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Steps for design of Heat Exchanger

By
Dr. Reyad Shawabkeh
Department of Chemical Engineering
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals e-mail: rshawabk@kfupm.edu.sa

A shell-an-tube heat exchanger operates with two shell passes and four tubes passes. The shell fluid
is ethylene glycol, which enter at 140oC and leaves at 80oC with a flow rate of 4500 kg/h. water
flows in the tube, entering at 35oC and leaving at 85oC. The overall heat transfer coefficient for this
arrangement is 850 W/m2oC. Calculate the flow rate of water required and the area of heat
exchanger.

Sumber :J.P.Holman HEAT TRANSFER page 573 number 10-19

Penyelesaian :
1. Assume tube diameter and BWG, Assume tube length, L.
Inside Diamater (di) Outside Diameter (do) Tube Length, L
BWG
[m] [m] [m]
0,021 0,0254 14 20

\ Sumber :http://www.engineeringpage.com/technology/thermal/tubesize.html

Assume fouling factor based on inside and outside tubes, hdi and hdo.

Fouling Factorhdi Fouling Factorhdo hdi hdo


[m2.K/W] [m2.K/W] [W/ m2.K] [W/ m2.K]
0,00018
0.00018
(Organic heat 5555,56 5555,56
(city grid)
transfer fluids)

\ Sumber : http://www.engineeringpage.com/technology/thermal/fouling_factors.html

2. Assume material of construction for the tubes thermal conductivity?

Material of construction for tubes Thermal Conductivity (kw) [W/moC]


Copper pada T = 0 [C] 388
3. You have the option to assume three known temperature and find the fourth one or four
temperature values and find one of the shell or tube side flow rate. Use the heat duty
equation = ( ) = ( ) where subscripts c and h
refer to cold and hot streams. Then obtain the heat duty, q.
Heat Balances
At Ethylene Glycol
Thin =140 [C] = 413 K mc =1.25 [kg/s]
Thout =80 [C] = 353 K Cp pada T = 110 [C] (383 K) adalah 2832,36 [J/kg.K]
Interpolasi Cph : pada 110oC dari Tabel 1, ethylene glycol homologues saturated liquid specificate
temperature data (pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je60081a027)

120 110 0.688


=
120 100 0.688 0.665
10 0.688
=
20 0.023
0,23 = 13.76 20
20 = 13.53
= 0.6765 [/. ] = 2832,36 [/. ]
At Water
Tcin = 35 [C] = 308 K
Tcout = 85 [C] = 358 K
mh=?
Cp pada T = 60 [C] (333 K) adalah 4185,2 [J/kg.K]
Interpolasi Cpc : pada 60oC dari Tabel A-61, thermophysical properties of saturated water

335 333 4,186


=
335 330 4,186 4,184
2 4,186
=
5 0.002
0.004 = 20,93 5
5 = 20,926
= 4,1852 [/. ] = 4185,2 [/. ]

Maka,
=
( ) = ( )

. (4185,2) [ . ] . (358 308)[] = 1,25 [ ] (2832,36) [/. ]. (413 353)[]

= 1,02 [/]
Sehingga,
= =
= ( )
= (1,02) [/] . (4185,2) [/. ]. (358 308)[]
= 212427 [/]

4. Based on the type of flow, calculate Log Mean Temperature Difference, LMTD.
Diketahui :
Tci =35 [C] = 308 [K] Thi = 140 [C] = 413 [K]
Tco =85 [C] = 358 [K] Tho = 80 [C] = 353 [K]
Maka,
For counter current :
( ) ( ) (413 358) (353 308)
= ( )
= (413358)
= 322,83 []
( (353308)
)

= 49,83

5. Based of the exchanger configuration obtain the Temperature correction factor.


For 1 shell-2 tube pass exchanger
(1 2 ) (2 1 )
= =
(2 1 ) (1 1 )
For other configurations use the following charts

Temperature correction factor: two shell pass; four or more even tube 'passes.
Diketahui :
T1 =140 [C] t1 = 35 [C]
T2 =80 [C] t2 = 85 [C]

Maka,
(1 2 ) (140 80)
= = = 1,20
(2 1 ) (85 35)
(2 1 ) (85 35)
= = = 0,48
(1 1 ) (140 35)
Sehingga,
Berdasarkan pembacaan grafik diperoleh Ft = 0,95

6. Calculate the mean temperature difference.


= = 0,95 49,83 = 47,34

7. Assume overall heat transfer coefficient.


Uasumsi = 270 [W/m2.oC]
8. Calculate the provisional area.

=
.
212427 [/]
=
270 [/2 . ] 47,24 []
= 16,62 [2 ]

10. Based on the assumed tube diameter (ID and OD at a given BWG) and tube A length, L,
calculate number of tubes.
Diketahui :
Inside Diamater (di) Outside Diameter (do) Tube Length, L
A [m2] BWG
[m] [m] [m]
16,62 0,021 0,0254 14 20
Maka,
16,62 [2 ]
= = = 10,42 10
. . (3,14). (0,0254)[]. (20)[]

11. Calculate tube pitch and the bundle diameter .


1
1
= 1,25 = ( )
1
Where Nt = number of tubes.
Db = bundle diameter, mm,
do = tube outside diameter, mm.
Where K1 and n1 are obtained from the table bellow based on the type of tube arrangement
(Triangular or square pitch):

Diketahui :
Nt [buah] do[m] K1 n1
10 0,0254 0,0402 2,617
Square pitch with single-passes.

Maka,
= 1,25 = 1,25 0,0254 [] = 0,03175 []
1 1
1 10 2,617
= ( ) = 0,0254 [] ( ) = 0,21 []
1 0,0402
12. Provide/Assume the type of floating head of the exchanger and obtain the bundle diameter
clearance, BDC.
Diketahui :
Db = 0,21 [m]
Maka,
Berdasarkan pembacaan grafik diperoleh nilai BDC = 10 [mm] = 0,01 [m]

13. Calculate the shell diameter.


= + = (0,21 + 0,01)[] = 0,22 []
14. Calculate the baffle spacing.
= 0,4 = 0,4 0,22 [] = 0,0890 []

15. Calculate the are for cross-flow.


( ) .
=

(0,0318 0,0254)[]. (0,22)[]. (0,0890)[]
=
0,0318 []
= 0,003956 [2 ]

16. Calculate the shell-side mass velocity.


[/]
=

1,25 [/]
=
0,003956 [2 ]
= 315,97 [/2 . ]

17. Calculate the shell equivalent diameter.


With a square pitch.
Maka,
A square pitch arrangement :
1,27 2
= ( 0,785 2 )

1,27
= (0,03182 0,785 0,02542 ) [2 ]
0,0254 []
= 0,025 []

18. Calculate the shell-side Reynolds number


Diketahui :
Gs = 315,97[kg/m2.s]
de= 0,025 [m]
Spada T = 162,5 [C] (435,5 K) adalah 244,726 x 10-7 [N.s/m2]
Interpolasi mencari pada 1100C dari Table A5 Thermophysical Properties of saturated liquids

373 383 0,215 102


=
373 270 0,215 102 0,288 102
10 0,215 102
=
3 0,013 102
0,13 102 = 0,645 102 3
3 = 0,515 102
= 0,172 102 [. /2 ]

Maka,
(316)[/2 . ] (0,025)[]
= = = 4607,36
0,172 102 [. /2 ]

19. Calculate Prandtle number.


Diketahui :
At Ethylene Glycol
Thin =140 [C] = 413 K mc =1.25 [kg/s]
Thout =80 [C] = 353 K Cp pada T = 110 [C] (383 K) adalah 2832,36 [J/kg.K]
Interpolasi Cph : pada 110oC dari Tabel 1, ethylene glycol homologues saturated liquid specificate
temperature data (pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/je60081a027)

120 110 0.688


=
120 100 0.688 0.665
10 0.688
=
20 0.023
0,23 = 13.76 20
20 = 13.53
= 0.6765 [/. ] = 2832,36 [/. ]
Interpolasi k :
373383 263 103
=
373370 263 103 262 103

10 263 103
=
3 1 103
3x = 789 103 + 10 103

3x = 799 103

k = 266.33 103 [W/mK]

Maka,
. (0,00172) [. /2 ] . (2788,67)[/. ]
= = = 18,03
266,33 103 [/. ]

20. Obtain the shell-side heat transfer coefficient


1 0,14
= = 3 ( )

Where jh is obtained from the chart bellow :

Diketahui :
Re = 4607,36
Pr = 18,03
pada T = 110 [C] (383 K) adalah 0,172 x 10-2 [N.s/m2]

Interpolasi mencari exhaust gas (air) pada Tabel A.4


wpada T = 60[C] (333 K) adalah 467,4 x 10-6 [N.s/m2]
Interpolasi mencari wwater pada Tabel A.6

Berdasarkan pembacaan grafik pada Re = 4607,36 diperoleh nilai jh = 0,21.

Maka,
1 0,14
= 3 ( )

0,14
(0,172 x 10 2) [. /2 ]
1
= (0,21)(4607,36)(18,03) ( 3 )
(467,4 x 10 6) [. /2 ]
= 3044,88

21. Calculate the pressure drop in the shell.


2 0,14
= 8 ( ) ( ) ( )
2
Where L = tube length,
lb = baffle spacing.
Where jf may be obtained from the chart bellow
Diketahui :
DS[m] de [m] L[m] lB [m]
0,22 0,025 20 0,089

Berdasarkan pembacaan grafik pada Re = 4607,36diperoleh nilai jf = 0,6


pada T = 162,5 [C] (435,5 K) adalah 0,802 [kg/m3]
Interpolasi mencari p pada 1100C dari Table A5 Thermophysical Properties of saturated liquids
373383 1058.5
=
373370 1058.5 1066.7

10 1058.5
3
= 8.2

3x =3175.5 82

3x = 3093.5

x = 1031.2[kg/m3]

=1031.2 [kg/m3]
Maka,
2 0,14
= 8 ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0,14
0,22 [] 20 [] (1031,2)[/3 ](0,00172)2 (0,00172) [. /2 ]
= (8)(0,6) ( )( ) ( )
0,025 [] 0,089 [] 2 (0,0004674) [. /2 ]

= 12,16

22. Calculate the number of tubes per pass.


10 []
= = = 5 []
2

23. Calculate tube-side mass velocity.


[/]
=
2 /4
1,02 [/]
=
(5) (3,14)(0,021 [])2 /4
= 565,60 [/2 . ]

24. Calculate tube-side velocity.


Diketahui :
Gm = 565,60 [Kg/m2.s]
p water at 60 oC= 983,09
565,60 [/2 . ]
= = = 0,58 [/]
983,09 [/3 ]

25. Calculate Prandtle and Reynolds numbers for fluids inside tubes.
Diketahui :
0,6536 (didapat dari table A. 6 Thermophysical Properties of saturated water)
.
=

(0,000467) [. /2 ] . (4185,2)[/. ]
= = 3,01
0,6536 [/. ]
(983,09)[/3 ] (0,021)[](0,58)[/]
= = = 25412,04
0,000467 [. /2 ]

26. Calculate heat transfer coefficient hi .


If Re <2100 (Laminar flow) then
0.33
0.33 0,14
= 1,86 (. ) ( ) ( )

If Re >2100 (Transition and Turbulent)
0,8 0,33
0.7
= 0,023 . (1 + )

Or by analogy
0,14
= . 0,33 ( )

Diketahui :
L [m] kf[W/m.K] di [m] Re Pr
20 0,65 0,021 25412,04 3,01

Maka,
by analogy :
0,8 0,33
0,7
= 0,023 . (1 + )


0,6536 [ . ] 0,021 0,7
= (0,023) (25412,04). (3,01)0,33 (1 + )
0,021 [] 20
= 3425,112 [/2 . ]

27. Calculate the overall heat transfer factor.


Based on inside tubes flow
1
=
1 1 ( )


+ + 2
+ +

Or based on outside tubes flow
1
=
1 1 ( )
+ +
+ +
2

Where hdi and hdo are the heat transfer coefficients for the scales (dirt) inside and outside
tubes, respectively.

Diketahui :
hi = 3425,112
hdi = 5555,56 [W/ m2.K]
hdo = 5555,56 [W/ m2.K]
di = 0,021 [m]
do = 0,0254 [m]
kf pada water dengan T = 60 [C] adalah 0,65 [W/m.K]
. (3044,88). (0,65) [/. ]
= = = 32293,44 [/2 . ]
(0,025) []

Maka,
1
=
1 1 ( )

+ + + +
2

1
= 0,0254
1 1 (0,021)( ) 0,021 0,021
0,021
+ + (2)(0,65)
+ (0,0254)(5555,56) + (0,0254)(32293,435)
3425,112 5555,56

= 278,08[/2 . ]

Jadi, diperoleh Uperhitungan = 278,08[W/m2.K], sedangkan Uasumsi = 270 [W/m2.K].


Berarti UperhitunganUasumsi

28. Compare the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient you obtained from the previous step
with that you assumed in step 8. if it is close to what you assumed, then you had a valid
assumption, then tabulate your results such as total surface area of tubes, number of tubes,
exchanger length and diameter, heat duty and other design specification. Otherwise, use the
calculated value in step 8 and do loop until the difference between the calculated U between
two consecutive iterations is small.

29. The tube-side pressure drop may be calculated using the relation :
8 2
= (1,5 + [2,5 + + ( ) ])
2