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MANAGEMENT

MANAGERIAL DEFINITION , PROCESS , FUNCTIONS ,


ROLES AND SKILLS

Created By :

1.Muhammad Azhari dadas (1506205080)


2.NI Made Maya Devi Theresia (1506205131)
3.Ida Bagus Adi Widyatmika (1506205100)
4.Sarah Yulinar Adiputri (1506205066)
5.Damara Juarez (1506205143)

Lecturer :

I Gst. Ayu Dewi Adnyani, SE., M.Si


(19690428 199603 2 004)

FACULTY OF ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS


UDAYANA UNIVERSITY
1. The Definition Of Management
Management in business and organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of
people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and
effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and
controlling an organization or initiative to accomplish a goal. Resourcing encompasses the
deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological
resources, and natural resources. Management is also an academic discipline, a social science
whose object of study is the social organization.

More specific, Management is a knowledge that help people solve their problem with the
help from the others.

This is the definition of management based on the economist opinion:

Mary Parker Follet defines that management is an art of solving problems with the helps
from the others. *For example, a manager must manage and lead the others to reach their
goals in an organization.
Ricky W. Griffin defines that management is a process of planning, organising,
coordinating and controlling resources to reach an effective and efficient target.
Koonzt defines that management is a produtive art and based on the understanding of the
management itself.

This is a few of the management characteristics :


it is a process or series of continuing and related activities.
it involves and concentrates on reaching organization goals. In my opinion, the manager is
the person who own this characteristic the most. *Because a manager is the most important
person, beside the member of an organisations. The manager should lead and focusing
their members to reach the organisation goals.
It reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organizational
resources. *For example, a manager should lead their members to improved their work
together with anyone in the company or firm.

2. Reasons Why We Need Management


Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people
together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and
effectively. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined
as human action (including design) to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a
system. Therefore, management is needed in order to facilitate a coordinated effort toward
the accomplishment of the organization's goals.

Since most managers are responsible for more work than one person can normally
perform, a good manager delegates and integrates his or her work (or the work of others). A
manager does this by acting as a clear channel of communication within the business that he
or she serves. Good management is needed to inject motivation, creativity, discipline, and
enthusiasm into areas in which they either don't exist or they're not necessarily wanted

3. Managerial Process and Functions


Meaning of Management Process

The term management is explained in different ways. For example, it is said that
management is what management does. Here, management is explained with reference to its
basic functions which include planning, organising, coordinating and controlling. Similarly,
management is described as a process which involves various elements. Management process
is a continuous one and is run by the managers functioning at different levels. Management is
now recognised as a distinct process in which managers plan, organise, lead, motivate and
control human efforts in order to achieve well defined goals. In fact, process means a series
of activities/operations undertaken/conducted for achieving a specific objective. Process is a
systematic way of doing things. For example, in a factory there is a production process.
Similarly, in the management process, resources and human efforts are used in an orderly
manner for achieving specific objectives. The management process suggests functions to be
performed by the managers.

Definition of Management Process

1. According to D. E. McFarland, "Management is the distinct process by which the


managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organisation through systematic,
co-coordinated and cooperative human efforts.
2. According to Gemp R. Terry, "Management is a distinct process consisting of planning,
organisisng, actuating, and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish objectives
by the use of people and other resources".

Luther Gullic gave a new formula to suggest the elements of Management Process i.e. basic
functions of management. According to him, management process may be indicated by the
word "PODSCORB. Here, P' states for 'planning'. "O" for 'organising', "D" for 'directing',
"S" for 'Staffing', "CO" for 'Coordinating, "R" for 'Reporting' and "B" for 'Budgeting'. Gullic
coined the word "PODSCORB" to suggest seven functions of management.

The following figures show the management process and the elements involved:
Elements of Management Process

1. Planning: Planning is the primary function of management. It involves determination of a


course of action to achieve desired results/objectives. Planning is the starting point of
management process and all other functions of management are related to and dependent
on planning function. Planning is the key to success, stability and prosperity in business. It
acts as a tool for solving the problems of a business unit. Planning plays a pivotal role in
business management It helps to visualize the future problems and keeps management
ready with possible solutions.

2. Organising: Organising is next to planning. It means to bring the resources (men, materials,
machines, etc.) together and use them properly for achieving the objectives. Organisation is
a process as well as it is a structure. Organising means arranging ways and means for the
execution of a business plan. It provides suitable administrative structure and facilitates
execution of proposed plan. Organising involves different aspects such as departmentation,
span of control delegation of authority, establishment of superior-subordinate relationship
and provision of mechanism for co-ordination of various business activities.

3. Directing (Leading): Directing as a managerial function, deals with guiding and instructing
people to do the work in the right manner. Directing/leading is the responsibility of
managers at all levels. They have to work as leaders of their subordinates. Clear plans and
sound organisation set the stage but it requires a manager to direct and lead his men for
achieving the objectives. Directing function is quite comprehensive. It involves Directing
as well as raising the morale of subordinates. It also involves communicating, leading and
motivating.
Leadership is essential on the part of managers for achieving organisational objectives.

4. Staffing: Staffing refers to manpower required for the execution of a business plan.
Staffing, as managerial function, involves recruitment, selection, appraisal, remuneration
and development of managerial personnel. The need of staffing arises in the initial period
and also from time to time for replacement and also along with the expansion and
diversification of business activities. Every business unit needs efficient, stable and
cooperative staff for the management of business activities. Manpower is the most
important asset of a business unit. In many organisations, manpower planning and
development activities are entrusted to personnel manager or HRD manager. 'Right man
for the right job' is the basic principle in staffing.

5. Coordinating: Effective coordination and also integration of activities of different


departments are essential for orderly working of an Organisation. This suggests the
importance of coordinating as management function. A manager must coordinate the work
for which he is accountable. Co-ordination is rightly treated as the essence of management.
It may be treated as an independent function or as a part of organisms function.
Coordination is essential at all levels of management. It gives one clear-cut direction to the
activities of individuals and departments. It also avoids misdirection and wastages and
brings unity of action in the Organisation. Co-ordination will not come automatically or on
its own Special efforts are necessary on the part of managers for achieving such
coordination.

Importance of Management

1. Optimum utilisation of resources: Management facilitates optimum utilisation of available


human and physical resources, which leads to progress and prosperity of a business
enterprise. Even wastages of all types are eliminated or minimized.

2. Competitive strength: Management develops competitive strength in an enterprise. This


enables an enterprise to develop and expand its assets and profits.

3. Cordial industrial relation: Management develops cordial industrial relations, ensures better
life and welfare to employees and raises their morale through suitable incentives.

4. Motivation of employees: It motivates employees to take more interest and initiatives in


the work assigned and contribute for raising productivity and profitability of the enterprise.

5. Introduction of new techniques: Management facilitates the introduction of new machines


and new methods in the conduct of business activities. It also brings useful technological
developments and innovations in the management of business activities.
6. Effective management: Society gets the benefits of efficient management in terms of
industrial development, justice to different social groups, consumer satisfaction and
welfare and proper discharge of social responsibilities.
7. Expansion of business: Expansion, growth and diversification of a business unit are
possible through efficient management.

8. Brings stability and prosperity: Efficient management brings success, stability and
prosperity to a business enterprise through cooperation among employees.

9. Develops team spirit: Management develops team spirit and raises overall efficiency of a
business enterprise.

10. Ensures effective use of managers: Management ensures effective use of managers so that
the benefits of their experience, skills and maturity are available to the enterprise.

11. Ensures smooth functioning: Management ensures smooth, orderly and continues
functioning of an enterprise over a long period. It also raises the efficiency, productivity
and profitability of an enterprise.

12. Reduces turnover and absenteeism: Efficient management reduces labour turnover and
absenteeism and ensures continuity in the business activities and operations.

13. Creates sound organisation: A dynamic and progressive management guarantees


development of sound Organisation, which can face any situation - favorable or
unfavorable with ease and confidence.

14. Controlling: Controlling is an important function of management. It is necessary in the case


of individuals and departments so as to avoid wrong actions and activities. Controlling
involves three broad aspects: (a) establishing standards of performance, (b) measuring
work in progress and interpreting results achieved, and (c) taking corrective actions, if
required. Business plans do not give positive results automatically. Managers have to
exercise effective control in order to bring success to a business plan. Control is closely
linked with other managerial functions. It is rightly treated as the soul of management
process. It is true that without planning there will be nothing to control It is equally true
that without control planning will be only an academic exercise Controlling is a continuous
activity of a supervisory nature.

15. Motivating: Motivating is one managerial function in which a manager motivates his men
to give their best to the Organisation. It means to encourage people to take more interest
and initiative in the work assigned. Organisations prosper when the employees are
motivated through special efforts including provision of facilities and incentives.
Motivation is actually inspiring and encouraging people to work more and contribute more
to achieve organisational objectives. It is a psychological process of great significance.

16. Communicating: Communication (written or oral) is necessary for the exchange of facts,
opinions, ideas and information between individuals and departments. In an organisation,
communication is useful for giving information, guidance and instructions. Managers
should be good communicators. They have to use major portion of their time on
communication in order to direct, motivate and co-ordinate activities of their subordinates.
People think and act collectively through communication. According to Louis Allen,
"Communication involves a systematic and continuing process of telling, listening and
understanding".

The very survival of an enterprise depends on its management. Ineffective management leads
to disastrous consequences. According to George Terry, "Ineffective management cuts at the
very roots of economy of an enterprises. This suggests the importance of efficient
management. In brief, management occupies a unique position in the functioning of business
enterprises. Its importance and positive role is accepted in all sector-private, public, joint and
co-operative. Management is like a human brain. It is an integral aspect of business itself.
The importance of management is not fully realised in many developing countries. The
economic progress of western countries is not merely due to abundant material resources but
because they are efficiently managed and utilised. In other countries, resources are not
utilised fully and properly due to lack of managerial skills. This suggests that management is
a key factor in the working of business enterprises. There is no substitute to efficient
management. An inefficiently managed business enterprise has no place in the present
complex and competitive business world groups.

4.Management Roles and Skills.


Managerial Roles

To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. A
role is an organized set of behaviors. Henry Mintzberg (1973) has identified ten Sub roles
common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups:
interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows:

1. Informational roles
2. Decisional roles
3. Interpersonal roles

1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information
as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, which managers often perform:
a. Monitor-collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the
organization.
b. Disseminator-communicating information to organizational members
c. Spokesperson-representing the organization to outsiders

2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be subdivided in to the
following:
a. Entrepreneur-initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance
b. Disturbance handlers-taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation
c. Resource allocators-allocating human, physical, and monetary resources
d. Negotiator - negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders
3. Interpersonal roles : This role involves activities with people working in the organization.
This
is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be
categorized
under three subheadings:
a. Figurehead-Ceremonial and symbolic role
b. Leadership-leading organization in terms of recruiting, motivating etc.
c. Liaison-liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities.

Management Skills

A manager's job is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties
and activities associated with being a manager. What type of skills does a manager need?
Robert L. Katz (1974) found that managers needed three essential management skills

1. Technical
2. Human
3. Conceptual

Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require
some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job.
Vocational and on the job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill.

Human Skill : This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both
individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns.
People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skills, may face
difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquire the Human Skill, it is pertinent to
recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ability to motivate others even in adverse
situation, and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way.

Conceptual Skill : This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a
feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best
available option. A mark of a good leader is to be able to provide consistent motivation to his
team encouraging them to attain excellence and quality in their performance. A good leader is
always looking for ways to improve production and standards. Here are six management
skills you can develop as a leader in working to create a quality effective team.

1. Observation
This is an important aspect that often gets neglected due the demands on a leader's time and
schedule. Observation and regular visits to the work environment are a priority and should be
scheduled into the calendar. Observing employees at work, the procedures, interaction and
work flow is foundational to implementing adjustments to improve results. To have
credibility, a leader needs to be seen and be known to be up to date with what is happening in
the work place.

2. Monitor Employee Performance


Employee performance needs to be monitored in mutually accepted ways. Policies and
procedures need to be clear. Conferencing should be on a regular basis and not just when
there is a problem. Assessments and evaluations should not be merely all formality or viewed
a necessary paperwork to be done and filed away. Individual and group conferencing should
be undertaken not only to monitor performance, but with the expectation of on going
professional development and support. There should be frequent encouragement and clear
criteria for on going goals both for the group and individual.

3. Implementation of Professional Development Programs


A good leader evaluates weaknesses and provides training and development strategies to
strengthen the weaker skills in the team.

4. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and Expertise


Good leadership comes from a place of strong knowledge and experience of the production
and process leading to results. If a leader does not possess all the expertise and knowledge
personally, then regular consultations with experts involved in the departments should be
held. This is important in order to maintain an accurate and informed overall picture.

5. Good Decision Making


Good leadership is characterized by the ability to make good decisions. A leader considers all
the different factors before making a decision. Clear firm decisions, combined with the
willingness and flexibility to adapt and adjust decisions when necessary, create confidence in
the leadership.

6. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research


On going review and research is vital in order to keep on the cutting edge in business. While
managing the present to ensure on going excellence in product and performance, a good
leader is also able to look towards the future. Conducting and evaluating research is an
important way of planning and being prepared for the future.

Excellent leadership is always pro active rather than reactive. By developing these six
managerial skills builds a solid foundation for success.