Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

Typing area

It looks and arranged like a traditional typewriter where you press alphabetic keys. It
holds alphabetic character such as letter, special characters and numbers. This is the
area you use mostly when you do word processing.

Function keys
The functions keys are located at the top of a keyboard and grouped into four. There are
12 functions keys starting from F1 through F12. These keys are used for special purposes
and most programmers use these keys to do a specific task.

For example, if you are writing text with Microsoft Word and wanted to read Help, you
can press F1 to display the Help. F5 key will display Find and Replace dialogue box. F12
key will display Save As dialogue box.

These keys used differently again in other applications, for example, if you are a user of
AutoCAD, pressing F2 will display AutoCAD text window.

Similarly, you can check all the keys and how they carry out specific task depending on
the type of application you are running. Most applications will tell on their manuals and
guides how these functions keys are used in the applications.

Generally, functions keys will greatly benefit you if you know how to use them well. More
on computer keyboard shortcuts.

Numeric keypad
Numeric keypad is the other part of computer keyboard. Usually, it is located at the right
side of a keyboard. It is arranged like a standard calculator used to enter numerical data.

It can also be used as directional keys. Pressing the Num Lock key above the numeric
keypad will tell whether the keys are on numeric or directional mode. If it is on, it is on
numeric mode and can enter numbers. If it is off, it is on directional mode and only used
for moving a cursor on screen UP, Down, Left or Right.

Cursor and monitor controls

These are keys found between the typing keypad and the numeric keypad. It has two
groups of keys, arranged top and bottom.

The top keys holds Insert, Home, Page Up, Page Down, Delete, and End keys.

Insert key switches between insert and overtype modes. Home key brings you back at
the beginning of a page. Page Up and Page Down keys help you to move one page or
screen up or down. Delete key erases a text or page. The End key takes you at the end
of a page.

The bottom keys are independent directional keys, which let you to move the cursor Left,
Right, Up and Down. Status lights, Escape key, Print Screen/SysRq, Scroll Lock,
Pause/Break are user for frequent functions.
For example, if you press the Caps Lock on the typing keypad, the Caps Lock Status light
tells you that is on and can type Capital letters. You press Print Screen key if you want to
save the current Window as an image.

These are the parts found in standard computer keyboard and mostly used in desktop
computers. Laptop and Notebook keyboard types are more compact, but recently we are
beginning to see laptops that have dedicated numeric keypads as well.

Other than the above parts, some keyboards incorporate additional buttons. These
buttons used to activate actions such as music buttons (play, pause, forward, rewind,
stop and mute), Bluetooth, e-mail and so on.

What is keyboard?

It is one of the most important parts of a computer which is used to enter

commands, text, numerical data and other types of data by pressing the keys
on the keyboard.

A user talks with a computer through input devices such as keyboard and
mouse. Input devices are used to enter data to a computer. The entered data
then converted into machine language so that a CPU understands the data or
instruction comes through the input devices.

What is keyboarding?
Keyboarding is the activity of typing information into a computer or word processor.
Subjects to be Learned

union of sets
intersection of sets
difference of sets
complement of set
ordered pair, ordered n-tuple
equality of ordered n-tuples
Cartesian product of sets


Sets can be combined in a number of different ways to produce another set. Here four
basic operations are introduced and their properties are discussed.

Definition (Union): The union of sets A and B, denoted by A B , is the set defined

A B={x|x A x B}

Example 1: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {4, 5} , then A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} .

Example 2: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 4, 5} , then A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} .

Note that elements are not repeated in a set.

Definition (Intersection): The intersection of sets A and B, denoted by A B , is the

set defined as

A B={x|x A x B}

Example 3: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 4, 5} , then A B = {1, 2} .

Example 4: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {4, 5} , then A B= .

Definition (Difference): The difference of sets A from B , denoted by A - B , is the

set defined as

A-B={x|x A x B}
Example 5: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 4, 5} , then A - B = {3} .
Example 6: If A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {4, 5} , then A - B = {1, 2, 3} .

Note that in general A - B B-A

Definition (Complement): For a set A, the difference U - A , where U is the universe,

is called the complement of A and it is denoted by .
Thus is the set of everything that is not in A.

The fourth set operation is the Cartesian product We first define an ordered
pair and Cartesian product of two sets using it. Then the Cartesian product of multiple
sets is defined using the concept of n-tuple.

Definition (ordered pair):

An ordered pair is a pair of objects with an order associated with them. For more
rigorous definition of ordered pair. If objects are represented by x and y, then we write
the ordered pair as <x, y>.

Two ordered pairs <a, b> and <c, d> are equal if and only if a = c and b = d. For
example the ordered pair <1, 2> is not equal to the ordered pair <2, 1>.

Definition (Cartesian product):

The set of all ordered pairs <a, b>, where a is an element of A and b is an element
of B, is called the Cartesian product of A and B and is denoted by A B. The
concept of Cartesian product can be extended to that of more than two sets. First we
are going to define the concept of ordered n-tuple.

Definition (ordered n-tuple): An ordered n-tuple is a set of n objects with an order

associated with them (rigorous definition to be filled in). If n objects are represented
by x1, x2, ..., xn, then we write the ordered n-tuple as <x1, x2, ..., xn> .

Definition (Cartesian product): Let A1, ..., An be n sets. Then the set of all
ordered n-tuples <x1, ..., xn> , where xi Ai for all i, 1 i n , is called
the Cartesian product of A1, ..., An, and is denoted byA1 ... An .

Definition (equality of n-tuples): Two ordered n-tuples <x1, ..., xn> and <y1,
..., yn> are equal if and only if xi = yi for all i, 1 i n.
For example the ordered 3-tuple <1, 2, 3> is not equal to the ordered n-tuple <2, 3,

What are the different types of sets?

The different types of sets are explained below with examples.

Empty Set or Null Set:

A set which does not contain any element is called an empty set, or the null set or the
void set and it is denoted by and is read as phi. In roster form, is denoted by {}. An
empty set is a finite set, since the number of elements in an empty set is finite, i.e., 0.

For example: (a) The set of whole numbers less than 0.

(b) Clearly there is no whole number less than 0.

Therefore, it is an empty set.

(c) N = {x : x N, 3 < x < 4}

Let A = {x : 2 < x < 3, x is a natural number}

Here A is an empty set because there is no natural number between

2 and 3.

Let B = {x : x is a composite number less than 4}.

Here B is an empty set because there is no composite number less than 4.


{0} has no element.

{0} is a set which has one element 0.

The cardinal number of an empty set, i.e., n() = 0

Singleton Set:

A set which contains only one element is called a singleton set.

For example:

A = {x : x is neither prime nor composite}

It is a singleton set containing one element, i.e., 1.

B = {x : x is a whole number, x < 1}

In this lesson, we will learn

how to define sets and set notations

subsets and proper subsets
Venn diagrams and set operations
The following table shows some Set Theory Symbols. Scroll down the page for more
examples and solutions of how to use the symbols.

A set is a collection of objects, things or symbols which are clearly defined.

The individual objects in a set are called the members or elements of the set.

A set must be properly defined so that we can find out whether an object is a member
of the set.

1. Listing the elements (Roster Method)

The set can be defined by listing all its elements, separated by commas and
enclosed within braces. This is called the roster method.

B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
X = {a, b, c, d, e}

However, in some instances, it may not be possible to list all the elements of a
set. In such cases, we could define the set by method 2.

2. Describing the elements

The set can be defined, where possible, by describing the elements. This is
called the set-builder notation.

C = {x : x is an integer, x > 3 }
This is read as: C is the set of elements x such that x is an integer greater than

D= {x: x is a river in a state}

We should describe a certain property which all the elements x, in a set, have in
common so that we can know whether a particular thing belongs to the set.

We relate a member and a set using the symbol . If an object x is an element

of set A, we write x A. If an object z is not an element of set A, we
write z A.

denotes is an element of or is a member of or belongs to

denotes is not an element of or is not a member of or does not belong to

If A = {1, 3, 5} then 1 A and 2 A

This set contains only one element 0 and is a singleton set.

Let A = {x : x N and x = 4}

Here A is a singleton set because there is only one element 2 whose square is 4.

Let B = {x : x is a even prime number}

Here B is a singleton set because there is only one prime number which is even, i.e., 2.

Finite Set:

A set which contains a definite number of elements is called a finite set. Empty set is
also called a finite set.

For example:

The set of all colors in the rainbow.

N = {x : x N, x < 7}

P = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, ...... 97}

Infinite Set:

The set whose elements cannot be listed, i.e., set containing never-ending elements is
called an infinite set.

For example:

Set of all points in a plane

A = {x : x N, x > 1}

Set of all prime numbers

B = {x : x W, x = 2n}


All infinite sets cannot be expressed in roster form.

For example:

The set of real numbers since the elements of this set do not follow any particular

Cardinal Number of a Set:

The number of distinct elements in a given set A is called the cardinal number of A. It is
denoted by n(A).

For example:

A {x : x N, x < 5}

A = {1, 2, 3, 4}

Therefore, n(A) = 4

B = set of letters in the word ALGEBRA

B = {A, L, G, E, B, R}

Therefore, n(B) = 6

Equivalent Sets:
Two sets A and B are said to be equivalent if their cardinal number is same, i.e., n(A) =
n(B). The symbol for denoting an equivalent set is .

For example:

A = {1, 2, 3} Here n(A) = 3

B = {p, q, r} Here n(B) = 3

Therefore, A B

Equal sets:

Two sets A and B are said to be equal if they contain the same elements. Every element
of A is an element of B and every element of B is an element of A.

For example:

A = {p, q, r, s}

B = {p, s, r, q}

Therefore, A = B