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What is an organization and what characteristics do organizations share?

An organization is a group of people who work together to accomplish a certain target.

Organizations have common characteristics like
1. Goals: an organization is formed to achieve a certain objective. For example, an advertising
agency is set up to advertise clients products and gain profit out of it.
2. People: an organization is made up of people who make up the organization and play
different roles to carry out their duties and achieve the goals. For example, the advertising
agency will have graphic designers to perform the work in the agency.
3. Structure: All organizations need to have a management structure that the hierarchy of the
members, to decide the relationship between the members and to assign different people to
complete different tasks.

Duties define the manager. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Discuss the roles
of managers.
I agree with the statement. Managers are in charge of planning, organizing, leading, and
controlling to achieve the goals of the organization.
Planning: Firstly, the organizational goals must be identified. The goals can be divided into
smaller targets that have to be achieved weekly, monthly and yearly. The manager has to devise
a plan to map out the things that have to be done to achieve those goals. For example, the
organization wants to increase the number of sales in a month. Hence, the manager has to plan
for advertising techniques. He or she also need to do have an alternative plan. Once the plan has
been outlined, steps can be taken to delegate the tasks to the employees.
Organizing: The managers needs to delegate the tasks to the right people to ensure that the
tasks are competed well and on time. This depends on the plan that has been drafted before. The
manager must also ensure that tasks can be done well by the employees by ensuring that the
sources needed to enact the tasks are available.
Leading: A good manager must lead the team to achieve the goals. Firstly, the manager must
lead by example (be professional and committed to the work given). The manager must also
maintain good communication with the employees, motivate them by acknowledging their
contribution to the team and manage the conflict in the team without being biased.
Controlling: It is important to keep track of the teams progress in achieving the target. The
manager must ensure that the tasks are completed according to the stipulated deadline and take
corrective actions if desired results are not obtained from the employees under him or her.

In todays environment, which is more important to organizations-efficiency or

effectiveness? Explain your choice.
Being effective and efficient are imperative to a healthy organization. Effectiveness deals with
the completion of tasks with regards to the objectives that are to be reached. Efficiency on the
other hand is the performance of individuals on handling jobs with minimal costs and still
yielding profitable amounts of products.
Are there any differences between the managerial functions in a profit organization and a
non-profit organization? Explain.
No there is not. Whether it is for profit or not, both organizations are still established to work
towards some goal and the same management functions need to be applied in order to reach the
targets set.
Using any of the popular business perodicals, find examples of managers doing each of the
four management functions. Write up a description and explain how these are examples of
that function.
Organization exists to achieve some objectives therefore the four managements functions are the
ways to achieve it which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
According to Brad Cleveland, head of Proto Labs, every Tuesday he usually focus on hottest
project of the moment, which could be the planning of a new Japan facility or negotiation of a
new banking relationship (Forbes, 2013). This demonstrates the manager is planning something
for the benefits of the organization. Planning comprises of defining goals, establishing strategy
and developing subplans to coordinate activities.
Next, Lisa Zaslow, founder of Gotham Organizers, New York City-based professional
organizers, stated that organized people would have a clear sense of what is important (Fast
Company, 2015). Lisa and her team set their goals, priorities and eliminate all unnecessary stuffs
to save time and energy. They then decide what needs to be done and assign taskforces to
achieve the goals. This falls under the second management function which is organizing.
The third management function is leading which includes directing and coordinating the work
activities of an organization's people. For instance, Jennifer Currence, president of OnCore
Management Solutions, a performance solutions consulting company, is creating a workforce in
which their performance is based on their outputs, not the hours they work. Hence, there is more
flexibility in the workplace. So the management is focusing more on the communication aspects
and relationship management with the organization's people (Fast Company, 2017).
Lastly, the function of management is to control. As a result, any activities can be monitored to
ensure that they are accomplished as planned. For example, Dell Computer managers from every
functional area in every plant or office around the world gather in customer-advocate meetings
every Friday to discuss about customers' dissatisfaction on their products so they can come up
with solutions to overcome it (Harvard Business Review, 1996).

Consider your local greengrocer. Discuss how managers of such small business can adopt
Mintzbergs ten managerial roles to run their business.
Managers of small businesses can adopt Mintzberg's ten managerial roles to run their businesses
by firstly, performing interpersonal roles such as being a figurehead. A manager has social and
legal responsibility. People will look at him or her as a person with authority. For example, by
attending employees wedding, greet visitors and ribbon cutting ceremony. Next, a manager is
also a leader to the group of employees where the managers are responsible in directing and
overseeing the activities of the employees. They must hire, train and motivate the employees.
Mintzberg says that a manager is also the liaison in which he establishes and maintain contacts
within and outside the business such as involvement in meetings and business correspondence.
Furthermore, a manager carries out informational roles as a monitor, disseminator and
spokesperson. He will monitor the needs of the business by searching for new information
through attending seminars, reading articles and browsing the internet. Consequently, the
information acquired have to be disseminate to others in the organization by informing the others
verbally or physically like memos. Apart becoming a disseminator, a manager will have to be the
spokesperson. He will transmit information to outsiders through participation in meetings.
Lastly, a manager will execute decisional roles which entail making decisions or choices. These
roles are entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. As an
entrepreneur, he constantly explore new ideas and initiate projects for improvements of the
business. Usually, there are always risk of unwanted circumstances to happen to the business
therefore the manager who is also the disturbance handler can help to mitigate it. He deals with
the problems and takes corrective measures. For example, settles conflicts between the
employees under him and critical situations in the business. Next, manager is the resource
allocator in which he will set where the resources will go such as approval of budget or plans.
Then, the manager can be a negotiator to deal or bargain with other parties, such as potential
customers, according to the business interest. (Elferra)

Business is changing over time, which requires management methods to evolve. What are
the factors that contribute to management changes?
Managers play an important role in organizations and should be aware of the factors that affects
their respective departments. The main factor is divided into two parts which is external
environment and internal environment.
External environment Mainly caused by political, technological, social and economic stimuli
which is not part of the organizations and is difficult to control.
Internal environment Management policies of a particular organization , style, system and
procedure which is part of the organization. Easier to handle and manipulated.
Organization-wide change is used as a base to understand the concept of organizational change.
It opposes to smaller changes such as the recruitment of a new member , change of program, etc.
Organization-wide change includes restructuring operations, change in mission or goal, new
technologies being implemented and new programs such as Total Quality Management.
Managers should control the flow and understand the changes that are being implemented to
reach a particular goal. These changes take place for the betterment.
Is there one best style of management? Why or why not?
Since we are dealing with interpersonal relationships it all comes down to how the employers
runs the show and how they manage the welfare of employees. There is no best style as
different organizations run their management differently which favors the direction or purpose of
the company.
Basically you have the manager. These people who take up the role of managers have strong
leadership skills and knows how to handle situations under pressure. They have their own style
of leading a team and some other style would not suit them. That doesnt mean that managers
should not learn new styles but it is just that it wouldnt be effective and they wont be
comfortable resulting in inefficiency of accomplishing a goal.
Second, there are those who are being managed. Different employees have different attitudes and
personality, therefore managers should approach different employees with different styles.
Different people are motivated in different ways so managers should understand their employees
to create a conducive environment.
Third, the workplace and the nature of the work might vary. For an example, the manager of a
team of researchers might be able to use a consensus-building style to guide the team, a hockey
coach is probably not going to successful in implementing the same style to a group of players as
there are two different aspects.
In what ways can managers at each of the four levels of management contribute to
efficiency and effectiveness?