 m
Factor for directional distribution = 0.5
Factor for lane disribution = 0.75
Vehicle damage factor as per axle load survey = 4.76
Percent truck traffic of the commercial vehicles (as per traffic survey) = 87 %
No. of trucks per day (2 axles, 3 axles, multi axles trucks) = 766
Design Life of pavement to be considered = 30 years
Constuction perod since last traffic count = 4 years

## Initial Traffic in each direction in the year of completion of construction

A=P(1+r)x
Where,
P= Numer of commercial vehicles as per last cont
r= Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles
x=Constuction perod since last traffic count
A= 766 X(1+6.76/100)4= 995 CV/day

## Number of Repetition of commercial vehicle during design period:

365 x [(1+r)n -1]
N= xA xDxF
r
Where,
A= Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction
D= Lane distribution factor
F= Directional distribution factor
n= Design life in years
r= Annual growth rate
N= 365 x ((1+6.76 / 100)^30-1) x 995 x 0.5 x 0.75 / (6.76 / 100)
= 12322319
= 12 millions

## Wheel Load Numbers % Vehicle Repetition

0.5 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0
1.5 13 3.171 % 781.4E+3
2.5 49 11.951 % 2.9E+6
3.5 24 5.854 % 1.4E+6
4.5 88 21.463 % 5.3E+6
5.5 70 17.073 % 4.2E+6
6.5 129 31.463 % 7.8E+6
7.5 20 4.878 % 1.2E+6
8.5 10 2.439 % 601.1E+3
9.5 6 1.463 % 360.7E+3
10.5 1 0.244 % 60.1E+3
11.5 0 0.000 % 0.0E+0
Total 410 100.000 %
Load Stress at the Edge Region
The load stress for edge region ( s le ) for different wheel loads with LSF = 1.2, are computed from the following
equation (IRC 58 - 1988) and are tabulated.
s le= (0.529xP/h ) (1 + 0.54m) {4xlog10(l/b) + log10 b-0. 4048}
2

Where,
P= Design wheel load in Kg.
h= Pavement slab thickness in cm.
m=Poissions ratio for concrete
E=Modulus of elasticity of concrete

## l = Radius of relative stiffness in cm =[(Exh 3)/(12 x (1 -m2 ) x K)] 0.25 = 96.990

b = Radius of equivalent distribution of pressure at bottom of slab in cm.= [1.6 x a 2 + h2]0.5 - 0.675 x h
b= a for a/h>=1.724
a = radius of wheel load distribution in cm (assumed circular) = [ P / (p x p)]0.5

Fatigue Analysis
The fatigue analysis has been performed, taking the flexural strength of concrete equal to 45 Kg/cm for
computing stress ratios. The results are shown in the table.

## Wheel load W x 1.2 (P) a b Edge load Stress Allow. Design

(w) stress 1e Rept. To
Tonnes cm a/h cm ratio repetitions
Tonnes (kg/cm2) fatigue
(1) (2) (5) (4) (3) (4) (5) (6)
0.5 600 4.890 0.148 11.300 1.38 0.03 Unlimited 0.0E+0
1.5 1800 8.460 0.256 12.420 4.03 0.09 Unlimited 781.4E+3
2.5 3000 10.930 0.331 13.500 6.54 0.15 Unlimited 2.9E+6
3.5 4200 12.930 0.392 14.560 8.94 0.20 Unlimited 1.4E+6
4.5 5400 14.660 0.444 15.580 11.24 0.25 Unlimited 5.3E+6
5.5 6600 16.210 0.491 16.580 13.46 0.30 Unlimited 4.2E+6
6.5 7800 17.620 0.534 17.550 15.6 0.35 Unlimited 7.8E+6
7.5 9000 18.920 0.573 18.490 17.68 0.39 Unlimited 1.2E+6
8.5 10200 20.150 0.611 19.420 19.7 0.44 Unlimited 601.1E+3
9.5 11400 21.300 0.645 20.330 21.66 0.48 2402754 360.7E+3
10.5 12600 22.390 0.678 21.210 23.57 0.52 326334 60.1E+3
11.5 13800 23.430 0.710 22.080 25.44 0.57 71229 0.0E+0
Total

## Temperature Stress for Edge Region

Temperature differential in Bihar (T ) = 16.6 (for h =33cm)
Temperature stress ( Ste) for edge region may be computed as under
Contraction joint spacing (L) = 4.5 m

## L/I or B/I= 450 = 4.64

96.990
(IRC : 58 : 2002)
Temperature stress at edge region ( Ste) = Ea t C/2
Ste = 15.59 kg/cm2
( Sle+Ste)= 11.24+15.59
= 26.83 kg/cm2 <45 OK

Corner load stress (s c)= (3xP/h2)x[1- (a*squrt(2)/l)1.2]
For P = 5400 Kg, h = 33cm. 1 =96.99 cm, a = 14.66 cm
s c= 12.5404595 kg/cm2 <45 OK

## Design Cross Section of New Rigid Pavement

Thickness of concrete slab 330 mm
DL C/ DLFC thickness as sub - base 150 mm
Granual Sub-Base 150 mm
Drainage laye (gravel - sand) 150 mm
Total= 780 mm
avement and rigid overlay
techniques developed by
magnitude and number of

s of concrete in repeated
will sustain depends upon
g have demonstrated that
strength of concrete. For
presented in the form of

## ased by a factor of 20 per

to the design as well.

## hickness of pavement are

the estimated number of
crete fatigue life generally

## e layer is installed under

erosion resistant. Such a
t (3) control of shrink and
n

## (from PCA Charts)

Fatigue
resistanc
e used
(%)
Col.6/Col.
5 x 100
0(7)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15.00999
18.41946
0
33.42945
OK
5.19 COST ANALYSIS FOR PAVEMENT
5.14.1 Flexible Pavement on additional Lane

## Width of Different Layers Provisions made to the Layers & Thk.

Width of BC= 8.750 m BC= 0.040 m
Width of DBM= 8.750 m DBM= 0.125 m
Width of WMM 1st Layer= 9.215 m WMM 1st Layer= 0.125 m
Width of WMM 2nd Layer= 9.515 m WMM 2nd Layer= 0.125 m
Width of GSB = 9.815 m GSB = 0.150 m
Width of GSB ( 2nd layer )= 11.445 m GSB ( 2nd layer )= 0.150 m
Total 0.715 m
Layers Rate Layers Rate
Tack over Bitumenous surface @ Rs. 6.36 BC @ Rs. 4169.45
Tack over Primed Surface @ Rs. 6.87 DBM @ Rs. 3803.55
Primer coat over WMM @ Rs. 18.14 WMM @ Rs. 1297.95
BM @ Rs. 3021.24 GSB @ Rs. 642.23

1) Construction of Bituminous
Conscrete as per XClause
BC=1000 8.75 X509
0.04 = 350.00 m3 @ Rs. 4169.45 = Rs. 1459308.00
of M.O.S.T. Specification.

## 2) Construction of Dense Bituminous Macadam as per Clause 507 of M.O.S.T. Specification.

DBM=1000 X 8.75 X 0.125 = 1093.75 m3 @ Rs. 3803.55 = Rs. 4160133.00

## 3) Providing tack coat as per Clause 503 of M.O.S.T. Specification

(I) Below BC surface : - 1000 X 8.75= 8750.00 m2
(I) Below DBM surface : - 1000 X 8.75= 8750.00 m2
17500.00 m2 @ Rs. 6.36 = Rs. 111300.00
(ii) Over primed WMM : -
1000 X 8.75= 8750.00 m2 @ Rs. 6.87 = Rs. 60113.00

4) Providing Priming coat on WMM surface as per Clause 502 of M.O.S.T. Specification.
Over W.M.M - 1000 X 8.75= 8750.00 m2 @ Rs. 18.14 = Rs. 158725.00

## 5) Construction of WMM as per Clause 406 of M.O.S.T Specification.

Over WMM 1000 X 9.215 X 0.125= 1151.88 m3
Over G.S.B. 1000 X 9.515 X 0.125= 1189.38 m3
2341.25 m3
@ Rs. 1297.95 = Rs. 3038825.00

## 6) Construction of granular sub-base as per Clause 401of M.O.S.T. Specification.

1000 X 9.815 X 0.15= 1472.25 m3
@ Rs. 642.23 = Rs. 945523.00

6) Construction of granular sub-base (Drainage layer) ad per Clause 401.1 of M.O.S.T. Specification.
1000 X 11.445 X 0.15= 1716.75 m3
@ Rs. 642.23 = Rs. 1102548.00
Total Cost = Rs. 11036475.00
5.14.2 Rigid Pavement for Additional Lane
Width of Different Layers Rate Provisions made to the Layers & Thk.
Width of PQC= 8.750 m @ Rs. 4450.00 PQC= 0.330 m
Width of DLC= 9.215 m @ Rs. 2475.00 DLC= 0.150 m
Width of GSB = 9.515 m GSB = 0.150 m
Width of GSB(Drainage Layer = 11.425 m GSB(Drainage Layer = 0.150 m
Width of Cement soil stablisation 11.425 m Cement soil stablisation 0.500 m
Total= 0.780 m
1) Construction of M - 40 pavement quality concrete as per Clause of M.O.S.T. Specification.
PQC=1000 X 8.75 X 0.33 = 2887.50 m3 @ Rs. 4450.00 = Rs. 12849375.00

## 2) Construction of M - 15 Dry lean concrete sub-base per Clause of M.O.S.T. Specification.

DLC=1000 X 9.215 X 0.15 = 1382.25 m3 @ Rs. 2475.00 = Rs. 3421069.00

3) Construction of granular sub-base (Drainage layer) as per Clause - 401of M.O.S.T. Specification.
GSB=1000 X 9.515 X 0.15 = 1427.25 m3 @ Rs. 642.23 = Rs. 916623.00

4) Construction of granular sub-base (Drainage layer) as per Clause - 401 of M.O.S.T. Specification.
GSB=1000 X 11.425 X 0.15 = 1713.75 m3 @ Rs. 642.23 = Rs. 1100622.00
Total = Rs. 18287689.00

## Width of Different Layers Provisions made to the Layers & Thk.

Width of WMM 1st Layer= 2.350 m WMM 1st Layer= 0.125 m
Width of WMM 2nd Layer= 2.350 m WMM 2nd Layer= 0.125 m
Width of GSB 1st Layer = 2.350 m GSB 1st Layer = 0.150 m
Width of GSB 2nd Layer= 3.610 m GSB 2nd Layer= 0.150 m

## 1) Construction of WMM in two layer as per Clasue 406 of M.O.S.T. Specification.

WMM=1000 X 2.35 X (0.125+0.125) = 587.50 m3 @ Rs. 1297.95 = Rs. 762546.00

2) Providing Primer coat on WMM surface as per Clause - 502 of M.O.S.T. Specification.
Over WMM:- 1000 X 2.35= 2350.00 m3 @ Rs. 18.14 = Rs. 42629.00

## 3) Constructionof granular sub-base as per Clause - 401 of M.O.S.T. Specification.

GSB=1000 X 2.35 X 0.15 = 352.50 m3 @ Rs. 642.23 = Rs. 226386.00

4) Constructionof granular sub-base (Drainage layers) as per Clause - 401 of M.O.S.T. Specification.
GSB=1000 X 3.61 X 0.15 = 541.50 m3 @ Rs. 642.23 = Rs. 347768.00
Total Cost (A) = Rs. 1379329.00
5.14.4 A.-Overlay on Existing Pavement

## Width of Different Layers Provisions made to the Layers & Thk.

Width of BC= 8.750 m BC= 0.040 m
Width of DBM= 8.900 m DBM= 0.090 m
Width of Profile corrective BM= 6.550 m Profile corrective BM= 0.075 m

1) Construction of Bitiminous Macadam as a profile corrective layer as per Clause 504 of M.O.S.T. Specification.
Recycled BM=1000 X 6.55 X 0.075 = 491.25 m3 @ Rs. 3021.24 = Rs. 1484184.00

3) Construction of Dense Bituminous Macadam (two layer) Clause 507 of M.O.S.T. Specification
DBM=1000 X 8.9 X 0.09 = 801.00 m3 @ Rs. 3803.55 = Rs. 3046644.00

## 4) Construction of 50 mm thick Bituminous concrete Clause 509 of M.O.S.T. Specification.

BC=1000 X 8.75 X 0.04 = 350.00 m3 @ Rs. 4169.45 = Rs. 1459308.00

5) Providing tack coat on black top surface Clause 503 of M.O.S.T. Specification.(Two layer DBM & BM one layer)
3 X 1000 X 8.75 = 26250.0 m2 @ Rs. 6.36 = Rs. 166950.00

6) Providing Primer coat over scarified to surface as per Clause - 402 of M.O.S.T. Specification.
1000 X 6.55= 6500.00 m2 @ Rs. 18.14 = Rs. 117910.00
Total (B) = Rs. 6274996.00
Total Cost (A + B) = Rs. 7654325.00

## 5.15 PROBABLE COST INVOLVED IN PAVEMENT FOR ENTIRE PROJECT STRETCH:

Option 1 : Strengthening of existing two lane bituminous pavement and Construction of New Bituminous Pavement
(Total Length =34.65 Km. excluding bridge length)

## Item Cost Per Km. Project Stretch Total Cost Rs.

Strengthening of existing Road (Rs.) Length
with Bituminous overlay with 7654325.00 34.65 265222000.00
paved shoulder
11036475.00 34.65 382414000.00
Bituminous Pavement

## Total cost of Pavement (excluding Service Lane) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rs. 647636000.00

Option 2 : Strengthening of existing two lane bituminous pavement and Construction of New Rigid Pavement
(Total Length = 34.65 Km.)

## Item Cost Per Km. Project Stretch Total Cost Rs.

Strengthening of existing Road (Rs.) Length
with Bituminous overlay with 7654325.00 34.65 265222361.25
paved shoulder
18287689.00 34.65 633668423.85
Rigid Pavement
Total cost of Pavement (excluding Service lane). . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rs. 898890785.10
Table - 5.2
Life Cycle Analysis Cost for 30 Years Period For additional Two Lane
Rigid Pavement
(Unit 1 Km.)

Assumption:-
1. Inflation: 6%
2. Discount Rate 12 %

## Years Estimated Maintenance Cost Project Cost Discounted Cost

Construction (Base Year 2007) (Base Year 2007) (Base Year 2007) Remarks
Cost (Rs) (Rs) (Rs) (Rs)
2003 Annual maintenance cost at
2004 5486307.00 5815485.00 5815485.00 market rates prevailing on Year 2003=
2005 7315076.00 8219219.00 8219219.00 Rs.50,000
2006 5486307.00 6534279.00 6534279.00
Estimated Total Construction Cost Rs.18,287,690
( Based on rate of Year 2003 )
2007 63124.00 63124.00 63124.00
2008 66911.00 66911.00 59742.00
2009 70926.00 70926.00 56542.00
2010 75182.00 75182.00 53513.00
2011 79692.00 79692.00 50646.00
2012 84474.00 84474.00 47933.00
2013 89542.00 89542.00 45365.00
2014 94915.00 94915.00 42935.00
2015 100610.00 100610.00 40635.00
2016 106646.00 106646.00 38458.00
2017 113045.00 113045.00 36398.00
2018 119828.00 119828.00 34448.00
2019 127018.00 127018.00 32602.00
2020 134639.00 134639.00 30856.00
2021 142717.00 142717.00 29203.00
2022 151280.00 151280.00 27638.00
2023 160357.00 160357.00 26158.00
2024 169978.00 169978.00 24756.00
2025 180177.00 180177.00 23430.00
2026 190987.00 190987.00 22175.00
2027 202447.00 202447.00 20987.00
2028 214594.00 214594.00 19863.00
2029 227469.00 227469.00 18799.00
2030 241117.00 241117.00 17792.00
2031 255584.00 255584.00 16838.00
2032 270919.00 270919.00 15936.00
2033 287175.00 287175.00 15083.00
2034 304405.00 304405.00 14275.00
2035 322669.00 322669.00 13510.00
2036 342029.00 342029.00 12786.00
Life Cycle Cost For 30 Years (Base Year 2007) Rs.21,521,000.00
Table - 5.3
Life Cycle Analysis Cost for 30 Years Period For Additional Two Lane
Flexible Pavement
(Unit 1 Km.)

Assumption:-
1. Inflation: 6 % Design CBR Value - - - - 6%
2. Discount Rate 12 % M.S.A. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -100

## Years Estimated Maintenance Cost Project Cost Discounted Cost

Construction (Base Year 2007) (Base Year 2007) (Base Year 2007) Remarks
Cost (Rs) (Rs) (Rs) (Rs)
2003 Annual maintenance cost at
2004 3310943.00 3509600.00 3509600.00 market rates prevailing on Year 2003=
2005 4414590.00 4960233.00 4960233.00 Rs.200,000
2006 3310943.00 3943386.00 3943386.00
Estimated Total Construction Cost Rs.11,036,476 Overlay at 10th and 20th Year
( Based on rate of Year 2003 ) Estimated cost of overlay at market
2007 252495.00 252495.00 252495.00 rates prevailing on Year 2003=
2008 267645.00 267645.00 238969.00 Rs.2,021,259
2009 283704.00 283704.00 226167.00 Overlay Thickness: (Assumed)
2010 300726.00 300726.00 214051.00 DBM 100
2011 318770.00 318770.00 202584.00 BC 40
2012 337896.00 337896.00 191731.00
2013 358170.00 358170.00 181460.00
2014 379660.00 379660.00 171739.00
2015 402439.00 402439.00 162538.00
2016 4311200.00 4311200.00 1554662.00
2017 452181.00 452181.00 145590.00
2018 479312.00 479312.00 137791.00
2019 508070.00 508070.00 130409.00
2020 538555.00 538555.00 123423.00
2021 570868.00 570868.00 116811.00
2022 605120.00 605120.00 110553.00
2023 641427.00 641427.00 104631.00
2024 679913.00 679913.00 99025.00
2025 720707.00 720707.00 93721.00
2026 7720702.00 7720702.00 896426.00
2027 809787.00 809787.00 83948.00
2028 858374.00 858374.00 79451.00
2029 909877.00 909877.00 75194.00
2030 964469.00 964469.00 71166.00
2031 1022337.00 1022337.00 67354.00
2032 1083678.00 1083678.00 63745.00
2033 1148698.00 1148698.00 60331.00
2034 1217620.00 1217620.00 57099.00
2035 1290677.00 1290677.00 54040.00
2036 1368118.00 1368118.00 51145.00
Life Cycle Cost For 30 Years (Base Year 2007) Rs.18,431,000.00