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UNITY UNIVERSITY

DEPARTEMENT OF CIVIL & MINING ENGINEERING


INTERNSHIP REPORT

Hosting Company: -MGM CONSULT PLC

Name of Student: - Ephrem Beyene


Student ID.No.: - UU57397R

Submission Date: - July, 10, 2017


Internship Report MGM CONSULT PLC

Declaration

The undersigned student, declare that this report is an original work and has not been presented in
any other university, and that all sources of materials used for the report have been duly
acknowledged.

Student

Name Signature

Ephrem Beyene

Advisor

Name Signature

Feysel Nesru

Unity University Ephrem Beyene


Department of Civil Engineering i 2017
Internship Report MGM CONSULT PLC

Acknowledgement
First and for most I would like to thank God for everything he did for me. And next Unity
University and the department of civil and mining engineering for giving me the chance to see and
correspond what is theoretical with that of the actual practice at site. My gratitude also goes to
MGM CONSULT, the supervisors, the site engineers, other stuff members and all workers for
helping me in everything I needed, giving me advice and sharing their knowledge willingly
especially Mr. TEWODROS.
Finally, I would like to thank my mentor Mr. FEYSEL NESRU, for his kindly cooperation and
advice throughout the internship period.

Unity University Ephrem Beyene


Department of Civil Engineering i 2017
Internship Report MGM CONSULT PLC

Summary
I have been working in the construction company for the past four months. & this internship
program has increased my practical knowledge on the construction management field plus it
helped me to develop the practical skills that I should have in order to become a competent
engineer in the practical world.
The final report covers the overall things I have covered through the four-month internship
while staying in MGM CONSULT. Since I have been working in the office and site I have tried
to list down all the tasks that I have been accomplishing & also I have tried to give the brief history,
the mission, the current location & the organizational structure of MGM CONSULT.
So on the part of the overall experience, I briefly write especially the office work which I have
been doing and what I have seen & learnt from the office. As we all know this internship encourage
not only your practical & theoretical skills but also many things like developing your
communication skills, team playing skills, leadership skills, work ethical related issues and
practical skills. Throughout this internship program I was able to develop those skills too.

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List of figures
Fig 1.0 company organization and work flow ............................................................................................... 2
Fig. 1.1 projects done by the company ......................................................................................................... 3
Fig 2.0.0 bulk excavation based on depth classification (directly from BOQ) .............................................. 8
Fig 2.0 bulk and pit excavation together with footing pads ......................................................................... 9
Fig 2.1 pit excavation made in row ............................................................................................................... 9
Fig 2.2: Back fill under retaining wall .......................................................................................................... 10
Fig. 2.2 compaction of backfill for bulk excavation .................................................................................... 11
Fig. 2.3 slump test cone .............................................................................................................................. 17
Fig 2.4 slump cone ...................................................................................................................................... 17
Fig. cubic boxes for sample taking .............................................................................................................. 18
Figure 2.3 Reinforcement of footing pad. ................................................................................................... 19
Fig 2.4: concrete casting for footing pad ................................................................................................... 19
Fig.2.5 Column formwork with chute at the top( the pannels serve as chute). ......................................... 20
Fig.2.6 the foundation of basement wall after concrete is casted ............................................................. 21
Fig.2.7 shows grade beam and the top 100 mm slab being casted ............................................................ 22
Fig.2.8 formwork for suspended slab ......................................................................................................... 23
Fig.2.9 stair formwork and rebar ................................................................................................................ 24
Fig 2.10: rebar placed on site ( also shows improper handling of rebar) ................................................... 25
Fig.2.11 beam rebar cage ............................................................................................................................ 26
Fig.2.12 slab rebar with kebelato................................................................................................................ 26
Fig.2.13 column section at different locations ........................................................................................... 27
Fig.2.14 column rebar on site ..................................................................................................................... 27
Fig.2.15 section of typical shear wall .......................................................................................................... 28
Fig 2.16 Fixing of formwork ........................................................................................................................ 30
Fig. Edge beam formwork definitions ......................................................................................................... 31
Fig. interior beam formwork definitons...................................................................................................... 31
Fig.2.17 elements of column formwork ...................................................................................................... 32
Fig. componenets of slab Formwork........................................................................................................... 33
Fig 2.18: Grade beam .................................................................................................................................. 34
Fig 2.19 Hard Core....................................................................................................................................... 38
Fig 2.20 Suspended slab & bar arrangement .............................................................................................. 39
Fig 2.21 Typical takeoff sheet ..................................................................................................................... 41
Fig 2.22 Bar schedule .................................................................................................................................. 42
Figure 2.23, slab analysis excel template.................................................................................................... 45
Figure 2.24, meanings of a,b and c. ............................................................................................................ 45
Figure 2.25, stair design template. ............................................................................................................. 46
Figure 2.26, ETABS 9.7.4 window................................................................................................................ 46
Fig. 2.27 Live loads from EBCS-1-1995 ........................................................................................................ 47
Fig. 2.28 Earthquake parameters calculation ............................................................................................. 47
Fig 2.29, Typical floor plan of building ........................................................................................................ 48
Fig 4.1: Block A, Block B and Block C building in 3D ..................................................................................... C

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Table of Content Page


Submission Date: - July, 10, 2017 ................................................................................................... i
Declaration ....................................................................................................................................... i
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................... i
Summary ......................................................................................................................................... ii
List of figures ................................................................................................................................. iii
Table of Content ............................................................................................................................ iv
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................. 1
Background of the company ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1 company History ............................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Vision ............................................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Mission ............................................................................................................................................ 1
1.4 Main objectives ............................................................................................................................... 1
1.5 Companys Organizational Structure and Work flow ..................................................................... 2
1.6 STATEMENT OF QUALITY POLICY .................................................................................................... 2
1.7 QUALITY OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................................ 3
1.8 Project Experience .......................................................................................................................... 3
CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................ 4
OVER ALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE ................................................................................... 4
2.1 How I got into the company................................................................................................................ 4
2.2 Section of the Company I Have been working in ................................................................................ 5
2.3 The work flow in the section ............................................................................................................... 6
2.4 Work task I have been executing ........................................................................................................ 6
A. Sub- Structure Work ......................................................................................................................... 6
2.4.1 Site work ...................................................................................................................................... 6
2.4.1.1 Earth and excavation work ................................................................................................... 6
2.4.1.1.1 Preparation of the project site ....................................................................................... 7
2.4.1.1.2 Site clearance ................................................................................................................. 7
2.4.1.1.3 Bulk excavation .............................................................................................................. 7
2.4.1.1.4 Pit excavation ................................................................................................................. 9
2.4.1.1.5 Backfill .......................................................................................................................... 10
2.4.1.1.5 Cart Away ..................................................................................................................... 11
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2.4.1.2 Concrete work ..................................................................................................................... 11


2.4.1.2.1 Concrete work for footing pad..................................................................................... 18
2.4.1.2.2 Concrete work for foundation column ........................................................................ 19
2.4.1.2.3 Concrete work for basement wall (retaining wall) ...................................................... 20
2.4.1.2.4 Concrete work for grade beam .................................................................................... 21
2.4.1.2.5 Concrete work for basement slab ................................................................................ 22
2.4.1.2.6 Concrete work for suspended slab .............................................................................. 23
2.4.1.2.7 Concrete work for stairs............................................................................................... 23
B. Super Structure Work ..................................................................................................................... 24
2.4.1.4 Reinforcement work ........................................................................................................... 24
2.4.1.4.1 Rebar for Beam ............................................................................................................ 25
2.4.1.4.2 Rebar for slab ............................................................................................................... 26
2.4.1.4.3 Rebar for column ......................................................................................................... 27
2.4.1.4.3 Rebar for Shear wall ..................................................................................................... 28
2.4.1.5 Form work ........................................................................................................................... 28
2.4.1.5.1 beam formwork ........................................................................................................... 31
2.4.1.5.2 column formwork ........................................................................................................ 31
2.4.1.6 Structural elements in terms of construction and supervision .......................................... 33
2.4.1.6.1Beam work .................................................................................................................... 33
2.4.1.6.2. Elevation Column and Shear wall work ...................................................................... 36
2.4.1.6.3. Hard core and ground floor slab work ....................................................................... 37
2.4.1.6.4. Suspended slab .......................................................................................................... 38
2.4.2 Office work ..................................................................................................................................... 41
2.4.2.1Take off .................................................................................................................................... 41
2.4.2.2Design office works .................................................................................................................. 42
2.4.2.2.1work division among different professionals and design process ................................ 43
2.4.2.2.2Project I am assigned .................................................................................................... 48
2.5 How I was performing my task ......................................................................................................... 49
2.6 Challenges I faced on the site ........................................................................................................... 49
2.7 Measurements taken to overcome site challenges .......................................................................... 49
2.8 challenges I faced while designing the building ................................................................................ 50
2.8.1 Remedial measures for building design challenges ................................................................... 50

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CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................... 51


Benefits I gained from the Internship ........................................................................................... 51
3.1 Practical Skills .................................................................................................................................... 51
3.2 Theoretical Knowledge ..................................................................................................................... 52
3.2.1Ms. Project .................................................................................................................................. 52
3.2.2 Cut logic...................................................................................................................................... 53
3.3 Interpersonal communication skills .................................................................................................. 53
3.4 Team Playing Skills ............................................................................................................................ 53
3.5 Leadership Skills ................................................................................................................................ 54
3.6 Work Ethics Issues............................................................................................................................. 54
3.7 Entrepreneurship skills ..................................................................................................................... 55
CHAPTER FOUR ......................................................................................................................... 56
CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION ......................................................................... 56
4.1 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................... 56
4.2 Recommendation .............................................................................................................................. 57
References ..................................................................................................................................... 58
Appendix ........................................................................................................................................ A

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CHAPTER ONE

Background of the company


1.1 company History
MGM Consult is a multi-disciplinary firm of consultants providing professional services in a wide
range of Civil Engineering Works. The Firm is established in 1997 as sole proprietorship and
shifted to Private Limited Company in 2004 and has grown to be a diversified Ethiopian
Engineering Firm. It is one of the best Engineering-Consulting Firms in the country. Initially
MGM was oriented towards Building Designs, but demand, staff capabilities and equipment have
grown to the point where MGM is providing professional services in all of the principal fields of
Civil Engineering. The Companys head office is located in Addis Ababa on Haile Gebresellasie
Street, IPS Building 5th floor conveniently situated to cater for its Clients needs. MGM is
registered and licensed under the existing authorizing agency to carry out the design and
consultancy works and to provide services in a wide range of Architectural and Engineering work
projects. MGM has successfully carried out the Design & Supervision of Building, Stadium,
Bridge and Road Projects for governmental and nongovernmental bodies in Ethiopia,
Uganda & Rwanda.

1.2 Vision
To become the primary firm in the construction sector by executing projects in a safe and timely
manner to deliver outstanding results for its stake holders.
1.3 Mission
To design and supervise quality buildings, roads, bridges and others with proficiency that meet the
required standards by creating strong links with in the construction industry to produce and supply
industrial products necessarily in building construction both for national and international markets
through strong manpower and begin to undertake projects at an international level.
1.4 Main objectives
Play active developmental role in the construction sector
Expanding into the design of railways and bridges
Establishing joint- venture investment projects with various international companies with
emphasis on construction related areas.
Attaining high levels of professional and technical efficiency while keeping pace with the eve
revolving technological advances in the industry.

MGM Consult provides consultancy services for Consultations, Investigations, Design, Contract
Administration and Supervision, Calculation, Preparation of Economic and Technical reports of
civil work projects.
A comprehensive range of services are offered in the following sectors:
Building Engineering
Road Engineering
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Bridge Engineering
Contract Administration
Hydraulic Engineering
MGM offers its clients the benefits of its CAD service providing AutoCAD capabilities with the
use of various design soft-wares. The CAD, ARCHICAD, Eagle point & SDR Mapping
Technology is used in all facets including the drafting and design of buildings, roads & bridges.
The structural design for all building and bridges is performed using advanced software packages
such as SAP2000 V14, ETABS Non-linear Version 9.01, Auto-STAAD pro and a systematic use
of Excel-2010 spread sheet in post processing to ensure maximum safety, economy and reliability.
1.5 Companys Organizational Structure and Work flow
Any companys success highly depends on the organization of the staff and proper management.
The design team consists of professional engineers who are hardworking, driven and dedicated to
every project they are assigned to. MGM has a core team of senior executives with over 10 years
of experience. MGM has a clearly defined hierarchy that has proven to be efficient. The resident
engineers and site supervisors take full responsibility of the projects they are assigned to. They
execute decisions with absolute confidence. They have a work ethic that creates a harmonic
relation with contractors and clients. These and other factors assure the companys success
throughout the years.

Fig 1.0 company organization and work flow


1.6 STATEMENT OF QUALITY POLICY
MGM accepts quality as a factor of development to become more competitive. It recognizes
that its strength, reputation & success depend upon competent professional practice &
involvement of its employees, customers and stakeholders.
The Top Management of MGM CONSULT PLC is committed to providing the highest quality.
Consultancy Services in Architecture & Engineering to our customers by:

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Consistently meeting and exceeding our customer's expectations for consultancy quality an
D performance based on ISO 9001-2008;
Timely delivery of services to meet our customer's requirements;
Continuous improvement of our processes, and systems from feedback of our customers & personnel;

Ensuring our personnel & affiliated companies are properly trained so they are better able
to serve our customers.

1.7 QUALITY OBJECTIVE

To develop, implement and improve ISO 9000 quality management system in design &
construction service in 2016

To increase total annual revenue by 20% every year

1.8 Project Experience


MGM has almost 16 years of experience in the construction sector. Throughout this time, it
has developed a reputation of quality service and timely completion of projects. This has made
it an ideal consultancy firm that is in high demand by the government and private companies
as clients. Mentioning every executed work throughout these years would be very tedious. A
summary of some of the ongoing and completed projects is shown under the firms Reference
attached.
Some slides are shown below as well.

Radisson Blu Hotel Varnero Real Estate

Fig. 1.1 projects done by the company

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CHAPTER TWO

OVER ALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE


2.1 How I got into the company
When the internship paper is given to us, I searched to find willing companies by my own and I
come across one company namely MGM consult. Its office is located in Haile Gebresellasie Street,
IPS Building which is very close to my campus. Also its easy for transport and more importantly
I knew that I could get good knowledge in different aspects of construction and office work.
MGM consult is the company consulting the office building for Arada sub city. Since the
construction site is large I assumed that I can learn practical and theoretical aspects of building
construction from this site, so I applied to MGM consult and particularly asked if I can be assigned
to Arada sub-city office building. And I was granted my request to joint Arada sub-city office
building.
At the beginning of internship period I went to the hosting company and meet the general manager.
He ordered the secretory to write me a paper which addresses the contractors at the site and which
informs them that I would be staying at the site for four months as an internship student. And
kindly requested them to give me the necessary cooperation. Other than what the secretary wrote
I was asked to bring the request paper from unity university and some qualifications. And I was
ordered to go to the site with the above requests and the letter wrote by the secretary.
The next day I came to the site with the requests made by the general manager. The site
engineer(inspector) examined all the papers and saw that all are illegible. After that he immediately
started showing me around. In the consultant part only two engineers are available, the inspector
and resident engineer. Since I meet the inspector he introduced me with the resident engineer.
Other than the consultant engineers, on the site, there are also contractors engineers (AFROSION
CONSTRUCTION) and the clients representative engineers from housing. The site inspector
introduced me with both of the above parties and told me that I need to work with them since the
work to be accomplished by him is limited to checking both what is done in paper and practice.
So I started to get along with both parties to gain more knowledge.

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2.2 Section of the Company I Have been working in


One thing I need to mention here is that I was assigned to the site on the consultant side. The
consultant engineers available at the site are supposed to check the work done by the contractor to
see if it meets the specifications and checking the takeoff sheet prepared by the contractor and
allowing payment and all kinds of inspection and material testing works. The consultant engineers
arent allowed to do takeoff sheet, planning and scheduling and other contractors works.
So I asked the site inspector (consultant engineer) to ask the contractors concerned party to let me
work on their side since more practical knowledge could be found with them. In compliance with
my request the site inspector notified the contractor in written letter to let me work on their office
and I joined them. After that I start working with both the contractors and the consultant engineers
which allowed me see both the office and site aspects.
Other than the above point I need to state some other points to. This day due to large number of
internship students, companies are being forced to make shifts in order to entertain as much
students as possible. Due to this I was assigned to work two or three days a week on the site. This
would cause me to be idle on the rest of the week days. In order to avoid this situation, I asked
other companies to allow me to work the rest of the week days and I was accepted at one of the
places I applied, Merid belay General contractors. So I also spent some of my internship time
working as a design engineer at this office. I will describe what I did here on detail on other
section.
On the company (contractor side) there were two working sections, office and site. I was placed
in the site as an assistant site engineer and in office as assistant office engineer. Both are the only
place where I can develop and improve my practical skills. Starting from the time when I first went
in to the construction site my supervisor gave an orientation about the whole systems of the site.
In addition to the construction site He advises me where I will be and what I will do during my
four-month internship period. After we discussed this thing I reconnaissance what type of works
were done in the site. There are also different works during my reconnaissance time to mention
profile work, excavation and earth work, reinforcement work, and footing pad, hardcore work,
concrete work and HCB work. etc. Work places or tasks that I have been executed during my
internship period were divided in to two parts. These are:
A. Site work

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B. Office work
A. Site work
In the site work practically I observe site clearing, setting out(partial), earth and excavating work,
structural works i.e. (footing pad, footing column, beam and elevation column), masonry work,
hard core work, suspended slab working, checking and supervising concrete ratio/mix/ etc.
B. Office work
In the office work I have been work on different parts such as:
- Takeoff analysis
- Reports
- Preparation Schedule
- Checking balance of material in bar schedule (optimization)
- Read contract document, proposals, etc
From each part of work, I tried to understand some basic working principle and some relation
between data collector and office engineer.

2.3 The work flow in the section


The flow of work starting from daily laborers up to the site engineers was very good. They perform
their tasks in cooperation and commitment. I was able to observe an inspiring commitment of
doing their tasks even in overtime hours.
The work flow in the office was going smoothly as I explained above, the Office Engineer
sometimes grouped us in different teams and we were given different assignments on a team and
individually. For example, we did plenty of assignments like preparing steel re-enforcement
schedule for the whole structure, preparing take off sheet for super and sub structure, both internal
and external block work, and preparation of bill of quantity.

2.4 Work task I have been executing


2.4.1 Site work
A. Sub- Structure Work
2.4.1.1 Earth and excavation work
All civil engineering work will involve some form of earth and excavation work. Most civil
engineers agree that earth work and excavation work could be used interchangeably but strictly
speaking we can say that earth work includes excavation, hauling and other process. In general
earth work includes the following components:

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2.4.1.1.1 Preparation of the project site


This is the first stage in construction work. At this stage the site is prepared as follows:
Fencing the site with appropriate sheet
Clearing the site
Dewatering if any water exists
Preparing place for storing construction material,
Preparing place for office.
Preparation of toilets
As per the contract agreement the contractor is supposed to prepare office for the consultant
engineers which includes toilet and other facilities. So the contractor will prepare office for his
own and for the consultant.

2.4.1.1.2 Site clearance


Site clearance is one type of excavation that is used to prepare the site for work. Site clearing
is necessary since the top soil most of the time is composed of organic material and humus from
pants and animals together with non-decomposable materials which is not useful for the
construction and should be removed.
While we do site cleaning we have to clear and remove top soil to an average depth of 200mm
according to the specification stated in the bill of quantities. Trees, bushes, tones and other
unnecessary things must be removed while clearing the site. During excavations if we face public
pipe lines, sewer lines as much as possible we must shift the pipes unless if difficult we change
the site.
One special condition for trees I have to mention is that trees with diameters, which is taken at 1m
height from the ground, less than 20 mm are not considered as trees and the contractor will not
receive any payment for the removal of them.
While performing site clearing an allowance of 1m is added on all sides and the contractor will be
paid for this extra space if he included it in the work.
The other controversial issue is that from where should site clearing be take. Here there are two
opinions
From footing edge
From the buildup area
Both are acceptable. But the former is more in quantity than the latter.
And the unit we use to measure site clearing is 2 ( )

2.4.1.1.3 Bulk excavation


The term bulk is defined as the (large) size or quantity of something by oxford advanced
learners dictionary, we can extend it to engineering bulk excavation means any excavation
activity which yields large volume of soil, earth or rock.
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Bulk excavation is done when: -


the terrain of the ground is not leveled i.e. when there is elevation difference on the site
where the building is going to rest,
when the design dictates the presence of basement
when clay or poor bearing capacity soil is present, we perform bulk excavation to balance
the overburden pressure with the new superstructure load (buoyancy principle)
Bulk excavation is measure in 3 . And it is identified from pit excavation by its size. We can state
that the maximum size of isolated footing to be used is around 4m, above this mat would be
preferred and most designers would agree, so based on this we can say that the maximum size of
pit excavation is 4x4 and variable depth. But bulk excavation is any excavation with size larger
than 4m on one of its sides. And this is to generalize not to be exact.
The payment for bulk excavation is made based on depth from the surface. And according to this
on our site the depth from the surface are classified into:
1. EXCAVATION & EARTH WORK
1.01 Site clearing to remove the top soil to an average
depth of 20 cm for ordinary soil
1.02 Bulk excavation in ordinary soil to a depth not
exceeding 1500mm from reduced level.
1.03 Ditto as item No. 1.02, but in soft rock .
1.04 Ditto as item No. 1.02, but in boulder rock .
1.05 Ditto as item No. 1.02, but in hardrock .
1.06 Ditto as item No.1.02 but over 1500mm not
exceeding 3000mm.
1.07 Ditto item No. 1.06, but in soft rock .
1.08 Ditto item No. 1.06, but in boulder rock .
1.09 Ditto item No. 1.06, but in hardrock .
1.10 Ditto as item No.1.06 but over 3000mm not
exceeding 4500mm.
1.11 Ditto item No. 1.10, but in soft rock .
1.12 Ditto item No. 1.10, but in boulder rock .
1.13 Ditto item No. 1.10, but in hardrock .

Fig 2.0.0 bulk excavation based on depth classification (directly from BOQ)

The depth is a critical factor since machinery output decreases as we go deeper and even shallow
depths could be done by daily laborers for cheap price while large depths necessarily dictate the
use of excavators.

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Fig 2.0 bulk and pit excavation together with footing pads
2.4.1.1.4 Pit excavation
pit, the word itself, is defined as a Deep hole in the ground according to oxford advanced
learners dictionary. And even according to engineering its an excavation done with length and
width the same as that of the isolated footings (with working space of 0.25 m) and depth
according to the necessary requirements such as bearing capacity of soil.
Pits are made for each isolated footing shown on basement(ground) floor slab, column, and
foundation layout drawing. And the payment is made for the volume that is excavated only for
the isolated footing and may be with the working space included. But sometimes excavating
individual holes in the ground with the help of machinery is less economical than excavating the
entire row of pits, so contractors follow the later method in order to reduce machinery cost.

Fig 2.1 pit excavation made in row


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Procedure
Check bulk excavation depth
Set out the position of each pit
Fix sibago (local term)
proceed the necessary pit excavation for row of isolated footings with excavators

2.4.1.1.5 Backfill
Back fill means replacing excavated soil by selected material from another place or from previous
excavation from the same site and compacting the new soil. Compaction is necessary to achieve
firm strata with less voids.
We can perform compaction using two methods
- Hand compaction
- Machinery compaction
The former is used when we are working on small scale projects and the latter for projects with
more consideration is necessary.
While compaction is performed, regularly water is sprinkled over the soil that is being compacted.
Water is necessary to attain maximum dry density. The attainment of maximum dry density is later
checked by sand replacement or any accurate method.
Fills that are required at the site mostly are:
Fill around footing
Fill around masonry
Fill below hard core

Fig 2.2: Back fill under retaining wall

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Fig. 2.2 compaction of backfill for bulk excavation

One consideration that should be made while performing backfill and compaction is column
alignment. During heavy compaction most of the time the alignment of columns might be
disturbed. In order to avoid this problem, use less compaction force from machine around column
and compensate with hand compaction.

2.4.1.1.5 Cart Away


The removal of surplus material from the project site, which is generated from bulk, pit and trench
excavation together with the cleared material from the site, is called cart away.
The unnecessary material from our project site is removed using dump trucks. Since the current
regulation for dump trucks states that they cant start movement till after 4:00 local time, most of
the cart away was done after this time or night shifts.

2.4.1.2 Concrete work


2.4.1.2.1 concrete definition, types, and properties
Concrete is the most essential part of any project in the current practice. All construction work
greatly need concrete.
Concrete is stone like material obtained artificially by hardening of mixture of cement, sand, inert
aggregate materials (fine and course) in a predetermined amount. Setting of concrete is achieved
due to the chemical reaction between cement and water. The water cement ratio required for
complete chemical reaction is about 0.25.the reaction between cement and water is relatively slow
and requires time and favorable temperature for its completion. The strength of concrete depends
up on the quality of its ingredients, their relative quantities and manner in which they are mixed,
compacted and cured.

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Concrete is very important for the structural elements as in beams, slab, column, retaining wall,
concrete pavement, shear wall etc.
Concrete is selected because of its unique advantages such as;
Concrete is highly resistance to compressive force
It is highly resistance to fire
It is good insulator
Easily molded into any shape
Water proof, if it properly mixed, vibrated, chiseled and plastered.
Two types of concrete could be observed in any site:
- Lean concrete
- Reinforced concrete
Lean concrete
Lean concrete is concrete of 5mm thick with class, C-5 with minimum cement content of 150kg/m3
of concrete. Approximately at ratio of 1:5:7. Lean has the following advantages;
o Advantages of Lean Concrete
It protects all sub-structure element from extra moisture
It acts like hard stratum
It prevents the soil particles that are present under sub-structure from any relative
movement.
o Common lean concrete is placed under
Footing pad
Grade beam
Floor slab
Masonry foundation
Retaining wall.

Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced concrete is composite material made of concrete and steel. Plain concrete possesses
high compressive strength, but little tensile strength which makes it week in bending, shear,
torsion. use C-30 for shear wall and column and C-25 for beams, floor slabs, retaining walls and
foundation. The ratio of concrete in 1:2:3 (100kg, cement: two box of sand: three box of
aggregate) the size of box is 40x50x16 cm for C-30 and 40x50x18 cm for C-25.
Reinforced concrete is more advantageous than lean concrete because of its high strength in both
tension and compression. In RC the steel provides the tensile strength and concrete provides the
compressive strength.

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The tensile stresses developed in the section are transferred to reinforcing steel by bond between
the interfaces of the two materials.
Reinforcing steel and concrete may work readily due to the following reasons;
- Bond between the bars and surrounding concrete prevents slip of the bars relative to the
concrete.
- Proper concrete mixes provide adequate impermeability of concrete against bar corrosion
- Sufficiently similar rates of thermal expansion for the two materials introduce negligible
stresses between steel and concrete under temperature changes.

2.4.1.2.2Materials for production of concrete


Water

Water is an important ingredient of concrete as it actively participates in the chemical reaction


with cement. Water has two advantages in concrete mix. These are it reacts chemically with cement
and it lubricates all other materials and makes the concrete is workable.
Since water helps to form the strength giving cement paste, the quality and the quantities of water
required is to be looked very carefully. Generally, the water used for drinking is suitable for
making good concrete. use of sea water for mixing concrete may increase the risk of corrosion;
however, this risk is reduced if the rain forced has sufficient cover and if the concrete is water tight
and contains an adequate amount of entrained air. Thus, water to be used in concrete should be
free from the following substances such as Sugar, Carbonates, Silt, and Algae etc.
Cement

Cement Portland cement is a finely ground material consisting primarily of compounds of lime,
silica, alumina, and iron. When mixed with water, it forms a paste which hardens and binds the
aggregate to form a hard durable mass called concrete. In my site they used ordinary Portland
cement (OPC), because the OPC have a good quality than (PPC).
Aggregates

Sand, gravel, and crushed stone are the aggregates most commonly used in concrete to provide
volume (as a filler material) at low cost. The selection of the aggregate to be used is very important
in making concrete. The characteristic of the aggregates greatly influence
- The properties
- Mix proportion
- Economy
Test on Sand (Jar test)
Jar test is conducted to check if sand is free from silt. In order to perform this test, only need a bottle
used for water containment (for example the bottom of yes water). And follow the following procedure
i. Pour some water in the bottle
ii. Put the sand sample in the bottle
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iii. Sake well until all the silt and sand are separated
iv. Leave the bottle until all the sand and silt are settled
v. Measure the height of silt and height of sand and compare with the standard.

Test result

Pure sand, silt and water form a layer respectively upward.

Measure the thickness of the total sample (H), without disturbing the settled
sample.

Measure the thickness of the silt (h).

Then to find the silt content find the percentage of the silt as;


% = 100%

Where, volume of silt = ( 2 ) h

Volume of sample = ( 2 ) H


Therefore % = ( ) 100

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% if this value is greater than 7% it is recommended to reject the sand or give


solutions like washing the sand until percentage of silt content becomes in the allowable range,
which is below 7%.

Admixture
Admixture is a chemical additive used to enhance some characteristics of concrete. Some of the
types of admixture are:
- Super plasticizer
- Accelerators
- Retarders
- Water reducing admixtures
- Etc.
2.4.1.2.3 Concrete Mixing
Mixing of materials is essential for the production of uniform concrete. Mixing should ensure
that the ingredients of concrete become homogenous, uniform in color and consistent.
The design of concrete mixtures (mix design) involves the determination of the most economical
and practical combination of ingredients to make the concrete workable in its plastic stage and to
make it develop the required qualities when hardened. Generally, a properly designed concrete
mix achieved three objectives. These are: workability of the fresh concrete, required quantities of
the hardened concrete and the economy.
There are two methods adopted for concrete mixing. These are:
Hand mixing _Practical for small scale concrete works
Machine mixing _ obviously it gives better and uniform mixes than hand mixing and
generally recommended. The size of mixer used on the site is 700lt.
It is seen from experiment that the strength of concrete will increase with increasing time of
mixing, but for mixing time beyond 2 min, the important in compression strength is not very
significant.
-
2.4.1.2.4Working with concrete

Placing of Concrete

Once the concrete arrives at the project site, it must be delivered to its final positions without
segregation. Placing could be through different techniques. The following are common placement
techniques
- Using chute to place it from higher to lower place
- Using crane and bucket to place it from lower to higher place

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- Pumps to places unreachable by crane


Vibration of concrete
During casting of concrete, it should be thoroughly vibrated so as to form a dense homogeneous
mass properly worked around embedded fixtures, reinforcements and into the corners of the
formwork and also to avoid the air void in the concrete that results during pouring. Any vibration
methods, however, shouldnt cause any disturbance or movement of the formwork or location of
the reinforcement.
The casted concrete has to be left undisturbed by any movements or thrusts while setting at least
for 12hours. If the concrete is not vibrated well the concrete segregate and result poor concrete
finish.

Curing

The curing time may depend on concrete type, the type of the structural element and environment
of the working station. There are two setting times of concrete namely, initial setting time and final
setting time. The former one is setting time from placing of concrete up to dismantling of the
formwork. It is 24 hrs for columns and beams. The final setting time is the time from dismantling
of formwork to the final setting of concrete. It is 28 days for all structural elements since concrete
attains its full strength on 28s day.
Tests on Concrete
Two important things should be checked to see the adequacy of concrete. One is slump test, which
checks workability of fresh concrete, and the other is cubic test, which checks whether the desired
strength of concrete is attained.
I. Slump test
Slump means to fall or sit down heavily according to oxford advanced learners dictionary and this
definition goes exactly what we asses with the engineering slump test. Slump test is used to
measure workability or consistency of concrete mix. Before we go into some details lets introduce
the equipment used for slump test

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Fig. 2.3 slump test cone


Slump test Is done a piece of instrument called the slump cone. And its dimensions according to
ASTM standard is shown below:

10 cm

30 cm

20 cm

Fig 2.4 slump cone


The procedures that are followed to perform slump test are
Place the cone on a steel plate and check if it is level with wuha leke (local term)
Obtain test sample from mixer
Put the sample in the leveled cone, with small layers increment compact with iron rode
Once filling the cone is done slowly pull the slump cone out and place it beside the slump
Measure the height of fall and check if it is within the allowable limit
If we get a higher slump value, then the mix is exhibiting more water and if we get a lower
slump value then the mix is lacking water and normally we should get an intermediate value
say between 40 and 80 without admixture.
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II. Cube test


Cube test is a common method used to measure the cubic strength of concrete samples taken from
the site. Since EBCS-2-1995 states all design strengths based on Cubic strength its common
practice to perform cubic test than its contemporary cylindrical test.
Cubic test is done using an apparatus with 15cmx15cmx15cm size and its shown in the figure
below.

Fig. cubic boxes for sample taking

The procedure used to perform cubic test is:


Level the apparatus using wuha leke
Obtain sample from concrete mixer
Place the sample in the apparatus with specified layer and compact with iron rod
After the box is filled leave it till it sets
After it sets dismantle the apparatus and sink the cubic boxes in water
After 7 days take the samples to laboratory to check the 7-day strength and repeat this
after 28 days.

2.4.1.2.5Concrete work for footing pad


The grade of concrete for footing pad is C-25 and it was placed using both pump and crane. And
the following procedure summarizes the procedure of concrete placing
After pit excavation is done lean concrete is placed on the place where the footing is going
to rest
Formwork is fixed
Rebar for footing is prepared and brought to its location
Then the concrete is placed after checking

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Figure 2.3 Reinforcement of footing pad.


Concrete footing pad: my site use C-25 for footing pad and ratio 1:2:3, 100kg OPC cement, 2
box of sand and 3 box of aggregate. (OPC is very much expensive than PPC, but its fast setting
time makes it very usable in the current construction.)

Fig 2.4: concrete casting for footing pad


2.4.1.2.6 Concrete work for foundation column
After the completion of footing pads, the formwork for the column is fixed. The formwork for
column as would be discussed later is composed of krachere, stanga and kravat and all this words
are local words derived from Italian language.
Then the concrete for the column is casted using crane since its very difficult to reach a level
below ground or above ground without cranes. And the crane would move a bucket which in the
locality is called bagony and the daily laborer would fix a cute at the top of the column formwork
to facilitate the movement of concrete from the bagony into the column.
And the column is vibrated after a consecutive of 20 cm fills of concrete (this is based on the
experience of the site engineer and the specifications).
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Fig.2.5 Column formwork with chute at the top( the pannels serve as chute).
2.4.1.2.7 Concrete work for basement wall (retaining wall)
Basement wall or retaining walls are provided when large depth bulk excavation is undertaken and
the upstanding soil mass needs something to keep it in place.in the site what one can observe is
that the provision of basements requires the provision of retaining walls.
In most sites retaining walls are made to start from grade beams or ribbed mat girders in order to
be more economical. But in our site the design dictates that the retaining walls should be provided
with their own strip footing. And we can say that they exactly act as cantilever retaining wall.
To cast the concrete of retaining walls the first step is:
excavating in a kind of trench manner to arrive at the desired level.
Placing the side formworks of the foundation for basement wall
Placing the rebars of the foundation for basement wall
Placing rebars for the stem of the wall
Then pouring concrete into the foundation first
Then while performing column concrete the stem is also done together

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Fig.2.6 the foundation of basement wall after concrete is casted


2.4.1.2.8 Concrete work for grade beam
Grade beams are kinds of beams which serve as tie or connecting beam for foundation columns.
Most of the time, due to the presence of expansion joint, they dont participate in the load transfer
mechanism of the basement slab.
In the site I have been working in the thickness of grade beam is very overwhelming, its about
600mm and the width is 300 mm. they are placed between each column to tie them together.
To cast the concrete of grade beam we follow the following steps:
Provide lean concrete at the bottom of the beams
Fix the side formworks of the beams (they only need side formwork since they are
provided with lean concrete at the bottom)
Fix the rebars
Fill concrete using your mechanism till you reach 500 mm since the top 100 mm is
integrated with the basement slab.
Place selected fill and hardcore till you reach 500 mm
Cast the remaining concrete of the beam together with the basement slab

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Fig.2.7 shows grade beam and the top 100 mm slab being casted
2.4.1.2.9 Concrete work for basement slab
The slab on ground (basement slab) serves as parking when the building starts serving function.
The way we cast the concrete of basement slab is:
Once the column between the basement and ground floor together with the retaining
walls at the outer perimeter are fixed we pour the concrete of the basement slab
except one third from the basement wall (this is to make the basement wall and the
slab monolithic

Fig.2.8 Basement slab with one third left for monolithic casting

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2.4.1.2.10 Concrete work for suspended slab


Suspended slabs need more complex formwork fixing than the basement slabs discussed above.
The formwork constitutes of probes, I beam, plywood or panel (or any appropriate formwork).
This part would be discussed in more detail later. The daily laborers fixing formwork are called
carpenters (Anasi in local terms)

Fig.2.8 formwork for suspended slab


Once the formwork is fixed the rebar for the suspended slab is placed with the help of the bar
benders the concrete is casted using either pumps or crane.

2.4.1.2.11 Concrete work for stairs


The concrete work for stair composed of:
fixing a formwork for soffit slab
fixing formwork for landing slab
fixing formwork for steps (for risers)
placing the rebars projecting from the floor slab in appropriate manner
placing rebar for steps, landing and soffit slab according to the drawing
check
cast

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Fig.2.9 stair formwork and rebar


B. Super Structure Work
2.4.1.4 Reinforcement work
Reinforcement work is common for both sub and super structure. But for super-structure work it
takes much of the economy and time. Rebar work is composed of
Purchasing the appropriate quantity of bar from market
Transporting the purchased bar using lobbad
Placing in appropriate manner in the site
When time comes the bar benders(ferayo) will start bending and cutting into
appropriate shapes
Using steel wires fixing main bars with stirrups (if beam and column)
Then placing the prepared bars into the appropriate place (this could be done by
hand or by crane)
The most common types of reinforcement are hot-rolled round deformed bars. The closely spaced
rib shaped surface deformations of the reinforcing bars provide a high degree of interlocking of
the two materials.

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Fig 2.10: rebar placed on site ( also shows improper handling of rebar)
The steel observed at site is available in the form of round bars and steel wire. The rounded bars
are used as main structural elements and steel wires are used for ting of bars together or with
formwork.
The bending of reinforcement bar is done with adequate bending tools bar; heat is strictly not
allowed for bending of reinforcement bars. The required bars are placed in position according to
the drawings, and firmly bound together with pliable mild steel wire, diameter 1.0-1.6mm in
accordance with the standard technical specification.

2.4.1.4.1 Rebar for Beam


rebar for beam is provided so that it can carry the bending, shear and torsional forces developed in
beams. Their provision is purely governed by the above internal actions.
To prevent bending longitudinal bars are provided and to prevent shear stirrups are provided.
- Longitudinal bars with different length and shapes are prepared as per the drawing
- Stirrups are also prepared following the structural drawings
- The longitudinal bars and the stirrups are tied together using steel wires. The stirrups are
placed on the longitudinal bars according to the spacing provided on the structural drawing
- Then the reinforcement cage is moved from the place of preparation to its actual location
either by crane or daily laborers.

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Fig.2.11 beam rebar cage


2.4.1.4.2 Rebar for slab
The slab rebars follow the same procedure of preparation as that of the beams but here we dont
provide stirrups. And the bars for slabs are bend and cut in the shape they are needed and placed
at the necessary location using cranes or daily laborers.
The other important aspect of slab rebar is that it needs a holder bar that can fix the top bars in
location. Since rebars are slender they need support mechanism to stay in place. For this matter
we provide kebelato (holder) to achieve this.

Fig.2.12 slab rebar with kebelato

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2.4.1.4.3 Rebar for column


Elevation Column is super-structural part of a building which is a vertical member that support
vertical, horizontal and moments coming from the beam, slab, stair and other member of the
structure and transfer it to the sub structure i.e. foundation.
The rebar for column is placed like a rebar cage (longitudinal and stirrups). For column the
rebars are placed as shown in the figure below (section of column on our site).

Fig.2.13 column section at different locations


As we can see from the section in addition to tie bars(stirrups) the column is provided with bars
that provide even more confinement (As we can from the figure they are bars labeled number 5).

Fig.2.14 column rebar on site

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2.4.1.4.3 Rebar for Shear wall


shear walls are composed of a little bit complicated rebar systems. Their cutting bending and
transporting of rebar is the same as that of column.
The figure below shows typical section of shear wall rebar. Each rebar will have a significance in
resisting some form of internal actions and each should be prepared and placed with a great care
since the shear wall carries both elevators and incase of large earthquakes loads from earthquake.

Fig.2.15 section of typical shear wall


2.4.1.5 Form work
The form work is temporary construction material used as a mold, in which concrete is placed
and harden and mature in it. When the concrete has reached the required strength the form work is
no longer needed and is removed.
The operation of removing form work is called striping. After stripping the removed formwork
is reused for another structural element. These kinds of form works are mainly called panels.
Form work may be steel or wooden material of any desired shape. We use steel formworks of
rectangular and circular shapes of different sizes and I was told by the site engineer that wooden
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form work has disadvantages, like possibility of warping, swelling and shrinkage of the timber. In
order to prevent this, we have provided impermeable coating. Steel form work is comparatively
costly but it has many advantages.
it can put to high numb
it provides easy of striping
it ensures an even and smooth concrete surface
it possesses great rigidity
it is not liable to shrinkage or distortion
Requirements of good form work
A good form work should satisfy the following requirements:
The material of form work should be cheap and suitable for reuse.
It should be water proof so that it does not absorb water from concrete.
It should be strong enough to withstand all coming loads (dead load of concrete and live
load during pouring etc)
It should be stiff enough so that deflection is minimum
It should be as light as possible.
The surface of form work should be smooth to afford easy stripping.
Fixing form work
I observed how much they care while fixing form works. It should be properly fixed to avoid
loss of concrete material and unwanted shape on the structure. Proper fixing also minimizes great
chiseling to remove the unwanted shapes. The foremans check that the form works fixed for
elevation columns are vertical enough by using plumbing bobs.
Before the column, beam or slab is cast the carpenter foreman check the necessary thing like
Vertical and horizontal alignment for column
The level of the panel for the grad beam
Any defects on the panel
The cleanness of formwork &its greasing by gas

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Fig 2.16 Fixing of formwork


Removal of formwork
Formwork will be carefully removed without shock or disturbance to concrete. No formwork
will be removed until the concrete has gained sufficient strength to with stand safety any stress to
which it may thereby be subjected.
In normal circumstances (temp. above 20 degree Celsius) and where ordinary cement is used,
forms may be struck after expiry of the following periods.
Formwork Removal with Out Admixture
Vertical formwork to columns, walls & Beams 16 hours
Soffit formwork to slab 21 days
Props to slab 14 days
Soffit formwork to beam 21 days
Props to beam 14 days
Formwork Removal with Admixture
Vertical formwork to columns, walls & Beams 16 hours
Soffit formwork to slab 7 days
Props to slab 7 days
Soffit formwork to beam 7 days
Props to beam 7 days
Procedure when removing the formwork- all formwork shall be removed without such
shock or vibration as would damage the reinforced concrete. Before soffit and struts are removed,
the concrete surface shall be exposed, where necessary in order to ascertain that the concrete has
sufficiently hardened.
Tolerances- formwork shall be constructed that the internal dimensions are within the
permissible tolerance specified by the designer.

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2.4.1.5.1 beam formwork


The formwork for beam is composed of
- Side formwork (one with full beam depth and other with beam depth minus slab depth)
- Soffit formwork
- Probes (also known as cresty)

Fig. Edge beam formwork definitions

Fig. interior beam formwork definitons


2.4.1.5.2 column formwork
The formwork for column is composed of
Krachery
Stanga
Krabat

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The panel or plywood

Fig.2.17 elements of column formwork

2.4.1.5.3 suspended slab formwork


Suspended slab is composed of the following formwork elements.
1. Plywood: -Ensures quality surface finish and is especially recommended in works where large
exposed areas of the concrete are to be constructed such as floor slab, faces of retaining and
shear walls, etc. Made from timbers with size (2.0*1.0) m

2. I beam: - serves as a support for the plywood and make horizontally align surface for the
plywood.

3. Props: - they are vertical members that made from steel and they are the main parts of the
formwork as they support the plywood and I beam loads in other way they support all the loads
transfer from plywood to beam and from beam to the prop.

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Fig. componenets of slab Formwork

Erection procedure for slab and beam formwork

First prop was erected on the ground. Then I beam laid at the top of the erected props. After I beam
was laid the props pined on the ground by using a nail. Finally, the plywood is laid on I beam and
pined it by using a nail.
2.4.1.6 Structural elements in terms of construction and supervision
2.4.1.6.1Beam work
A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending.
The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own
weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment.
Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry loads from slab
horizontally. The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, which then transfer the force
to adjacent structural compression members.
- Construction:
The construction of beam is the same as the case of column, but in this case the form work is set
up in the horizontal direction, while in the case of column it is laid vertical. The placing,
compacting and curing processes are the same.

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Generally, in the beam construction the main thing is the appropriate overlap place of top and
bottom bar based on structural plan. I have tried to see the top bar overlap on the mid span and the
bottom bar overlap on the support.

Fig 2.18: Grade beam


The General procedures are as follows;
Element of structure: Intermediate beam/Grade Beam
Methodology
check the proceeding work acceptance
then prepare the reinforcement as per the design (length, type, diameter, and cut, bent...)
prepare the formwork and assemble them around the beam with the required clear cover
by providing spacer of the right thickness
place the prepared reinforcement on their position as per the design
then it is ready to be casted after check the alignment

Supervision
- Before casting
- During casting

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- After casting
A. Before casting
conformity of the formwork with approved formwork design
cleanliness, smoothness and treatment with release agent for the surface of formwork
conformity with the approved formwork design i.e. dimension, shape, strength, method
of fixing, rigidity, bracing detail and method of removing the formwork
reinforcement diameter, number and overlap length (40 times diameter of the
reinforcement) should be cheeked
position of overlap of reinforcement as per the design
stirrup spacing should be cheeked
check provision of spacer (type, shape, dimension, spacing and method of fixing it to
maintain the required concrete cover)
check stock balance (volume of required material for the required concrete volume)
man power
equipment
B. During casting
A. cheek the availability of enough man power and machineries
B. the appropriate use of vibrator
C. cheek the mix ratio (1:2:3) and the mix itself
D. Way of the execution of the work (way of mixing, way of placing, distance the concrete
travel...)
C. After casting
Cheek the time frame for the removal of formwork (16 hr)
Proper curing (7days)
Cheek if there is segregation
Check if there is bulging of the beam
Maintenance and handling of executed works

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2.4.1.6.2. Elevation Column and Shear wall work


A column and shear wall are constructed at the site of the project; they may be pre stressed or not
according to the need. The supporting structure is built (i.e. form work) to the correct dimensions,
in order to make the column and shear wall fit. The in situ concrete columns and shear walls are
built on the building site using form.
The reinforcing bars are positioned with in the form work according to the drawing before the
concrete is poured in.
Bottom and the sides of the form work, so that when the concrete sets it completely envelops the
reinforcement.
The form work is commonly built from wooden & steel planks and boards, rigid plastic, or steel.
After the concrete has set the wood will be removed. Finally, I have tried to see the checking up
of column to column distance based on plan dimension by the supervisor. Generally, the following
procedures are taken by consultant supervisor and site engineer.
Elements of structure: Elevation Column and shear walls
Since it is a concrete structural element the necessary inspection for quality of the concrete and the
way it is being executed.
Methodology
The reinforcement with the correct height, size and arrangement as per the design are
assembled.
Then the formwork fixed in position around the assembled column reinforcement with
specified clear cover as per the design
After that it will be filled with concrete (in simple word it is casted)
Supervision
A. before casting
B. during casting
C. after casting
A. before casting
stirrup spacing should be cheeked it depends on the design (the stirrups spacing depends
on the diameter of longitudinal bar and location from the bottom of story)
reinforcement diameter and overlap length (40 or 50 (depending on the steel grade used)
times diameter of the reinforcement) should be cheeked

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the quality of formwork (cleanliness, smoothens and treatment with release agent for the
surface of formwork)
conformity of the formwork with the approved formwork design
grout tightness and sufficiency of rigidity to prevent disturbance due to pressure of
concrete, effect of vibrator and other load
provision of spacer with the required dimension
provision of opening for maintaining pouring height of concrete without segregation
the vertical and the horizontal alignment of the columns should be checked by any method
approved by the engineer (here in our case with tumbi (plumb bob)
column height should be checked
column spacing should be cheeked
stock balance should be checked (that means the quality and quantity of the materials
required to execute the required concrete volume)
Here I Would like to show you a typical elevation column before it is casted and after the formwork
is prepared
B. During casting
cheek the availability of enough man power and machineries
the appropriate use of vibrator
cheek the mix ratio (1:2:3) and the mix itself
Way of the execution of the work (way of mixing, way of placing, distance the concrete
travel from the mixing station to the casting station etc...)
C. After casting
cheek the time frame for the removal of formwork (16 hr)
proper curing (7days)
cheek if there is segregation

2.4.1.6.3. Hard core and ground floor slab work


Hard core: -When back fill is done under hard core, hard core us 250mm thick basaltic stone
well rolled consolidate and blinded with crushed stone. Almost the back fill done at site is by
material excavated from site

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Fig 2.19 Hard Core


Hard core is filling of stones between grade beams and when it filled with concert it becomes
ground floor slab. The grade beam size in our site is 60cm deep. For a given 60cm deep Grade
beam size the 15cm should be covered with selected material which is compacted using compacter.
The 30cm will be filled with a stone/hard core/ having angular shape in its top part to bring good
bond with the concert. Stone chips should be added to fill large openings between the stones to
minimize concert consumption. After this minimum reinforcement is provided at the top of the
hard core and finally the rest 10cm is filled with concrete.
Generally, when hardcore work is done I control weather the selected material is compacted or
not, whether the stones are placed in their proper dimension and shape, whether the blinding work
is done well or not. After these procedures are fulfilled the concrete filling process is performed.

2.4.1.6.4. Suspended slab


Element of structure: suspended slab

Here in our site there is: solid slab and we use solid slab only at the whole part of the building.
Methodology

the vertical wooden supports for the beam and for precast assembled in place with
sufficient spacing (0.5-1m)
put the reinforcement (meshes and the main beam reinforcement as per the design)
Execute the necessary works such as sanitary, electric, etc... works
then we can cast the slab with thickness as per the design
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Fig 2.20 Suspended slab & bar arrangement


Supervision
A. Before casting
B. During casting
C. After casting
A. Before casting
submittal of form work design
conformity with approved formwork design: dimension, shape, strength, method of fixing,
rigidity, bracing detail, detail for false work, method of removing the form of detail at
joints (slab thickness waist)
submittals of shop drawing showing diameter, spacing, number, lengths, method of tying
and bending dimension of main reinforcement bar in accordance with the drawing
cleanliness of all reinforcement bars (free from dirt, paint, oil, rust and other foreign
substance)
reinforcement overlap location and length to be as shown in the drawing
attention for position of the reinforcement in cantilever section (presence of bar
fixer(kebeleto) during placing of concrete for correction and positioning of reinforcement
during placing of concrete)
provision of PVC pipes on the outlet position of the toilet seats to avoid further chiseling
type of material to be used for form work
method used to treat the formwork to prevent adherence of concrete (coating with oil or
any other release agent)

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cheek whether or not the effect of cambering is considered


Check the entire sanitary, electrical etc... works that are executed in that particular slab
B. During casting
cheek the availability of enough man power and machineries
the appropriate use of vibrator
Cheek the mix ratio (1:2:3) and the mix itself (way of mixing, way of placing ....)
Way of the execution of the work (way of mixing, way of placing, distance the concrete
travel...)
C. After casting
cheek the time frame for the removal of formwork (after 28 days for bottom supports and
after 16hr for side supports)
proper curing (21days)
cheek if there is segregation
Check the way of handling the executed works

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2.4.2 Office work


2.4.2.1Take off
Take off is the process of reading appropriate dimensions from drawings and putting them in
appropriate table format in order to go on with further computation and on site the dimensions are
obtained from actual measurement. The quantities that are needed in the work or the materials that
are going to be incorporated in a construction activity are first of all read off or "taken off" from
the drawings in conjunction with the specifications and other relevant documents. This process of
reading drawings and calculating the amount of material these quantities are calculated in a
specially prepared tabular format, as to aid accurate preparation and enable checking /rechecking
or adjusting of amounts and correcting errors if any. These special formats are called Take off
Sheet

1 2 3 Description
Concerete work in ribbed slab Foundation
1. C25 concerete in footing pads
F2( 1.5x1.5x0.35)
3 1.5
1.5
0.35
2.3625 m3 in F2
F3( 1.7x1.7x0.45)
6 1.7
1.7
0.45
7.803 m3 in F3
Fig 2.21 Typical takeoff sheet
The column with number 1 is called timising column and its used when the same types of
elements (same in terms of length, width and height) are encountered. Its purpose is to state how
many times the given quantity appears on the drawing.
The column with number two is called dimensioning column. And its function is to place what
we have taken off from the drawings in to the takeoff sheet. The internationally accepted
placement of dimensions is, First length, second width and third height or depth. (length and
width could be interchanged according to the interest of the quantity surveyor).
The column with number 3 is called squaring column. Here is the product of the first and and
second column are placed. (only product is allowed)
While using takeoff sheet the last column with heading Description is used when some form of
explanation is need to say, where the length, width or height come from, when some
mathematical operation like squaring or the square root of a number are taken, to place drawing
to be more explicitly and generally anything in the interest of the quantity surveyor that he/ she
thought is very descriptive of what is done. This column is frequently used by experienced
peoples to avoid confusion and to make inspection of errors very easy.

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BAR SCHEDULE
Total length in meter for different diameter of bars
Number
Number
Length of of bars in
Location Dia. of bar Shape of bending of the RC 6mm 8mm 10mm 12mm 14mm 16mm 20mm 24mm 32mm
one bar one
members
member

F2 12 1.9 8 3 45.6

F3 12 2.3 11 6 151.8

F4 12 2.3 16 3 110.4
Total length of bars(m) 0 0 0 307.8 0 0 0 0 0
Weight per meter length (kg/m) 0.22212 0.39488 0.617 0.88848 1.20932 1.57952 2.468 3.55392 6.31808
Total Weight of bars (kg) 0 0 0 273.4741 0 0 0 0 0

Fig 2.22 Bar schedule

lengthy and repetitive procedures that are very difficult to put in the takeoff sheet format shown above
are done in bar schedule. Bar schedule is especially important while dealing with the rebar for different
structural elements.
In order to fill out the above table properly the following steps should be taken.
Identify the type bar present
Then calculate the number of bars present based on the spacing and the length on which
these bars are placed
Calculate on how many members these bars are present on a single floor system
Then calculate the total length by multiplying the total number of bars with the length of
single bar
Now based on predetermined conversion factor we can calculate the total mass of bar in
kilograms.

2.4.2.2Design office works


One of the places I have worked is a consultant office found around bole (since the main site I
was working with allows students to work in a 3 days per week schedule I was trying to
avoid idle time by working in other office). The owner of the firm is one of my teachers in
unity university. His name is Merid belay. For the last 4 years he had taught me strength of
material I, Theory of structures I and integrated civil engineering Design I. from all this courses
he had given me enough to influence me to follow the building industry.
In general, the engineer is very experienced with many to give on the subject of structural design
and even construction technology. For the last 25 or 26 years he was working in different
engineering firms gaining both knowledge and wisdom. I was lucky enough to work with him
since my practical experience as a student is very limited.

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The office he owns is a general consulting office working on structural Design, supervision and
when possible even construction. The office is found on B and C building around bole. The
office consists of a draftsman, structural Engineers and a construction manager. Each of which is
concerned with different tasks which I would explain later.

2.4.2.2.1work division among different professionals and design process


In a typical design firm, we would expect to find draftsman and structural engineer both of
whom work interactively to achieve a goal. The goal in this case is a plausible, economical and
safe structural design with readable and neat detailing drawing.
The design process in any firm starts with the obtaining of an architectural design from
architects. Once the architectural design is obtained, the structural engineer tries to analyze it to
see if from the structural point of view all the location of columns, the spacing between columns,
the proposed column type (slim column, Square column, Rectangular, circular) gives sense, in
general the number of stories to the foot print ratio to investigate seismic performance, the type
of slab system to be used (solid, ribbed or flat) and other relevant parameters according to the
building type.
Once the structural engineer analyzes the architectural design for the above parameters, if we
deem the design to be fit or possible to design it with limited resources, since in our country
economy is very vital factor for many owners, he proceeds further with the design. Otherwise the
drawing will be commented and if the architect agrees with the comments or modifications
ordered by the structural engineer, the drawing will be remade and the design process starts.
Once the structural engineer is sure with the architectural design, he would start the structural
design. The structural design is concerned with
1. Deciding the material to be used. Material to be used means steel, reinforced concrete or
timber. In current practice most buildings are made from reinforced concrete and its
common to specify concrete grade and rebar grade. And most of the time C-25 grade of
concrete is used for foundation, beams, slabs, concert gutter other members with less
stability problem and C-30, C-35 or C-40 is most commonly used from column since
they carry very large load and they often experience stability problem. Sometimes for flat
slabs higher grade concert might be used. And S-300 or S-400 grade of steel is proposed
as rebar material.
2. Once material is decided member size determination proceeds since the software takes
what we feed it, we need to have preliminary member size to go on. For beams and slabs
their depth is determined by using serviceability criteria and EBCS-2-1995 provides
equation for this purpose.

= (0.4 + 0.6 ( )) EBCS-2-1995 section 5.2.3
400
The width of beams most of the time is fixed between 200 to 300 mm and it is useful to
place rebar material and mostly it should give good aesthetical value.

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The cross section of column is decided based on load it is supposed to carry from floors
above it. And it depends on the function of the building and the concrete grade it is made
from.
The general method for column is
i. Determine design load based on the weight of floor slabs and live loads
ii. Determine the tributary area of column by taking half the c/c column spacing in
all directions
iii. Once the tributary area and design load are obtained, multiply the tributary area
with the number of floors and design load to obtain the approximate design axial
load of the column. In this method eccentricity is neglected since we need to
obtain preliminary dimensions only.
iv. Once the design axial load is obtained, by dividing it with the design strength of
concrete we would obtain area of the column section. By assuming the column to
be square, circular we can obtain its side dimension or diameter.
3. Once the size of beam, column and slab are obtained we can proceed to design of slabs.
Slab design is done in a typical excel template which simplified the process. The template
looks like the figure below. The template is capable of analyzing and designing
rectangular and trapezoidal panels. All you have to do is provide the sides of the
rectangle or trapezoid.

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Figure 2.23, slab analysis excel template


As we can see from the figure the boundary conditions for the slab panel is assigned by the
numbers 0 and 1. And 0 means discontinuous while 1 means continuous. The other part that
should be change are the Fck, Fyk , Lengths a,b and c. the meaning of a,b and c is shown below
for trapezoidal panel.

Figure 2.24, meanings of a,b and c.

4. Once the slab design is completed we will proceed with the design stairs. In the practical
design of stairs excel templates play a vital role. And the template looks like the figure
below

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Figure 2.25, stair design template.

Once the stairs are designed and proportioned we will proceed with the next step.

5. Now we have all the data to proceed with the 3D modeling of the building in ETABS
9.7.4, which is commonly used in the current practice. The software is shown in the
figure below. Modeling should be carefully done since it represents the entire building
during different scenario. And any failure to do the model correct is every failure in terms
of output. And most experienced engineers have no problem with modeling.

Figure 2.26, ETABS 9.7.4 window

6. Once the 3D model of the building is done different software parameters are feed by
either calculating them or from EBCS-2-1995 or EBCS-1-1995. For example, live loads
from EBCS-1-1995 and earthquake parameters calculations are shown below

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3.2 Live Load


a) on Floor slab

q = 5.0kN/m 2 ( for Shop)

2
Live load per Rib = 0.4m x 5.0kN/m = 2.0kN/m

2
q = 3.0kN/m ( for Restaurant)

2
Live load per Rib = 0.4m x 3.0kN/m = 1.20kN/m

2
q = 2.0kN/m ( for Bed rooms)

2
Live load per Rib = 0.4m x 2.0kN/m = 0.80kN/m

Fig. 2.27 Live loads from EBCS-1-1995


3.3 Sesmic Load
S esmic Load is activated by ETABS software by providnig the required parameters

from EBCS -8

Adiss Ababa (Zone 2) UBCS 94

a 0 = 0.05 Z = 0.05

F b = Sd (T) W ZIC
Fb W
Rw
Sd (T)= a . b . g

a = a 0. I

Fb = a . b . g . W g o = 0.20( for frame system)


kD = 2.00 (DC"L")
Rw = 1/g kR = 1.25 (non Regular structure)
kW = 1.00 ( for Frame System)
= 1/0.5

=2.00

I = 1.0 for Ordinary Building EBCS -8 Table 2.4

page # 29
1.2 S
C b 2.5
T 2/3 C = 0.075 (for RC moment resisting frames in SI
units)

Site Cofficient S = 1.2 C = 0.031 (for RC moment resisting frames in


BS units)

Fig. 2.28 Earthquake parameters calculation

Once this data is feed and some parameters like p-delta and load combinations defined,
the analysis is run to obtain design axial load, bending moment, Shear force and even
torsion for different frame sections. (by default ETABS considers any section drawn
between two stories to be column and horizontally drawn members to be beam)
7. Once we have the output from ETBAS we will use Eurocode-2-2004 to design the frame
section in order to obtain the amount of reinforcement necessary each section.

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8. From the reactions at the base obtained from ETABS we can design the foundation if
geotechnical investigation of the subsoil is available. Foundation design is done by using
excel templates. If it is ribbed mat the slab template shown in the figure above is used.
And if isolated footings are to be designed then we use separate template prepared for
this purpose.
9. After obtaining the result from ETABS, slab and stair design from excel, we can know
communicate with the draftsman to proceed with the detailing. The draftsman needs the
beam and column layout directly printed from ETABS to include it in the layout. And in
turn he would give us a printed out preliminary detailing with fake rebar spacing but
accurate rebar length. and we would adjust the fake spacing to make it same with the
calculated values.
10. After the detailing process is finished we would send the file to the project owner, either
architect or the client himself.
2.4.2.2.2Project I am assigned
When I arrive at the design firm I was assigned with a B+G+8 building which is shown in the
figure below.

Fig 2.29, Typical floor plan of building


Following the above outlined steps, the building was designed and detailed.

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2.5 How I was performing my task


This question was better answered by the Office Engineer because he used to follow me in my day
to day activities from the first day to the last minute of work. In my perspective I tried my best to
perform my work tasks satisfactorily.
I helped both the office and the site work in the company. In the office I tried to help the Office
Engineer by giving them educational materials and sharing some data. In the site also I tried to
help the workers in brief explanations on the plan reading and so on. And I was eager to know
more and to gain experience from this internship and I was doing everything I was ordered to do.
Moreover, I ask them to give me tasks based on the thing I want to know most. I perform my tasks
together with my colleagues by discussing and sharing knowledge. I also made site supervision
and give comments on the work based on my learning and what I know.

2.6 Challenges I faced on the site


As an Assistant engineer I faced with many challenges. These are:
Language problem as it was my first work; this is because the kind languages they use
were different from the construction languages that we use in the class. For instance,
(Concrete - Armata: Slab - Soleta: Reinforcement - Fero: Stirrup - Stafa)
Lack of office equipment like computers on the site. This has created a problem on
improving my computer skills.
Agreeing with other work colleges. Whenever there is a problem on the design we must
discuss it with the supervisor, but most of the time they try to give solutions with their
experience. This has created confusion on me, since I tried to see every problem by the
book.
Negligence of some Engineers when we ask questions
Adapting working environment.
Unavailability of working document.
Shortage of money.

2.7 Measurements taken to overcome site challenges


The measurement I have taken in order to overcome these challenges: -
I tried to know more peoples on the site to see who can cooperate with me
I have tried going to other students sites to share knowledge.
By assembling the daily labors create awareness about the integration project in order to
do the work politely without reasons.
Communication challenge: -This challenge makes us not to have healthy communication
with the site communities such as; Forman, kabo, daily labour, store keeper etc.... from
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the fact that we come from the supervision site that means we were in the consultant side
and they were from the contractor side, there is a trend that the two are looking each other
as a cat and rat. So they consider us a watch dog for our office so they dont even talk with
us. But through time we let them to know our work and objective that we are here not as
a snitch, rather to learn from them. And we told them that cant let happened without them.
But one thing to be noted here is that when we see any default at any building in our site
we dont pass without reminding them and thanks to them they respect every suggestion
we recommend to them. So we can say that we were lucky of having these types of
relationship.

2.8 challenges I faced while designing the building


1. A cantilever beam with no continuity on the other side subjected to a uniformly
distributed wall load failing by torsion due to a concentrated load from other two
beams.
2. Large spans up to 7.4 m which cause large bending moments and shears.
3. Large column size

2.8.1 Remedial measures for building design challenges


1. The cantilever beam was replaced by shear wall (much stiffer) since the architectural
design wouldnt be disturbed
2. Using large depth of beam to compensate for the bending moments and shear.
3. Using shear walls to decrease the drift of the building which causes less stress in
columns and beams leading to less sizes.

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CHAPTER THREE

Overall Benefits gained from the Internship


In this part we will see what I have achieved from 4 months of internship experience. There are
lots of benefits that I have gained from the construction site and office works. Since it is my first
practical experience, everything I see or hear is new and important to me. Some of the benefits I
gained can be categorized under the following groups:

Practical skills
Theoretical knowledge
Interpersonal communication skills
Team playing skills
Leadership skills
Work ethics related issues
These aspects are discussed below.

3.1 Practical Skills


This program gave me many opportunities to test and refine my skills. Almost all the time I spend
in campus my knowledge was theoretical. To make theoretical knowledge applicable and to make
it practical skill there should be a chance like internship. This program helps me to build and
improve my confidence.

Some of practical experiences are

Material management: I was practically able to see how construction material are managed and
controlled in ways that are efficient and wastage reducing. Controlling construction materials
staring from the time it is taken out of store up to the time it is implemented on the work.

Take off and quantity works can be mentioned among such controlling methods.

The other practical skill I have got is how to work as a group with other people to perform tasks.
I was able to understand people and also let them understand me while working so that the work
can be effectively performed.

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3.2 Theoretical Knowledge


I learnt the theoretical part in unity university for four years. But some of the knowledge I gathered
in the campus were a bit far from the practices which was actually going on the working
environment. So this internship period was my crucial moment to combine the theoretical
knowledge in the campus with the working environment.

There is different theoretical knowledge I was enlightened in my four month stay. Many of these
knowledge I gathered were from the office work, such as, I was able to differentiate between bill
of quantity, takeoff sheet and rebar schedule, different excavation types, about expansion joint and
so on.

Also I was able to collect a good knowledge in the software area. The office engineers
recommended as to take some course on Ms. project software, which comes very handy when
contractors try to develop planning and scheduling. So we learned that software. I will introduce
some of the software I came across while I was on internship

3.2.1 Ms. Project


This software is developed by Microsoft and it is very powerful in developing plan and schedule.
Contractors are expected to develop master plan (which is a rough plan which shows what the
contractor is in general is going to do after the beginning of the project till end) and detailed
schedule after the beginning of the project.
The consultant is going to evaluate the progress of the work based on the detailed schedule
submitted by the contractor. And most contractors dont give emphasis to this work since it is
common that the client will face budget shortage or government issues that will hinder the
construction activity and the construction process would be delayed.
Any how the software Ms. Project is part of Microsoft office package which is capable of
developing plan and schedule not only for construction activities but for any work that requires
planning and scheduling.
As part of scheduling the software develops cash flow, Gant chart and even network diagrams
whenever necessary. And its common in our country to use this software to come up with the
above outputs.
As part of my internship experience I have gained some knowledge about this software and I am
now at least beginner level user of the software.

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3.2.2 Cut logic


A small yet very powerful software that is designed to undertake optimization of 1D, 2D and 3D
objects that are very costly or very valuable to work with. This software is used to optimize bar
cutting in the site I was working with.
The problem with rebar is that it is produced in 12 m length and in structural drawings it is
detailed in different lengths which would call for efficient use or if not wastage of valuable
material and money. The challenge is, for example you have a bar with length 3.5 m, and its
number is 3. So the total length of this bar would be 10.5 m, so from one berga (12 m bar) we
would have a 1.5 m unused wastage and most contractors would find a place to put this bar by
manual searching. But cut logic does this through algorithms that are very powerful and always
looking for the least wastage.
From my site experience I have learned that this software, given appropriate bar schedule with
good codes for later identification, will analyze this input and returns the most efficient cutting
plan.

3.3 Interpersonal communication skills


Since construction work is a team work by its nature you will face different individuals with
different profession, you will be supposed to communicate with each professional you face to solve
different problems and run the whole work. The very good interpersonal communication skill will
bring success.

The problem of inter personal communication arises when two or more engineers for example
come up with different work methodology and they want the method they proposed to be
implemented, when the consultant and contractor engineers dont agree on the work being
executed and so on.

The solution for above and any other problem that arises from inter personal communication is to
know this small principle, let the most logical idea with least cost and most efficiency win even
if its not mine. This principle is told to me by the one of the site engineers and its very nice to
have.

3.4 Team Playing Skills


Generally speaking, a person with good team playing skill displays the following qualities and I
was expected to attain them, but since the time was very short at least it was good to keep them as
a note

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Demonstrates reliability for others (be reliable)


Communicate constructively
Listen actively
Functions as an active participant
Share openly and willingly
Cooperate to help others
Exhibit flexibility
Show commitment to the team
Work as a problem solver
Treat others in a respectful and supportive manner

3.5 Leadership Skills


Generally regarding leadership skill, one can get a good experience. This is because as long as you
are working as an assistant site engineer you will able to lead and control workers under the part
of the building construction process. And so for effective leadership I understood that personal
values like

- Confidence
- Effective communication
- Devotions are very important.

3.6 Work Ethics Issues


Punctuality: - Means keeping the companies work beginning and ending time and to
complete a given task within the given period. It was challenging to become punctual for
the 1st time of work. But gradually I began to start and end my tasks on time.
Office disciplines: - On work place you dont have to disturb the working atmosphere. For
example, abstain from opening loud voice, loud music, songs and things which disturb
others workers mood.
Reliability: - The worker should be qualified for the part he is supposed to be performing.
He/she must have appropriate skill and knowledge for the task assigned.
Honesty: - Regarding this value each worker regardless of its status should abstain from
bad behaviors such as cheating, bias, corruption etc
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Cooperation: - Each worker should interact and cooperate with each other while working.
That is because it is through such system problems could be easily solved.

3.7 Entrepreneurship skills


What I have seen is some works are subjected to sub contracts since most companies havent
developed specialization in that field or because they want to go to other site than do that work
because of time and money vale. For example, Aluminum work. So in the future I can become a
contractor that deals with Aluminum work.
On the other hand, rebar handling is very tedious task on the site.so if someone industrialize the
process, i.e. open a factor that bends bars according to schedule, and most companies would be
interested in.
So overall what I have seen in terms of entrepreneurship is that try to fill the gap in the construction
industry and you would be rewarded in so many aspects.

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CHAPTER FOUR

CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION


4.1 Conclusion
Internship is very helpful system to transfer the theoretical knowledge to the practical one and it
also help us to know lots of things about external environment than we know before. But above
all I learned to be punctual, loyal and faithful for the job I am engaged. My communication skill
also developed gradually which is important on engineering fields especially in construction
activities. This was a great achievement for me.

Generally, I did my internship program in MGM CONSULT. I have practiced in two section of
work. They were the site section and office. However most of the time I worked in office. On the
site, I have tried to see almost all sub structure and super structure.

The field practice has played a tremendous role in equipping students with the practical knowledge
of understanding and implementing field exercises in civil engineering. It helped me to develop
self-confidence and introduced me to the world of construction. It helps the student to practically
understand the theory they learned in the class. It also familiarized me with the knowledge required
to monitor construction sites.
When I was starting my internship, the status of the project was on construction of supper structure
for the main block and the beginning of block C. As we all know super structure includes many
tasks such as slabs, beams, columns, blocket (HCB) and finishing works and at the foundation
laying out, excavation. Among the this I tried to look the main things and as I mentioned before
we were gaining some interesting and educating things from the sites.

This internship practice period was important for both the students and from various campuses
and workers of the real estate projects. Because when we (the students) tried to explain the
theoretical knowledge what we knew to the workers, they (the daily professionals) were also tried
to explain the practical skills they have experienced.
In working places, it is important to know the technical (site) words, because it enables me to
briefly communicate with the employees in the project. So I want to give my greatest appreciation
to both the skilled and unskilled workers who participated in this real estate development projects.
In general, these four consecutive months refined me and I widened practical skills and theoretical
knowledge. So that, in my opinion because of its paramount importance, the internship program
should continue in a well-organized manner.

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4.2 Recommendation
Based on my four-month internship practical work, I would like to recommend the company the
following terms:
Consultants should avoid ordering extensive tests which would cause the project cost to go
higher
Sometimes backfill material is ordered to be brought from far borrow site which would cause
the transport cost to be higher and as far as possible near borrow sites should be investigated
than far sites.
Engineers should always be on site since daily laborers doesnt care about the project as far as
they get paid and from what I have seen many engineers take too much tea breaks.
Most site engineers are very busy doing the work that is expected from them, so internship
students should understand and learn from observation than too much questions, ask but be
specific.
Most of the time skilled daily laborers are not selected through careful methods, they are just
assigned without testing this causes some works to be less quality than expected.
Most of the time mix design isnt carried out on site causing the concrete that is proposed on
the specification not to attained so please carry out mix design or mix testing to see if the
proposed mix design can achieve the desired concrete strength.
Improper placing of rebars on site is very common and discussing practice. Rebar is metal
composed of iron and when iron is exposed to water and mud it will corrode and most engineers
say the rebar has protection layer and its okay but its not logical and please stop this
practice.
Mixing concrete in good proportion for testing purpose and using poor quality concrete for the
actual construction is a common practice to obtain more money than the contract agreed
amount and please work for your consciences.

Unity University Ephrem Beyene


Department of Civil Engineering 57 2017
Internship Report MGM CONSULT PLC

References
1. Abebe Denku, 2007: Text book of building construction

2. Company profile of MGM CONSULT

Unity University Ephrem Beyene


Department of Civil Engineering 58 2017
Internship Report MGM CONSULT PLC

Appendix
Admixture: -is a material added to change one or more properties of fresh or hardened
concrete.

Aggregate: - Material such as sand or gravel used with cement and water to make concrete,
mortar, or plaster.

Bar bender: - a person who works with re-bars.

Carpenter: - A woodworker who makes or repairs wooden objects.

Cast: - Object (part of a building such as beams, slabs, and columns) formed by a mold.

Christy or props: A support placed beneath a slab or a beam to keep it from shaking or
falling.

Expansion joint: are joints which are provided to accommodate the expansion of adjacent
building parts and to relieve stresses that may otherwise be developed.

Hammer: a hand tool with a heavy rigid head and a handle; used to deliver an impulsive
force by striking (in masonry work or for carpenters).

Iron saw: a hand tool having a toothed blade for cutting re-bars.

Krabat: - is formwork element of column

Krachery: - is a formwork element of column

Mason: A craftsman who works with stone or brick or in general, who works masonry.

Monolithically: casting the concrete continuously and uniformly

Overlap: a re-bar that lies over another re-bar (the overlap of steel reinforcement should be
4*the diameter of the bar)

Plumb bob: is an apparatus used to check vertical alignments.

Pitting: The formation of small pits in a surface of re-bars as a consequence of corrosion.

Solid slab: a slab constructed fully from concrete.


Unity University Ephrem Beyene
Department of Civil Engineering A 2017
Internship Report MGM CONSULT PLC

Stanga: - is formwork element of column

Trowel: A small hand tool with a handle and flat metal blade; used for scooping or spreading
plaster or similar materials

Unity University Ephrem Beyene


Department of Civil Engineering B 2017
Internship Report MGM CONSULT PLC

Fig 4.1: Block A, Block B and Block C building in 3D

Unity University Ephrem Beyene


Department of Civil Engineering C 2017