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VOL I, Nr. 2, NEW YORK - SUMMER 2005.

City Ombudsman Ralph Perfetto,
JASENOVAC VICTIMS IS UNVEILED IN NEW eight Survivors and Jewish Partisan
YORK CITYS HOLOCAUST ghters from Yugoslavia, and dip-
By Barry M. Lituchy, JRI lomats representing three countries
National Coordinator PARK AT JASENOVAC DAY including Israel, Serbia & Monte-
OF COMMEMORATION negro, and Bosnia & Herzegovina.
After more than three years and three
months of constant struggle, the CEREMONIES The Mayor of New York City,
Jasenovac Research Institute nally Hon. Michael Bloomberg, of-
won approval from the City of New On Sunday, 17 April 2005 the rst cially proclaimed April 17, 2005
York for the rst public monument to public monument ever established as Jasenovac Day of Commemo-
the victims of Jasenovac ever cre- for the Jasenovac death camp out- ration throughout New York City
ated outside of the former Yugosla- side of former Yugoslavia was in a decree issued on April 14th.
via. The inscription for the Jaseno- unveiled at ceremonies marking Special greetings were read from
vac monument was nally approved the 60th anniversary of the end of the Serbian President Boris Tadic
by the New York City Department of the Holocaust held at the Holocaust and from the Serbian Prime Min-
Parks and Recreations Holocaust Memorial Park in Brooklyn, NY. ister Vojislav Kostunica. The spe-
Advisory Committee on 15 February Some 200 people attended the cer- cial Committee on Jasenovac of the
2005, with some minor changes to emonies including U.S. Congress- continued on page 2
the inscription.

The information was received at 3

PM the following afternoon. Fol-
lowing the announcement a period
of tortuous waiting for the engrav-
ing that lasted until April 12th. This
delay for the nal engraving cre-
ated difculties for the planning for
the day of commemoration mark-
ing the 60th anniversary of the end
of the Holocaust and the unveiling
of the monument.

Several changes were imposed on

the inscription. It was the fourth
time that the original inscription
was revised.

In the nal two weeks leading up

to the engraving the government of
Croatia made impassioned pleas to
New York City ofcials to stop the Inscription at the Jasenovac Memorial Stone in the Holocaust Garden on the
monument. The Croatian govern- bank of the Sheepshead Bay in New York
continued on page 2

continued from page 1 ated and why it will remain neces- fetto for their help in obtaining the
ment insisted that the monument sary. If you care about the memory monument. Holocaust Park found-
was not accurate and therefore of the victims of the Holocaust in ers Pauline and Ira Bilus warmly
should be stopped. In particular the Yugoslavia we encourage you to welcomed the participants to the
Croatian government objected to join us in our work. park and the inclusion of Jaseno-
the numbers cited on the monument. vac on an equal footing with Aus-
This intervention was reported to Now with the inclusion of a monu- chwitz, Dachau and Buchenwald. A
us by an aide to U.S. Congressman ment for Jasenovac in New Yorks letter from U.S. Holocaust Memo-
Anthony Weiner, who was instru- Holocaust Memorial Park, the rial Museum Chairman Fred Zeid-
mental in helping to obtain the victims of Jasenovac will never man to the JRI made the same point
monument. Congressman Weiners be forgotten. And the families of that of the thousands of camps and
letters to the New York City Parks those victims will forever have a massacres during the Holocaust,
Department pushed that depart- place to recognize and remember Jasenovac must be recognized as
ment into Action at a time it was them. Thanks to the efforts of the one of the very worst. On behalf
prepared to do nothing. Other Con- JRI and its supporters, Jasenovac of the New York City Public
gressman in New York City offered is nally being recognized as cen- Advocates ofce, Ralph Perfetto
no help when we asked them. tral to the study and commemora- awarded the Jasenovac Research
tion of the Holocaust. Institute and the Holocaust Park
In July the JRIs chief legal coun- Committee special awards For
sel David Gottfried obtained continued from page 1
Extraordinary Service to New York
through Freedom of Information City. The awards were received by
Act requests all correspondence Serbian Orthodox Church also sent Barry Lituchy and Pauline Bilus for
regarding our monument. Appar- a special greeting to the event. their organizations.
ently the Croatian government had
made all of their interventions to At the ceremony John Ranz, Buch- Religious services were conducted
the city by phone. We also learned enwald Survivor, wartime Partisan by Father Djokan Majstorovic of St.
from the FOIA documents that a and JRI Director, noted that it was Savas Serbian Orthodox Church
lobbyist on behalf of Albanians had an historic day, for from this day in New York who also blessed the
made repeated written requests forward Serbian and Roma victims monument. After Father Djokan,
for the city to establish a monu- of the Holocaust shall forever be Rabbi Dr. Ephraim Isaac, a member
ment honoring the Albanian people remembered with their fellow Jew- of the JRI Advisory Board and head
for having saved the Jews. This ish brothers and sisters with whom of the Institute for Semitic Studies
request was treated as an applica- they shared the same fate, and the in Princeton, also said Kaddish for
tion in February at the same time same graves. The monument was the victims. Following these cere-
as ours and was rejected. established through the efforts of monies the names of dozens of vic-
the Jasenovac Research Institute tims of the Jasenovac camp and the
When we rst applied for the mon- which has organized the annual Holocaust in Yugoslavia were read
ument in the Holocaust Park in Jasenovac Day of Commemoration aloud, while seven large candles
Brooklyn (one of a very few out- at the park for the past four years. were lit for each hundred thousand
door monument parks and muse- of the estimated 700,000 victims of
ums dedicated to the Holocaust in The Roma organization Voice of Jasenovac.
the world) we thought the process Roma sent a delegation to the cer-
would be short. In the end we had emony, and Alexandra Oprea of The rst of the seven candles was
to work extraordinarily hard to Voice of Roma spoke on behalf of lit by a representative of the Voice
obtain it and marshal the support the Roma community to the audi- of Roma organization, Sonya Jasa-
of many people, especially Sur- ence praising the monument and the roska, in memory of the many tens
vivors. It became a daily struggle Holocaust Park. She severely criti- of thousands of Roma victims at
in the last six months. It serves as cized other Holocaust institutions Jasenovac. Another candle was
another example of why only an for failing to pay sufcient atten- lit by a nine year old Serbian girl
organizational approach to the tion to Roma and other non-Jewish at the ceremony in memory of the
problem of Holocaust research and victims of the Holocaust or in some many tens of thousands of Serbian,
commemoration can be successful. cases totally ignoring them. Jewish and Roma children brutally
Individuals by themselves could exterminated at Jasenovac. Elisa
never and have never righted the On behalf of the Survivors and vic- Gutman lit a candle in memory of
wrong of omitting Jasenovac and tims families, JRI Founder Barry her father killed at Jasenovac. Anna
the experience of the Holocaust in Lituchy thanked Mayor Bloomberg, Beck also lit a candle in memory
Yugoslavia from Holocaust institu- Congressman Anthony Weiner, and of the tens of thousands of Jews
tions. This is why the JRI was cre- New York Ombudsman Ralph Per- from other parts of Yugoslavia

killed by German, Croatian, Mus- Aliquippa, PA., who will receive a by any nation, cannot honor fully
lim and Albanian fascists. A seven $500 prize for his work. The win- the memory of those who perished
foot wreath was placed next to the ners in Serbia and Bosnia will be in that place, in Jasenovac.
monument and many lit individual announced later in May and June.
candles to remember victims. We must root Jasenovac in our
A small Croatian group arrived memories so that we may unroot
Anna Beck spoke movingly prior to toward the end of the ceremonies. the hatred that continues to exist
the candle lighting of how she per- The state of Croatia was not formally among certain nations in the Bal-
sonally witnessed the mass mur- invited on this occasion because the kans.
der of Jews and Serbs on the fro- monument was not engraved until
zen Danube River in Novi Sad in April 12th. However, Croatia will So that we may never forget
January 1942. Ricki Danon Soltan be invited to participate next year. May their memories live on forever
and Michael Danon recalled how
they survived, while their fathers JRI Founder Barry Lituchy Boris Tadic
were murdered in Jasenovac along reminded the participants that jus- President of Serbia
with many other members of their tice and recognition for the victims
family. Aleksandar Mosic spoke of the Holocaust in Yugoslavia has
on behalf of fellow Jewish Parti- not come without hard struggle:
sans and Survivors from former The lessons of the Holocaust were
Yugoslavia. Survivor Eva Deutsch bitterly learned and on this day we
Costabel recalled how her father must remind ourselves of them as
and many friends were arrested by we honor the victims. The victims
the Ustashe and then sent to their speak to us still, reminding us Da
deaths. Se Ne Zaboravi! (So that you
may not forget!). On April 17th
The Ambassador of Bosnia and we did not forget - we honored
Hercegovina to the U.S., H.E. Igor our martyrs in a manner they long
Davidovic, spoke movingly about deserved, with a permanent monu-
the murder of his grandfather at ment, for-ever.
Jasenovac. Dan Kapner, represent-
ing the State of Israel, warmly con-
gratulated the JRI and all partici-
pants for the establishment of the Mr. Barry Lituchy
Jasenovac monument and reminded Department of History, Philosophy
all of the dire need to strengthen and Political Science
our remembrance activities in the Kingsborough Community College,
face of growing threats from anti- CUNY
Semitism, racism and neo-Nazism. 2001 Oriental Boulevard
Melody Devine, a foreign policy Brooklyn, NY 11235-2398
advisor for U.S. Congressman Trent United States of America
Franks of Arizona spoke on behalf
of the Congressman. Dear Mr. Lituchy,

Other speakers included Dr. Nor- I write to thank you for the tremen-
man Markowitz a Professor of His- dous efforts you have undertaken
tory at Rutgers University and Dr. In bringing to life a memorial to the
William Rosenbaum, a Psychology victims of the Jasenovac concentra-
Professor at Kingsborough Com- tion camp in faraway New York.
munity College in Brooklyn who
stressed the vital importance of Whatever is said at the consecra-
Holocaust education. Reecting tion of this monument in New
the JRIs profound commitment Yorksixty years after that place
to furthering education about the of horrors was liberated and closed
Holocaust in Yugoslavia, Direc- downwill not be enough. Words
tor Lituchy announced the winner do not exist to describe the planned
of the JRIs rst annual Jasenovac deaths of thousands upon thousands
Essay Contest - Alexander Osman of innocent people. Words, in any
of Hopewell Junior High School in language, spoken at any time and

Mr. Barry M. Lituchy, Mrs. and Mr. John Renz, US Congressman Anthony Winer, and Mrs. Eva Deutsch Costabel

Mr. Vladimir Drobnyak, Representative of Serbia and Montenegro at U.N. in New York and Barry Lituchy at the
Unveiling Ceremony in Holocaust Park.

AN INTRODUCTION TO ber of laws, decrees and instruc- During the Second World War,
DONJA GRADINA tions which legalized Nazi-Fas- with the aim of destroying politi-
cist methods of terror and ethnic cal opponents and entire nations, to
THE LARGEST EXECUTION genocide (for example, the legal intimidate and crush all resistance
decree on prohibiting the Cyril- by the enslaved nations of Europe
SITE OF THE JASENOVAC lic alphabet, the legal decree on Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy
CONCENTRATION CAMP racial afliation, the legal decree expanded and consolidated their
on citizenship, the legal decree on existing concentration camps and
By Simo Brdar conversions from one religion to commenced forming new camps in
another, etc.). The Ustashe author- their own territories as well as in
Part 2 of 2 (Part 1 was ities were supported by the bulk of territories of annexed and occupied
published in the last issue) the Catholic clergy and the Islamic states. By their capacity and means
religious community. of destruction of innocent people,
The Memorial-Area Donja Gradina many of these camps represented
is the largest execution place of the The Ustashe organization was a enormous death factories. Such
Ustashe concentration camp Jaseno- typical Fascist organization, and its camps were: Auschwitz, Maidanek
vac and an inseparable part of the armed forces were the instrument and Treblinka in Poland, Dachau,
history of Jasenovac and of Pavelics that implemented the Ustashe Nazi Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen and
Independent State of Croatia. ideology. Sachshausen-Oraninburg in Ger-
many, Mathausen in Austria and
After the brief April war in 1941, The Ustashe army (Ustaska others. From 1939 until 1945, more
the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was vojnica) was organized by than 12,000,000 people from occu-
dismembered by the aggres- Slavko Kvaternik. It was com- pied countries of Europe were con-
sor states: Nazi Germany, Fas- prised of Ustashe units, mostly ned in German and other Fascist
cist Italy, Horthys Hungary and volunteers under the command of concentration camps, where most
Boris Bulgaria. In the meantime, the Main Ustashe Headquarters, of them were killed in the most hid-
the Ustashe Independent State of special police forces and Domo- eous manner. In annexed and occu-
Croatia (NDH) was proclaimed in brans (Home Army). In August pied territories in 1944, there were
Zagreb on April 10, 1941, which 1941 the Ustashe Security Ser- 28 central concentration camps
aside from territories inhabited vice (UNS) was formed as well. with around 2,000 ghetto-branches
by Croats also included the whole These institutions carried out the and labor camps.
of Bosnia and Herzegovina and most severe forms of genocide
parts of Serbia. against Serbs, Jews and Roma in In these and other Fascist camps,
the NDH. In order to enable only inmates were killed in the most
In this newly created puppet state Croat and Muslim people to live in atrocious ways: by beating, shoot-
there lived more than 2,000,000 the NDH, the Ustashe authorities ing, hanging, starvation, exhaus-
Serbs and signicant populations carried out mass physical destruc- tion with hard labor, incineration,
of Jews and Roma. tion, deportation and conversions gassing, freezing, vivisection and
of Serbs to Catholicism, system- many other ways. The concentra-
Immediately after the proclama- atic extermination of Jews and tion camp of Jasenovac with all its
tion of the NDH, the leader of this almost complete extermination killing elds also belongs in the
monster-state, Poglavnik Ante of Roma. Mass murders of Serbs category of those largest Nazi death
Pavelic began to implement a pro- in the NDH began immediately camps that were organized during
gram of creating a pure Croatian in April 1941, with massacres in the Second World War in Europe.
living space and a pure Croatian villages around Bjelovar, on Mt.
nation. According to his program, Banija, in Lika, on Mt. Kordun, The rst camps in the NDH
the prerequisite for the creation of in Bosnian Krajina and Herze- were founded on the island of
a pure Croatian state was extermi- govina. Facts indicate that only Pag Slano, on Mt. Velebit near
nation of Serbs, Jews and Roma. from April 1941 until mid-August Gospic Jadovno and in Bosnia
Pointing out that Serbs are reli- 1942 around 600,000 Serbs were near Travnik Kruscica. Among
giously and racially different from killed in the NDH in the most bru- larger camps were: Danica in
Croats and that they represented a tal manner. Around 180,000 Serbs Koprivnica, Kerestinec, Lobo-
third of all inhabitants of the NDH, were deported to Serbia during the grad, Lepoglava, Jastrebarsko,
for the extermination of Serbs the war. Spiritual genocide, to which Sisak, Djakovo and Tenje near
Ustashe applied the motto: banish the Serbian Orthodox Church was Osijek. The largest, the most
a third, convert a third to Catholi- exposed, was especially perva- monstrous and the worst possible
cism and slaughter a third. The sive. During the war 450 Ortho- of all was Jasenovac, founded in
Ustashe government passed a num- dox churches were destroyed. August 1941.

The man who realized the idea to was articially created before the rial, not only inspire remembrance
found a concentration camp was war by digging out land for brick and warning, but also explain the
Eugen Kvaternik Dido. The com- production in Bacics brick factory. causes and consequences of geno-
mander of the camp was Vjekoslav During the existence of the camp, cide by totalitarian regimes.
Luburic Maks, and in his absence canals were dug out towards the
the commandants of the camp lake. Logs were placed over those In the territory of the former Social-
were: Ljubo Milos, Fra (Francis- canals, which served as toilets for ist Republic of Croatia after the
can) Miroslav Filipovic-Majsto- inmates. Inmates living skeletons Second World War, all authentic
rovic called Satan, Dinko Sakic, after arriving on the logs, would objects and locations of the Ustashe
Hinko Picili, Ahmed Kapetanovic often fall into the canal after try- crime of genocide over Serbs, Jews
and Jakob Dzal. ing to relieve themselves and they and Roma were destroyed, and such
would drown in water with human was also the fate of Jasenovac. All
By atrocities, torture and meth- feces. All of that owed down objects in Jasenovac were demol-
ods of liquidation of innocent men, into the lake. There was not even ished and razed, and the area of the
women and children, Jasenovac a drop of clean water in the camp. camp itself was turned into an idyl-
is without precedent in history of Inmates were forced to drink water lic lawn, while most of the wider
mankind. Inmates were killed by from the lake. That was the aim of area is overgrown with weeds and
blunt objects: sledgehammers, iron the Ustashe to cause dysentery brushwood.
bars, bludgeons, army boots Liq- and typhus epidemics among the
uidations were performed by sharp inmates. Thus a large number of The building of the Sava dikes
objects as well: knives, daggers, inmates died from those diseases began in 1956. A large number of
sabers, axes and specially designed suffering horribly. Inmates called it graves ended up under dikes and
knives and blades. Inmates were the Ghastly Lake. canals. Grave eld Bare in Donja
tortured and exhausted by hunger Gradina is an obvious proof. By a
and thirst. Their skin was cut and Jasenovac and Gradina Since 1945 great effort, two graves were only
salted. Their genitals were scorched partially salvaged from remaining
by red-hot iron. The Ustashe placed By the end of April 1945, Ustashe under a dike. On the property of the
rats on bellies of inmates, then cov- committed their last massacre in Loncarevic family from the village
ered the rat with a pot and heated the Jasenovac, burned their archives of Medjedja, graves of Jasenovac
pot with a blow torch, until the rat and calmly retreated, while units victims also ended up under a dike.
would bite through the skin and hide of the National Liberation Army
in the intestines of an inmate. They of Yugoslavia entered Jaseno- Only twenty years after the end
pulled out nails of inmates with vac on May 2, 1945. They found of the Second World War, in
metal devices, they gauged eyes Jasenovac and Gradina elds cov- 1965, when the elds of Jasenovac
with specially made hooks, they ered with corpses, and out of mass were covered with women wear-
blinded inmates by stabbing needles graves blood owed like oil. All ing black, lighting candles for
in their eyes, they cut off noses, ears objects of the camp were preserved, their relatives, someone remem-
and tongues, they stabbed awls in except wooden constructions that bered to build a monument. Three
hearts, raped daughters in front of were burned down. From that time years later, in 1968, a museum
their fathers, under horrible torture began the silence about Jasenovac was built, and soon the Memorial
they forced sons to rape their moth- and erasing all traces of the Ustashe Area Jasenovac - Donja Gradina
ers, they cut off male genitals and crime of genocide. was formed, which encompassed
placed them into mouths of mothers the entire area of the former con-
and daughters. In a single sentence, After the end of the Second World centration camp Jasenovac. This
concentration camp Jasenovac, by War with the victory of the anti- memorial functioned until the
brutality of torture and killing of fascist coalition, in places of mass beginning of the war in 1991.
people, surpassed everything even crimes of genocide, in concentra-
the sickest mind could imagine and tion camps, authentic objects and With the breakup of former
accomplish. documents were preserved and Socialist Federative Republic of
memorial museums and memorial Yugoslavia and creation of Repub-
It is possible to list for days the areas were founded (Auschwitz, lic of Croatia, the largest part of
places of horrible suffering and Dachau, Treblinka, Mathausen and the surface of former concentra-
death of inmates. The Ustashe even others) and not only in countries of tion camp Jasenovac remained
organized competitions in slaugh- the anti-fascist coalition, but also in the territory of Croatia. Mass
tering innocent victims. in aggressor countries from that graves are located in Jablanac,
period. These signicant museum Mlaka, Krndija, Medjustrugovi,
In Jasenovac, near the ower mon- institutions, appreciated and visited, Krapje, Jasenovac, Dubicke Kre-
ument, there is a lake. The lake by their themes and original mate- cane, Cerovljani, Ustice.

Donja Gradina remains in Repub- possibility to identify all undiscov- Jasenovac, the Ustashe murdered in
lika Srpska Bosnia and Herze- ered locations of graves based on horrible throes 700,000 innocents,
govina. With numerous execution memories. men, women and children. Out of
places and grave elds of victims that number it is established that
of the Ustashe crime of genocide Based on consultations with experts 366,000 were murdered in Donja
in the area of Kozarska Dubica and it was decided to conduct an aerial Gradina. Of the total number of
Gradiska, it is the only location of survey of the terrain with a multi- victims, the Ustashe savagely liqui-
the Ustashe concentration camp emulsion technique, which implies dated over 20,000 children. To this
Jasenovac where serious explora- a simultaneous photographic sur- day the number of 19,432 children
tion has been performed. vey with 4 cameras in panchro- to the age of 14 have been identied
matic infrared, red-white and color by rst and last names and basic
In this period the only explorations techniques. personal information to have been
were performed in Donja Gradina murdered in the system of Ustashe
during the existence of Social- The project of photographing the concentration camps Jasenovac.
ist Republic of Bosnia and Herze- terrain and interpretation of pho-
govina, while there were never any tographs was entrusted to the Geo- With the breakup of Yugoslavia, the
serious explorations by the Croa- detic Institute of Slovenia. single Memorial Area Jasenovac
tian side. Donja Gradina has been broken
Based on characteristics of the up as well. As of September 1991,
According to adopted methodology infrared photographs and data Memorial Area Donja Gradina is
and in accord with the law on the acquired by comparison of the men- without status and nobody has dealt
arrangement of the Memorial Area tioned techniques, and by analogy with it institutionally.
Donja Gradina, anthropological according to locations of known
explorations have been conducted grave sites, suspected locations By the decision of the National
on the site. were marked according to higher Assembly of Republika Srpska No.
and lower probability of containing 02-871/96 from July 9, 1996, the
In 1962 and 1964, drilling and mass graves. Law on the Memorial Area Donja
probing was performed on loca- Gradina was passed, which regu-
tions of known graves, but were not After identication of suspected lates the status of this memorial
completed. locations on the terrain, the pro- in Republika Srpska. The law was
cedure of drilling was performed passed based on the previous law
By analysis of the current status from August 15, 1976 until Septem- passed by the Socialist Republic
and orientation in further work, the ber 9, 1976. Locations of drilling of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Today
problem of anthropological explora- sites were determined according it is the Public Institution Memo-
tions was regarded in twofold sense: to aerial photographs and accord- rial Area Donja Gradina with eight
ing to statements of inhabitants of employees.
Regarding all interventions in the the village of Donja Gradina. All
space of construction and nota- information is available on the map (The Gradina Memorial Area
tion, it was necessary to attempt to of anthropological explorations. In has become an important site for
determine all possible undiscov- the mentioned period over a thou- Holocaust commemoration and
ered locations of graves. sand drilling holes were made. international Holocaust studies.
In recent years it has served as
Completion of anthropological Based on all explorations a pro- the site for an annual Day of
explorations in the sense of estab- gram of arrangement of the Memo- Commemoration for Yugoslav
lishing the number of victims, age rial Area Donja Gradina was Holocaust victims, and in May
and national structure, means of made (Institute of Urbanism of the 2005 was the venue for the award
execution and all other data that Socialist Republic of Bosnia and ceremonies of the rst annual
was possible to research. Herzegovina Sarajevo, March Jasenovac Commemorative Essay
1977). Donja Gradina was arranged Contest in Republika Srpska
Based on testimonies of surviving according to that program and of- sponsored by the Jasenovac
inmates and the population that cially opened for the public in April Research Institute.- Editors)
came to that area just after the lib- 1988.
eration, it has been determined that
at the time there were signicantly On the central information granite
more graves than there are today. panel that was installed in 1986 in
Donja Gradina, it is clearly stated
As the terrain has changed its that by committing the crime of
appearance over time, there is no genocide in concentration camp

JRI REPUBLISHES MAJOR main text is 195 pages in Serbian; by gathering here every year and
WORK ON THE HOLOCAUST there is a very comprehensive Eng- reminding them about their victims.
lish language summary of 53 pages;
IN YUGOSLAVIA, THE plus another 44 pages offer pho- Such butchers can appear in other
BLACK BOOK tographs and original documents places, at other periods of time, and
with English and Serbian captions. speak other languages, Cavic said.
On the 60th anniversary of the lib- It is an extraordinary work that will
eration of Jasenovac and the end of be reissued by the JRI in the future He called on the Balkan nations to
the Holocaust in Yugoslavia, the and will become the standard text break the vicious circle, which turns
Jasenovac Research Institute is in libraries, universities and Holo- todays victims into tomorrows
proud to announce its publication of caust institutions around the world hangmen and transforms todays
one of the most important studies of that it was always meant to be. hatred into tomorrows revenge.
the Holocaust in Yugoslavia - The
Crimes of the Fascist Occupants It is available to the public for $30 All of us need exceptional respon-
(US) (includes shipping and post- sibility so that our region wouldnt
age). For JRI Associates the book be regarded as a place of crimes
is $20 (US). anymore, said Boris Tadic, the
president of Serbia.
Make your check payable and mail
to: His mother, Nevenka Tadic came to
Donja Gradina, too. Her own father
Jasenovac Research Institute was killed in a concentration camp
PO Box 10-0674 on Bosnian territory during World
Brooklyn, NY 11210 USA War II.

Donja Gradina has nine elds of

communal graves of the victims,
and the remembrance function held
SERBS, JEWS, ROMA there Sunday under the motto of
MARK ANNIVERSARY Let Us Remember brought together
OF THE LIBERATION diplomats from the Russian, Ger-
man, Slovene and other embassies
OF JASENOVAC CAMP in Bosnia, as well as representa-
and Their Collaborators Against tives of the World Jewish Congress
Jews in Yugoslavia (Zlocini fasi- Published by Itar-Tass and the World Gypsy Congress.
stickih okupatora i nijihovih sarad- 18 April 2005
nika protiv Jevreja u Jugoslaviji). Serb Orthodox, Jewish and Roma
It is generally agreed that this work BELGRADE - Thousands of peo- clergy served remembrance ser-
is one of the two most important ple gathered in the town of Donja vices for the victims of wartime
books on the Jewish dimension of Gradina in the Serb Republic of genocide.
the Holocaust in Yugoslavia ever Bosnia Sunday to mark the 60th
produced (the other being Jasa anniversary since liberation of the
Romanos study published nearly Jasenovac Nazi concentration camp,
thirty years later). where more than 700,000 Serbs,
Jews, gypsies, and antifascists died
Also known simply as The Black during World War II.
Book, this study rst appeared 53
years ago in an edition ofcially A most atrocious form of genocide
listed as 4000 copies. But in truth, was committed at Jasenovac, as hun-
fewer than 1000 copies of The dreds of thousands of innocent elderly,
Black Book were distributed, and women and children died there just
far fewer still ever saw public dis- because they belonged to a differ-
tribution. ent creed or different ethnic groups,
said the President of the Bosnian
This edition, with a new preface by Serb Republic, Dragan Cavic.
Alexandar Mosic, Barry Lituchy
and Danko Vasovic in English and He urged the attending people to
Serbian, consists of three parts: the continue punishing the butchers

JASENOVAC DEATH CAMP Following the Nazi invasion and
VICTIMS HONORED dismemberment of Yugoslavia in
April 1941, the Independent State
IN SHEAD BAY of Croatia was established as a pro-
Nazi government.
The cloudy day provided a grim
backdrop as a sea of mourners It was dedicated to a clerical-fas-
united in grief to remember the vic- cist ideology inuenced both by
tims of one of the Holocausts most Nazism and extreme Roman Cath-
barbaric death camps. olic fanaticism.

The commemoration - held at Holo- On coming to power, the Ustashe

caust Memorial Park, Emmons and Party dictatorship in Croatia
West End avenues - paid tribute quickly commenced on a policy of
to the memories of the hundreds racial extermination of all Serbs,
of thousands of men, women and Jews and Romas living within its
children of the Yugoslavian death borders. Barry Lituchy, founder of the Jaseno-
camp known as Jasenovac where vac Research Institute and an adjunct
estimates of the total number of Jasenovac was actually a complex professor of History at Kingsbor-
Serbs, Jews, Romas and others sys- of ve major and three smaller ough Community College, joins Dr
tematically murdered there from special camps spread out over Ephraim Isaac, director of the Insti-
August 1941 to April 1945 range 240 square kilometers (150 square tute of Semitic Studies at Princeton
from 300,000 to 700,000. miles) in south-central Croatia and founder of Afro-American studies
along the Sava River. at Harvard University (from left).
The memorial program - presented
by the Jasenovac Research Institute Of the 60,000 Jews living within
(JRI) and marking the 60th anni- wartime Croatias borders, 45,000stood, lies within the borders of
versary of the end of the Holocaust were murdered and at least 25,000contemporary Croatia, with the
in Yugoslavia - recalled the sacri- of these at Jasenovac. notable exception of the main kill-
ces of the slaughtered with poi- ing and burial ground of Gradina,
gnant guest addresses followed by Today, the area where one of the which lies across the Sava River in
a wreath placing ceremony. most barbaric death camps once present day Bosnia.

HOLOCAUST MUSEUM HAGUE ACCUSES THE including the massacre of 150 Ser-
OPENS IN ROMANIA VATICAN OF HIDING bian civilians in one town and the
murder of hundreds of other Serbs
On September 11, 2005 Romanias CROATIAN WAR CRIMINAL when Gotovinas forces overran
rst fully functional Holocaust the Krajina and expelled 250,000
museum - The Northern Transylva- The Vaticans historic connections Serbs from the region. This inci-
nia Holocaust Museum - was dedi- to Croatian fascism and war crimes dent recalls the still unresolved
cated in Simleu Silvaniei, Romania. came under renewed scrutiny today crimes of the Vatican in protected
In May/June 1944, that areas Jew- when the International Criminal hundreds of Croatian fascists after
ish population was forced out of Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia World War II which led to the cre-
their homes into the brutal Cehei at the Hague publicly accused the ation of the infamous ratlines.
Ghetto and from there transported Vatican of hiding suspected Croa-
to Auschwitz-Brikenau to be mur- tian war criminal, Gen. Ante Goto- from BBC News, October 20, 2005,
dered. Some 160,000 Jews from vina. The ICTYs chief prosecutor
that region were killed. For more Carla del Ponte, informed BBC that
information visit www.jahf.org. Gotovina is believed to be hiding
in a Vatican monastary and that the
from The Jewish Press (New Vatican has refused to cooperate
York), September 9, 2005 with the ICTY. Gotovina is accused
of numerous war crimes during
Croatias brutal ethnic cleansing
of the Serbian populated region
of Krajina in late summer of 1995

20. 2005.

Memorial stone for ever lasting remembrance, (Serbian, Cyrillic print)

Pictures of H.E. Igor Davidovi, Ambasador of Bosnia in Washington, D.C, the

memorial stone, the attendants at the unveiling ceremony, as well as complete a
printed list of government and social ofcials present.

JRI ESSAY WINNERS large part due to the leadership of cist struggle, spoke to students and
ANNOUNCED JRI board member Dejan Miletic and faculty in Varvarin about his
who coordinated the event with experiences. While there Mosic
Republika Srpska institutions. Also and others laid owers at the monu-
Winners of the First Annual critical were the efforts of Gradina ment for the victims of the bomb-
Jasenovac Commemorative curator and historian Simo Brdar, ing of Varvarin by NATO in 1999.
Essay Contests in North America, Prof. Vladimir Lukic of the Ini- on behalf of the JRI, recallnig the
Republika Srpska, and Serbia & tiative Board for Donja Gradina, tragic links between the events of
Montenegro (sponsored by the and Department of Schools head the Holocaust and the reemergence
Jasenovac Research Institute) Milos Milincic. These efforts cul- of anti-Serbian aggression in the
minated in a moving ceremony at 1990s. The Jasenovac Research
The Jasenovac Research Institute the hall of the Gradina Memorial Institute will announce the upcom-
is proud to announce the winners Zone on May 8th. Despite the tor- ing Jasenovac Commemorative
of the rst annual Jasenovac Com- rential rain the event was attended Essay and Art contests for 2006. in
memorative essay and art contest by a packed hall at which the three the Srbobran in September
held simultaneously this past school winners read their works accom-
year in North America, Republika panied by student musicians play- SPEECH TO STUDENTS AND
Srpska and Serbia & Montenegro. ing Bach. The contest evolved and TEACHERS AT THE AWARDS
The contest was open to all stu- expanded to include an art contest
dents ages 14 to 18 in these coun- as well which also drew hundreds CEREMONY FOR THE
of participants and whose winners FIRST ANNUAL JASENOVAC
will be announced in September.
JRI directors Barry Lituchy from COMMEMORATIVE
New York and Aleksandar Mosic ESSAY CONTEST AT THE
from Belgrade spoke at the May GRADINA MEMORIAL
8th ceremonies, rst in Banja Luka
to view the art contest entries, and ZONE, REPUBLIKA
then in Gradina. Following the SRPSKA, BOSNIA
Gradina ceremonies, JRI members
Miletic, Lituchy and Mosic met By Barry Lituchy
with Srpska Republika Prime Min- 8 May 2005
tries and awards were pesented ister Pero Bukejlovic as his guests
to the winners in May and June. and discussed future activities. Dear Friends,
The rst place winners in Serbia I came a long way to be here today
& Montenegro - Tijana Tomic of Alexander Osman, a student at to give awards and to congratu-
Varvarin, and in Republika Srpska Hopewell Junior High School, late all of you have worked hard
- Dejan Arnaut of Kozarska Dubica to study the lessons of Jasenovac
- received gifts and $200 (US) prize. and the Holocaust. I am here today
The rst place winner in the North because I rmly believe that your
American contest, Alexander efforts in this study are extremely
Osman of Aliquippa, Pa., received important for the future of the Ser-
gifts and a $500 prize. The second bian people, for the future of the
and third place winners in Repub- Jewish people, for the future of the
lika Srpska, Zeljko Slijepcevic of Roma people, for the future of this
Gradiska and Ana Rakita of Banja land, and for the future of humanity.
Luka, received a $100 prize. The Without Holocaust education we are
contest juries decided that no sec-
received his award by mail, but will doomed. But by sponsoring con-
ond or third place prizes would be
be a guest at next years Jasenovac tests like this one here in Bosnia, in
commemoration ceremony in New
awarded this year in the Serbia & Serbia & Montenegro and in North
Montenegro or North American York. In Serbia JRI director Alek- America, the Jasenovac Research
contests, although letters of thanks
sandar Mosic traveled to Varvarin Institute believes that together we
were sent to the entries. The con-
(about 100 miles south of Belgrade) can change the world for the better
tests were launched with the criti-
to meet the winner of the contest and help build a better future based
cal support of JRI Director Kosain Serbia & Montenegro, Tijana on a real understanding of human
Martjak in New York. Tomic. Mr. Misic, whose mother rights and social justice.
were murdered by German fascists
The enormous success of the con- in Nazi occupied Serbia and who Through this contest students and
test in Republika Srpska was in fought as a Partisan in the anti-fas- teachers such as yourselves can

teach others who have not learned, had to do it. Because as the Survi-So, let us keep this annual contest
or who have chosen not to learn, the going as a way in which we can keep
vors have told us even if just one
lessons of Jasenovac and the Holo- man or woman survives, he or she our promise to the martyrs that we
caust. Because without knowing will never forget them. Together we
will be able to tell the whole world
the basic facts of how German and about what happened to us here. will insure that the young genera-
Croatian fascists with others cre- tion will hear their voices, as you
ated the Ustashe puppet state and Those poor victims who are bur- have, forever.
its race laws designed to commit ied by the thousands right here on
crimes of genocide against Serbs, WINNING ESSAY OF
Jews and Roma, how can anyone ALEX OSMAN
talk about justice or human rights
in Bosnia or anywhere else in the
world today? As the shepherd watches over his
ock, so God watches over the
No one can talk about human rights souls of the Jasenovac victims.
or democracy without rst under- Jasenovac, a word that even to this
standing that the crimes commit- day lies heavy in the hearts of those
ted here on this spot 60 years ago who lived through this cruel experi-
were the greatest threat to human ence. In the modern Western world
rights and democracy of all time. this horrifying ordeal was passed
We can build an understanding off as just another Nazi death camp,
of human rights and democracy but in harsh reality, it was so much
only through an understanding of more. Few people know the true
Jasenovac. That dialogue can only story of the horror of Jasenovac and
begin here. This is why we are the history of the Croatian Nazi
here today. government whose goal was to
Alexander Osman, First Place essay eliminate all non-Croatian people
I think it is a shame and a crime that contest winner, is a member of Lodge from its territory. Because of the
Paddy Ashdown is not here today. It #23 - Aliquippa efforts of the Jasenovac Research
shows a lack of seriousness on his Institute, the truth of Jasenovac and
part about human rights and war this sacred ground under our feet the Yugoslav people is now being
crimes that he has failed to recog- they speak to us still. Can you told.
nize these ceremonies at Gradina. hear them? They ask us only that
It is not only anti-Serbian to ignore we never forget what was done to The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and
the commemoration of Jasenovac, them. I can hear them. They died Slovenes was founded on July 17,
it is anti-Semitic and anti-Roma as as martyrs for you and me, for 1917, by the Corfu Pact. This pact
well. Paddy Ashdown could learn a all of us. This is why we are here united the Serbs from Serbia, Bos-
lot from you students. You all have today. nia-Hercegovina and Macedonia,
something important to teach the along with the Croats and Slovenes.
world about your history and we We are also here today to honor you This new country, under the Serbian
will not let anyone forget that! young people. Yes, you! Because by dynasty, was tolerant of many dif-
honoring you today for your work in ferent religions: Orthodox, Roman
When on April 21, 1945 the last this contest, we are honoring them, Catholic, Jewish, Protestant and
thousand of Jasenovac prisoners our martyrs, who speak to us from Muslim. This country comprised
were rounded up and marched to a this sacred ground and say: Never of people from different nationali-
few buildings, they knew that they forget! and Never again! ties and religions became known
were going to be murdered. So, on as Yugoslavia in 1934. Yugoslavia
that day these starving, exhausted And I want to emphasize and say to became a leader in industry and as
and unarmed prisoners decided all of you young people here who such had great pride in their coun-
that they had to liberate themselves participated by the hundreds in this try and in their community. How-
and close Jasenovac forever. But contest we are extremely proud of ever, this was short lived as World
they also knew that almost all of all of you! You have done truly what War II was on the horizon.
them would surely die in the pro- is called in Hebrew a Mitzvah a
cess, because without weapons and good deed that helps your country, On March 4, 1941. Adolf Hitler,
weakened by sadistic cruelty, they your people and your fellow human leader of Nazi Germany, met with
would have to throw their tortured, beings. You are helping to change Prince Paul Karadjordjevic, King
emaciated bodies at the machine the world for the better. Your work of Yugoslavia, requesting Yugosla-
gun bullets. But they decided they gives us all hope and courage. vias participation in the Axis pow-

ers. Prince Paul agreed to partici- man Nazis in Srem and Banat were aimed at the Ustashe. As a result,
pate, mainly because Yugoslavias there to carry out their established Ustashe stepped up their efforts to
army had been neglected, as the policy to eliminate the local Jewish destroy the Orthodox faith by kill-
country was concentrating on its population, just as it was occuring ing the imprisoned clergy. Over
economic growth, and because of in Germany. The areas under Croa- 170 priests and clergy were bru-
Germanys threats to attack. This tian rule were extremely unfortu- tally butchered and dismembered
agreement was brief, as Serbian nate, as the Croatians had their own because of the Croatians growing
Nationalists plotted and overthrew terrible ideas for creating their own frustration wirh the perseverance
the government declaring young Holocaust. Genocide of all non- of the Serbs. Furthermore, more
Prince Peter II Karadjordjevic ruler. Croatians, especially Serbs, was than over fty rabbis also met their
Prince Peter was not yet of age, so a the ofcial policy of Ante Pavelic, deaths in the same manner.
caretaker government was formed the home-grown Croatian Fascist
to run the country. who was the leader of the Croatian In order to more effectively elimi-
Nazi state. Similar to Adolf Hitler nate the Serbian Orthodox and
As a result, the Axis powers in Germany, Ante Pavelic instilled other non-Croatian populations,
imposed Operation Punishment his ideas that a pure Croatian state the Ustashe set up death camps
on April 6, 1941, which crushed was essential to the growth and modeled after existing ones in Nazi
Belgrade with a hail of bombs. Ser- prosperity of the newly independent Germany and other occupied ter-
bian people from provinces all over Croatian nation. In both instances, ritories. Since the mission of the
came together to ght the Axis Hitler and Pavelic creatd a prob- Ustashe was to cleanse their coun-
powers, these ghters were called lem in order to fulll their lust for try to make a pure Croatian state,
Chetniks. Although the Chetniks power. Pavelic had always viewed most of the camps were established
fought courageously, they were out- Hitler and other European fascist in Croatia. During the war, the
numbered and inadequately armed. leaders as inspiration for his rule. Ustashe operated a total of twelve
Then, on April 10, 1941, the Ger- On the eve of the declaration of the camps. The largest and most bru-
man Nazis rolled into Zagreb, with independent Croatian state, Pavelic tal camp in all of Nazi Croatia was
a warm welcome from the Croa- declared: The Croatian Ustashe Jasenovac. The camp was actually
tians. A few days later, on April 15, movement has placed itself not a complex with several sub-camps,
1941, Croatia declared its indepen- today, but ten years ago at the side all of them near each other, includ-
dence from Yugoslavia. The lead- of our friends, at the side of Hitler ing Stara Gradiska, the womens
ers of Croatia were mere puppets and Mussolini, those great leaders camp. The Jasenovac death camp
of the Nazi Party, especially the of those great nations, whom no one was located in Southwest Slavonia;
fuehrer of Croatia, Ante Pavelic. can resist anymore, who are stand- the region at the heart of Croatia,
The Germans also brought with ing in our defense and will guaran- which until 1941, both Serbs and
them the Italian fascists, who along tee our liberation, our victory, our Croats shared. The Jasenovac camp
with the Croatian Nazis, called freedom, and our Independent State was activated in August 1941, with
Ustashe, a radical segment of the of Croatia. Hitler had invented the the herding of over 200,000 Serbs,
Croatian population, attacked the idea that all problems in Germany Muslims, Roma (gypsies) and Jews
western borders that delivered the came from the Jews. Carrying on into the newly created camp.
nal blow to the Serbian govern- that idea, Pavelic instilled the same
ment. This was the break that the principles but with different sects of These camps were known for their
Ustashe had been waiting for, as people. The Jewish Problem and terrible conditions. Many prison-
they had unlimited rule and unlim- The Serbian Problem both led to ers died from starvation, disease,
ited resources to nally carry out mass murder. The new Croatian and exposure to the elements, in
their desire to rid Croatia of all State believed that they could elim- addition to executions and torture.
Orthodox Serbs and others. inate Serbian history and tradition There are many stories of unusual
by destroying the Orthodox faith. cruelty and even Roman Catho-
By April 18, 1941, Yugoslavia was Placing heavy taxes on all church lic priests were involved in these
conquered and divided into parts. properties and then using force to dastardly acts. Miroslav Filipovic-
Germany took over Banat, Srem capture and imprison all Serbian Majstorovic, the captain of the UNS
and Serbia as a whole, because Orthodox clergy would destroy the (Croatian Security Police), a former
these regions had the largest Jewish church system. After taking any- Catholic priest, was known for kill-
population. Macedonia was given thing of value, the churches were ing scores of prisoners with his
to Bulgaria, and the other southern ultimately burned or bombed to bare hands. Peter Brzica, a guard at
regions of Yugoslavia were given to oblivion. Although churches were Jasenovac, won a contest for slitting
Italy. Bosnia-Hercegovina and Dal- ransacked and destroyed, Serbian the throats of 1,360 prisoners with
macia were given to Croatia; Slo- resistance was not deterred and the a butcher knife on August 29, 1942
venia was given to Hungary. Ger- Chetniks launched guerilla attacks - where he was crowned the King

of the Cutthroats and received a which was based upon the philoso- stand and are not aware of our past,
gold watch, a silver service, and a phy of one mad man in Germany. it has a chance of being repeated.
roasted suckling pig for his deed. The horrors of the Holocaust and the
Children were especially vulner- While historians do not completely Jasenovac death camps have a very
able. In fact, according to Avro agree on the number of victims similar paradox. In each example,
Manhattan. Jasenovac Concen- of the Jasenovac Holocaust, most there were mass murders, and these
tration Camp distinguished itself believe that a minimum 200,000 murders are incomprehensible in
because of the number of young people were brutally murdered. our world today. But unfortunately,
inmates sent there. In 1942, the However, some scholars claim the some societies have not learned
camp held over 24,000 Orthodox number of victims approach nearly from the past. For in the 90s, war
youngsters. Twelve thousand of 700,000. Regardless of which num- broke out in the same region, and
them were murdered in cold blood ber is correct, the number of Ser- the same people again practiced
by the Commandant. bian Orthodox citizens in the Croa- genocide. It is essential for us as a
tian Nazi State was estimated at 2.2 human race to learn from the past.
This camp became a symbol of million prior to World War II. The A mistake is only a mistake if it is
the attempt of the Puppet state of lower estimate of 200,000 victims not learned from.
Croatia to cleanse the country of translates into 10% of the Serbian
all denominations and religions Orthodox population exterminated
except for the true Catholic Cro- in this one camp. To put this per-
atian people. This quote by Milo- centage into perspective, in a high
van Zanic, the Minister of Justice, school class of twenty students, at
revealed quite clearly the Croatian least two of your closest friends
Governments plan: This State, would have been brutally murdered
our country, is only for Croats and for no other reason other than their
for no one else. There are no ways ethnicity and religion.
and means which we Croats will not
use to make our country truly ours, Understanding the Jasenovac Holo-
and to cleanse it of all Orthodox caust contributes to a better under-
Serbs. All those who came into our standing of the Holocaust in gen-
country 800 years ago must disap- eral for many reasons, one of which
pear. We make no attempt to con- is that more than just Jews were
ceal our intention. It is the policy of
killed. There were Serbian Ortho-
our state and during its realizationdox, Roma, Muslims, Protestants,
we shall do nothing else save followand other ethnic groups that were
the principle of the Ustashi. not Roman Catholic Croatians.
These people were thoughtlessly
From one mans hatred came executed just for being different.
this inhumane experience of the
Jasenovac death camp. Parallels There were nations other than Ger-
between both Jasenovac and the many who participated in the Holo-
holocaust in general display the caust. The new Independent State
evil and hatred that is contained of Croatia joined the Axis Powers
within all men. These societies on April 15, 1941, and was fully
were very much alike. In Germany, supported by the German and Ital-
Adolf Hitler believed and con- ian fascist powers. The Croatian
vinced his followers that the Jews Nazis or Ustashe were the most
brought economic and emotional brutally efcient exterminators of
unrest to the country. The Puppet all the Nazi puppets, having almost
State of Croatia expanded upon no regard for life itself.
his idea and wanted to extermi-
nate or remove all Serbs, Muslims, The Croatian government hid the
Roma and Jews to create a true atrocities of the jasenovac camp.
Croat country. The German Nazi When it was liberated, all records
party never planned for the mas- of the camps activities had been
sacre of Serbs to happen. However, burned, rst in 1943 then again in
because of the desire to have a 1945. Hiding the Jasenovac Holo-
true Croat state, the Croatian Nazi caust gives one more example of
party executed their barbaric plan, why, if we as a society do not under-

A DISTANT MEMORY away and it wasnt written down could be compared to the number
anywhere. of residents of a large-sized town.
by A. Mosic Lets close the discussion about
The mustachioed man was silent, guesstimates. Lets accept it without
In the springtime of a long gone thinking something over, and then trying to make it prettier or bigger
year in the 1960s, I was taking spoke again as if he were speak- than it is its horrible and terri-
the express train from Zagreb to ing to himself, but this time he was fying enough just as it is what is
Belgrade via Sunj; we were cross- instead addressing everyone in the indisputable is this: Jasenovac was
ing a bridge on the Sava the River coach. the most horrible and the most bes-
when the train slowed down. Since tial concentration camp in Europe.
it was passing the Jasenovac sta- I dont like this kind of politicizing And we dont ascribe it to a nation.
tion (where it wasnt going to and wholesale bidding on the number It is the work of mentally deranged
stop), the passengers went into the of victims. I get the strong impres- executioners.
trains corridor and silently looked sion that those who feel the bite of
through the window in the direc- conscience deliberately speak only The denazication of the Jasenovac
tion of Bogdanovichs great Stone of the number of victims in order concentration camp will not be suc-
Flower. I could never determine to conceal worse and much more cessfully completed even a hundred
whether the tracks were being important things that are already years from now if the dispute about
repaired or whether the engineer known about Jasenovac. The Nazi the number of victims and the invo-
was aware of the silent glances the concentration camps industrialized cations of some imaginary Greater
passengers cast at the monument as killing. We know about gas cham- Serbia continue. The indisputable
it was slowly disappearing behind bers, crematoria, and executions; facts alone about the concentration
them. When the monument nally we know the approximate number camp are enough to proclaim it to
disappeared from sight, the passen- of victims. But here everything that be the most bestial and most hor-
gers returned to their seats, and the concerns the victims is vague and rifying concentration camp that
locomotive picked up speed. We unclear. People who had no names ever existed in Europe. When this
were silent for a while. A little later, were killed, without any account- is understood, denazication shall
a man with a large, thick gray- ing of the number, and without any have been accomplished, and the
ing mustache spoke, as if to him- graves. The only things we are cer- conscience of the people will then
self, but in any case loud enough tain of is Picelis furnace, and the be pacied.
for everyone to hear him clearly: indescribably savagery endured by
Seven hundred thousand, but who the victims; and we can be certain Translated by Milo Yelesiyevich
knows, maybe more. Thats too that the detainees were killed like
much. I dont believe it, replied a chics, and that half-naked execu-
thirty-something man in a concil- tioners had knives that were tied to
iatory tone. Then there was silence their wrists. I dont want to speak
once again. All that could be heard about the number of deaths any
was the steady whistling of the wind more. Those are empty tales told in
that was blasting the passing train order to conceal the bestial nature
from the east. A woman who sat of the place. Such a dispute about
across from the mustachioed man the number of victims is a horrible
spoke up: Mister, where do you word game. Lets close that part
come up with that number, seven of the discussion. Lets mention
hundred thousand? And thats the victims, the many victims, the
how the conversation began. excessive number of victims; lets
talk about their unspeakable suffer-
I read it somewhere. ing; lets talk about Picilis furnace
which was originally intended for
Mister, dont go off half cocked. ring bricks and lets compare it
I heard educated people talk about to the stakes on which people were
it. They say there were eighty thou- burned alive during the middle ages
sand victims. for alleged heresies. Then it will Tijana Tomic, 1st prize in Serbia and
become clear that everything that Montenegro
Thats a big difference. Our peo- is expressed by numbers of ve or
ple are never going to agree on this. six gures is equally incomprehen-
sible; that every gure representing
Well, they can not. Where I come the number of victims is inacces-
from, twenty three were taken sible to the human mind if only it

UNKNOWN DOCUMENTS tion to detail she devoted to these At the end of February 1941, Diana
children. There is much more, of visited the camp at Loborgrad and
By Drago Katratovic course, about her in the diary that a few days later she visited (Arch-
and Uros Soskic she kept which started with the bishop) Alojzije Stepinac with the
rst day of the occupation until the hope that she might persuade him
As one might expect, during the liberation of Zagreb. This precious to help the children detained in the
period when this column and its document is in her granddaughters camp. She even summoned the cour-
subsequent installments were possession. age to go to the infamous Andrija
appearing in the press, we were Artukovic with the same request.
continuously receiving new mate- Dianas Circle of Good Will He refused, using the excuse that he
rial that lled out our story. Many did not have the authority to make
of those involved in saving the The opening pages of Dianas diary such a decision, and he sent her to
children of Kozara contacted us describe how those mothers and see Kvaternik. She spent a long
and provided new information, and poor children who were being per- time on the phone with the Ustashi
offered eyewitness accounts and in secuted and driven out of Zagreb commander, and she tried to obtain
some cases, previously unknown found her to be an outstanding the release of innocent people from
documents. The most important guardian who protected them from the camp. On several occasions, her
material we received was the doc- the moment the Fascist reign of ter- request was postponed for a day,
umentation that concerned Diana ror had begun. The Fascists became and at one moment, she feared that
Budisavljevic and Prof. Kamil Bre- suspicious of this Austrian woman, she too would be arrested.
sler, who were the leading gures who was the wife of a highly
in this undertaking and merit fur- respected surgeon, in January 1944. Diana met Prof. Kamil Bresler for
ther historical study. But they were blinded by their own the rst time in November 1942
prejudice and racism, and could and soon began working with him.
We have not until now touched never have imagined that person of She sensed that she could achieve
upon this subject it, but it is fair to German blood would have helped her plan of getting the people who
say that Diana Budisavljevic died the hunted and the persecuted. were in the most danger out of
on June 20, 1978 in Innsbruck, her Loborgrad, and she succeeded in
birthplace, and Prof. Kamil Bre- Diana describes how in October sending a large number of individ-
sler died on September 3, 1967 1941 she rst learned the truth about ually addressed packages through
in Zagreb. Both had lived long the concentration camp in Lobor- the Jewish Quarter to some of the
lives. Diana had children; Kamil grad where Jews and Serbs had prisoners. Then she had her rst
did not. From the documentation, been interned. A few days later, she unpleasant experience. One night,
which was written in their own found out during a visit to Zagrebs the police came and searched her
hand during the time these events Jewish Quarter that these prisoners apartment right after she had n-
were taking place and afterwards, were limited to receiving aid only ished preparing some aid packages
it is easy to complete their charac- from the residents of Zagrebs Jew- with her friends.
ters. These are not documents that ish Quarter. Diana began collecting
would merely hold interest for their food and clothing from her own First News about Kozara
respective families. They contain a circle of friends.
great deal of previously unknown She described her rst success in a
information that shedds light on the And she had a large circle of diary entry dated October 19, 1942.
actions of Zagrebs anti-Fascists in friends. She immediately contacted The camp directors at Loborgrad
1942. about twenty-ve people of good- gave her permission to take eleven
will; the group included doctors children. Eight days later, they were
It is important to note that Diana and architects, nurses and teachers, brought to the Institution for Deaf
Budisavljevic provided a card cata- merchants and students. Colnar, a Children in Zagreb. During those
logue containing information on representative of the unofcial Slo- days she met nurse Dragica Haba-
12,000 children to the Health and venian Red Cross, was among them. zin with whom she would later have
Social Welfare Department on Dozens of people (many of them a long and successful association.
August 27, 1945. This documen- anonymous) brought aid in the form
tation lled twenty-ve drawers, of food, clothing and money to her On October 30, 1942 Diana was at
and with it she also submitted ve husbands private clinic under the the main railroad station in Zagreb
books that aided in the search for pretext of coming in for an exami- where she met a group of 58 chil-
lost children, and ve books of pho- nation. The aid packages were pre- dren and 86 women traveling from
tographs with an index. This dem- pared and packed in Dianas apart- Loborgrad to Belgrade. She took
onstrates the tremendous effort, ment and then taken to a nearby down their addresses and immedi-
courage, and painstaking atten- post ofce. ately sent letters to their families so

they would know where they were Now it became clear to me that Stara Gradiska and Jasenovac
being taken. these were children from Kordun there were large numbers of Ser-
and from other areas, children for bian children suffering in terrible
Diana was courageous and worked whom we had been searching with- health conditions, without food and
tirelessly In the beginning of out success. It is clear to me that I without any nurse; they had been
September, Dr. Branko Kesic, a must do everything in my power sentenced to death. These children
military doctor, informed her of to save those children. When the needed help right away. As I was
the grave condition of the children train left, Hecker asked me which not able to take action by myself, I
from Kordun. This man would children I wanted to take. I told asked Prof. Bresler to help. He spe-
inform her on two more occasions him that the women had begged cialized in the health and welfare
of the terrible events taking place me to take the children from the of children. Prof. Bresler promised
in that area. At the start of the Fas- camp, instead. He promised me me his help and full cooperation.
cist offensive in Kozara on July 8, that he would nd out about these So he, with such support from the
one transport of women and chil- children from his colleagues who ranks of Red Cross nurses, whose
dren being sent to Germany was chose people to work in Germany. numbers included many friends of
stopped on the road to Zagreb. The On the morning of July 9, I went the NOP [the Peoples Liberation
manager of the transport, a man to Heckers ofce and there I met Army), began working to save the
named Hecker, allowed Diana to Captain von Kotzian who promised children of Kozara who had been
talk to the women and it was then to help me. imprisoned in Stara Gradiska and
that she rst learned that the camp Jasenovac.
in Stara Gradiska was being used Cooperation with Bresler
to imprison the children of Kozara. The information contained in
The lines she wrote that night Six days earlier Diana wrote in her Dianas diary entry has never been
impress the reader with the preci- diary that she had been called by published before, and we have
sion of her insight: Dragica Habazin late at night and Breslers description of the same
told that 220 children, 224 women events for corroboration. His diary
July 8, 1942. At 10:00 p.m. nurse and 6 men had just arrived at the entry states:
Habazin found out that a transport main train station. All of them
which needed our help would pass had been sent back from Maribor Heedless youth cannot look after
through Zagreb at 11:00 p.m. I went because of illness, and that they itself. The Fascist criminals shot at
with her to the railroad. While we had been shipped out of the Stara them in the middle of the street as
waited for the late train, I met the Gradiska camp to work in Germany. though they were wild beasts, while
chief of transport, Hecker. This Diana called Hecker right away and others ended up being hanged, while
transport is loaded with women and he allowed her to keep those people so many more of them ended up
children. I pleaded with Hecker not from being transported. She had being killed in Jasenovac, Gradiska
to send the children to Germany, but to act immediately because there and Lepoglava. Not a day passes
instead to leave them here with us. was a risk that these people would without such disturbing news.
He agreed but said that no woman be returned to Stara Gradiska. She
would consent to being separated found Prof. Bresler right away, and Life was becoming harder with
from her child. I got permission to that night the Institution for Deaf the perpetual expectation of being
talk to all of them, but not one of Children in Ilica took the children caught by Ustashe killers: the
the women would give up her child. in, while the adults were received whole city was becoming one big
After all that these women have suf- by Jeronim Hall. That was the rst concentration camp. It is the early
fered, it is quite understandable [that large scale action that had been summer 1942. The Kozara offen-
they would not give up their children) undertaken by Diana and Kamil, sive has ended. We know a little
during this short stop in the dark- and that encouraged them to under- bit about what happened in the
ness. Why should they trust some- take even larger actions later. town.
one to have good intentions toward
their children? They explained to In another document, Diana Bud- One day a lady (Diana Budisav-
me how they had come from the isavljevic wrote in Veljaca in 1947 ljevic) entered my ofce. As she
Stara Gradiska camp, and how there that: introduced herself, I realized that
had been many other children there, she was the wife of one of our
many of them without parents, who After that, in cooperation with respected physicians. She asked
had been taken to Germany with nurse Dragica Habazin from the me if I knew that there were hun-
earlier transports or who had simply Red Cross on transports of prison- dreds or even thousands, or maybe
died. they said free those children ers who were being sent to work as even tens or hundreds of thousands
that remain, there are more than a slave laborers in Germany, I found of children in camps from Stara
thousand of them. out that in the concentration camps Gradiska to Jasenovac who would

be killed if we did not do something whose assistance and cooperation The Jews in countries such as Rus-
to save them. she tried to enlist in order to con- sia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Serbia
tinue to rescue children from the were tortured in ways far more bru-
Thoughts were racing through my camps. She pleaded with them to tal than those in Western Europe,
mind: in the whole of the NDH get food and medicine, which she even taking into acount the camps
there are 4,000 beds for children sent to the camps. She awaited and crematoria. A striking example
that have already been taken and each transport that arrived in of the inequities of this new policy
now we are talking here about thou- Zagrebs main train station where is the case of the Hungarian Jews.
sands of new children. Sick chil- she handed out leaets with her The Jews in Hungary, as limited
dren how many people will we address and instructions for the by the Trianon Treaty after World
need to do that? and what about imprisoned parents to send infor- War I up until full Nazi Occupa-
the transports and the guards? mation to her about their children. tion, lived under very discrimina-
Where will we get medical instru- Zagreb, July 4, 1943. The Gestapo tory though not deadly conditions.
ments, dishes, food? I need a month inquired about the leaets she was However, in the annexed territories
to prepare but by then there will distributing. But those leaets of northern Serbia (the Voivodina),
be no more children. The ladys helped hundreds, even thousands the Hungarian Jews, as an ethnic
large, dark and compassionate eyes of people. Right up to the end of minority, along with the Serbian
inspected my face asking, beg- the war, she had received between Jews and the Orthodox Christian
ging, demanding three and four thousand letters Serbs, were murdered in the most
from the German camps, and she cruel way, namely by drowning
All of the children from Kozara replied each of those who were them in the icy water of the Dan-
who were rescued were forced to prisoners there. Each and every ube River, on the banks of Novi Sad
convert to Roman Catholicism. one of those letters contained a (Ujvidek in Hungarian) in January
truly terrifying story of human 1942. There they were pushed alive
Thousands of Letters destiny. under the ice.

Lets return to Dianas diary. Thanks to this rich and newly dis- Under the new policy, the Hungar-
Zagreb, June 7, 1942: Heckers covered treasure trove of documen- ian Jewish Survivors will receive
ofce received the long awaited tation from Budisavljevic and Bre- 806 Euros quarterly while their
permission from Kvaternik to take sler, along with supporting signa- close relatives in Voivodina who
the children from Stara Gradiska. tures and testimonies sent by others happen to be Serbian citizens will
Two days later Vlado Broz, Diana involved in rescuing the children receive only 403. What is the ratio-
Budisavljevic, Dragica Habazin, of Kozara, we cannot say that this nale behind such a double stan-
Jana Koch and other nurses and story is over. dard? Please do not forget that
doctors of the Red Cross were on the Survivors are now octogenar-
their way to Stara Gradiska. After Translated by Milo Yelesiyevich ians. How many of them will still be
some tense moments during their alive when the Slavic countries are
meeting with Maks Luburic, the admitted to the EU?
rst transport went to Zagreb. The HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS
transports went on all that year by Aleksandar Mosic, JRI
until the late autumn. Diana, her OUTSIDE THE EU FACE
friends and colleagues worked tire- NEW INJUSTICES
lessly. After Stara Gradiska, she
went to Mlaka and Jablanac, and The German Government, in
then at the request of Prof. Bre-accordance and cooperation with
the Claims Conference, founded
sler, she assisted the staff of the
by the World Jewish Congress,
childrens house at Josipovac. But
subsidizes Jewish Holocaust Sur-
even Dianas strength found its lim-
vivors with 403 Euros quarterly
its. She struggled with her own psy-
in European countries outside the
chological problems, and soon even
European Union. But recently a
she had to seek help from doctors.
100% increase was granted only
She recovered soon afterwards, and
returned to the dangerous task atto Survivors living in former War-
hand. saw Pact countries whose states
already become members of the
Her diary in 1943 notes frequent EU. Such an approach is grossly
meetings with representatives discriminatory.
of the International Red Cross,

The JRI continues to monitor the
ongoing human rights catastro-
phe in Kosovo where hundreds of
thousands of Serbs, Romas and
other national minorities have been
persecuted, brutalized, murdered,
exiled and dispossessed. After six
years of U.N. control little has been
done to remedy the crisis, rebuild
destroyed property, or return Ser-
bian and Roma refugees to their
place of origin. Hundreds of ancient
Serbian churches and monasteries
have been vandalized or destroyed
in deliberate acts of genocide (as
dened by the UN charter on geno-

Working in close cooperation with

Roma and Serbian organizations,
the JRI sent photographer Eliza-
beth Bieber in August 2005 to
document the human rights crisis
in Kosovo in preparation for a book
to be published on the subject in
2006. A Roma delegation partici-
pated in the April 2005 Jasenovac
monument unveiling in New York
and the JRI is proud to announce
that Voice of Roma President Sani
Rifati joined the JRIs Honor-
ary Advisory Board in June. JRI
Director Velimir Nestorovic, an
environmental engineer, is prepar-
ing a paper on the harmful health
effects plaguing displaced Roma
and Serbs in refugee camps such as
those in Mitrovica where lead poi-
soning and other problems are ram-
pant due to the failure of the UN
and Western nations to protect the
citizens of Kosovo.

JRI Directors Barry Lituchy and

Darko Trifunovic visited Roma ref-
ugee camps in Kosovo in 2004 and
future visits are planned.

OLD BALKAN HATREDS leaders and many of their nancial The State Department knew about
PLAY OUT IN COURT resources made it to Rome during those documents for 50 years and
the chaos of the wars nal months. did nothing, said Loftus, who later
CASE -A CLASS-ACTION wrote of his discoveries in the 1992
LAWSUIT CHARGES THE Alleged missing link book Unholy Trinity.
But Dorich and other plaintiffs take He attributes the governments long
ROLE IN THE FLIGHT OF the chain one crucial step further: reluctance to investigate the affair
PRO-NAZI HENCHMEN Their suit alleges that the missing to the fact that the American hands
link between the moneys arrival werent clean, either. As World War
in Rome and its apparent transfer II segued into the Cold War, U.S.
AFTER WORLD WAR II to South America was the Vatican and British ofcials were eager
itself. to recruit former Axis agents and
By Ron Grossman willing to overlook their wartime
Chicago Tribune A 1947 intelligence report noted: records.
July 6, 2005 Many of the more prominent
Ustashe war criminals and Quis- William Gowen, an Army intel-
Like any new pope, Benedict XVI lings are living in Rome illegally, ligence ofcer stationed in Rome
inherits some problems from his many under false names. ... All this at the wars end, was the author of
predecessor, among them sexual activity seems to stem from the some of the newly surfaced memos.
abuse scandals and a Catholic Vatican. He was then barely out of his teens,
Church deeply divided between but because he was uent in Italian
progressives and traditionalists. Long classied and buried in mili- he found himself in the thick of an
tary archives, those memos rst investigation of the Rat Line. He
Then there are William Dorichs came to light through the detective discovered that a Croatian Catholic
accusations. work of author John Loftus. monastery in Rome was sheltering
a group of armed men, presumably
Dorich, a Los Angeles book pub- Once a Justice Department law- former Ustashe operatives.
lisher, is the force behind a class- yer assigned to track wanted war
action lawsuit against the Vatican criminals, Loftus had come upon We found out about the Ustashe
Bank and the Franciscan Order. documents suggesting that Catho- treasury and knew it had been
lic clergy had a role in the so-called brought to Rome, Gowen said in an
Filed in a federal court in California, Rat Line, an underground railroad interview. But where in Rome?
the suit alleges that immediately that helped Nazis and their allies
after World War II the bank--the escape to Latin America. Gowen said Ustashe funds even-
nancial arm of the Roman Catho- tually were transferred to Swiss
lic Church--helped eeing mem- Pavelic went to Argentina, he banks, and then presumably to
bers of a brutal, pro-Nazi regime in found. There the ex-strongman Latin America.
Croatia hide and launder millions was supported by proceeds from
of dollars worth of loot, including the Ustashe treasury, which trav- The Swiss banks are famous for
gold and jewelry taken from con- eled the same route, according to their secrecy. Once you have an
centration camp prisoners. a 1998 State Department investi- account there you can send money
gation of assets stolen by Germans anywhere, no questions asked,
According to Dorich and his law- and their collaborators during Gowen said. But you couldnt
yers, those riches were used to help World War II. just drive truckloads of gold, jew-
the pro-Nazi henchmen slip out of elry and other valuables across the
Europe and escape to South Amer- From the character of the Ustashe Swiss border.
ica in 1945 and after. regime and the nature of its war-
time activities, that report said, According to Jonathan Levy, one of
Dorich, the son of a Serbian immi- this sum almost certainly included the plaintiffs attorneys, the Fran-
grant, recalled that dozens of his rela- some quantity of victim gold. ciscans were named as defendants
tives were massacred by the Ustashe, because the political extremism of
a Croatian puppet government The State Departments investiga- the period was fueled by religious
installed by the Nazis when they con- tion was belatedly instigated under hatred.
quered the Balkans in the 1940s. congressional pressure, after par-
allel cases of looting of Holocaust Not everybody who collaborated
U.S. government documents of the victims assets became a hot issue with the Germans committed
period show that some Ustashe in the 1990s. atrocities, Levy said. But in the

Ustashe movement, religiosity was One 1946 memo on the Ustashe of religious antagonisms that were
wrapped up with fascism. treasury said that approximately still sparking violence and blood-
200 million Swiss Francs (about shed in recent years, especially
The lawsuit alleges that members $47 million) were originally held when Yugoslavia broke apart in the
of the Franciscan Order were allied in the Vatican for safe-keeping 1990s.
with the Ustashe and participated before being moved to Spain and
in attacks on Serbs. Argentina. Like other documents Serbs are predominantly Ortho-
of the time, that one is tantaliz- dox Christians and Croats are pre-
Our ofcial position is that there ingly silent about whether Vati- dominantly Catholics. Despite their
is nothing to the allegations, said can meant the Vatican Bank or longstanding antipathies, Serbs and
Ronald Mallen, attorney for the the papal city-state, a political Croats were linked together in the
Franciscan Order. The other side enclave within Rome. creation of Yugoslavia after World
ignores the fact that `Brother Devil War I.
was excommunicated. Authors detective work
Settling old scores
That was the nickname given to From money stolen from the gold
Brother Miroslav Filipovic-Majs- teeth of my relatives, the Vatican Yugoslavia was dominated by Serbs,
torovic by inmates of the notori- enabled Nazis to escape to Argen- so when Yugoslavia was defeated
ous Jasenovac concentration camp, tina, Dorich said. early in World War II, Croatian
where tens of thousands of Serbs, nationalists saw the Germans not as
Jews and Gypsies perished. A Fran- In 2003, a federal judge dismissed conquerors but liberators. Ustashe
ciscan brother before becoming the the case, saying U.S. courts lacked military detachments fought along-
camps commandant, Filipovic- jurisdiction. But this spring, that side Nazi armies while settling old
Majstorovic was tried and hanged decision was reversed by the 9th scores.
as a war criminal after World War U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.
II. During the Ustashe regime,
Deciding this sort of controversy Orthodox Christians were subject
Other Ustashe leaders got away. is exactly what courts do, a panel to forced conversions to Catholi-
When Germanys defeat became of the appellate court said in a 2-1 cism. Serbian churches were
imminent in late 1944 and early ruling. looted and burned, sometimes
1945, high-ranking members of the with their congregations locked
Croatian government ed, some The judges noted that the issues inside. In one such massacre, at a
passing through Rome en route to ultimately boil down to whether church in the village of Vojnic, 99
escaping from Europe. the Vatican Bank is wrongfully people were burned alive on April
holding assets. 17, 1942.
The military and political situation
in Italy was chaotic. From day to It could be years before the case Seventeen of the victims were my
day, it would be hard to say who goes to trial or is settled. The defen- relatives, said Dorich, who visited
was in charge. German troops were dants are considering appealing to the site.
eeing northward. Italian partisans the U.S. Supreme Court. And even
led popular uprisings. Arriving if the plaintiffs proved the Vatican Money laundering charged
Allied forces struggled to establish Bank played a role, that would not-
some sort of order. -of itself--settle the issue of who at Accordingly, Ustashe loot had to
the Vatican was involved or knew be converted into currency that
Ante Pavelic, the head of the what was taking place. could not be traced, then trans-
Ustashe government, and 1,500 ferred to Switzerland. The lawsuit
of his followers made their way Still, as the Vatican struggles with alleges that the Vatican Bank was
through Austria to Italy. They car- the role the church and its leading the perfect agent to perform that
ried with them gold--estimates of clergy played during World War money laundering. Should the suit
its value vary widely from a few II, the case sheds renewed light on go forward, plaintiffs attorneys
hundred thousand dollars to many the tangled ethnic and religious will press the Vatican to open its
millions, according to U.S. military landscape of Eastern Europe--and archives in hopes of nding docu-
reports at the time. the way in which ancient feuds and ments to cement their thesis.
hatreds played out during the hor-
The route of the Ustashe leaders rors of a modern war. Jeffrey Lena, an attorney for the
and treasure can roughly be traced Vatican Bank, declined to comment.
through memos written by U.S. The events recalled in the case
Army intelligence ofcers. took place against the background

The Serbs lawyers hope to mobi- THE KOZARA TRAGEDY duty in engaging, being ready to
lize public opinion, noting that there AND R ECOLLECTIONS sacrice and interceding for the
has been a pattern to similar suits sake of far-away places so that we
on behalf of Holocaust victims and Letter from a Reader may at lease recall in this fashion
World War II slave laborers: After and pay our debt to those who have
rst denying the allegations and I was born on April 27, 1933 in the died in the killing elds of Nazi-
resisting the lawsuits, Swiss banks village of Demirovac Bos. Dubica, Fascist concentration camps.
and German industries felt enough BiH. As you already know, dur-
pressure to make an out-of-court ing WWII, more precisely, in 1942 Escondido, April 4, 2005
settlement. during the enemy offensive in
Kozara in June 1942, the Serbian Rajko Hrnjak
Attorneys for the defendants peti- people were totally destroyed and 330 E. Mission Ave., #16
tioned the full appellate court to eradicated in the Kozara region. Escondido, CA 92025b
overturn the nding of the three- However, all of the people from
judge panel, but their request was that region were deported to con-
turned down in June. The Francis- centration camps, and their homes
cans attorney said that decision, and property destroyed. My par-
in turn, will be appealed to the ents, my brother and my sister dis-
Supreme Court; the Vatican Banks appeared in these concentration
attorney said a Supreme Court camps, while I, along with the other
appeal is under consideration. children of Kozara, was persecuted
in a variety of concentration camps:
Both defendants contend that the Cerovljan, Ustica, Jasenovac, Sisak,
dispute doesnt belong in court but Novska, Daruvar and who knows
should be resolved by diplomacy, where else they took us in cattle
since the Vatican is not just a reli- cars, transporting us to various
gious body but a sovereign state. places where many lives forever
crumbled, exhausted by suffering
Mallen, the Franciscans attorney, in indescribable misery. Fate has
noted that under the law, his client decreed that I once again experi-
can argue that the affair belongs ence, not the same, but a very simi-
to the world of diplomacy without lar destiny, except this time in my
conceding there is anything for dip- old age with the civil war. I lived
lomats to negotiate--without, that is, and worked in Zenica for a full forty-
admitting wrongdoing. three years and I experienced many
disagreeable things and once again
Others, though, wonder if that I found myself in exile, deprived
argument might be too subtle for of everything, empty-handed, old,
the court of public opinion. exhausted, unhappy, beset with
woes, humiliated and helpless.
Its not exactly a plea of innocence,
is it? Loftus said. Following current events in the
Serbian press, as I do, I found out
rgrossman@tribune.com that your are marking the anniver-
Copyright 2005, sary of the escape of concentration
Chicago Tribune camp detainees from Jasenovac. A
moral obligation overcomes me; I
would be delighted to nd myself
at this commemoration in order to
share the sadness of those of our
people who died, but unfortunately,
I am unable to, for nancial reasons
as well by reason of my poor health,
to attend this memorial gathering
which you are organizing.

All that remains for me is to thank

you for going beyond the call of


Steve Cooper (Secretary), Dr. Angelo DAngelo, Gregory Elich, Joe Friendly (JRI Videographer),
Suzanne Jenkins, Jovanka Krainovich, Barry M. Lituchy (C.E.O.), Dr. Norman Markowitz (Rutgers
University), Kosa Martjak, Alexandar Mosic, (Chief Editor of JRI Newsletter), Jean Neftin, (JRI
IT & Web design), Dr. Craig Pearson, John Ranz, (President of Buchenwald Survivors, USA),
Darko Trifunovic, James Yarker (C.F.O.), Milo Yelesiyevich (JRI Editor & Chief Translator).


Col. Antun Militic (Chairman of Advisory Board), Dr. Smilja Avramov, Eva Deutsch Costabel
(Survivor), Cadik Danon (Jasenovac Survivor), Josip Erlih (Jasenovac Survivor), Vladimir
Brodich (Survivor), Dr. Zivotije Djordjevic, Dr. Ephraim Isaac (Princeton University),
Dejan Miletic, Dr. Michael Parenti, George B. Radan (Survivor), Mladan Selak (Survivor),
Dr. Traian Stoyanovich (Rutgers University), Bozo Svarz (Jasenovac Survivor).

JRI ASSOCIATES (partial list only)

Dr. Harry Cliadakis (Pace University), Dr. Veljko Djuric, David Gottfried (JRI
Attorney), Dr. Norman Ness (University of Deleware), Ricki Danon Soltan (Survivor),
Danko Vasovic, Dr. Walter Vukcevic, Dr Lila Kalinich, Velimir Nestorovic.

Jasenovac Research Institute, 2005.

All Rights Reserved.

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