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Service Training

Meeting Guide 746 SERV1746-01


October 2002

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADERS


INTRODUCTION
"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADERS
INTRODUCTION
MEETING GUIDE 746 SLIDES AND SCRIPT

AUDIENCE
Level II - Service personnel who understand the principles of machine systems operation, diagnostic
equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.

CONTENT
This presentation discusses the design features, major components, and systems operation for the "D"
Series Backhoe Loaders. Also included are descriptions of the operator's station and service points.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the serviceman will be able to:
1. locate and identify the major components in the operator's station, power train, and machine
hydraulic systems including the optional All Wheel Steer system;
2. explain the function of the major components in the power train, machine hydraulic systems and
the optional All Wheel Steer system;
3. identify service points for the engine, power train, and machine hydraulic systems;
4. trace oil flow through the transmission and machine hydraulic systems; and
5. explain the operation of the starting and charging system.

PREREQUISITES
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Mobile Hydraulics" TEMV9001
STMG 546 "Graphic Fluid Power Symbols" SESV1546
STMG 595 "Introduction to Load Sensing Pressure Compensated Hydraulic Systems" SESV1595
STMG 630 "416B - 438B Backhoe Loaders - Steering and Implement Hydraulic Systems" SESV1677
STMG 677 "416C - 438C Backhoe Loaders" SESV1677
STMG 725 "416C - 438C Backhoe Loaders -Update" SESV1725
Technical Instruction Module "Autoshift Transmission for Backhoe Loaders" SEGV2678

Estimated Time: 8 Hours


Visuals: 104 (2 X 2) Slides
Serviceman Handouts: 18 Worksheets
Form: SERV1746-01
Date: 10/02
© 2002 Caterpillar Inc.
STMG 746 -3-
10/02

SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING MATERIAL


STMG 629 "416B - 438B Backhoe Loaders–Introduction" SESV1629
STMG 630 "416B - 438B Backhoe Loaders–Steering and Implement Hydraulic System" SESV1630
STMG 604 "416 - 438 Series II Backhoe Loaders–Engine, Power Train and
Electrical Systems" SESV1604
STMG 605 "416 - 438 Series II Backhoe Loaders–Steering and Implement
Hydraulic System" SESV1605

REFERENCES
Service Manual
416D Backhoe Loaders Service Manual RENR3570

Parts Manuals
416D Backhoe Loader BFP1-Up SEBP3202
416D Backhoe Loader BGJ1-Up SEBP3236
416D Backhoe Loader (G Version) BKG1-Up SEBP3241
420D Backhoe Loader FDP1-Up SEBP3203
420D Backhoe Loader BLN1-Up SEBP3204
420D Backhoe Loader BKC1-Up SEBP3237
420D Backhoe Loader BMC1-Up SEBP3238
430D Backhoe Loader BNK1-Up SEBP3205
430D Backhoe Loader BMC1-Up SEBP3206
424D Backhoe Loader BGP1-Up, BKR1-Up SEBP3207
428D Backhoe Loader BLL1-Up, BNB1-Up SEBP3208
428D Backhoe Loader BMT1-Up, BNS1-Up SEBP3209
438D Backhoe Loader BPE1-Up, BPN1-Up SEBP3211
432D Backhoe Loader BLD1-Up SEBP3210
442D Backhoe Loader BRG1-Up, BRY1-Up SEBP3212

Operation and Maintenance Manuals


416D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7398
420D/430D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7399
424D/428D/438D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7400
432D/442D Operation and Maintenance Guide SEBU7401

Specalogs
416D Specification Sheet AEHQ5419
420D Specification Sheet AEHQ5420
430D Specification Sheet AEHQ5421
STMG 746 -4-
10/02

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................5

ENGINE................................................................................................................................25
Fuel System.....................................................................................................................27

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM .....................................................................................................34

POWER TRAIN ...................................................................................................................39


Standard Transmission....................................................................................................39
Autoshift Transmission ...................................................................................................44
Axles and Brakes ............................................................................................................55

STEERING AND IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS..............................................62


Steering and Implement Pump Operation.......................................................................74
Loader Valve Groups and Steering System ....................................................................80
Backhoe Valve Groups..................................................................................................110
All Wheel Steer System (AWS)....................................................................................133

OPTIONAL MACHINE SECURITY SYSTEM (MMS) ..................................................134

CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................136

SLIDE LIST........................................................................................................................137

SERVICEMAN'S HANDOUTS.........................................................................................139
"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADERS
INTRODUCTION

© 2002 Caterpillar Inc.

INTRODUCTION

• Center pivot models: The "D" Series Backhoe Loader Family is the latest generation of
Caterpillar Backhoe Loaders retaining many of the features proven on the
- Standard controls
"B and C" Series machines along with additional performance and design
- 416D improvements.
- Pilot controls
This presentation discusses the systems, major components, and features
- 420D and 430D of the "D" Series Backhoe Loaders.

• Sideshift models: The "D" Series machines include the 416D, 420D and 430D which are
- Standard controls equipped with the center pivot backhoe. The 420D and 430D feature
- 424D pilot controlled implement hydraulics.

- 428D The "D" Series also includes the 424D, 428D and 438D sideshift models
- 438D which are popular in Europe. Additional sideshift models include the
- Pilot controls 432D and 442D with pilot controlled implement hydraulics.

- 432D
The new machine series features new paint themes to provide a bolder
- 442D image.
SIMILARITIES • Engine
WITH FORMER • Thermal Starting Aid
MACHINES • Radial Seal Air Filters
• Standard Transmission
• Steering
• Brake System
• Hydraulic Pump
• Mechanical Implement Controls
• IT Linkage
• All Wheel Drive

• Similarities The "D" Series machines have many similarities to the machines they are
replacing.

The basic engine, standard transmission and steering systems are the same
as before.

The hydraulic brake system has multiple disc brakes and inboard
planetaries in the rear axle. The brake system is the same except for the
master cylinders being mounted differently than in the "C" Series
machines.

The hydraulic pump and controls are virtually the same as the "B" and
late production "C" Series, except for changes in operating pressures and
flow rates.

Most of the daily service fill and check points can be accessed through the
hinged engine hood.
DIFFERENCES • Operator's Compartment
FROM • HVAC
FORMER • Fuel Pump
MACHINES • Starting and Charging System
• Autoshift Transmission
• Hydraulic Tank
• Reverse Signal System
• Stabilizer Valves
• Ride Control System
• High Rotation Buckets
• Pilot Controlled Hydraulics

• Differences The "D" Series machines feature several changes over the previous
models to improve operator comfort and machine performance.

The operator compartment features new console layouts. The heating,


ventilation and air conditioning components are located near the floor and
provide significant improvements to air circulation.

The fuel pump has been changed to the type also used on the 914G Wheel
Loader.

The electrical system has changed significantly from the previous models.
Two fuse and relay blocks are located below a cover on the right side
console.

The autoshift transmission is the same as the power shift transmission on


the "C" Series except for the change in the software to convert to
autoshift.

The hydraulic tank has been redesigned. A expansion tank is no longer


required. A tube has also been added to make draining the tank much
easier.


The signal line routing has changed. With the reverse signal system, the
last resolver in the signal network is in the loader valve group instead of
the backhoe valve group as per previous backhoe models.

Some machines are available with pilot operated controls for the backhoe
valve group or for both the backhoe and the loader valve groups. The
pilot controls provide reduced lever efforts.

The stabilizer valves on all machines are pilot controlled and are different
in design from the previous versions.

Ride Control is similar in operation as before, however, the system design


has been modified.

Due to changes in the backhoe linkage, a single pin location is able to


provide improved performance for all backhoe operations. Previously,
two pin positions were used.
"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADERS
CENTER PIVOT SIDE SHIFT
FEATURE DESCRIPTION 416D 420D 430D 424D 428D 438D 432D 442D

3054 Naturally Aspirated Engine S S


3054 Turbocharged Engine O S S S S S S
12-V Electrical System S S S S S S S S
Standard Transmission S S S S S S S S
Autoshift Transmission (option) O O O O O O
Single Tilt S S S S O
IT Linkage O O S S S S
Ride Control O O O O O O O O
Pump Flow 139 L/min (37 gal/min) S S
Pump Flow 163 L/min (43 gal/min) S S S S S S
Dynamic Bleed Steering S S S S S S S S
Maximum Pressure 20 685 kPa (3000 PSI) S S
Maximum Pressure 22 754 kPa (3300 PSI) S S S S S S
Mechanical Hydraulic Controls - Loader S S S S S S
Mechanical Hydraulic Controls - Backhoe S S S S
Pilot Hydraulic Controls - Loader (IT only) O O O O S S
Pilot Hydraulic Controls - Backhoe S S S S
Auto Up Stabilizers O O O O O O
All Wheel Drive (AWD) O O O O S S S S
All Wheel Steer (option) O O
Machine Security System (option) O O O O O

S = Standard O = Option

• "D" Series This chart compares each "D" Series model to each other and reflects
comparison chart some of the various options and features of each machine.

The 416D and 420D compete in the same size class and are replacements
for the former 416C. The 416D is a lower cost version of the 420D and
has fewer available options. The 416D also has slightly lower
performance ratings than the 416C, while the 420D has higher
performance ratings.

The 430D replaces the both the 426C and 436C in the marketplace.

The 420D and 430D feature pilot controls for the backhoe, while either
mechanical or pilot controls are used for the loader. Loader pilot controls
are only for machines with IT linkage.


Additional comparisons can be made to the sideshift machines. The 424D
is the sideshift version of the 416D.

The 424D, 428D and 432D compete in the same size class. The 432D is
equipped with pilot controls for both the loader and the backhoe. The
other two machines feature only mechanical controls.

The 438D and 442D compete in the next higher machine class. The 442D
is equipped with pilot controls.

The machine security system will only be available on the sideshift


machines during the initial machine introduction. The center pivot
machines may have this as an option in the future.

All Wheel Steer (AWS) will not be made available on center pivot
machines until further notice.
5

• Cab features Several cab choices are available including an enclosed Roll Over
Protection System (ROPS) cab as shown and and open ROPS.

The open canopy machines can be equipped with a air suspension vinyl
seat, tilt steering wheel, 12 Volt power supply, phone clip, a lockable left
side storage space, drink holders and floor mats.

On the 420D and 430D, the standard cab features an air suspension fabric
seat, tilt steering wheel, 12 Volt power adapter, phone clip, a lockable left
side storage space, drink holders, floor mats, two doors, eight working
lights and opening rear windows. The machines are radio ready.

The deluxe cab has in addition to above, a nine-way adjustable air


suspension seat, auto-up stabilizer controls and additional system
monitors. These monitors are for the voltmeter, fuel water separator,
engine air cleaner and hydraulic filters.

The 416D is not available with the deluxe cab. The standard cab also
features a single door which is on the left side of the machine. A cab
upgrade is available with two doors and air conditioning.

NOTE: Sideshift machines have similar cab features as the center


pivot machines. Refer to the appropriate operation and maintenance
manual and specalogs for more information on all models.
1
3
2
5
6

8 9 4

10

• Machine controls: When sitting in the operator's seat and facing the front, various machine
controls and features can be identified.
1. Steering wheel
2. Transmission The cab shown is a machine equipped with mechanical loader controls
directional selector
levers (5 and 6) to operate the front loader bucket with a single tilt
lever
cylinder.
3. Turn signal/wiper
control lever
The four speed transmission shifter (4) and directional selector (2) are for
4. Four speed machines equipped with the standard transmission.
transmission shift
lever
If the parking brake (10) is engaged when the operator selects
5. Loader control
FORWARD or REVERSE, the fault alarm sounds.
lever
6. Auxiliary control
lever
7. Differential lock
8. Service brake
pedals
9. Governor pedal
10. Parking brake
lever
STMG 746 - 13 -
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3
1

• Machine controls: On machines equipped with a autoshift transmission, the speed range
selector is part of the directional shuttle control (1).
1. Autoshift speed
and direction
Shown is the loader pilot joystick (2). The two yellow buttons (3) on the
shuttle control
joystick can be used to control an auxiliary function or for All Wheel
2. Loader joystick Steer (AWS). AWS will only be available on sideshift machines initially.

3. Auxiliary buttons The thumb switch (4) provides input to the Auxiliary Control Module
(ACM). The ACM directs a variable current to two proportional
4. Thumb switch solenoids mounted on the loader auxiliary valve.

5. AWS position
A switch (not shown) on the front of the joystick is used to downshift the
indicator gauge
transmission or neutralize it depending on how long the switch is held.

In Autoshift Mode, if the switch is depressed for less than one second the
transmission downshifts. If the switch is held longer, the transmission is
neutralized. In Manual Mode, the switch will not downshift the
transmission.
STMG 746 - 14 -
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6
1

3
5

• Left front console: The switches on the consoles will vary depending on how the machine is
configured.
1. Alert indicator
panel
The alert indicator panel (1) includes: left and right turn signals, high
2. AWD switch
beams, parking brake and ride control.

3. Quick coupler pin The All Wheel Drive (AWD) switch (2) has three positions. One position
switch is for AWD OFF, another for AWD ON, and the other position for AWD
ON only when the brakes are applied. This last position allows for better
4. Continuous flow machine braking by locking up the entire driveline. In affect, all four
switch
wheels are used to brake the machine even though the front wheels are
5. Optional
not equipped with brakes.
washer/sprayer
switch A quick coupler pin switch (3) is used on machines equipped with the
Integrated Toolcarrier (IT) style dual tilt cylinder bucket and parallel lift
6. Transmission arms. The switch is used to release or lock the coupler pins from an
NEUTRAL lock attachment.
switch


STMG 746 - 15 -
10/02

The continuous flow switch (4), is an option that works with the
proportional solenoid controlled loader auxiliary circuit. The switch is
momentary. After the desired flow rate is selected with the loader
joystick thumb switch. Press and release the continuous flow switch.
Then release the thumb switch. The feature is used with brooms or other
attachments where continuous flow is required.

The optional washer/sprayer switch (5) is used to control a separate


function such as a washer for a broom.

The transmission NEUTRAL lock switch (6) prevents the transmission


from being shifted into a direction. The directional selector lever can be
moved, but the transmission will not shift until the lock switch is turned
off.
STMG 746 - 16 -
10/02

2 5

3 4

• Right front console: The autoshift switch (2) allows the operator to switch between Manual or
Autoshift Modes. In autoshift, after the operator selects the maximum
1. Flasher
speed range on the shift selector lever, the machine automatically shifts
the machine based on ground speed. Maxium speed gear in autoshift is
2. Autoshift switch
fifth, while manual is limited to fourth. The shift lever only shows up to
3. Ride Control fourth gear; however, in autoshift the transmission will shift into fifth gear
switch based on ground speed.

4. COSA roading light The Ride Control switch (3) is used to select the different modes of
switch location
operation. The optional Ride Control system provides a smoother ride
when the machine is driven over rough terrain. On machines equipped
5. Horn
with autoshift, the transmission ECM monitors the position of the Ride
Control switch and determines when to operate the Ride Control system.

If the machine is equipped with AWS, a gauge and switches to select the
AWS mode are also mounted on the right front console (not shown).
(AWS will discussed later in this presentation.)
STMG 746 - 17 -
10/02

3 7

5 6
1

10

• Loader controls: The loader controls are located in the side console.

1. Pilot joystick The side console is equipped with additional gauges, switches and
controls.
2. Alert indicators

The alert indicators (2) include: engine oil pressure, coolant level,
3. Key start switch
charging and brake level.
4. Hydraulic lock
switch The additional switches and controls on the side of the console vary with
machine configuration. Gauges include: tachometer, fuel level, coolant
5. Governor lever temperature and power train temperature.

6. Boom lock lever The key start switch (3) no longer has an accessory position as did the
"C" Series machines.
7. Stabilizer pilot
control levers
The hydraulic lock switch (4) controls a pilot shutoff solenoid valve on
machines with pilot controls. The switch energizes the pilot shutoff
solenoid when the key start switch is turned ON to allow pilot oil to the
joysticks to operate the implements.

When the key start switch is turned OFF or the switch is moved to the
LOCK position, the joysticks are disabled.


STMG 746 - 18 -
10/02

With mechanical controls, the hydraulic lock switch controls an optional


hydraulic shutoff solenoid valve instead. When the hydraulic lock switch
is moved to the LOCK position, the valve is energized and blocks supply
oil to the backhoe valve group when roading the machine.

The rear governor lever (5), boom lock lever (6), and stabilizer pilot
control levers (7) are also located in the side console.

The action alarm (if equipped) will sound when one or both stabilizers are
raised if the transmission direction control lever is shifted from
NEUTRAL.

The stabilizer control system may feature auto-up, which holds the levers
in detent for a set time to automatically raise the cylinders. The timer can
not be adjusted.
STMG 746 - 19 -
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1 2

11

• Mechanical backhoe When the operator is facing the rear of a machine on, the standard
controls: backhoe controls can be identified.
1. Swing and boom
The standard control pattern for the "D" Series is the same as on all
2. Stick and bucket
previous backhoe models. The long lever on the right (2) is used to
control bucket and stick. The long lever on the left (1) is used to control
3. Boom lock lever the boom and swing.

The boom lock lever (3) has been moved to the side console.

A pedal or pedals (not shown) on the floor are used to control the
auxiliary functions like the E-stick or a hammer.

To satisfy the needs of the customer, optional control configurations are


available.
STMG 746 - 20 -
10/02

1 2

4
3 5

3
6

12

• Pilot operated The backhoe controls for machines equipped with pilot controls are
backhoe: shown.
1. Stick and swing
The pilot control pattern for the "D" Series is the same as the Cat
2. Bucket and boom
excavator pattern. The joystick on the right (2) is used to control bucket
and boom. The joystick on the left (1) is used to control the stick and
3. Pods swing. A switch to activate the horn is part of the left joystick.

4. Pilot control pod The joysticks are mounted to pods (3).


lever
The pilot control pod lever (4), locks the joystick pods until the operator
5. Swing lock pin
releases the pods in order to move the joysticks for and aft to an
6. E-stick pedal
ergonomically correct position.

E-stick pedal (6) is used to control an auxiliary valve through mechanical


linkage. On some machines an additional pedal (not shown) can be used
for an additional auxiliary function.

To satisfy the needs of the customer, optional control configurations are


available including the Cat backhoe pattern.
STMG 746 - 21 -
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13

• Pattern changer valve An optional feature on machines with joystick controls is a pattern
lever: changer valve (not shown) mounted to the inside of the frame on the left
side of the machine.
1. Lever

The lever (1) is in position #1 for the excavator control pattern.


2. Hole

The lever can be moved to a different position to change from excavator


to a backhoe control pattern.

To select the backhoe control pattern the bolt must be removed from the
end of lever. The lever can then be rotated to the lower hole (2) for
position #2.

The bolt is then reinstalled in the hole to hold the lever.

The #1 and #2 are stamped into the frame.


STMG 746 - 22 -
10/02

14

• "D" Series buckets: The "D" Series backhoes feature "high rotation" backhoe linkage. A
single pin bucket position contributes to 205 degrees of rotation. This is
- Bucket stop plates suitable for all applications eliminating the need to change pin positions
as was done on all previous backhoes.

An integral lifting eye (not shown) is a standard feature of the bucket


linkage.

Bucket stop plates (arrows) allow "C" Series buckets to be used on "D"
Series machines. When a "C" Series bucket is attached, the plates must
be moved to the other side of the linkage to limit "C" Series bucket travel.

Without the stops, the "C" Series buckets will contact the stick.
STMG 746 - 23 -
10/02

2 8
1 6

4 5

15

• Service points: Most daily service fill and check points are located below the hinged
hood.
1. Air filter housing
Radial seal air filters are used on these machines.
2. Engine oil fill tube

3. Engine dipstick

4. Hydraulic tank fill


tube

5. Transmission fill
tube

6. Air filter indicator

7. Washer fill bottle

8. Brake reservoir
STMG 746 - 24 -
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16

• Hydraulic sight gauge The hydraulic sight gauge (arrow) is located on the left side of the
(arrow) machine in front of the cab on the loader tower.
STMG 746 - 25 -
10/02

4
1

2 6
7

9
3
8

17

ENGINE

• Service points and The "D" Series backhoe loaders are powered by direct injection, four
components: cylinder, Caterpillar 3054T diesel engines. Most of the models are
turbocharged. The 3054B naturally aspirated engines for the 416D and
1. Radiator fill cap 424D use similar components, but are not equipped with an engine oil
cooler.
2. Power train and
implement
hydraulic system The 3054B is the specific model designation for the 103 mm bore engine.
oil cooler to meets EPA Tier 1 emissions. The increased bore size gives it a total
displacement of 4.43 liters. All other 3054 engines have 4.0 liter
3. Condenser displacement. One other significant difference is that the 3054B is
linerless. All other 3054's are built with dry, replaceable liners.
4. Compressor

In front of the radiator is a combination power train and implement


5. Fuel filter
hydraulic system oil cooler (2). The two systems are separate, but use a
6. Fuel pump common cooler assembly.

7. Fuel fill tube If the machine is equipped with air conditioning, the condenser (3) is
mounted at the front of the engine compartment. The air dryer (not
8. Fuel tank drain shown) is located behind the rear axle.
plug

The decal (9), identifies the access point behind the frame to drain the
9. Decal
fuel/water separator.
STMG 746 - 26 -
10/02

3 5

18

• Engine compartment Shown here are the components on the right side of the engine
components: compartment.
1. Thermal starting
The standard alternator (4) is rated for 55 amps. An optional 90 amp
aid
alternator is also available.
2. Fuel lift (priming)
pump The cooling system features an automotive-type radiator (5).

3. Starter NOTE: The thermal starting aid was called the start aid coil on "C"
Series machines.
4. Alternator

5. Radiator
STMG 746 - 27 -
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FUEL HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


ENGINE RUNNING

BOOST TRANSFER
WATER MAIN
PRESSURE PRESSURE
FUEL TANK SEPARATOR FILTER
REGULATOR

BOOST FEED
CONTROLLER PUMP

SHUTOFF
SOLENOID
INJECTOR
FUEL RETURN
TORQUE
CHECK VALVE VENT ORIFICE
TRIMMER
DELIVERY
VALVE

ROTOR
CAM
RING
ROLLERS TRANSFER
PUMP
METERING
VALVE
PLUNGERS

SHOES
FLAT
AUTOMATIC HYDRAULIC
SCROLL PLATES
ADVANCE HEAD
MECHANISM COLD ADVANCE
DEVICE

ORIFICE
CHECK VALVE
LIGHT LOAD
ADVANCE VALVE LATCH
VALVE

19

Fuel System

• Fuel flow through fuel All components shown in the schematic except for the fuel tank, water
system: separator/fuel filter, lift pump, fuel filter and injector are part of the fuel
injection pump.
- Water separator/fuel
filter
The feed or lift pump is used to move fuel from the fuel tank to a higher
- Lift pump level on the machine. The pump is also used to prime the system.

- Fuel filter The water separator removes water from the fuel. Since the fuel
injection pump is lubricated by fuel, it is extremely important that water
- Distributor-type fuel does not enter the pump. Water will cause the pump to malfunction and
injection pump
will lead to the rotor and plungers locking up. The water separator should
be serviced daily.
- Injectors

- Return to tank


STMG 746 - 28 -
10/02

The transfer pump draws fuel from the tank and supplies fuel to the
injection pump.

The hydraulic head is machined with bores and passages which allow
fuel to flow to and from a specific point. For example, fuel flows from
the transfer pump to the metering valve or from the metering valve to the
inlet passage to the rotor.

The rotor is located in the hydraulic head. The rotor distributes fuel to
the delivery valves. The rotor has four inlet passages and one outlet
passage. As the rotor turns, fuel enters the passages in the rotor and
forces the plungers in the drive end of the rotor outward. As the rotor
continues to turn, the inlet passage closes. As the plungers are forced
inward by the cam ring and rollers, the fuel pressure in the rotor increases.
At the same time, the outlet passage opens and fuel exits the rotor through
the delivery valves to the injectors.

The transfer pressure regulator controls the fuel transfer pressure


within the injection pump. Transfer pressure will increase as engine
speed increases. The regulator also permits the fuel to bypass the transfer
pump when the fuel system is being primed.

The shutoff solenoid allows fuel to enter the fuel injection pump when
the solenoid is energized. When the key start switch is moved to the OFF
position, the solenoid is de-energized and a spring moves the plunger in
the solenoid to block fuel flow.

The metering valve controls the amount of fuel to the hydraulic head or
rotor. The valve is connected to a mechanical governor and the throttle or
governor control lever. As the metering valve is rotated within the
hydraulic head, a delivery control groove in the valve precisely meters
fuel to the rotor.

A tapered flat on the metering valve works with the light load valve. The
flat is machined in line with the delivery control groove.


STMG 746 - 29 -
10/02

The light load advance valve and metering valve work with two control
orifices in the hydraulic head to override the normal speed advance
system. During low load conditions, the outward travel of the rollers and
shoes is reduced during the rotor filling cycle, which delays the point of
roller contact with the cam lobes resulting in retarded injection.

The light load advance compensates for this delay by advancing injection
at reduced fuel levels. Passageways are drilled within the hydraulic head
body to connect the metering valve "flat" with the pressure end of the
advance device (through a second control orifice) and the pump cambox.

As the metering valve is rotated in the hydraulic head by the governor, a


larger or smaller flow path from the advance piston to the cambox is
created. The relationship between the "flat" with the delivery control
groove is arranged so that, as delivery is reduced, flow past the flat is also
reduced. Thus, the pressure signal applied to the advance piston is
increased to advance the timing.

The boost controller adjusts the maximum fuel delivery based on


variations in the boost pressure from the turbocharger. As boost pressure
increases, the scroll plates rotate and allow the plunger travel to increase.
This action permits an increase in fuel delivery resulting in more engine
horsepower.

The torque trimmer provides a means to regulate the volume of fuel


being delivered at full load. The torque trimmer provides the maximum
amount of fuel in the loadable range of the engine which can be burned
smoke free.

The delivery valves are check valves which open to allow fuel from the
pumping mechanism to the injectors. There is one delivery valve per
injector. The valves rapidly reduce pressure in the injector lines at the end
of the injection cycle to ensure a rapid closure of the injector nozzles and,
in conjunction with the cam ring profile, maintain a residual pressure in
the fuel lines to the injectors.

The latch valve prevents transfer pressure from reaching the automatic
advance mechanism during cranking until the engine is started to prevent
premature advance timing.


STMG 746 - 30 -
10/02

The automatic advance mechanism progressively advances the start of


injection as engine speed increases. The automatic advance mechanism
causes the cam ring to rotate in the pump housing. The spring in the
mechanism moves the piston and cam ring to retard the timing, while
transfer pressure sensed on the left side of the piston works against the
spring to advance the timing.

The check valve prevents reverse fuel flow from the automatic advance
due to cam loading. The orifice permits fuel to vent from the automatic
advance when the engine rpm are reduced.

The cold advance device is used to reduce white smoke by advancing the
engine timing to improve cold idling combustion capability. The cold
advance device is sometimes called a "wax motor" and is a relatively slow
response actuator.

At start-up, a check valve prevents transfer pressure from flowing to the


right end of the automatic advance mechanism preventing the sleeve from
moving away from the start advance position. This action prevents the
spring from fully retarding the engine timing. After the engine is started
and allowed to warm up to a specified temperature, a coolant switch
closes and current is sent to the wax motor causing the wax to melt.

As the wax melts, it changes in volume and goes from a solid to a liquid.
After approximately 25 seconds or more, the pin in the device moves to
the left and unseats the check valve. Transfer pressure then flows to the
right end of the automatic advance mechanism and moves the sleeve to
the left against a stop to the normal automatic advance operating mode.

The fuel return check valve maintains a slight pressure in the fuel
injection pump to ensure good lubrication. The fuel return check valve
also allows hot fuel to bleed from the injection pump for cooling.

NOTE: Only the 430D, 438D and 442D backhoe loaders are
equipped with a boost controller.


STMG 746 - 31 -
10/02

The various color codes which are used in this presentation to identify
oil flow and pressures for the fuel hydraulic system are as follows:

Pink - Reduced transfer pressure

Red Dots - Transfer pressure

Red - High pressure fuel

Blue - Blocked fuel

Green - Suction or drain fuel

Purple - Boost air pressure


STMG 746 - 32 -
10/02

FUEL INJECTION PUMP

LOW IDLE HIGH IDLE THROTTLE LEVER


STOP STOP
GOVERNOR METERING VALVE
SPRING
FUEL SHUTOFF
SOLENOID
VENT ORIFICE
FUEL INLET

FUEL RETURN TRANSFER


CHECK VALVE PRESSURE
REGULATOR

SCROLL LINK
PLATE SCREEN

TRANSFER
DRIVE PUMP
SHAFT

SHIFTER AND
SLEEVE PLUNGERS

TO INJECTOR
GOVERNOR
FLYWEIGHTS SHOES

SCROLL PLATES
ROLLERS CAM RING AUTOMATIC ADVANCE ORIFICE
MECHANISM CHECK VALVE

20

• Fuel injection pump This illustration shows a sectional view of the fuel injection pump.

Fuel is drawn by the transfer pump through the pressure regulator and sent
to the metering valve when the solenoid is energized. The fuel also flows
through an annular groove around the rotor to the orifice check valve and
the automatic advance mechanism.

The metering valve controls the amount of fuel sent to the pumping
elements inside the rotor (plungers, cam ring and shoes). As the rotor
turns, the cam ring forces the shoes and plungers in to increase the fuel
pressure. The pressurized fuel is then directed to the injectors.
STMG 746 - 33 -
10/02

1
2
4
3

6
8

7 9

21

• Fuel injection pump The fuel injection pump is locate on the left side of the engine. Only the
components: 430D, 438D and 442D are equipped with a boost controller (1).
1. Boost controller

2. Fuel shutoff
If a new pump is installed on the engine, a locking bolt (6) and a two
solenoid position spacer in the pump flange below the timing mark on the pump
engine flange must be loosened after installing the pump on the engine.
3. Fuel transfer
pressure regulator
In the locked position, the bolt prevents the pump drive shaft from
and inlet turning. Move the spacer to provide additional clearance between the bolt
head and the pump flange to unlock the pump drive shaft.
4. Torque trimmer

5. Latch valve If this procedure is not performed, the fuel pump will be damaged if an
6. Locking bolt attempt is made to start the engine. If the timing pin was used this bolt
may not have been used to prevent the pump drive shaft from turning.
7. Automatic advance
mechanism and
cold advance The oil pressure switch (9) can be removed to install a test nipple to check
device engine oil pressure.
8. Delivery valve
NOTE: Refer to service manual module "Lucas Fuel Pump
• Additional engine Supplement" (Form SENR6525) for more information on removing
component: and installing the fuel injection pump.
9. Oil pressure switch
This is the same type of fuel pump used on the 914G and IT14G.
STMG 746 - 34 -
10/02

"D" SERIES STARTING AND CHARGING SYSTEM


EMISSIONS ENGINE / RUN
G S

ACTION LAMP
MTR BAT
101-RD GROUP

MOTOR
STARTER 309-GY 450-YL
101-RD 1 2 3
L IG P TACH.
CBL RD-00
338-PK
B+
ATTACHMENT ALT ALTERNATOR
POS NEG POS NEG
RELAY COLD START
TEMP. SW.
TO FUSES A
C 327-PK 334 BU COLD START
°T ADVANCE
SOLENOID
TO RR LIGHTING RELAY

TO HVAC RELAY FUEL


327-PK 1 A
2 B SHUTDOWN
338-PK
SOLENOID
CAB A
RELAY C

TO FUSES 131-RD

FUSE RELAY BLOCK 2


123-WH
BATTERY 1
310-PU
GROUND 2 202-BK
308-YL FORWARD SOL RETURN 3
REVERSE SOL RETURN 4 SHUTTLE START
TO FUSES FORWARD SOL. OUT 5
15 A CONTROL AID SW.
REVERSE SOL. OUT 6
THERMAL START START RELAY COIL OUT 7 THERMAL
10A AID KEY START SW. TO BAT 8 STARTING
MAIN
TRANSMISSION NEUTRALIZER SW. TO BAT 9
RELAY PARK BRAKE ALARM OUT 10
AID
A PARK BRAKE SW. TO GND. 11
10A
C NEUTRAL LOCK SW. TO GND. 12
ENGINE FUEL
R
306-GN
1
START RELAY C OFF
101-RD 2
304-WH 20A S ON
307-OR 3
START B ST
4
RELAY
TO FUSES A
KEY START
C SWITCH
TO FRONT
KEY START
LIGHTING RELAY
5A
105-RD
FUSE RELAY BLOCK 1

22

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

• Starting system This schematic shows the 12-Volt electrical starting and charging system
operation: with the key start switch in the RUN position. From the batteries, power
- Batteries flows to the battery post on the starter, to the fuse relay blocks. From
Fuse Relay Block 1, power flows to the key start switch.
- Key start switch to
START-RUN
When the key is in the START-RUN position and the transmission shift
- Energize shutdown control lever is in NEUTRAL, the start relay is energized through the
solenoid
transmission shuttle control (shift lever). With the start relay closed,
- Transmission shuttle power from the battery energizes the starter solenoid and motor. The
control in NEUTRAL
starter then engages the flywheel ring gear and starts the engine. If the
- Start relay closes transmission shuttle control is not in NEUTRAL, no power is directed to
- Energizes starter the start relay, so the engine will not crank.
solenoid

- Turns starter motor


STMG 746 - 35 -
10/02

• Key start switch in When the key is in either the START or RUN position, the fuel shutoff
START or RUN: solenoid is energized and allows fuel to flow through the fuel injection
- Fuel shutoff pump. Thus, the solenoid is "energized to run."
solenoid energized
Turning the key start switch to the OFF position de-energizes the engine
• Key start switch to shutdown solenoid. The solenoid moves the metering valve linkage to the
OFF:
"fuel off" position.
- Fuel shutoff
solenoid For cold starts, the start aid switch can be used to energize the thermal
de-energized
starting aid while cranking the engine. When the start aid switch is
closed, power to the thermal starting aid heats the coil. Expansion within
the coil assembly permits fuel to flow through a check valve when the
engine is cranked. The heated fuel becomes a vapor and, as it flows past
the coil into the inlet manifold, the fuel is ignited. The ignited fuel heats
the inlet air.

When the key start switch is turned to the RUN position or the start aid
switch is released, the inlet air cools the coil assembly quickly. The check
valve closes and blocks the fuel supply line.

• Charging system The battery is charged by a belt-driven alternator. The alternator is not
operation: self-energizing and requires battery voltage to start up.

- Key start in RUN When the key start switch is in the RUN position, power from the battery
goes through the switch to the "IG" terminal of the alternator to excite the
- Small current
excites alternator alternator field.

- Alternator charges With the key start switch in the RUN position, the main relay is closed
batteries and powers and power is directed to the accessories and additional relays.
accessories
The cold start advance solenoid does not energize until the cold start
- Main relay
temperature switch closes.
closed–power to
accessories and
other relays
STMG 746 - 36 -
10/02

23

• Electrical system: The "D" Series backhoe loaders are equipped with conventional 12-Volt
electrical systems with negative ground.
- 12-Volt system

The standard machines are equipped with a 12-Volt maintenance free


- One battery is
standard battery to supply power to the system. The machines can be equipped
with two batteries along with a heavy duty alternator for cold weather
- No disconnect climates or for use with additional operating lights (attachments).
switch
The system does not have a disconnect switch. To disable the electrical
system, remove the battery ground cable from the main frame. The
starting system is a key start and stop system.

• Autoshift The Autoshift ECM (1) for a machine equipped with an autoshift
transmission: transmission is also located in the battery compartment.

1. Autoshift ECM
The diagnostic indicator lamp (2) is used to access active fault
information from the control module. The indicator flashes 2-digit fault
2. Diagnostic
indicator lamp codes.

3. DT connector The harness connector is a two-pin plug DT connector (3) with an


end-termination receptacle.


STMG 746 - 37 -
10/02

During normal operation this plug is installed in the connector. "If a


system problem is detected by the transmission control, the diagnostic
indicator will turn on and remain on as long as the problem is active."
Turning "on" means the diagnostic indicator will cycle through all flash
codes present.

Removing the termination plug from the connector will cause the lamp to
flash the first active (low number to high number) two digit fault the
transmission control finds. The problem is displayed by blinking the
diagnostic indicator. A valid diagnostic code will consist of a series of
blinks, (which is the first digit), followed by a short pause, and then a
second series of blinks (which is the second digit). If no active problems
are present, the control will broadcast diagnostic code "11".

NOTE: Also, located in the battery compartment, but not shown, is a


bolt used to manually lower the pilot controlled implements. The bolt
provides dead engine lowering capabilities. The bolt should only be
used for lowering the loader end and not the backhoe, due to safety
concerns.
STMG 746 - 38 -
10/02

24

• Electrical The fuse and relay blocks (1 and 2) are located below covers on the right
components: side of the cab. The diagnostic connector (3) to connect Electronic
Technician (ET) is also shown.
1. Fuse and relay
block 1
Additional relays (not shown) are located in the side console. Access to
2. Fuse and relay these relays is obtained by moving the gauge and switch panel in the side
block 2 console shown earlier.

3. Diagnostic
connector
STMG 746 - 39 -
10/02

FORWARD IDLER
TORQUE
CLUTCH SHAFT
CONVERTER
HOUSING
REVERSE
CLUTCH
PUMP

STANDARD
BACKHOE LOADER
TRANSMISSION INPUT
SHAFT

COUNTERSHAFT
OUTPUT
SHAFT

SPEED GEAR

AWD
SYNCHRONIZER SHAFT
ASSEMBLY

AWD
CLUTCH

25

POWER TRAIN

• Standard Standard Transmission


transmission:
The standard countershaft transmission is the same as the "C" Series
- Four-speeds transmission.

- Directional clutches The four-speed, direct drive, helical gear, constant mesh, synchronized
controlled by
standard transmission is coupled with hydraulically engaged FORWARD
solenoids
and REVERSE clutches. Each multiple disc clutch pack is controlled by
a solenoid valve.

A manually actuated lever and shifter fork arrangement shifts the


transmission through the four fully synchronized speed ranges.


STMG 746 - 40 -
10/02

Power is transmitted from the torque converter to the input shaft. If


FORWARD is selected, the FORWARD clutch is engaged and power
flows from input shaft to the countershaft. The countershaft causes all
four speed gears to rotate. A synchronizer will engage one of the speed
gears with the output shaft. Power is then directed to the rear axle.

• AWD: If the machine is equipped with All Wheel Drive (AWD), a separate shaft
and clutch are needed. An additional gear on the output shaft will
- Solenoid controlled transmit power to the AWD shaft.
clutch
A multiple disc clutch is part of the AWD shaft group. The clutch is
- Switch on front
hydraulically engaged and spring released. A solenoid controlled valve
console
(not shown) directs oil to pressurize or drain the clutch. The solenoid is
connected to a switch on the front console (shown earlier). The front
wheel drive axle can be engaged while the vehicle is moving by operating
the switch.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The various color codes which will be used


in this presentation to identify oil flow and pressures for the power
train hydraulic system are as follows:

Red - Pump supply or directional clutch


pressure

Orange - Torque converter inlet pressure

Brown - Lube oil

Green - Suction or drain oil


STMG 746 - 41 -
10/02

STANDARD POWER TRAIN


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM R
NEUTRAL

FILTER

F
RELIEF
VALVE
DIRECTIONAL SELECTOR
SOLENOID VALVE

TORQUE
CONVERTER TORQUE
PUMP TORQUE CONVERTER
INLET
SUPPLY CONVERTER
INLET RELIEF
PUMP VALVE TORQUE
TRANSMISSION
LUBE CONVERTER
OUTLET
OIL COOLER
LUBE
SUCTION SCREEN

26

• Two Wheel Drive This illustration shows the power train hydraulic schematic for the
components: standard transmission equipped with Two Wheel Drive.

- Suction screen Oil from the sump is drawn though a suction screen by a crescent-type
- Pump gear pump located on the transmission input shaft. From the pump, the oil
- Oil filter
is sent through a spin-on filter to the transmission directional selector
solenoid valve.
- Directional selector
solenoid valve
In NEUTRAL, the oil flow is blocked by the directional selector solenoid
- Relief valve valve. Therefore, the oil opens the relief valve and flows to the torque
- Torque converter converter. A bypass orifice in the relief valve, is located between the
inlet relief valve supply circuit and torque converter circuit to make sure that oil is always
- Cooler available to the torque converter when the machine is running.
- Lube circuit


STMG 746 - 42 -
10/02

The torque converter inlet relief valve protects the automotive-type torque
converter from high pressure (during cold start-up). Oil from the torque
converter goes to the oil cooler, which is located in front of the radiator.

From the cooler, the oil is used for lubrication. A passage directs lube oil
to the input shaft of the transmission. Oil from the shaft cools and
lubricates the clutch assembly and input shaft bearings. The output shaft,
countershaft and reverse idler shaft are splash lubricated. The oil then
returns to the sump.

NOTE: The lines and fittings from the torque converter and the oil
cooler are sized to provide sufficient restriction to the oil in the torque
converter. A torque converter outlet relief valve is not required.

The cold start relief valve between the pump and filter on the "C"
Series has been removed on the "D" Series. The valve is no longer
required.
STMG 746 - 43 -
10/02

STANDARD POWER TRAIN


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM R
ALL WHEEL DRIVE / FORWARD

FILTER

F
RELIEF
VALVE
AWD SOLENOID DIRECTIONAL SELECTOR
VALVE SOLENOID VALVE

AWD TORQUE
CONVERTER TORQUE
PUMP TORQUE CONVERTER
INLET
SUPPLY CONVERTER
INLET RELIEF
PUMP VALVE TORQUE
TRANSMISSION
LUBE CONVERTER
OUTLET
OIL COOLER
LUBE
SUCTION SCREEN

27

• AWD components: This illustration shows the power train hydraulic schematic for the
standard transmission equipped with All Wheel Drive (AWD).
- AWD solenoid and
clutch The power train hydraulic system for AWD machines is the same as the
two wheel drive machines except for an external supply line which directs
supply oil to the AWD solenoid valve. When the solenoid is energized,
oil engages the AWD clutch.

This schematic shows that the directional selector solenoid valve has been
energized. Supply oil flows through the valve to engage the FORWARD
clutch. The relief valve limits the maximum clutch pressure.
STMG 746 - 44 -
10/02

AUTOSHIFT TRANSMISSION
SOLENOID
VALVES

PUMP

INPUT
SHAFT COUNTER
SHAFT

OUTPUT
SHAFT

AWD
SHAFT

28

Autoshift Transmission

• Autoshift A torque converter (not shown) provides a fluid connection between the
transmission: engine and the transmission.
- Five-speeds forward,
The five-speeds forward, three-speeds reverse, autoshift transmission is a
three-speeds
reverse constant-mesh, countershaft design. The transmission transfers power to
transmission the drive axles. The Autoshift ECM electronically controls the
transmission by selectively energizing speed and directional solenoids.
- Three speed The transmission is equipped with three speed and three directional
solenoids solenoids. One speed solenoid and one directional solenoid must be
simultaneously energized for a transmission gear to be engaged.
- Three directional
solenoids
Transmissions with the optional AWD system are equipped with an AWD
solenoid and an additional output shaft.

NOTE: The reverse shaft and clutch are not shown in this sectional
view. It is shown later in this presentation.
STMG 746 - 45 -
10/02

AUTOSHIFT POWER TRAIN


DATA LINK
SERVICE PORT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
NEUTRAL
SHIFT LEVER PARKING BRAKE SWITCH
RIDE CONTROL SWITCH AUTOSHIFT DOWNSHIFT/NEUTRALIZER SWITCH
ECM TRANSMISSION OUTPUT SPEED SENSOR
AUTO/MANUAL SWITCH
NEUTRAL LOCK SWITCH RIDE CONTROL DISABLE

REGULATED
PRESSURE

ORIFICE

FILTER 5 6 2 1 3 4

3 HI SOLENOID RELIEF
2 R VALVE 1 VALVE
FORWARD LO
PUMP TORQUE
SUPPLY CONVERTER INLET

PUMP TORQUE
TRANSMISSION CONVERTER
LUBE TORQUE
SUCTION OIL COOLER CONVERTER
SCREEN TORQUE INLET
CONVERTER RELIEF VALVE
OUTLET
LUBE

29

• Autoshift power train This illustration shows the power train hydraulic schematic for the
hydraulic system in autoshift transmission equipped with Two Wheel Drive.
NEUTRAL

• Components: Oil from the sump is drawn though a suction screen by a crescent-type
gear pump located on the transmission input shaft. From the pump, the oil
- Suction screen
is sent through a spin-on filter to the transmission solenoid valves.
- Pump

- Oil filter In NEUTRAL, the oil flow is blocked by the solenoid valves. The supply
- Solenoid valve oil opens the relief valve and flows to the torque converter. A bypass
orifice in the relief valve is located between the supply circuit and torque
- Relief valve
converter circuit to make sure that oil is always available to the torque
- Torque converter converter when the machine is running.
inlet relief valve

- Oil cooler and


bypass

- Lube circuit

- ECM ➥
STMG 746 - 46 -
10/02

The torque converter inlet relief valve protects the automotive-type torque
converter from high pressure (during cold start-ups). Oil from the torque
converter goes to the oil cooler, which is located in front of the radiator.
An oil cooler bypass valve is used to protect the cooler from excessive
pressure caused by cold oil.

From the cooler, the oil is sent to the transmission circuit. A passage
directs lube oil to the input shaft of the transmission. Oil from the shaft
cools and lubricates the clutch assembly and input shaft bearings. The
output shaft, countershaft and reverse idler shaft are splash lubricated.
The oil then returns to the sump.

Orifices in the solenoid valves provide for some clutch modulation when
a speed and direction are selected.

• Autoshift ECM The Autoshift ECM contains the software to control the shifting of the
transmission. The software compares the input information to the the
information stored in the Autoshift ECM to determine the appropriate
gear for the machine.

The Autoshift ECM then sends output signal to energize solenoids for the
appropriate clutch. Through ET, FIRST gear can be ENABLED or
DISABLED.

FIRST gear is a relatively low (slow) gear ratio, and using it may not be
necessary for normal loader work or for roading. If using AUTOSHIFT
for either loading or roading, disabling FIRST gear eliminates a extra gear
shift. In extreme hard digging conditions, the neutralizer button can be
used to downshift to FIRST, and then AUTOSHIFT will upshift the
transmission as the machine speed increases.

In summary, disabling FIRST makes the tractor more responsive,


smoother, and efficient (more productive). Use FIRST gear only when
required.

NOTE: The lines and fittings from the torque converter and the oil
cooler are sized to provide sufficient restriction to the oil in the torque
converter. A torque converter outlet relief valve is not required.

The cold start relief valve between the pump and filter on the "C"
Series has been removed on the "D" Series.
STMG 746 - 47 -
10/02

DATA LINK
AUTOSHIFT POWER TRAIN
SERVICE PORT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
ALL WHEEL DRIVE / SECOND FORWARD

NEUTRAL LOCK SWITCH PARKING BRAKE SWITCH


RIDE CONTROL SWITCH AUTOSHIFT DOWNSHIFT/NEUTRALIZER SWITCH
ECM
AUTO/MANUAL SWITCH TRANSMISSION OUTPUT SPEED SENSOR
SHIFT LEVER RIDE CONTROL DISABLE

REGULATED
PRESSURE

ORIFICE

5 6 2 1 3 4

3 HI SOLENOID
2 R VALVE 1
AWD
FORWARD LO
FILTER RELIEF
VALVE
PUMP TORQUE
SUPPLY CONVERTER INLET
TRANSMISSION
PUMP LUBE TORQUE
OIL COOLER TORQUE
CONVERTER CONVERTER
LUBE INLET
TORQUE
SUCTION CONVERTER RELIEF VALVE
SCREEN OUTLET

30

• Autoshift Here is the power train hydraulic schematic for the autoshift transmission
transmission - AWD equipped with All Wheel Drive (AWD).

• SECOND SPEED The power train hydraulic system for AWD machines is the same as the
FORWARD:
two wheel drive machines except for the AWD solenoid and clutch.
When the AWD solenoid is energized, oil engages the AWD clutch.
- No. 1 and 4
solenoids energized
This schematic shows the No. 1 and No. 4 solenoids have been energized
to engage the forward high directional clutch and the No. 1 speed clutch
to obtain SECOND SPEED FORWARD. The relief valve limits the
maximum clutch pressure.
STMG 746 - 48 -
10/02

REVERSE

AUTOSHIFT TRANSMISSION
FORWARD FORWARD
HIGH LOW

INPUT
SHAFT

CLUTCH 1
CLUTCH ENGAGEMENT
FWD FWD
GEAR LOW HIGH REV 1 2 3 SOLENOID COUNTER
SHAFT
5F X X 1 AND 6
CLUTCH 3
4F X X 1 AND 5

3F X X 3 AND 5 OUTPUT
SHAFT
2F X X 1 AND 4
AWD
1F X X 3 AND 4
CLUTCH
N ––
CLUTCH 2
1R X X 2 AND 4 AWD
SHAFT
2R X X 2 AND 5

3R X X 2 AND 6

31

• Autoshift The five-speeds forward, three-speeds reverse transmission is equipped


transmission logic with six clutch packs. The autoshift transmission uses six solenoids to
chart
control the engagement of the clutch packs. Two clutch packs must be
simultaneously engaged for the transmission to drive the machine. The
above chart shows the energized solenoids and the engaged clutch packs
for each gear. The solenoids are controlled by the Autoshift ECM.

In NEUTRAL, none of the solenoids are energized.

The chart can be used to identify which solenoids are energized to engage
the speed and direction clutches to obtain the desired speed range.

NOTE: The Autoshift ECM does not provide shift protection on the
"D" Series. Some shift protection is provided for the 446B backhoe
loader. Shift protection prevents the operator from changing
directions at high speeds.
STMG 746 - 49 -
10/02

AUTOSHIFT ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM

CAT DATA LINK FORWARD HIGH


KEY START No. 1 SOLENOID
SWITCH
SHIFT REVERSE
No. 2 SOLENOID
RIDE CONTROL
LOADER LOCK LEVER SWITCH
RELAY FORWARD LOW
CONTROL No. 3 SOLENOID
PARKING BRAKE
SWITCH AUTOSHIFT
SPEED CLUTCH 1
No. 4 SOLENOID
NEUTRAL LOCK ELECTRONIC
SWITCH
SPEED CLUTCH 2
CONTROL No. 5 SOLENOID
TRANSMISSION OUTPUT
BACKUP START SPEED SENSOR
ALARM RELAY MODULE SPEED CLUTCH 3
No. 6 SOLENOID
AUTO/MANUAL
SWITCH
PARK BRAKE
ALARM RELAY
RIDE CONTROL
DISABLE SWITCH
RIDE CONTROL
RELAY
DOWNSHIFT/
NEUTRALIZER SWITCH DIAGNOSTIC
INDICATOR and
DATA LINK
SERVICE PORT

32

• Autoshift ECM The Autoshift ECM has two modes of operation: Automatic and Manual.
operation
In the Automatic Mode of operation, the operator controls the highest
desired gear and the transmission control automatically selects the proper
gear based on machine ground speed. The transmission determines the
ground speed through the transmission speed sensors and energized speed
clutch.

In the Manual Mode, the transmission operates very similar to the


standard power shift transmission. In this presentation, the Automatic
Mode will be discussed except where it is stated that the Manual Mode is
being discussed.


STMG 746 - 50 -
10/02

• Shift lever control: When the key start switch is ON, the transmission shift lever control
provides input to the Autoshift ECM through the CAT Datalink. The
- Inputs in Autoshift
Autoshift ECM uses the input from the shift lever control to determine the
ECM through Cat
Datalink
gear range selected on the transmission shift lever control and the position
of the key start switch.

When the key start switch is moved into the START position, the key start
switch directs power to the shift lever control. The shift lever control,
must be in NEUTRAL to signal the Autoshift ECM that the key start
switch is in the START position. The shift lever control completes the
circuit between the key start switch and the start relay. The start relay is
energized, allowing power to the starter to crank the engine.

If the shift lever control is not in NEUTRAL during starting, the Autoshift
ECM will prevent the machine from starting.

• Parking brake switch: The parking brake switch provides an input signal to the Autoshift ECM.
The parking brake switch is closed when the parking brake is ENGAGED
- Signals Autoshift and open when the parking brake is RELEASED.
ECM

If the shift lever control is in NEUTRAL with the parking brake


- Autoshift ECM
prevents ENGAGED and is then moved out of NEUTRAL, the Autoshift ECM
transmission from prevents the transmission from shifting and energizes the parking brake
shifting if parking relay to sound the alarm.
brake ENGAGED
The Autoshift ECM will allow the transmission to shift when the parking
brake is ENGAGED if the shift lever control is cycled into and out of the
NEUTRAL position twice within a span of three seconds. If the shift
lever control is shifted from NEUTRAL when the parking brake is
ENGAGED, the Autoshift ECM records a parking brake event.

When the parking brake is RELEASED and the shift lever control is
moved out of the NEUTRAL position, the Autoshift ECM directs output
signals to the appropriate transmission control solenoids. The Autoshift
ECM energizes one speed and one directional solenoid to engage clutches
in the transmission.


STMG 746 - 51 -
10/02

If the parking brake is ENGAGED while the transmission is in a gear, the


ECM shifts the transmission into NEUTRAL and energizes the parking
brake relay. The transmission will remain in NEUTRAL until the shift
lever control is moved into the NEUTRAL position and the parking brake
is RELEASED. The shift lever control can then be used to select a gear.

• Transmission neutral The transmission neutral lock switch also provides an input signal to the
lock switch Autoshift ECM. If the transmission neutral lock switch is moved to the
LOCK position, the Autoshift ECM shifts the transmission into
- Neutralizes
NEUTRAL and prevents the transmission from shifting, regardless of the
transmission in
LOCK position
position of the shift lever control. The Autoshift ECM will not shift the
transmission until after the shift lever control is moved into the
NEUTRAL position and the transmission neutral lock switch is moved to
the UNLOCK position.

• Transmission The transmission is neutralized as soon as the neutralizer/downshift


downshift/neutralizer button is pressed. If the button is released within one second, the
switch transmission is downshifted one gear by moving from the neutralized
state to the downshifted state. If the button is held for more than one
second, the transmission will remain neutralized until the button is
released.

- Downshift function When the transmission is downshifted with the downshift function, the
transmission control will hold the machine in the downshifted gear for
five seconds before the machine returns to the Automatic Mode. The
downshift function is implemented by the Neutralizer/Downshift input,
which is a dual function input.

When downshifted, with the shifter in the third or fourth position, the
Autoshift ECM downshifts the transmission one gear per actuation of the
button.

If the operator gives multiple downshift commands, within five seconds,


the transmission will be downshifted once in response to the first
command. The machine will downshift again if transmission output
speed is below runout speed for the next lower gear.

If the machine is above the runout speed for the next lower gear, the
transmission control will not downshift until the machine is below the
runout speed. If the transmission is in FIRST gear when a downshift
command is issued, the command will be ignored.


STMG 746 - 52 -
10/02

If the shift lever is in SECOND, the downshift button will force the
machine to be downshifted at once and held in FIRST until a speed or
direction change or the five second delay is over.

- Neutralizer function When a neutralizer request is initiated by the operator, the transmission
will momentarily neutralize by de-energizing the direction clutch. Only
the directional clutch is de-energized. This will improve shift speed when
the button is released and the machine is placed back into gear.

In the Manual Mode, the Downshift/Neutralizer Switch will not permit the
transmission to be downshifted.

• Transmission speed The transmission speed sensor provides output speed information to the
sensor: Autoshift ECM. In the Automatic Mode of operation, the operator
- Provides input to
controls the highest desired gear and the transmission control
Autoshift ECM automatically selects the proper gear based on machine ground speed.
The Autoshift ECM determines the ground speed through the transmission
- Autoshift ECM uses
input to determine speed sensors and energized speed clutch.
downshifts
If the machine is in FOURTH, as the ground speed increases, third gear
may be skipped as the machine upshifts. This is done through the
software to improve shift performance. This feature is called Skip-Shift
Logic. In Auto Mode, 3rd gear can be skipped on up-shifts only, allowing
the transmission to shift from 2nd to 4th. If the 2nd to 4th shift point is
not reached in a specific amount of time (0-1sec) the transmission will
shift to 3rd gear. The default mode for the skip-shift is to have the timer
value set to zero (disabled). There is a configuration option through ET to
allow for enabling of Skip-Shift.

If desired, fifth gear may be enabled or disabled through ET in order to


comply with regulations in certain countries.

The dead engine lower (loader lock) relay is part of the loader lock valve
• Dead engine lower
attachment to control the loader hydraulic lock valves. The input from the
relay
loader lock relay is used by the Autoshift ECM to determine if the start
relay should be energized. If the loader control lever is in the "FLOAT"
position the Autoshift ECM will not allow the machine to start. This
action prevents the loader arms from unexpectedly lowering during
machine start-up when the machine is equipped with hydraulic lock
valves.

NOTE: Fourth gear may also be enabled or disabled through ET.


STMG 746 - 53 -
10/02

AUTOSHIFT TRANSMISSION
1ST GEAR ENABLED

SHIFT LEVER GEARS


POSITION AVAILABLE
4F 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
3F 1, 2, 3
2F 1, 2
1F 1
N
1R 1
2R 1, 2
3R 1, 2, 3

33

• Gear selection in With FIRST gear enabled, the following gears are available in the given
Autoshift (FIRST gear conditions.
is enabled)

Shift lever in FIRST: The transmission will be held in FIRST gear.

Shift lever in SECOND: The transmission will automatically shift


between FIRST and SECOND in response to machine speed.

Shift lever in THIRD: The transmission will automatically shift


between FIRST, SECOND and THIRD in response to machine speed.
The downshift switch can be used to force the transmission into FIRST or
SECOND gear.

Shift lever in FOURTH: The transmission will automatically shift


between FIRST through FIFTH in response to machine speed. THIRD
gear may be skipped by the software. The downshift switch can be used
to force the transmission into FIRST, SECOND, THIRD or FOURTH
gear.

Whenever a machine is downshifted into a lower gear, the machine


maximum gear will be limited to the lower gear for five seconds, then
return to normal Automatic Mode.
STMG 746 - 54 -
10/02

AUTOSHIFT TRANSMISSION
1ST GEAR DISABLED
SHIFT LEVER GEARS
POSITION AVAILABLE
4F 2, 3, 4, 5
3F 2, 3
2F 2
1F 1
N
1R 1
2R 2
3R 2, 3

34

• Gear selection in With FIRST gear disabled, the following gears are available in the given
Autoshift (FIRST gear conditions.
is disabled)

Shift lever in FIRST: The transmission will be held in FIRST.

Shift lever in SECOND: The transmission will be held in SECOND


unless the operator forces the transmission into FIRST through the
downshift switch.

Shift lever in THIRD: The transmission will automatically shift


between SECOND and THIRD in response to machine speed. The
downshift switch can be used to force the transmission into FIRST or
SECOND gear.

Shift lever in FOURTH: The transmission will automatically shift


between SECOND through FIFTH in response to machine speed. THIRD
gear may be skipped by the software. The downshift switch can be used
to force the transmission into FIRST, SECOND, THIRD or FOURTH
gear.

If the machine is downshifted into a lower gear, upshifts will be disabled


for five seconds, then return to normal Automatic Mode.
STMG 746 - 55 -
10/02

REAR AXLE
FROM PINION GEAR DIFFERENTIAL LOCK
MASTER AND SHAFT ACTUATOR
FIXED RING CYLINDER
GEAR DIFFERENTIAL LOCK
ASSEMBLY

PLANET
GEAR

MULTI-DISC DIFFERENTIAL
BRAKE ASSEMBLY BEVEL GEAR ASSEMBLY

35

Axles and Brakes

• Features: The standard rear axle is similar to the "B" and "C" Series.

- Hydraulically Differential lock operation and power flow through the rear axle are the
engaged brakes same as with the "B" and "C" Series.
same as "B" and "C"
Series
The hydraulically engaged brakes are the same as "B" and "C" Series.
- Differential lock
same as "B" and "C" If the machine is equipped with All Wheel Steer, an axle with a limited
Series slip differential is used instead of differential lock.
STMG 746 - 56 -
10/02

BRAKE MASTER CYLINDERS


LEFT BRAKE RIGHT BRAKE FROM
ENGAGED RELEASED RESERVOIR

TO BRAKE TO BRAKE
PISTON PISTON
SUPPLY PORT

VALVE STEM

PLUNGER
COMPENSATION PLUNGER
VALVE

BRIDGE PIPE
PUSH ROD

36

• Brake master This illustration shows the master cylinders. Both the right and left
cylinders: master cylinders are the same. Fluid from the brake fluid reservoir enters
- Left and right master each master cylinder through the supply port. Fluid from the reservoir
cylinders the same fills the spring chamber and the supply line to the brake piston. The
- Reservoir supplies spring and plunger prevent the valve stem from closing the supply port.
master cylinder
When the operator depresses one of the brake pedals, the push rod moves
• ENGAGED against the plunger. As the plunger moves to the up, trapped oil inside the
plunger moves the valve stem up to block the supply port. Fluid pressure
in the spring chamber increases. As fluid pressure in the spring chamber
increases, the pressure unseats the compensation valve on the left
allowing oil to flow to the other master cylinder through the bridge pipe.


STMG 746 - 57 -
10/02

The compensation valve in the right master cylinder blocks the oil in the
bridge pipe from entering the right master cylinder. As the plunger
continues to move up, it will eventually block the inlet to the
compensation valve.

At the same time that oil enters the compensation valve, oil enters the
outlet pipe to the brake piston.

As pressure increases behind the brake piston, the piston pushes the discs
and plates together against the brake housing to ENGAGE the brake.

If the operator engages both brakes simultaneously, both compensation


valves open allowing the pressure in the spring chamber of both master
cylinders to equalize.

The distance the operator depresses the brake pedal determines the
pressure that the piston exerts on the plates and discs. The farther the
operator pushes the brake pedal, the more pressure the piston applies to
the plates and discs and, therefore, the greater the braking force.

• RELEASED When the operator releases the brake pedal, the spring in the master
cylinder moves the valve stem away from the inlet port reducing the
pressure behind the brake piston. A seal around the piston moves the
piston away from the discs and plates to RELEASE the brakes.

• AWS The same brake valve is used on machines equipped with All Wheel Steer
(AWS).
STMG 746 - 58 -
10/02

2
4
1

37

• Rear axle On the rear axle, the hose (1) is connected to the the master cylinder
components: outlet pipes and directs oil to the brake actuator pistons. A bleed screw
(not shown) next to the hose allows bleeding of the brake lines.
1. Hose from master
cylinder
Mechanical linkage from the parking brake lever engages the caliper and
2. Differential lock disc-type parking brake (3 and 4). The parking brake is on the drive shaft
linkage between the transmission and the rear axle. The parking brake needs to
be checked and possibly adjusted at regular intervals.
3. Parking brake disc

4. Parking brake pad


assembly
STMG 746 - 59 -
10/02

3 2

38

• Power train The machine contains two master cylinders (1), one for each brake pedal
components: (2).
1. Brake master
The master cylinders can be removed from the machine from inside the
cylinders
operator's compartment. Due to a design change, the brake cylinders no
2. Brake pedals longer have to be removed before removing the cab as required on the
"C" Series.
3. Differential lock
pedal
STMG 746 - 60 -
10/02

AWD FRONT AXLE


LEFT STEER
KNUCKLE HOUSING KING BEVEL DIFFERENTIAL
RING GEAR PINS GEAR

PLANET
GEAR

SUN GEAR
AND SHAFT

LEFT DRIVE
LEFT DRIVE PINION GEAR
JOINT
AXLE AND SHAFT

39

• AWD axle The AWD axle is equipped with a conventional bevel and pinion gear
components differential. The final drive consists of an outboard planetary gear
arrangement in each wheel hub.
STMG 746 - 61 -
10/02

2
3

40

• AWD front axle: AWD axle is available as an option to replace the standard axle.

1. Sealed and The axle is pendulum mounted. The pin (1) is permanently sealed and
lubricated pin
lubricated. The steering cylinder (2) is mounted to the front of the axle.
2. Steering cylinder
The standard axle is also permanently sealed and lubricated. The steering
3. Drain plug cylinder is mounted to the rear of the axle.
STMG 746 - 62 -
10/02

416D CENTER PIVOT BACKHOE LOADER


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
PUMP

TANK
END
COVER
E-STICK

STICK COOLER

BUCKET
BACK FLOW SMU
SWING
CHECK
BOOM VALVE

AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD S
L T A
T
I I U
E
F L X
E
T T
R
RIGHT
STABILIZER
LEFT
STABILIZER LEVER

MANIFOLD LEVER

41

STEERING AND IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

• 416D hydraulic The "D" Series backhoe hydraulic systems incorporate many of the
system: improvements made to late production "C" Series.
- Center pivot
The illustration represents the 416D steering and implement hydraulic
- Mechanical controls system.

The steering and implement pump, the pump control and most of the
implement control valves function essentially the same. The biggest
difference to the implement valves is that on some models they are pilot
operated. Also, on some models the operating pressures have also been
increased.

On the "D" Series, the stabilizer valves are pilot controlled and are of a
different design from previous backhoe loader stabilizer valves.


STMG 746 - 63 -
10/02

The steering system features dynamic signal bleed as did the late
production "C" Series. With the dynamic bleed and the steering in
HOLD, the steering priority spool bleeds oil through the steering metering
unit (SMU) signal line and SMU back to the tank. When the steering
wheel is turned, this signal bleed oil shifts the priority spool to direct
pump supply oil to the SMU resulting in faster steering response than
systems without dynamic bleed.

The hydraulic tank has also been redesigned. An expansion tank is no


longer required.

The backflow check valve has been relocated. The valve now restricts
return flow from all implement valve groups. On previous backhoes, the
valve only worked with the backhoe valve group. The valve assists in
preventing cylinder voiding. The check valve does not affect return oil
from the SMU.

The other major difference in the hydraulic system is the signal network
routing, which is referred to as "reverse signal path." The signal network
will be described later in this presentation.

NOTE: The colors on the hydraulic schematics and cross-sectional


views shown throughout this presentation denote various pressures
within the system. The legend of color codes is as follows:

Red - pump supply pressure


Red and white stripes - reduced pump supply pressure, circuit
pressure or load sensing pressure
Red hatch - further reduced pump supply pressure,
circuit pressure or load sensing pressure
Pink - lowest pump supply pressure, circuit
pressure or load sensing pressure
Orange - signal or pilot pressure
Orange and white stripes - a lower signal or pilot pressure
Orange hatch - further reduced signal pressure
Green - line open to the tank
Blue - blocked oil
Yellow - moving part or active valve envelope.

For metering situations more than one envelope may be highlighted


in yellow.
STMG 746 - 64 -
10/02

424D / 428D / 438D SIDE SHIFT BACKHOE LOADERS


HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
SIDESHIFT
LOCK PISTONS

PUMP

TANK
END
COVER
E-STICK

STICK
COOLER

BUCKET

SWING BACK FLOW SMU


CHECK
BOOM VALVE

AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD S L A
T
SHUTOFF T I U
I
E F X
L
E T T
R
RIGHT
STABILIZER
LEFT
STABILIZER LEVER

MANIFOLD LEVER

42

• 424D, 428D and 438D The 424D, 428D and 438D sideshift machines have similar components
hydraulic system: as the center pivot machines. The sideshift machines are equipped with
sideshift lock pistons.
- Sideshift machines

The 424D is not available with two loader bucket tilt cylinders as shown
- Mechanical controls
here.

Some countries require a shutoff valve to block the flow of oil to the
backhoe valve group when the machine is roaded to prevent unintentional
implement movement. Center pivot machines may also be equipped with
this feature.

The shutoff valve is an option on those machines with mechanical


implement controls only.
STMG 746 - 65 -
10/02

420D / 430D CENTER PIVOT BACKHOE LOADERS HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


PARALLEL LIFT
PUMP

TANK
END

JOYSTICK
COVER
E-STICK

PATTERN CHANGER
STICK
COOLER
BUCKET
SMU
SWING BACK FLOW
CHECK
BOOM

JOYSTICK
VALVE

AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD
JOYSTICK

RIGHT
S
STABILIZER L T A
T
LEFT I I U
LEVER E
STABILIZER F L X
E
T T
MANIFOLD R
LEVER

PILOT RIDE
SHUTOFF CONTROL

43

• 420D and 430D The backhoe valves on the 420D and 430D are pilot operated. If the
hydraulic system: machine is equipped with IT linkage, as shown, then the loader valves are
also pilot operated. With pilot operated machines a pilot accumulator is
- Center pivot
machines
used to provide dead engine lowering capability for a limited time after
engine shutdown.
- Pilot controls
These machines ship with the excavator control pattern. Machines can be
ordered with the standard backhoe control pattern or ordered with an
optional pattern changer valve.

If the machine is equipped with the single tilt cylinder bucket, the loader
valves are operated through mechanical linkage instead of a pilot joystick.

The pilot shutoff valve blocks the oil from the joysticks to prevent
movement of an implement. The shutoff valve eliminates the need of the
optional hydraulic shutoff valve available on machines with mechanical
controls only.
STMG 746 - 66 -
10/02

432D / 442D SIDESHIFT BACKHOE LOADERS HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


PARALLEL LIFT

SIDESHIFT
LOCK CYLINDERS PUMP

TANK
END

JOYSTICK
COVER
E-STICK

PATTERN CHANGER
STICK
COOLER
BUCKET

SWING BACK FLOW SMU


CHECK
BOOM

JOYSTICK
VALVE

AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD
JOYSTICK

RIGHT S
STABILIZER L T A
T
LEFT I I U
E
STABILIZER LEVER F L X
E
T T
MANIFOLD R
LEVER

PILOT
RIDE
SHUTOFF
CONTROL

44

• 432D and 442D The backhoe valves on the 432D and 442D are pilot operated. The loader
hydraulic system: valves are also pilot operated since the standard version of these models
feature the IT linkage.
- Sideshift machines

The single tilt cylinder bucket is optional. With this option the loader
- Pilot controls
valves are operated through mechanical linkage.

Ride control is an option that is available for all "D" Series backhoes.
Hose routing and the system design has changed from the "C" Series.
STMG 746 - 67 -
10/02

"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADER SIGNAL NETWORK


MECHANICAL CONTROLLED LOADER VALVES
PUMP BACKHOE SECTION
CONTROL
VALVE AUX BOOM SWING BUCKET STICK E-STICK

ORIFICE

TORQUE
LIMITER

CONNECTED TO LEFT RIGHT


SWASHPLATE STABILIZER STABILIZER
LOADER LOADER LOADER SMU
AUX. TILT LIFT

PRIMARY
RESOLVER
SECONDARY
RESOLVER

LOADER SECTION

45

• Signal network: On most generations of backhoes, the signal line was routed from the
backhoe section, to the loader section and then to the pump. Late
- Reverse signal path production "C" Series had a variation from this with a signal line from the
backhoe section and a signal line from the loader section being connected
- Affects resolver
troubleshooting to a tee which was equipped with a resolver. The highest resolved signal
between the two valve sections then flows to the pump.
- Orificed steering
resolver With the "D" Series, the last resolver in the network is in the loader
auxiliary circuit. The signal flows from the loader section, to the
- Orifices in loader stabilizer section, to the backhoe section, before going to the pump control
primary resolvers
valve. This routing is reverse of previous backhoe signal networks.

Resolver troubleshooting procedures are affected by this change. A


secondary resolver problem in the loader section will no longer have an
affect on the backhoe section.


STMG 746 - 68 -
10/02

The orifice in the steering resolver in the loader section results in a larger
pressure differential across each loader resolver orifice when a loader
implement is activated and the torque limiter opens, as compared to a
backhoe implement. This difference in pressure results in a reduced
signal to the torque limiter and pump compensator.

This action provides for lower pump flow to the loader section for a given
circuit pressure when the torque limiter opens, which results in a lower
available torque for the loader section than what is available for the
backhoe section. This change was done to further improve loader and
backhoe performance.

Backhoe implements (except for the auxiliary circuits) do not have


orifices in their primary resolvers and are not affected by the orifice in the
steering resolver.

An additional orifice was added between the backhoe valve section and
the orifice in the torque limiter for the "D" Series backhoe to further
improve machine performance.
STMG 746 - 69 -
10/02

"D" SERIES BACKHOE LOADER SIGNAL NETWORK


PILOT CONTROLLED LOADER VALVES
PUMP BACKHOE SECTION
CONTROL
VALVE PRIMARY AUX BOOM SWING BUCKET STICK E-STICK
RESOLVER

ORIFICE

TORQUE
LIMITER
SECONDARY
RESOLVER LEFT RIGHT
CONNECTED TO
SWASHPLATE STABILIZER STABILIZER

LOADER LOADER LOADER SMU


AUX. TILT LIFT

LIFT PILOT
LOADER SECTION
VALVE
PILOT OIL

46

• Signal network: On machines with pilot operated loader valves, the pilot valve for the
loader lift circuit is also part of the signal network.
- Pilot operated loader
valves
The lift pilot valve directs some pilot oil through the resolver network to
upstroke the pump when the loader is in FLOAT.

This pilot signal through the signal network causes the pump to increase
pump standby pressure to make sure that pilot system pressure remains
high enough to hold the lift spool in the FLOAT position.

NOTE: Since the maximum pilot pressure is limited, the pump


receives a virtually fixed signal from the pilot system when the lift
spool is shifted to FLOAT. This increase in pump supply and signal
pressure can be checked at the pump outlet test fitting and the signal
test fitting. There is no recommended specification or test for this.
STMG 746 - 70 -
10/02

4
3

47

• Hydraulic system The hydraulic tank (1) is located between the engine and the cab.
components:
With the relocation of the brake master cylinders, the hydraulic tank was
1. Hydraulic tank
redesigned for increased capacity. With the increase in capacity the
2. Sight gauge
overflow or expansion tank is no longer required.

3. Steering Metering
Unit (SMU)

4. Drain tube
STMG 746 - 71 -
10/02

3 1

5 2

48

• Hydraulic system In the pump control valve (3) are two spools. The flow compensator
components: (margin spool) regulates output flow in response to the load signal
1. Hydraulic filter received through the signal network. The flow supplied by the pump will
2. Steering and
be the amount of flow required to keep supply pressure at a fixed value
implement pump above the signal pressure. The difference between supply pressure and
the signal pressure is called "margin pressure." The flow compensator
3. Pump control valve
also controls low pressure standby pressure.
4. Signal pressure
test fitting The pressure cutoff spool in the pump control valve limits maximum
5. Loader valve group system pressure and serves as the relief valve for the system.
6. Back flow check
valve The back flow check valve (6) is part of the fitting just before the
hydraulic filter (1). The check valve helps reduce cylinder cavitation.

• Pump and system Before performing any pump tests or making adjustments to the pump
tests control valve, measure and record the machine cycle times. If the cycle
times are within specification, checking low pressure standby or margin
pressure may not be required unless the system is overheating. Cycle
time checks will also indicate if all or some of the implements in the
system are operating within specification.


STMG 746 - 72 -
10/02

This information can be helpful in determining if the pump or the


implement is at fault. If all cycle times are too slow, margin pressure and
low pressure standby may be set too low. If the machine is too
responsive, the margin pressure and low pressure standby may be set too
high.

The pump supply pressure test fitting (not shown) can be used to check
maximum system pressure or low pressure standby. The fitting can be
accessed from below the operator's compartment.

Use the signal pressure test fitting (4) to check the signal pressure or the
maximum steering pressure. Signal pressure is compared to pump supply
pressure to determine the margin pressure.

All return oil from the implements and steering flows back to the filter
through the backflow check valve. Due to the dynamic bleed steering,
low pressure standby is over 700 kPa (100 psi) higher than on most "C"
Series backhoes.

NOTE: Due to the signal pressure limiter, the steering circuit is


commonly used to check margin pressure because the steering circuit
pressure is below maximum system pressure.

Engineering is recommending a slightly different procedure for


checking margin pressure on "D" machines. The latest
recommendation is to lock the boom and move the boom lever about
one third travel in the DOWN position.

If Standby Pressure is adjusted to about 3100 kPa (450 psi) or slightly


higher, the need to adjust a check margin pressure may not be
necessary.

Also, on the "D" Series, engineering is suggesting that circuit and


system stall pressures be checked at the signal pressure test fitting.
By doing this the confusion related to checking circuits with lower
pressure settings than the pressure cutoff on the pump may be
eliminated. For circuits with higher line relief settings than the
pressure cutoff, the pressures read at either test port should be the
same.
STMG 746 - 73 -
10/02

49

• Hydraulic system A torque limiter (arrow) is used to control the pump. The torque limiter
components: will reduce maximum pump flow available as pressures increase to
prevent engine stall.
- Torque limiter
(arrow)
The torque limiter provides improved hydraulic system performance with
less engine horsepower. The torque limiter is adjustable. Before making
adjustment to the torque limiter, make sure low idle is set correctly.

NOTE: A quick check to make sure the torque limiter is operating


correctly on single tilt cylinder machines, is to operate the machine at
low idle. With the machine at normal operating temperatures, apply
the service brakes and select SECOND FORWARD. Turn on air
conditioner (if equipped) and accessories. Raise and rack back the
bucket. If the engine stalls, the torque limiter may need to be
adjusted.

For dual tilt cylinder machines, follow the same steps, except stall the
bucket in the dump position, instead of racking back.

For more precise adjustment of the torque limiter follow the


procedures in the service manual. A torque converter stall test
should also be done before adjusting the torque limiter. The engine
may not be performing correctly.
STMG 746 - 74 -
10/02

STEERING AND IMPLEMENT PUMP


LOW PRESSURE STANDBY / DYNAMIC SIGNAL BLEED

TORQUE
LIMITER

BLEED PUMP
SIGNAL OUTPUT

FLOW PRESSURE
COMPENSATOR CUTOFF

50

Steering and Implement Pump Operation

• LOW PRESSURE With all implements in HOLD, the steering priority valve bleeds some
STANDBY: supply oil through a dynamic bleed orifice back to the tank through the
SMU. This oil flow creates a low pressure signal which is sensed at the
- With dynamic signal pump compensator.
bleed
The LOW PRESSURE STANDBY reading will be higher on
"D" Series machines equipped with a dynamic signal bleed steering
system than on previous backhoes without this feature.

The spring setting of the torque limiter changes with the angle of the
swashplate. As shown here, at minimum angle, the setting is at
maximum. As the swashplate angle is increased, the spring setting is
reduced.
STMG 746 - 75 -
10/02

SIGNAL STEERING AND IMPLEMENT PUMP


CONSTANT FLOW

PUMP
OUTPUT

FLOW
COMPENSATOR PRESSURE
CUTOFF

51

• CONSTANT FLOW: The pump will UPSTROKE or DESTROKE to match changes in flow
requirements.
- Signal pressure plus
spring equals
When pump flow matches system needs the pump supply pressure equals
system pressure
the sum of the load pressure plus the margin spring pressure. The margin
- Swashplate at spool is in a metering position and the system is stabilized.
constant angle
CONSTANT FLOW is maintained until there is a change in system flow
requirements.

The difference between the signal pressure and the pump supply pressure
is the value of the margin spring.
STMG 746 - 76 -
10/02

TORQUE LIMITER CONTROL


FLOW COMPENSATOR CONTROL

BACKHOE

LOADER

FLOW (Q)

PRESSURE (P)

52

• Pressure/Flow (P-Q) This illustration shows a Pressure/Flow (P-Q) Curve Chart for the steering
Curve: and implement pump. The purpose of the chart is to show how the torque
limiter affects the maximum flow rate for the loader and backhoe sections
- Sweeping curve
when the torque limiter opens.
shows torque limiter
control
The sweeping curves show where the torque limiter has control over the
pump flow. The torque limiter destrokes the pump as the system pressure
increases. The rate of destroke closely follows the torque curve of the
engine.

While on the torque curve, if the system pressure decreases, the torque
limiter control will UPSTROKE the pump.

The flow compensator spool regulates pump flow when system pressure
and flow requirements are below the curves. This is the area shown in
yellow.


STMG 746 - 77 -
10/02

NOTE: When the updated "C" Series was introduced, the torque
limiter was being promoted as having "dual settings." This was not
the case. The torque limiter has one physical setting. Due to the
orifices as discussed earlier, the torque limiter responds as if it had
two different settings.
STMG 746 - 78 -
10/02

SIGNAL
STEERING AND IMPLEMENT PUMP
TORQUE LIMITER OPEN

TORQUE
LIMITER

PUMP
OUTPUT

FLOW PRESSURE
COMPENSATOR CUTOFF

53

• Torque limiter OPEN: The torque limiter monitors the pump swashplate angle and the pump
signal pressure. The pressure setting of the torque limiter varies with the
- Pressure setting
swashplate angle: the greater the swashplate angle, the lower the pressure
varies with
swashplate angle
setting.

- Pressure drop For example, if the pump is at full stroke, the torque limiter will begin to
across orifice destroke the pump when system pressure increases above 15180 kPa
(2200 psi). As system pressure continues to increase, the pump flow is
- Reduction in signal further reduced. The allowable pump displacement is inversely
pressure to flow
proportional to the pump discharge pressure: the higher the pressure, the
compensator
less pump flow available.
- Pump destrokes
When the torque limiter setting is reached, the torque limiter opens,
- Input torque is directing some of the signal oil to the tank. A pressure drop occurs across
maintained the orifice, resulting in a slight loss of the actual signal pressure. The
flow compensator spool will move up, allowing supply oil to the large
actuator piston. The pump will then destroke.
STMG 746 - 79 -
10/02

SIGNAL
STEERING AND IMPLEMENT PUMP
TORQUE LIMITER CLOSED

TORQUE
LIMITER

PUMP
OUTPUT

FLOW PRESSURE
COMPENSATOR CUTOFF

54

• Torque limiter OPEN: The torque limiter remains open and works with the flow compensator for
- Stays open when as long as the conditions for the hydraulic demand are "at" or "above" the
hydraulic demand at torque curve. If the load conditions are demanding a certain pressure, the
or above torque operator is requesting a certain flow by positioning the valve stem and
curve these conditions are "at" or "above" the torque curve, the torque limiter is
- Two different torque open.
curves
In summary, full pump supply pressure is always available. However,
flow is regulated to maintain a maximum input torque from the engine.

Due to the additional orifices in the loader resolvers, the torque limiter in
effect has two different torque curves: one for the loader and one for the
backhoe.

• Torque limiter When the hydraulic demand falls below the conditions stated above, the
CLOSED: torque limiter closes and the flow compensator then has control over the
- Flow compensator pump swashplate to regulate pump flow to meet the required system
controls swashplate pressure and flow demands.
STMG 746 - 80 -
10/02

4 3

2
1

55

Loader Valve Groups and Steering System

• Loader valve group The loader section consists of an inlet manifold (1) with a steering priority
components: valve, a loader lift control valve (2), a tilt control valve (3) and an optional
auxiliary valve (4).
1. Inlet manifold and
steering priority
valve The implement valves shown are pilot operated.

2. Loader lift control


valve

3. Tilt control valve

4. Auxiliary valve
STMG 746 - 81 -
10/02

STEERING PRIORITY VALVE


DYNAMIC SIGNAL BLEED
FLOW TO IMPLEMENTS FLOW TO SMU
TO SMU TO SMU
DYNAMIC
TO TO DYNAMIC BLEED ORIFICE
TANK TANK BLEED
ORIFICE
PRIORITY
SPOOL

FROM
FROM PREVIOUS
PREVIOUS VALVE
VALVE

SPRING SIGNAL
PRESSURE
TO LOADER FROM LIMITER TO LOADER FROM
VALVES PUMP VALVES PUMP
RESOLVER
TO TO
SMU SMU

TO PUMP TO PUMP

56

• Steering priority valve The loader inlet manifold and steering priority valve are shown in two
operation: different conditions. One condition shows flow to the implements and the
other shows flow to the SMU.
- With dynamic signal
bleed orifice
Before the engine is started, the spring holds the priority spool to the left.
- Flow to implements When the engine is started, the flow from the pump is directed to the
priority valve. With the spool to the left, the pump supply oil is directed
to the SMU. As the SMU passage fills, oil also enters the axial-drilled
hole in the priority spool and flows to the left end of the spool.

As pressure builds on the left end, the spool starts to move to the right,
against the force of the spring. The spool begins to restrict the oil flow to
the SMU supply passage as the spool continues to move to the right. Oil
restricted by the priority spool from entering the SMU supply passage
flows to the loader implement valves.


STMG 746 - 82 -
10/02

- Dynamic bleed The priority spool never completely blocks the flow of oil to the SMU
orifice supply passage. A small amount of oil is allowed to flow through the
dynamic bleed orifice to the priority spool spring cavity where it becomes
signal oil.

Signal oil flows from the spring cavity through the SMU signal line to the
SMU, where the oil flows to the tank. This action causes the priority
spool to meter oil continuously to the SMU supply passage to maintain a
predetermined pressure in the SMU supply passage. This pressure
provides instantaneous steering response when the steering is activated.
The metering action also reduces spool travel when steering is required,
which results in faster steering response.

With all implements in HOLD in this closed-center system, this signal oil
is sensed at the pump control valve resulting in an increase in the LOW
PRESSURE STANDBY setting.

If flow is not needed for steering and an implement valve in the loader
section is activated, the priority valve will direct most of the supply oil to
the loader implement circuits.

- Oil flow to SMU When the steering wheel is turned, more flow is needed at the SMU; this
causes a momentary drop in pressure in the SMU supply passage.
Pressure on the left side of the priority spool is also reduced.

The signal bleed pressure oil in the spring cavity and the priority spring
move the spool to the left, blocking flow to the implements. As the pump
flow increases and supply oil enters the SMU passage, pressure increases
in the SMU passage and on the left end of the priority spool. As the
forces on both ends of the spool equalize, the spool moves to a position
which enables it to maintain the flow requirements of the steering circuit.

As previously stated, the signal oil originates in the priority valve spring
cavity. From there, the signal goes to the resolver and to the SMU. At
the SMU, the signal line is connected to the pressurized cylinder port (left
or right). From the resolver, the signal oil flows to the pump control
valve. The pump then increases flow to meet the steering system flow
requirements.

Because the priority spool gives preference to the SMU supply circuit,
flow may be blocked or metered to the loader implement valves.


STMG 746 - 83 -
10/02

- Signal pressure A signal pressure limiter valve limits the steering signal to protect the
limiter valve various steering components. When the signal pressure reaches a
predetermined limit, the poppet in the signal pressure limiter moves to the
right, opening a passage to the tank.

The spool moves back to the right and blocks flow from going to the
SMU.
STMG 746 - 84 -
10/02

STEERING CIRCUIT
TURN

STEERING PRIORITY VALVE

FROM
PREVIOUS
VALVE

TO MAKEUP
PUMP
LOADER VALVE
SUPPLY
VALVES
CHECK
VALVE

TO PUMP STEERING METERING


COMPENSATOR UNIT

57

• Steering circuit: This illustration shows the steering system during a TURN. Signal oil is
sent from the steering priority valve past the check valve to the SMU
- Signal oil sent to
where the oil combines with the cylinder oil. The pressure in the SMU
SMU from priority
valve
signal line is limited to the steering cylinder port pressure. The signal oil
also enters the the signal network and flows to the pump control valve.
- Also enters signal The pump then increases flow to meet the steering system flow
network requirements.

- SMU directs oil to Oil from the pump flows past the steering priority valve to the SMU and
steering cylinder
to the double rod steering cylinder. When the machine makes a TURN,
the SMU directs oil to the left side of the cylinder piston and opens the
right side to the tank. A TURN in the other direction operates inversely.
• Check valve prevents
"kickback" The check valve in the pump supply line between the SMU and the loader
valve inlet manifold prevents steering "kickback" due to an external force.
• Makeup valve
The makeup valve provides steering capability when the engine is not
provides steering
capability if the engine running by allowing oil to recirculate between the SMU and the steering
stops cylinder when the steering wheel is turned.
STMG 746 - 85 -
10/02

"D" SERIES MECHANICALLY CONTROLLED LOADER VALVES

PUMP

TANK
END
COVER
E-STICK

STICK
COOLER
BUCKET
BACKFLOW SMU
SWING
CHECK
BOOM VALVE

AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD S L T A
T I I U
E F L X
E T T
R
RIGHT
STABILIZER
LEFT
STABILIZER LEVER

MANIFOLD LEVER

58

• Loader valve The following seven illustrations will cover the remaining valves in the
operation: loader valve group that are all mechanically operated.

- Mechanical controls
All of the valves in the loader valve group are closed-center and pressure
compensated.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Components shown in yellow are shown on


block diagrams throughout this presentation. These diagrams are to
be used to introduce different sections of the hydraulic system
discussed in this presentation.
STMG 746 - 86 -
10/02

FROM
LOADER LIFT CONTROL VALVE
PREVIOUS HOLD
VALVE

HEAD ROD
END END PLUG
ADVANCE
SIGNAL
PASSAGE
TO STEERING
VALVE

BALL
DETENT
FLOW CONTROL
VALVE
FROM
PUMP

59

• Loader lift control The loader lift control valve has a flow control spool and a makeup valve
valve in HOLD: on the rod end work port. The main control spool also has an advance
signal passage to help raise the loader.
- Advance signal
passage for loader
RAISE
The loader lift control lever has four positions: RAISE, HOLD, LOWER
and FLOAT.
- Four position spool
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: For a detailed description of implement
- Mechanical ball valve operation used in the "D" Series, refer to STMG 630 "416B -
detent for FLOAT 438B Backhoe Loaders–Steering and Implement Hydraulic System"
(Form SESV1630).
STMG 746 - 87 -
10/02

FROM 416D AND 424D LOADER TILT CONTROL VALVE


PREVIOUS HOLD
VALVE

HEAD ROD LINE RELIEF AND


END END MAKEUP VALVE

TO NEXT
VALVE

SOLENOID
DETENT
FLOW CONTROL
ADVANCE VALVE
FROM
SIGNAL PUMP
PASSAGE

60

• 416D and 424D tilt The 416D and 424D tilt control valve is used to control a single tilt
control valve in HOLD: cylinder.

- Advance signal
The tilt control valve has a flow control spool and a pilot operated makeup
passage for RACK
BACK
and line relief valve for each work port. The main control spool has an
advance signal passage for the TILT BACK or RACK BACK function.
- Three position spool The control spool has a magnetic detent (solenoid) that is part of the
"return to dig" feature.
- Magnetic detent for
"return to dig" The loader tilt control lever has three positions: RACK BACK, HOLD
feature
and DUMP.
STMG 746 - 88 -
10/02

428D AND 438D LOADER TILT CONTROL VALVE FOR PARALLEL LIFT
HOLD
FROM
PREVIOUS
VALVE

ROD HEAD LINE RELIEF AND


END END MAKEUP VALVE

TO LIFT
VALVE

SOLENOID
DETENT

FLOW CONTROL VALVE

FROM PUMP

61

• 428D and 438D tilt The 428D and 438D tilt control valve is used to control two tilt cylinders.
valve for parallel lift in
HOLD: The loader parallel tilt control lever has four positions: RACK BACK,
HOLD, DUMP and REGENERATIVE DUMP.
- Four position spool

- Magnetic detent for


The valve has a magnetic detent for "return to dig."
"return to dig"
feature
STMG 746 - 89 -
10/02

428D AND 438 LOADER TILT CONTROL VALVE FOR PARALLEL LIFT
REGENERATIVE DUMP
FROM
PREVIOUS
VALVE ROD HEAD
END END LINE RELIEF AND
MAKEUP VALVE

TO LIFT
VALVE

SOLENOID
DETENT
FLOW CONTROL
VALVE
FROM PUMP

62

• Parallel lift in The force of gravity tends to cause implements to lower faster than the
REGENERATIVE hydraulic pump and makeup valves can fill the cylinders. A
DUMP
"REGENERATIVE DUMP" position can reduce this tendency.

Due to the lands of the tilt valve, return oil from Port "B" cannot go to the
tank. The return oil from the implement is directed through the bridge
passage to Port "A" when the control spool is shifted to the
REGENERATIVE DUMP position. This position allows the bucket to be
powered down by pump flow. This action prevents cylinder cavitation
and causes the bucket to dump faster.

NOTE: The line relief valve settings are set lower than maximum
system pressure on machines equipped with parallel lift.
STMG 746 - 90 -
10/02

416D AND 424D AUXILIARY CONTROL VALVE


HOLD

PORT PORT
LINE RELIEF AND A B
MAKEUP VALVE

TO NEXT
VALVE

FLOW CONTROL FROM PUMP


VALVE

63

• 416D and 424D loader The 416D and 424D loader auxiliary valve is typically used for the Multi-
auxiliary control valve Purpose (MP) Bucket.
in HOLD:

The loader auxiliary control valve has a flow control spool and a pilot
- Used for MP bucket
operated makeup and line relief valve for the rod end work port.
- Three position spool
The loader tilt control lever has three positions: OPEN, HOLD and
CLOSE.
STMG 746 - 91 -
10/02

428D AND 438D AUXILIARY CONTROL VALVE FOR PARALLEL LIFT


HOLD

RESOLVERS PORT PORT


LINE RELIEF AND
MAKEUP VALVE A B

TO NEXT
VALVE

SOLENOID CONTROL
DETENT SPOOL

FLOW
CONTROL FROM
VALVE PUMP

64

• 428D and 438D The 428D and 438D loader auxiliary control valve provides more
parallel lift loader versatility than the 416D and 428D loader auxiliary control valve.
auxiliary control valve
in HOLD:
The loader auxiliary control valve has a flow control spool and a pilot
- Three position spool
operated makeup and line relief valve for the rod end work port.

- Line relief and The auxiliary control lever has three positions.
makeup valve
A solenoid detent is also used for applications requiring continuous flow.
- Solenoid detent
STMG 746 - 92 -
10/02

65

• Single tilt cylinder The loader linkage arm (2) has been redesigned for improved reliability.
loader:
The microswitch (1) rides along a cam machined into the bucket link.
1. Microswitch The switch works with a solenoid on the bucket control valve to provide
the "return to dig" feature.
2. Loader linkage arm
STMG 746 - 93 -
10/02

"D" SERIES PILOT CONTROLLED LOADER VALVES

PUMP

TANK
END

JOYSTICK
COVER
E-STICK

PATTERN CHANGER
STICK
COOLER
BUCKET
SMU
SWING BACKFLOW
CHECK

JOYSTICK
BOOM VALVE

AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD
JOYSTICK

RIGHT
S
STABILIZER L T A
T
LEFT I I U
E
STABILIZER LEVER F L X
E
T T
MANIFOLD R
LEVER

PILOT
SHUTOFF RIDE
CONTROL

66

• Loader valve The following 14 illustrations will cover the valves in the loader valve
operation: group that are pilot operated along with their related components.

- Pilot controls
The internal components of the pilot controlled implement valve are
basically the same as the mechanically controlled implement control valve
except for the difference in how the valves are controlled.

All of the valves are closed-center and pressure compensated.


STMG 746 - 94 -
10/02

LOADER LIFT CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS ROD HEAD


ADVANCE SIGNAL END END
PASSAGE

TO NEXT
VALVE

PILOT CONTROL
PASSAGE SPOOL

FLOW CONTROL FROM


VALVE PUMP

67

• Loader lift control The loader lift control valve has a flow control spool and a makeup valve
valve in HOLD: on the rod end work port. The main control spool also has an advance
signal passage to help raise the loader.
- Advance signal
passage for loader
RAISE
The loader lift control lever has four positions: RAISE, HOLD, LOWER
and FLOAT.
- Four position spool
Pilot oil is directed to either end of the spool to shift the valve.
STMG 746 - 95 -
10/02

LOADER LIFT CONTROL VALVE


FROM FLOAT
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS ROD HEAD


ADVANCE SIGNAL END END
PASSAGE
TANK
PASSAGE

TO NEXT
VALVE

PILOT CONTROL
PASSAGE SPOOL

FLOW CONTROL FROM


VALVE PUMP

68

• Loader lift valve in For the FLOAT position, higher pilot pressure acting on the right end of
FLOAT the control spool moves the spool further to the left than for LOWER.

Both workports are open to the tank through passages in the valve.

A solenoid in the joystick maintains the spool in FLOAT position until the
operator shifts the spool to a different position.

FLOAT is used for "backdragging."


STMG 746 - 96 -
10/02

LOADER TILT CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

LINE RELIEF AND


RESOLVERS ROD HEAD
MAKEUP VALVE
END END

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL
PILOT
SPOOL
PASSAGE

FLOW CONTROL FROM


VALVE PUMP

69

• Tilt control valve in This illustration shows the pilot operated tilt control valve used with the
HOLD: dual tilt cylinder configuration.

- Used with dual tilt


The tilt control valve has a flow control spool and a pilot operated makeup
cylinders
and line relief valve for each work port. The main control spool has an
- Four position spool advance signal passage for the TILT BACK or RACK BACK function.

The pilot joystick has a magnetic detent (solenoid) that is part of the
"return to dig" feature.

The loader tilt control lever has four positions: RACK BACK, HOLD,
DUMP and REGENERATIVE DUMP.
STMG 746 - 97 -
10/02

LOADER TILT CONTROL VALVE


FROM REGENERATIVE DUMP
PREVIOUS
VALVE
PORT PORT
A B
RESOLVERS
LINE RELIEF AND
MAKEUP VALVE

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL
PILOT SPOOL
PASSAGE

FLOW CONTROL
VALVE FROM
PUMP

70

• Parallel lift in The force of gravity tends to cause implements to lower faster than the
REGENERATIVE hydraulic pump and makeup valves can fill the cylinders. A
DUMP
"REGENERATIVE DUMP" position can reduce this tendency.

Due to the lands of the tilt valve, return oil from Port "B" cannot go to the
tank. The return oil from the implement is instead directed through the
bridge passage to Port "A" when the control spool is shifted to the
REGENERATIVE DUMP position.

This position allows the bucket to be powered down by pump flow. This
action prevents cylinder cavitation and causes the bucket to dump faster.
STMG 746 - 98 -
10/02

LOADER AUXILIARY CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
LOADER
JOYSTICK

RESOLVERS PORT PORT


LINE RELIEF AND A B
MAKEUP VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL

TO NEXT
VALVE

AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC


SOLENOID VALVE NO. 2 SOLENOID VALVE NO. 1
FLOW CONTROL FROM
VALVE PUMP

71

• Loader auxiliary The loader auxiliary control valve is equipped with two proportional
control valve in HOLD: solenoids.

- Solenoids controlled
The solenoids direct pilot oil to shift the control spool. The solenoids are
by the Auxiliary
Control Module
controlled by the Auxiliary Control Module (ECM).
(ECM)
STMG 746 - 99 -
10/02

FROM LOADER AUXILIARY CONTROL VALVE


LOADER HOLD
JOYSTICK

RESOLVERS PORT PORT


LINE RELIEF AND A B
MAKEUP VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL
AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC
TO NEXT SOLENOID NO. 1
VALVE

AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC
SOLENOID NO. 2 FLOW CONTROL FROM
VALVE PUMP

E540 PK E540 PK
E544 GN E543 WH
PILOT OIL FROM
REVERSE DIRECTION END COVER
TO KEY SWITCH JOYSTICK
DISABLE JUMPER

G943 BU
163 WH
QUICK COUPLER PILOT LOADER
N997 WH
1 SWITCH HANDLE
2 203 BK AUXILIARY 203 BK CONTROL
3 CONTROL
585 YL ECM
4
5 586 BR
6
M968 BU

H833 PU
779 WH
CONTINUOUS 163 WH QUICK COUPLER
FLOW SWITCH SOLENOID VALVE
TO KEY SWITCH

72

• Loader auxiliary The Auxiliary Control ECM receives inputs from the thumb switch on the
circuit: joystick, the continuous flow switch and the quick coupler switch.

- Quick coupler switch


The Auxiliary Control ECM senses the position of the quick coupler
switch to control the quick coupler solenoid valve. The solenoid valve
- Continuous flow
switch locks or unlocks the coupler pins.

- Quick coupler A manual diverter valve (not shown) mounted on the loader linkage
solenoid valve allows oil to and from the coupler pins or to and from an auxiliary circuit.

- Auxiliary Control When the coupler pins are unlocked, the coupler pins can be engaged or
ECM
disengaged with the quick coupler switch. The thumb switch can be used
- Auxiliary hydraulic
to engage the pins.
solenoids
When the coupler switch is moved to the LOCKED position, the
Auxiliary Control ECM will de-energize the quick coupler solenoid valve.
The coupler pins are then locked in position.
STMG 746 - 100 -
10/02

FROM LOADER AUXILIARY CONTROL VALVE


LOADER SHIFT
JOYSTICK

RESOLVERS PORT PORT


LINE RELIEF AND A B
MAKEUP VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL
AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC
TO NEXT SOLENOID NO. 1
VALVE

AUXILIARY HYDRAULIC
SOLENOID NO. 2 FROM
FLOW CONTROL PUMP
VALVE

E540 PK E540 PK
E544 GN E543 WH

REVERSE DIRECTION PILOT OIL FROM


DISABLE JUMPER END COVER TO KEY SWITCH
JOYSTICK

G943 BU
163 WH
QUICK COUPLER PILOT LOADER
N997 WH HANDLE
1 SWITCH
2 203 BK AUXILIARY 203 BK CONTROL
3 CONTROL
585 YL ECM
4
5 586 BR
6
M968 BU

H833 PU 779 WH
QUICK COUPLER
CONTINUOUS 163 WH
SOLENOID VALVE
FLOW SWITCH TO KEY SWITCH

73

• Loader auxiliary When the thumb switch on the joystick is moved, the Auxiliary Control
circuit: ECM senses the position of the thumb switch and send a variable current
to one of the proportional solenoids to shift the auxiliary control spool.
- Auxiliary Control
The current will vary depending on how far the thumb switch is moved.
ECM sensed thumb
switch position to The solenoid directs pilot oil to one end of the control spool.
control auxiliary
solenoid Operation of the flow control spool and resolvers is the same as with other
pressure compensated implement control valves used on backhoe loaders.
- Continuous flow
switch used to
If the operator wants to maintain a fixed flow rate, the continuous flow
maintain flow rate
switch can be pressed momentarily. Then release the thumb switch within
- Reverse direction one second. When the thumb switch is released, the desired flow rate will
disable jumper be maintained until either the thumb switch is moved, the continuous flow
switch is pressed again or the quick coupler switch is activated.

For some attachments (broom), the reverse direction disable jumper is


installed to disable solenoid No. 1. The auxiliary circuit will now only
operate in one direction.
STMG 746 - 101 -
10/02

74

• Loader pilot controls: On the loader pilot joystick (1), the yellow buttons (2) on the control can
be used to control an auxiliary function or for AWS. On the electrical
1. Pilot joystick
schematic the buttons control the left and right broom angle relays.
2. Buttons
The thumb switch (3) works with a the Auxiliary Control ECM to vary
3. Thumb switch the current to two proportional solenoids mounted on the loader auxiliary
valve. A switch on the front of the joystick is used to downshift the
transmission or neutralize it depending on how long the switch is held.
STMG 746 - 102 -
10/02

75

• Auxiliary Control ECM The Auxiliary Control ECM (arrow) is located below the side console
(arrow) gauge and switch panel.

If the machine is equipped with the optional Machine Security System


(MSS), the ECM for MSS is attached to the back of the Auxiliary Control
ECM.
STMG 746 - 103 -
10/02

2
1

76

• Loader components: The diverter valve lever (2) allows the operator to divert flow to an
attachment and blocks the oil in the coupler cylinder to lock the
1. Coupler cylinder
attachment to the loader linkage. The cylinder is protected by a guard (1).
guard

2. Diverter valve lever


The reverse direction disable harness connector (3) permits connecting a
jumper to disable the No. 1 auxiliary solenoid to allow flow in only one
3. Reverse direction direction.
disable harness
connector When the jumper (not shown) is installed, the thumb switch on the loader
joystick only operates an attachment in one direction.

An additional harness connector (not shown) allows the connection of an


electrically controlled function to the front loader. This function is
controlled by the two yellow buttons shown earlier on the loader joystick.
STMG 746 - 104 -
10/02

ACCUMULATOR
ORIFICE
975-WH
1
F748-WH 2
3
RIDE CONTROL 4
SHUTOFF VALVE
SWITCH 5
614-PU 6
A972-OR

976-OR
F739-GN

E701-PK

RIDE CONTROL
RELAY PUMP ORIFICE
M969-YL 1
2
SUPPLY
LIFT
134-YL CYLINDERS
1 CHECK
2 VALVE
SOLENOID
ARC
SUPPRESSION

LIFT CONTROL VALVE


PUMP
SUPPLY F738-WH
PRESSURE
SWITCH
FLOW
COMPENSATOR

RIDE CONTROL
STANDARD TRANSMISSION
ON
SIGNAL FROM
PREVIOUS VALVE
TO TANK
RESOLVERS

77

• Ride Control System: This illustration shows a combined electrical/hydraulic schematic of the
Ride Control System on machines with a standard transmission. The lift
- Standard control valve is in HOLD and is blocking both the rod and head ends of
transmission
the cylinder.

• Ride control switch When the key start switch is in the ON position, power is available at the
ON: ride control switch through the 614-PU wire and the switch and dash
indicators are illuminated. When the ride control switch is in the OFF
- Circuit grounded
position, the ride control solenoid is not energized.
through closed
pressure switch
To energize the coil in the ride control relay the pressure switch must be
- Pressure switch closed to complete the circuit from the ride control switch.
senses rod end
pressure The pressure switch senses the pressure in the line to the rod end of the
loader lift cylinder. When the pressure in the rod end of the loader lift
cylinder is less than the actuation pressure of the pressure switch, the
switch closes.

STMG 746 - 105 -
10/02

- Low pressure, When the pressure switch is closed, the coil in the relay is energized,
switch closes closing the relay. Power from the ride control switch flows through the
- Relay closes ride control relay to the solenoid. The ride control solenoid is now
- Ride control
energized.
solenoid
energized When the ride control solenoid is energized, pump supply oil flows
through the solenoid to unseat the check valve and to shift the shut-off
valve. This action connects the head end of the loader lift cylinders to the
ride control accumulator and the rod end of the loader lift cylinders are
open to the tank through the check valve.

• Ride control ON: When the machine is driven over rough terrain with the ride control
system ON, the loader lift cylinders extend and retract. As the lift
- Accumulator and cylinders extend, oil displaced from the rod ends of the cylinders open to
cylinder head ends
the tank and oil which is stored in the accumulator flows into the head
connected
ends of the cylinders. As the lift cylinders retract, oil displaced from the
- Accumulator acts as head ends of the cylinders flows into the accumulator, and oil is drawn
shock absorber over from the tank into the rod ends of the cylinders. The accumulator acts as
rough terrain a shock absorber when the cylinders retract, providing a smoother ride.

• Ride control OFF: When the ride control system is OFF, the ride control solenoid is not
energized. Under this condition, the solenoid drains the supply oil to the
- Solenoid not check valve and the shutoff valve to the tank. The check valve seats and
energized
blocks the passage from the rod ends of the lift cylinders to the tank. The
- Orifice creates
shut-off valve moves down and blocks the flow of oil through it. The
restriction between orifice dampens the closing of the check valve and the shifting of the
accumulator and shut-off valve.
cylinders

- Prevents rapid The orifice in the line between the accumulator and cylinder head ends
loss of stored oil prevents the rapid loss of the oil which is stored in the accumulator when
the loader arms are lowered. The orifice also allows the accumulator to
- Allows
accumulator to be be charged, without adversely affecting machine performance when the
recharged loader arms are lifted.

• Pressure switch The pressure switch prevents the ride control relay, and therefore, the ride
control solenoid, from energizing if the pressure in the rod end of the
- Prevents ride control loader lift cylinder becomes greater than the actuation pressure of the
from being activated pressure switch. An example of this situation is when the loader arms are
if pressure high
used to lift the front wheels off of the ground. If the ride control system
was engaged under this circumstance, the machine would fall to the
ground.
STMG 746 - 106 -
10/02

AUTOSHIFT ECM ACCUMULATOR


123-WH 1 BATTERY
2 GROUND

21 R/C AUTO SW TO GND


1 22 R/C ON SW TO GND
F748-WH 2 39 SOL RETURN
RIDE CONTROL 3 SHUTOFF VALVE
37 RIDE CNTRL RELAY
SWITCH 4 23 PRESS SW TO GND
5 18 R/C ENABLE CMD SW TO BAT
614-PU 6 E702-OR
1
2
975-WH
F739-GN A972-OR
976-OR
E701-PK

M969-YL 1 RIDE CONTROL PUMP


2
RELAY SUPPLY LIFT
134-YL CYLINDERS
CHECK
1
ARC SOLENOID VALVE
2
SUPPRESSION

LIFT CONTROL VALVE


PUMP
SUPPLY F738-WH

PRESSURE
SWITCH

FLOW
COMPENSATOR

RIDE CONTROL
AUTOSHIFT TRANSMISSION
AUTO MODE ON
SIGNAL FROM
PREVIOUS VALVE
TO TANK
RESOLVERS

78

• Ride Control System: The Ride Control System on machines with the optional autoshift
transmission use the Autoshift ECM. The Autoshift ECM monitors the
- Power shift position of the ride control switch and determines when to operate the ride
transmission
control system.

The ride control switch is a three position switch: OFF, ON and AUTO.

When the key start switch is in the ON position, power is available at the
ride control switch through the 614-PU wire and at the Autoshift ECM
through the 123-WH wire. The Autoshift ECM monitors the ride control
switch position at terminals 21 and 22. When the ride control switch is in
the OFF position, the circuits at terminals 21 and 22 of the Autoshift ECM
are open.


STMG 746 - 107 -
10/02

When the ride control switch is in the ON position, power transfers to the
ride control relay. Power available at the ride control switch illuminates
the indicators in the switch and the ride control indicator on the
instrument panel.

• Ride control switch With the ride control switch closed, the Autoshift ECM reads a closed
ON: circuit at terminal 22 (Ride Control ON). This closed circuit confirms to
the Autoshift ECM that the ride control switch is in the ON position.
- If Autoshift ECM
senses: Before the Autoshift ECM will create an output signal to energize the ride
control solenoid, the condition of the pressure switch which is located in
- Circuit at terminal
22 closed the rod end of the loader lift cylinder must be determined. The pressure
switch senses rod end cylinder pressure. If the rod end pressure is below
- Pressure switch the actuation setting of the switch, the switch is closed and the Autoshift
closed ECM will send a signal to close the ride control relay. When the relay
closes the solenoid is energized. If the pressure is too high the switch is
- Then ride control
open and the Autoshift ECM will not send a signal to the relay.
relay closes:

- Ride control When the ride control solenoid is energized, pump supply oil flows
solenoid through the solenoid to unseat the check valve and to shift the shut-off
energized valve. This action connects the head end of the loader lift cylinders to the
ride control accumulator, and the rod end of the loader lift cylinders are
open to the tank through the check valve.

• Ride control switch When the ride control switch is in the AUTO position the Autoshift ECM
AUTO: reads a closed circuit at terminal 21.

- If Autoshift ECM
A closed circuit at terminal 21 confirms to the Autoshift ECM that the
senses:
ride control switch is in the AUTO position. Under this condition, the
- Circuit at terminal Autoshift ECM uses input from the pressure switch and the speed sensor
21 closed to determine when to operate the ride control system.

- Pressure switch If the speed sensor input indicates ground speed is less than
closed approximately 9.5 kilometers per hour (6 mph), the Autoshift ECM will
not engage the ride control system. If the input indicates that the ground
- Sufficient ground
speed
speed is greater than approximately 9.5 kilometers per hour (6 mph), the
Autoshift ECM directs an output signal to close the ride control relay.
- Then ride control
relay closes: When the relay closes the solenoid is energized.

- Ride control NOTE: ET can be used to adjust the speed at which the Autoshift
solenoid ECM engages Ride Control.
energized
STMG 746 - 108 -
10/02

2
1

79

• Ride Control System The ride control valve (1) is located on the inside of the right frame rail
components: below the cab.
1. Ride control valve
The accumulator (2) is protected by a guard (3).
2. Accumulator

3. Guard
STMG 746 - 109 -
10/02

DEAD ENGINE LOWER CIRCUIT


SOLENOIDS ENERGIZED
CONN. 19 CONN. 19
1 GN-18 1
2 BK-18 BK-18 2
3 PK-18 3
4 PK-18 4 CONN. 57 YL-18 1 RD-18
BK-18 YL-18 1 YL-18 GN-18 2 BR-18
BK-18 2 GN-18
85 86 LH LOCK VALVE SOL.
GN-18 3
BK-18 4
87 30 1 RD-18
BK-18 2 BR-18
YL-18 1
87A GN-18 2 RH LOCK VALVE SOL.
DEL. ARC SUPPR. 1
DEAD ENG. LOWER BK-18 A BU-18
YL-18 1
ENABLE RELAY GN-18 GN-18 B RD-18
BK-18 GN-18 2
BK-18 C BK-18
DEL. ARC SUPPR. 2
85 86 PU-18 PU-18
PU-18 7 8
87 30 BK-18
BK-18 1
2 FLOAT DETENT LIMIT SW.
87A YL-18 3
GN-18 A BU-18
DEAD ENG LOWER 5 MOM 4WH-18
BK-18 6 B RD-18
COMMAND RELAY PK-18
GN-18 C BK-18
1 DEAD ENG. LOWER SW. OR-18
BK-18
YL-18 2 OR-18 OR-18
YL-18 7 8
BK-18
1 FLOAT DETENT
WH-18 MOM
1 PILOT PRESS. SW.
2 OR-18 2 3
CONN. 12 CONN. 12 3 PK-18 4
MOM
1 BU-18 1 4 GN-18 5 6
2 BK-18 2 BK-18 5 BK-18
3 YL-18 YL-18 3 YL-18 6 YL-18 DUAL FUNCTION RIDE
4 OR-18 4 GN-18 CONTROL SWITCH
CONN. 56

80

• Dead engine lower Some machines may be equipped with optional loader lock solenoid
with loader lock valves.
valves

For these machines a dead engine lower switch is required to energize the
solenoids to allow the operator to lower the loader arms with a dead
engine.

The dual function ride control switch is used with machines equipped with
ride control and the loader lock valves. When ride control is activated the
lock valves solenoids are energized to allow ride control to work.
STMG 746 - 110 -
10/02

"D" SERIES MECHANICALLY CONTROLLED BACKHOE VALVES


SIDESHIFT
LOCK PISTONS

PUMP

TANK
END
COVER

E-STICK

STICK
COOLER
BUCKET
BACK FLOW SMU
SWING
CHECK
VALVE
BOOM

AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD S L A
T
T I U
I
E F X
L
E T T
R
RIGHT
STABILIZER
LEFT
STABILIZER LEVER

MANIFOLD LEVER

81

Backhoe Valve Groups

• Backhoe valve group: The following seven illustrations will cover the valves in the backhoe
valve group that are mechanically operated.
- Mechanically
controlled All of the valves are closed-center. Only the swing, E-stick and auxiliary
valves are pressure compensated.
STMG 746 - 111 -
10/02

FROM BACKHOE AUXILIARY CONTROL VALVE


PREVIOUS HOLD
VALVE

PORT PORT
A B

PLUG

TO NEXT
VALVE

FLOW CONTROL FROM PUMP


VALVE

82

• Backhoe auxiliary The auxiliary valve shown here is used for the extendible stick or can be
control valve in HOLD: used for other backhoe attachments.

- Pressure
These valves are controlled by foot pedals and are found in both the
compensated
mechanical operated backhoe valve group and in the pilot operated
- Three position spool backhoe valve group.

The major components of these optional valves are the same as those in
the auxiliary valve in the loader section, except these valves do not have a
pilot operated line relief and makeup valve.
STMG 746 - 112 -
10/02

STICK CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS ROD HEAD LINE RELIEF AND


LINE RELIEF END END MAKEUP VALVE
VALVE

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL

LOAD CHECK FROM


VALVE PUMP

83

• Stick control valve in The stick control valve is equipped with a line relief valve for the rod end
HOLD: and a combination line relief and makeup valve for the head end. The
valve is not pressure compensated.
- Mechanically
controlled
The load check valve is not the same as used on the "C" Series. The load
check valve still serves the same function of preventing implement drift
until system pressure increases to move the spool to the left to provide
flow to the cylinder.

Due to improved control spool design, an advance signal passage is no


longer required for STICK OUT.
STMG 746 - 113 -
10/02

FROM STICK CONTROL VALVE


PREVIOUS STICK OUT
VALVE

RESOLVERS ROD HEAD LINE RELIEF AND


LINE RELIEF END END MAKEUP VALVE
VALVE

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL

LOAD CHECK FROM


VALVE PUMP

84

• Stick control valve in When an implement is activated and supply pressure is higher than
STICK OUT cylinder pressure, the check valve is pushed to the left. Oil can then flow
to the cylinder.

As long as the system pressure is higher than the work port pressure, the
load check valve will stay to the right.
STMG 746 - 114 -
10/02

BUCKET CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS ROD HEAD


END END LINE RELIEF

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL

LOAD CHECK FROM


VALVE PUMP

85

• Bucket control valve The bucket control valve contains line relief valves for the rod end and the
in HOLD: head end of the cylinder. The valve is not pressure compensated.

- Mechanically
controlled
STMG 746 - 115 -
10/02

SWING CONTROL VALVE


FROM
HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS SWING SWING CHECK LINE RELIEF


ADVANCE
LEFT RIGHT VALVE VALVE
SIGNAL
PASSAGE

SIGNAL
METERING
TO NEXT SLOT
VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL

FLOW CONTROL FROM


VALVE PUMP

86

• Swing control valve in To improve swing modulation, advance signal metering slots are
HOLD: machined in the main control spool.
- Signal metering
slots improve Inside the main control spool are two check valves. The spool also has
modulation advance signal passages. Inside the flow control spool is a load check
valve which prevents swing drift.

• Check valves: The check valves allow the system to maintain pressure on the cylinder
pistons in HOLD. Due to the check valves, the main control spool is no
- Maintain pressure on
cylinder pistons in
longer a true closed-center control valve.
hold
By maintaining a pressure on both sides of the cylinder pistons during a
- Reduce swing "wag"
swing, the amount of swing "wag" is reduced when the swing lever is
returned to HOLD.

The check valves will also act as makeup valves to prevent cylinder
voiding.

STMG 746 - 116 -
10/02

When the engine is not running, the springs (only one spring shown for
clarity) at the left end of the flow control spool shift the spool to the right.

The flow control valve is in a parallel circuit and has equal access to
pump supply oil. When the engine is started, supply oil to the flow
control spool enters the passage in the center of the spool and fills the
chamber at the right end of the spool. As pressure increases on the right
end of the flow control spool, the spool moves to the left against the
springs. Supply oil then flows to the main control spool where a small
amount of oil flows past both check valves in the main control spool and
enters both work ports. The oil is then blocked by the cylinder pistons.
This action maintains pressure on both ends of each piston.

As the flow control spool moves to the left, the metering slots in the flow
control spool begin to close creating a restriction to the pump supply oil.
Because of the restriction, pressure in the work ports and on the right end
of the flow control spool is reduced. The pressure on the right end of the
flow control spool, which is limited by the flow control springs, is the
same as the pressure in the work ports. This pressure of 415 kPa (60 psi)
is maintained in the work ports to improve the implement response when
the main control spool is shifted.

• Advance signal When the spool is initially shifted, the advance signal passage sends some
operation pump supply oil to the signal cavity before oil is directed to the cylinders.
The signal is then sent back to the pump control valve to upstroke the
pump. The signal metering slots meter some of this signal pressure to the
tank, thus preventing the pump from going to a "high pressure standby"
mode.

The signal metering slots provide more benefit to the operator when the
spool is returned to the HOLD position. The slots meter the signal
pressure to the tank and dampen the shock created by closing the spool.
Operation of the swing is smoother and swing "wag" is further reduced.
The signal metering slots also provide improved start-up metering.

NOTE: A signal limiter was shown in the first verion of this Service
Training Meeting Guide and other service literature. The limiter was
removed just prior to first ship and is no longer used on the swing
circuit for any "D" Series machine.
STMG 746 - 117 -
10/02

FROM SWING CONTROL VALVE


PREVIOUS SWING RIGHT
VALVE
SWING SWING
LEFT RIGHT CHECK LINE RELIEF
RESOLVERS ADVANCE VALVE VALVE
SIGNAL
PASSAGE

SIGNAL
METERING
TO NEXT SLOT
VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL

FLOW CONTROL FROM


VALVE PUMP

87

• Swing RIGHT: When the spool is shifted to SWING RIGHT, the work port pressure is
- Supply oil unseats sent through the signal network and to the flow control valve. Supply oil
left check valve enters the main control spool and unseats the check valve on the right.
Return oil from the swing right work port also enters the spool, unseats
- Return oil unseats
left check valve the right check valve, and flows to the tank. The left check valve creates a
back pressure on the oil returning to the tank to provide a pressurized
- Left check valve swing.
provides a
pressurized swing Pressure oil on the right end of the flow control valve will work against
the signal oil and springs on the left end of the flow control valve to
maintain the desired flow rate to the swing circuit.
STMG 746 - 118 -
10/02

428D / 438D BOOM CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS ROD HEAD LINE RELIEF AND


END END MAKEUP VALVE

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL
SPOOL

LOAD CHECK FROM


VALVE PUMP

88

• Boom control valve in The boom control valve contains combination line relief and makeup
HOLD: valves for the head end and rod end of the cylinder.

- Mechanically
The valve is not pressure compensated. The load check valve prevents
controlled
implement drift whenever a circuit is first activated or due to lack of flow,
the system pressure is less than needed to support or move the load.

Due to improved control spool design, an advance signal passage is no


longer required for BOOM-UP on the 428D and 438D.

On the 416D and 424D an advance signal passage is required.

NOTE: Due to the improved line routings, the head end and rod end
workports have been reversed on the "D" Series from the "C" Series
on the boom and stick circuits.
STMG 746 - 119 -
10/02

"D" SERIES PILOT CONTROLLED BACKHOE VALVES


AND STABILIZER VALVES
SIDESHIFT
LOCK
CYLINDERS PUMP

TANK
END

JOYSTICK
COVER
E-STICK

PATTERN CHANGER
COOLER
STICK

BUCKET

BACK FLOW SMU


SWING
CHECK
BOOM VALVE

JOYSTICK
AUX

INLET
MANIFOLD
JOYSTICK

RIGHT
S
STABILIZER L T A
T
LEFT I I U
E
STABILIZER LEVER F L X
E
T T
MANIFOLD R
LEVER

PILOT RIDE
SHUTOFF CONTROL

89

• Pilot operated The following 12 illustrations are related to the pilot operated backhoe
backhoe valve group section valves, stabilizer valves and sideshift frame.

• Stabilizer valves
All of the valves are closed-center. Only the swing, E-stick and auxiliary
valves are pressure compensated.
• Sideshift frame
STMG 746 - 120 -
10/02

90

• Backhoe valve group: This illustration shows the pilot operated backhoe valve group located at
the rear of the machine. Outlet ports to the cylinders face the rear of the
1. Boom
machine on all models. This change from the "C" Series resulted in
improved line routing.
2. Swing

3. Bucket The valve group can have up to six valve sections.

4. Stick Access to the secondary resolvers on center pivot machines must be done
from below the machine instead of at the rear of the machine as was done
5. E-Stick on former backhoes.
STMG 746 - 121 -
10/02

3
1

91

• Hydraulic The optional pattern changeover valve (1) for the pilot operated backhoe
components: valve group is mounted on the right side of the rear frame.
1. Optional pattern
The valve allows the operator to change from the excavator pattern to the
changeover valve
backhoe pattern.
2. Pilot shutoff valve
Machines equipped with pilot hydraulics are equipped with a backhoe
3. Pilot return shutoff switch on the side console. The switch controls the pilot shutoff
manifold solenoid valve (2) that is mounted on the front of the rear axle.

The solenoid, when energized, allows pilot oil to flow to the joysticks.
When the solenoid is de-energized the joysticks are disabled.

To lower implements with a dead engine, the key start switch must be
turned to the ON position.

NOTE: The axles on the "D" Series no longer feature brake disc
inspection ports.
STMG 746 - 122 -
10/02

STICK CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

ROD HEAD LINE RELIEF AND


RESOLVERS LINE RELIEF
END MAKEUP VALVE
VALVE END

TO NEXT CONTROL PILOT


VALVE SPOOL PASSAGE

LOAD CHECK FROM


VALVE PUMP

92

• Stick control valve in The stick control valve is equipped with a line relief valve for the rod end
HOLD: and a combination line relief and makeup valve for the head end. The
valve is not pressure compensated.
- Pilot operated

Except for being pilot controlled, the valve operation is the same as the
mechanically controlled stick control valve.
STMG 746 - 123 -
10/02

BUCKET CONTROL VALVE


FROM
HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

HEAD LINE RELIEF


RESOLVERS ROD
VALVE
END END

CONTROL
TO NEXT PILOT SPOOL
VALVE PASSAGE

LOAD CHECK
FROM
VALVE
PUMP

93

• Bucket control valve The bucket control valve contains line relief valves for the rod end and the
in HOLD: head end of the cylinder. The valve is not pressure compensated.

- Pilot operated
Except for being pilot controlled, the valve operation is the same as the
mechanically controlled bucket control valve.
STMG 746 - 124 -
10/02

SWING CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS SIGNAL SWING SWING CHECK LINE RELIEF


METERING LEFT RIGHT VALVE VALVE
SLOT

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL SPOOL
PILOT
PASSAGE
ADVANCE
SIGNAL PASSAGE
FLOW
CONTROL FROM
VALVE PUMP

94

• Swing control valve in Except for being pilot controlled, the valve operation is the same as the
HOLD: mechanically controlled swing control valve.

- Pilot operated
NOTE: A signal limiter was shown in the first verion of this Service
Training Meeting Guide and other service literature. The limiter was
removed just prior to first ship and is no longer used on the swing
circuit for any "D" Series machine.
STMG 746 - 125 -
10/02

BOOM CONTROL VALVE


FROM HOLD
PREVIOUS
VALVE

RESOLVERS ROD HEAD LINE RELIEF AND


END END MAKEUP VALVE

TO NEXT
VALVE

CONTROL
PILOT SPOOL
PASSAGE

LOAD CHECK FROM


VALVE PUMP

95

• Boom control valve in Except for being pilot controlled, the valve operation is the same as the
HOLD: mechanically controlled boom control valve.

- Pilot operated
STMG 746 - 126 -
10/02

96

• Sideshift machines: Sideshift machines feature a boom (1) that can be shifted to different
positions along a frame (2).
1. Boom
Lock pistons (not shown) are used to lock the boom to the frame rails.
2. Frame

The stabilizers (3) are used to raise and lower the machine. Sideshift and
3. Stabilizers
center pivot machines use the same type of control valves to operate the
stabilizers.
STMG 746 - 127 -
10/02

SIDESHIFT SLIDE LOCK SOLENOID VALVE

ENGAGED RELEASED

SOLENOID

PUMP PUMP
SUPPLY SUPPLY

CHECK SLIDE
VALVE RAIL
SLIDE
SLIDE LOCK BAR
PISTON

97

• Sideshift slide lock This schematic shows the sideshift slide lock solenoid and orifice check
solenoid operation for valve operation.
ENGAGED and
RELEASED
In the ENGAGED position, the solenoid is not energized. The solenoid
blocks the system oil flow. Pump supply pressure can flow past the check
valve to the slide lock pistons. The pistons clamp the stabilizer frame
slide rails against the bolts on the slide bars to prevent slide frame
movement.

The check valve will seat as shown to maintain pressure on the pistons
when system pressure decreases.

In the RELEASED position, the solenoid is energized. The solenoid


allows system supply oil to go to the tank. The slide lock pistons are no
longer pressurized. The slide bar can then move along the slide rail.
STMG 746 - 128 -
10/02

98

• Stabilizer circuit The stabilizer valve group (1) and pilot accumulator (2) are mounted on
components: the inside of the rear frame on the right side of the machine.

1. Stabilizer valve The pilot accumulator provides dead engine implement lowering
group
capabilities.
2. Pilot accumulator
The pilot accumulator is not used on the 416D, 424D, 428D and 438D.
3. Pilot pressure test
port The pressure test port (3) is used for checking pilot system pressure.

NOTE: All of the lines are not connected in this view. The line from
the pilot accumulator is to be connected to the stabilizer valve group.
STMG 746 - 129 -
10/02

416D / 424D / 428D / 438D BACKHOE


STABILIZERS HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
SHIFT RIGHT STABILIZER
LEFT PILOT RIGHT PILOT
LEVER LEVER
LEFT RIGHT
STABILIZER STABILIZER

LOCK CHECK
VALVES
PILOT LOCK
CHECK VALVES

CHECK
VALVE

ORIFICES

RETURN PRESSURE
MANIFOLD REDUCING
VALVE

SIGNAL TO
RESOLVER
BACKHOE
SECTION

SIGNAL FROM
FROM PUMP LOADER SECTION

99

• Stabilizer operation: The stabilizer schematic shown is for machines equipped with mechanical
controls for the backhoe and loader valve groups. The left stabilizer is in
- Load check valves HOLD and the right stabilizer is being SHIFTED.

- Pilot lock check


The stabilizer cylinders are controlled by closed-center valves equipped
valves
with lock check valve and pilot lock check valves.

The check valves prevent cylinder drift in either direction.

Pilot control valves are used to shift the stabilizer control spools.

Orifices and resolvers are used to signal the pump as to flow needs of the
stabilizer circuits.

When a pilot control lever is shifted, pilot oil is sent to one side of the
stabilizer control spool to shift it. As the spool shifts, some pilot oil is
directed to a pilot lock check valve.

STMG 746 - 130 -
10/02

When the pilot lock check valve shifts, blocked oil that was working with
the lock check valve spring to keep the lock check valve seated to prevent
cylinder drift is allowed to drain to the tank.

When this occurs, the lock check valve shifts opening one side of the
stabilizer cylinder to the tank.

Pump supply oil from the stabilizer control spool now flows through the
other lock check valve into one of the stabilizer cylinder ports to move the
cylinder either up or down.

Also when the stabilizer control spool is shifted, some of the pump supply
oil also becomes signal oil to signal the pump.

When the pilot control lever is released, the spring in the pilot lock check
moves to block oil from flowing to the tank through the check valve.
This blocked oil works with the spring on the lock check valve to seat the
lock check valves. Oil is now trapped in both sides of the stabilizer
cylinders. The stabilizer stay locked in position.
STMG 746 - 131 -
10/02

420D / 430D / 432D / 442D BACKHOE


STABILIZERS HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
SHIFT RIGHT STABILIZER
LEFT PILOT RIGHT PILOT
LEVER LEVER
LEFT RIGHT
STABILIZER STABILIZER
PILOT
ACCUMULATOR

LOCK CHECK
CHECK VALVES
VALVE
PILOT LOCK
CHECK VALVES

RETURN
MANIFOLD

ORIFICES
PRESSURE
TO REDUCING
JOYSTICKS VALVE

PILOT
SHUT OFF
RESOLVER

SIGNAL TO
BACKHOE
SECTION SIGNAL FROM
FROM LOADER SECTION
PUMP

100

• Stabilizer circuit for The stabilizer valves used on machines with pilot controls for the backhoe
pilot controls: and loader operate the same as on machines with mechanical controls.

- Pilot accumulator
Machines equipped with pilot controls are also equipped with a pilot
accumulator to allow implement lowering capabilities with a dead engine.
- Pilot shutoff
solenoid
The key start switch must be turned to the ON position to shift the pilot
shutoff solenoid to allow pilot flow to the joysticks.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for the respective


machine for additional information on lowering the implements if the
accumulator has bled down.
STMG 746 - 132 -
10/02

AUTO-UP STABILIZER SYSTEM


TIMER ACTIVATED / SOLENOIDS ENERGIZED

1 PU-18 PU-18 1
1 PU-18 PU-18 1
2 BK-18 BK-18 2
2 BK-18 BK-18 2
LEFT STAB. UP SW, CONN. 48
LEFT STAB. UP SW. CONN. 48

1 PU-18 PU-18 1
1 PU-18 PU-18 1
2 BK-18 BK-18 2
2 BK-18 BK-18 2
RIGHT STAB. UP SW. CONN. 48
RIGHT STAB. UP SW. CONN. 48

ALARM VALVE GP 1 YL-18 BU-18 A-1 BAT(+)


BK-18 2 BK-18 BK-18 B-2 GND(-)
L. STAB UP DETENT PU-18 B-1 INPUT(S)
YL-18 C-1 OUTPUT(L)
1
2 YL-18 1 STAB. TIMER
3 BU-18 1 YL-18
2
4 2 BK-18
CONN. 17
R. STAB. UP DETENT
ALARM DIODE BLOCK
DETENT VALVE GP 1 1
+ OR-18 2 BK-18 BK-18 2
- PU-18 3 YL-18 3
4 OR-18 4
HORN ALARM
CONN. 12 CONN. 12

STAB. LEG ALARM STAB. LEG UP DETENT

101

• Auto-up stabilizer The auto-up stabilizer system is an option that allows the operator to
system move the stabilizer pilot control lever into a solenoid detent position to
raise the stabilizer.

The stabilizer up switches are located in the stabilizer control valve group
and are closed by the stabilizer pilot control lever.

The timer holds the control lever in the detent position for approximately
10 seconds. After 10 seconds the stabilizers should be fully raised.

The stabilizer alarm advises operator that the stabilizers are down when
the operator shifts the transmission out of NEUTRAL.

NOTE: The timer is activated the instant the stabilizer pilot control
lever is moved. The timer starts before the lever is placed in the
detent position.
STMG 746 - 133 -
10/02

TST 1 TST 2

THERMAL
ALL WHEEL STEER SYSTEM
IRM RELIEF HOLD
LEFT VALVE
VALVE

ALL WHEEL STEER


CIRCLE
CONTROL VALVE
STEER
IRM GROUP
VALVE
SHUTOFF
VALVE RESOLVER

IRM PILOT
RIGHT POPPET
VALVE VALVES
LOCK
VALVE
PILOT
RESOLVER POPPET
VALVES
REAR
AXLE

FROM STABILIZER FRONT


VALVE GROUP AXLE
CROSSOVER
TO BACKHOE LINE RELIEF
VALVE GROUP VALVES
STEERING METERING UNIT
BACK FLOW
RETURN AUXILIARY CHECK VALVE

LOADER TILT
VALVE
GROUP LIFT

SIGNAL
TO STABILIZER
VALVE GROUP
STEERING
PRIORITY
VALVE

TO BACKHOE VALVE GROUP


TO BRAKE VALVE

102

All Wheel Steer System (AWS)

• All Wheel Steer The All Wheel Steer (AWS) system is similar to what was used on the "C"
Series machines.

Operation of the AWS valve is the same. The major differences between
the models are:

- Since the "D" Series AWS system uses non-boosted brakes, a


steering and brake resolver is no longer in the signal line between
the steering priority valve and the SMU.

- Due to the reverse signal network, the lines routing between the
valve sections has changed.

- The switch to control AWS has been changed to two separate buttons
as shown earlier.
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MACHINE SECURITY SYSTEM


MACHINE OPERABLE

GN-18 1 EXCITER
PK-18 2
MACHINE SECURITY CONTROL (MSC) COIL
A RD-18 A
BATTERY 1 RD-18 B YL-18 B
GROUND 3 BK-18 C C
OR-18
DRIVER NO. 2 OUTPUT 5 BU-18
EXCITER COIL SIGNAL LINE 7 YL-18
DRIVER NO. 1 INPUT 9 PK-18
DRIVER NO. 1 OUTPUT 11 GN-18
UNUSED 13 RD-18
DRIVER NO. 2 INPUT 18 OR-18
LED GROUND 19 BK-18 BK-18
KEY SWITCH ON POSITION INPUT 24 PK-18 BK-18
26 GN-18
ALTERNATOR R TERMINAL INPUT YL-18 OR-18
UNUSED 29
KEY SWITCH CRANK POSITION INPUT 31 OR-18 1 GN-18 BU-18 1
PK-18
UNUSED 40 2 BK-18 BK-18 2
CAT DATA LINK + 42 OR-18 YL-18 3 PK-18 PK-18 3
CAT DATA LINK - 45 BR-18 BU-18 4 PK-14 4
GN-18
UNUSED 47 PU-18 GN-18
UNUSED 52 GN-18 PK-18
EXCITER COIL RETURN LINE 53 PK-18 PK-18 85 86
DRIVER NO. 1 GROUND RETURN 58 PK-18 YL-18 MSS ENGINE
RED LED SIGNAL LINE 60 PU-18 PK-18 RELAY
87 30
GREEN LED SIGNAL LINE 62 GN-18 PK-14
DRIVER 2 ENABLE INPUT 64 GN-18 OR-18 1
UNUSED 66 BR-18 2 87A
UNUSED 68
UNUSED 70 CAT DATA LINK PU-18
RED
PU-18 A
GN-18 B GN-18 GREEN
BK-18 C BK-18

MSS LED
INDICATOR

103

OPTIONAL MACHINE SECURITY SYSTEM (MSS)

• Machine Security The Machine Security System (MSS) is a theft deterrent and reduces the
System: chance of unwanted machine operation. MSS uses Caterpillar Electronic
Keys that have unique identification numbers. The MSS uses a Machine
- Theft deterrent Security Control (MSC) with the keys. The MSC can be programmed
with the key ID's to restrict or allow access to the machine. No two keys
- Uses Caterpillar
Electronic Keys have the same ID and are not configurable. Electronic Technician is used
to program the MSC.
- Machine Security
Control (MSC)


STMG 746 - 135 -
10/02

The exciter coil will read the ID of the key. The exciter coil is mounted
around the existing key start switch. The MSC will check the ID of the
key for the authorization. If the key is authorized by the MSC, the
machine will operate normally. The MSS will keep critical machine
functions disabled if the key does not match any authorized keys in the
MSC.

The MSS LED indicator provides basic MSS information to the machine
operator. The green LED indicates the machine is operable, while the red
LED indicates the machine is inoperable.

The MSS can be installed in one of two ways:

- Disabling power to two items that are currently on the machine.


Solenoids and relays can be controlled with this method.

- Causing another ECM to disable a critical machine function unless


an authorized ID key is used.

To make modifications to the MSS, the technician must have a key with
Master Access Level for that MSS or a "factory password."

The factory password is determined from the following items: Product


ID, Software Part Number from the Machine Security Control, Serial
Number from a registered version of ET and a tattletale. A factory
password can be used one time.
STMG 746 - 136 -
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104

CONCLUSION

• Conclusion This presentation has provided an overall review of the steering and
implement hydraulic systems used in the "D" Series Backhoe Loaders.

When used in conjunction with the service manual, the information in this
package should permit the serviceman to do a thorough job of analyzing a
problem in these systems.

For service repairs, adjustments and maintenance, always refer to the


Owner and Operator Manual, Service Manuals and other related service
publications.