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Medical Surgical Nursing Bullets

What are the physiologic changes in elderly? Integumentary- loss of pigment, wrinkling
Neurologic- slowed reflexes, loss of balance,
short term memory decline
Musculoskeletal- decrease muscle mass,
strength, atrophy of muscle, mobility, ROM,
flexibility, coordination, gait
Cardiovascular- diminished energy and
endurance, with lower tolerance to stress
Respiratory- decreased stretch and compliance
of the chest wall
Hematologic- Hgb and Hct level towards the
low end of normal
Immune- tendency of lymphocytes to be low
Gastrointestinal- decreased need for calorie
because of low BMR
Endocrine- decreased secretion of hormones
Renal- decreased kidney size, function and
ability to concentrate urine
Reproductive- decreased testosterone and size
of testes, vaginal changes
Special senses- decreased visual, hearing,
What are the common psychosocial concerns? Adjustment to deterioration in physical and
mental health
Threat to independent functioning
Adjustment to retirement
Loss of skills
Coping with changes
Diminished quantity and quality of
Access to social support system
Cost of health care and medication

What are the common mental health concerns? Depression

What are the common physiologic and Communication- use normal tone
psychosocial needs of the elderly? Promoting independence
Promoting hygiene and skin care
Care of visual aids and denture
Promotion of exercise and good body
Regulation of body temp
Promotion of sleep pattern
Provision of nutritional needs- increase fiber
and fluids
Promotion of urinary elimination- establishes
Sexuality- still capable of sexual arousal and
Provision of emotional needs- needs someone
to talk to
What are the common physiologic changes in Altered memory
elderly that influences medication Less vision acuity
administration? Decrease in renal function
Decrease GI function
Decrease liver function
Decrease organ sensitivity
Altered quality of organ responsiveness
Common problems among elderly? Confusion/dementia
Postural hypotension
High blood pressure
Types of elder abuse? Psychologic
Infringement of personal rights
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for Skin test: mantoux test
respiratory system? CXR
Chest fluoroscopy
Lunn scans
Sputum exam
Lung biopsy
Lymph node biopsy
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for CBC
Cardiovascular and hematologic system? ESR
Blood coagulation tests
Blood lipids
Blood cultures
Enzyme studies
Blood uric acid
Serologic tests
Serum electrolytes
Holter monitoring
Intensive hemodynamic monitoring
Sonic studies
Stress testing or exercise testing
Radiologic tests
Myocardial scintigraphy
Noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring
Limb blood pressure
Doppler ultrasonography
Ultrasonic duplex scanning
CT scan
Vascular endoscopy
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for GI CEA
system? D-xylose absorption test
Exfoliative cytology
Fecal analysis
Gastric analysis
Berstein test
Radiographic tests
Ultrasonography of the abdomen
MRI of the abdomen
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for Fat metabolism indicator
hepatobiliary and pancreatic system? Protein metabolism indicator
Serum enzymes
Biopsy of the liver
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for Pancreas:
endocrine system? FBS
Glycosolate Hgb
T3 T4 levels
Thyroid scan
Fine needle biopsy

Adrenal medulla:
VMA test
Total plasma catecholamine Concentration
Clonidine Suppression Test
CT scan, MRI, Ultrasound
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for GU Routine Urinalysis
system? Creatinine clearance
Blood studies
Voiding Cystourethogram
Renal Arteriogram
Ultrasound of Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder
Renal Biopsy
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for Skull films
nervous system? Spine films
CAT scan
Electromyelography and nerve conduction
Brain scan
Cerebral angiography
Lumbar tap
PET scan
Evoked potentials (auditory, visual)
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for Blood tests
Musculoskeletal system? X-rays
Bone scans
What are the diagnostic/laboratory tests for Eyes:
Eyes and Ear? Snellens Chart Test
Ishihara Plate
Cover-Uncover test
Bjerrum Tangent Screen
Slit Lamp Biomicroscopy

Rinnes test
Webers test
Whisper voice test
Tympanogram or impedance audiometry
Oculovestibular test or caloric test
Known as clean technique Medical asepsis
Procedures used to reduce and prevent the
spread of microorganisms
Examples of medical asepsis hand
hygiene; using clean gloves to prevent
contact with blood and body fluids; and
routine environmental cleaning.
Procedures used to eliminate all Surgical asepsis
microorganisms including pathogens and
spores from an object or area
An area or object is considered
contaminated if touched by any object that
is not sterile
Commonly performed in the operating
room, labor and delivery, and major
diagnostic areas, and can be used at clients
What are the types of infection? Colonization
Hospital Associated infection? Nosocomial Infections
In order for an infection to develop all of Infectious agent - microorganisms
these factors must be present: including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and
Reservoir or source - a place where the
pathogen can survive but may or may not
Portal of exit - after multiplying the
pathogen needs a place to exit the body and
enter the host & cause disease
Mode of Transmission transmission of
organisms from the reservoir to the host
Portal of entry organisms can enter the
body by the same routes used for existing
Susceptible Host based the clients
susceptibility to an infectious agent
Bodys Normal Defenses Against Infection Non Specific Defenses
-Intact skin and mucus membranes
Body defense systems
-Normal body flora internal and external
-Inflammatory response
Specific Body Defenses
-Antibody mediated defense
-Cell-mediated defense
Signs & Symptoms of Infection Systemic:
Generalized symptoms
Increased Pulse and Respirations if fever
Malaise and loss of energy
Nausea & vomiting and anorexia
Lab Tests to Screen for Infection Sedimentation rate or ESR up to
15mm/hr for men and 20 mm/hr for

WBC count- 4,500 -11,000/mL

Neutrophils 55%-70%
Lymphocytes 20-40%
Monocytes 2% - 8%
Eosinophils 1%-4%
Basophils 0 2%

Blood and Urine cultures normally sterile

no microorganisms.

Wound, sputum, and throat cultures No

Stages of Infection Incubation
What Factors Increase Susceptibility to Age
Infection? Heredity
Nutritional Status
Medical Therapies
Process that eliminates many or all Disinfection
microorganisms; except for bacterial spores
from inanimate objects
What are the examples of disinfectants? Alcohols, chlorines, and phenols
Chemicals can be caustic and toxic to
The complete elimination or destruction of Sterilization
all microorganisms, including spores
Examples of sterilizing agents: Steam under pressure; ethylene oxide gas
(ETO); hydrogen peroxide plasma; and
Hyperemia Heat
Impaired function

Second Stage
Exudate Production

Third Stage
Reparative Stage
Events in Inflammatory Response Vascular and cellular responses

Formation of inflammatory exudates

Tissue repair
What causes acute bronchitis? Usually occurs during or after a viral infection

What is the treatment for acute Supportive, fluids, rest, and antiinflammatory
bronchits? agents.
Cough suppresants or bronchodilators for
nocturnal cough or wheezing.
Antiviral drugs initiated within 48 hours of the
onset of symptoms
It is a highly contagious infection of the Pertussis
lower respiratory tract with a gram-
negative bacillus, Bordella Pertussis
What are the symptoms of pertussis Whooping cough.
More frequent at night.
Cough may last for 6 to 8 weeks.

What is an acute inflammation of the Pneumonia

lung parenchyma (alveoli) that is
mostly caused by a microorganism?
What are the types of pneumonia? CAP, HAP (VAP and HCAP), aspiration and

What is the critera for HAP? Hospital Acquired Pneumonia-Pneumonia

occurring 48 hours or longer after hospital
admission and not incubating at the time of
What is the criterion for VAP? Ventilator Acquired Pneumonia-Pneumonia
that occurs more than 48 hours after
endotracheal intubation.

What is a cause of pneumonia for Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP)

individuals with HIV?
What are the clinical manifestations of Sudden onset of fever,shaking, chills, SOB,
pneumonia cough productive of purulent sputum (may be
rust colored), and pleuritic chest pain.
What is the route and dosage of 0.1 intradermal
tuberculin test (PPD)?
after how many hours would it be 48-72 hours rechecked for induration
interpreted? Test positive should not be tested again.

What will chest x-ray show for TB? Upper lobe infiltrate, cavitary infiltrates, and
lymph node involvement.
It is a high-pitched, short popping Fine crackles
sounds heard during inspiration, caused
by sticking alveoli
it is a low pitched, bubbling, most Coarse crackles
it is a musical, high pitched sound Wheeze (sibilant)
caused by constricted airway, common
with asthma
it is a low pitched snoring or moaning, Rhonchi
caused by constriction of large airway
It is a harsh respiratory honking sounds, Stridor
found in children, due to constriction of
What is the difference between Atelectasis: collapse lung due to interference
Atelectasis and Pneumothorax? with natural force for expansion
Pneumothorax: collapse lung do to air/gas in
inter-pleural space
it refers to the destruction of tissue Emphysema
around alveoli, caused decreased
Where is the sternal angle? where the second rib attaches
Where do you auscultate the right 4th and 5th intercostal space
middle lobe?
The purpose of this procedure is to reexpand Chest tube
the lungs by draining air, blood, pus or water
from the pleural space
At what stage of hypertension is Hypertension, Stage 1
medication prescribed?

Thiazides tend to _______ potassium, retain

although not as much as other K+

Why are loop diuretics given in the So the pt will not pee at night and increase
morning? their risk for fall

If you give furosemide (Lasix) IV push, over 2 minutes, slow

it must be pushed over ____ minutes. If Ototoxicity (deafness, ear damage, tinnitus)
you don't do this, what could happen?

Identify the normal action of calcium Calcium goes to heart and causes contraction,
within the heart. which raises HR
Identify the normal action of calcium in Calcium causes contraction, which raises BP
the peripheral arterioles
ACE inhibitors tend to increase what Potassium
Identify where the following beta Beta 1 - heart
receptors are commonly found.
Beta 2 - lungs
Beta 1 - Tip: 1 heart for Beta 1, 2 lungs for Beta 2

Beta 2 -

What is the normal physiology of beta Increase heart rate, increase contraction of
1 receptors? heart

Identify the normal physiology of beta Bronchodilation, causes airway to open so

2 receptors. person breathes better

What zone of MI indicates the

following: Injury- elevated ST segment
injury Ischemia- inverted T wave
ischemia Infarction- bizarre Q wave
What beta blocker only works on beta 1 Cardioselective
What are the adverse effect(s) of Headache (common), orthostatic
nitroglycerin? hypotension, tachycardia

What is the nursing action if the patient put patch on thigh.

experiences headache after
nitroglycerine administration?
Is hardening of arteries. It affects the tunica Arteriosclerosis
Is narrowing/occlusion of lumen of arteries due Atherosclerosis
to accumulation of fatty plaques in the tunica
Is localized, irreversible dilation of an artery Aneurysm
due to an alteration in the integrity of its wall?
The different types of aneurism are as follows: The different types of aneurism are as follows:
Fusiform aneurism. Fusiform aneurism. Both sides of the arterial
Saccular aneurism. wall are dilated.
Dissecting aneurism. Saccular aneurism. One side of the arterial wall
is dilated
Dissecting aneurism. There is separation
between the tunica media and tunica
Is intermittent vasospasm of arteries in the Raynaulds Disease
digits as a result of exposure to cold and
emotional stress. It is aggravated by cigarette
It is venous thrombosis and inflammation in a Superficial Thrombophlebitis (SVT)
superficial vein.
It is venous thrombosis and inflammation in a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
deep vein
Virchows triad: Virchows triad:
Vessel wall injury (e.g., cigarette smoking)
Venous stasis (e.g., prolonged bedrest)
Hypercoagulability of the blood (e.g. use of
contraceptive pills, dehydration,
Dilated veins, usually in the lower extremities. Varicose Veins
It is diffuse inflammation of the small and Buergers Disease (Thromboangitis Obliterans)
medium arteries, followed by the veins. It is
also involves inflammation and fibrosis of
Synchronous application of an electrical shock Cardioversion- synchronous application of an
of short duration to the heart through the use of electrical shock of short duration to the heart
chest paddles. through the use of chest paddles.
unsynchronized passing of an electric shock of Defibrillation- unsynchronized passing of an
short duration through the heart to terminate electric shock of short duration through the
ventricular fibrillation or ventricular heart to terminate ventricular fibrillation or
tachycardia without pulse ventricular tachycardia without pulse
Inflammation of the pericardium which occurs Pericarditis/ Dresslers Syndrome
approximately 1 to 6 weeks after acute MI Inflammation of the pericardium which occurs
approximately 1 to 6 weeks after acute MI
a state of circulatory congestion produced by Congestive Heart Failure
myocardial dysfunction a state of circulatory congestion produced by
myocardial dysfunction
Characterized by random and chaotic discharge Ventricular Fibrillation
of impulses within the ventricle at rates that - Characterized by random and chaotic
exceed 300 beats per minute. It is an discharge of impulses within the
EMERGENCY. ventricle at rates that exceed 300 beats
per minute. It is an EMERGENCY.


Effects of PVDs in Extremities: Pain, burning and stinging
Cramping and numbness
Intolerance to local heat and cold
Inability to sense temperature changes
Decrease touch sensations
Color changes (rubor/ redness, pallor,
Poor Healing
The three layers of the arteries are 1. Tunica Intima. The inner layer of
2. Tunica Media. The middle layer of the
connective tissues, smooth muscles, or
elastic fibers.
3. Tunica Adventitia. The outer layer of
connective tissues.
are thin-walled vessels which transport veins
deoxygenated blood from the capillaries back
to the right heart.
thick-walled vessels which transport oxygen Arteries
and blood via the aorta from the heart to the
thin-walled vessels located in the tissues. capillaries
Is an abnormal elevation of BP; systolic Hypertension
pressure above 140 mm Hg and or diastolic
pressure above 90 mmHg for atleast two
is hardening of arteries. It affects the tunica Arteriosclerosis
is narrowing/occlusion of lumen of arteries due Atherosclerosis
to accumulation of fatty plaques in the tunica
Is localized, irreversible dilation of an artery Aneurysm
due to an alteration in the integrity of its wall.
The different types of aneurism are as follows: The different types of aneurism are as follows:
Fusiform aneurism. Fusiform aneurism. Both sides of the arterial
Saccular aneurism. wall are dilated.
Dissecting aneurism. Saccular aneurism. One side of the arterial wall
is dilated
Dissecting aneurism. There is separation
between the tunica media and tunica
Is intermittent vasospasm of arteries in the Raynaulds Disease
digits as a result of exposure to cold and
emotional stress. It is aggravated by cigarette
It is venous thrombosis and inflammation in a Superficial Thrombophlebitis (SVT)
superficial vein.
It is venous thrombosis and inflammation in a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
deep vein
Virchows triad: Virchows triad:
Vessel wall injury (e.g., cigarette smoking)
Venous stasis (e.g., prolonged bedrest)
Hypercoagulability of the blood (e.g. use of
contraceptive pills, dehydration,
Dilated veins, usually in the lower extremities. Varicose Veins
It is diffuse inflammation of the small and Buergers Disease (Thromboangitis Obliterans)
medium arteries, followed by the veins. It is
also involves inflammation and fibrosis of
Arterial Disorders Venous Disorders
Pain: Intermittent claudication Homans pain
Aggravated by walking and elevation Improved by exercise and elevation of legs.
of legs
Thin, shiny skin in the legs Brown pigments around ankle
Loss of hair in the legs
Thick toenails Normal toenails
Pale skin on elevation of legs. Redness of skin on dependency
Skin is cool to touch Skin is warm to touch (thrombophlebitis)
Decreased sensation, numbness, Itching
paresthesia, itching
Pulse is diminished or absent Pulse is present
Edema is absent Edema is present, worse at the end of day;
improved with elevation
Ulcers occur in toes Ulcers occur in ankles
Gangrene may develop Gangrene does not develop
The site of hematopoiesis, or blood cell bone marrow
Have the ability to self-replicate, thereby stem cells
ensuring a continuous supply of cells
throughout the life cycle. These cells are
committed to produce specific types of blood
Composed of special tissue macrophages, RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM
which are derived from monocytes
Lymphoid stem cells produce either T or B lymphocytes
Myeloid stem cells differentiate into three broad cell types: RBCs, WBCs, and
an abnormally low amount of circulating Anemia
RBCs, Hgb concentration, or both
Anemias are due to: Blood loss.
Inadequate RBC production
Increased RBC destruction
Deficiency of necessary
components such as folic acid, iron,
and/or vitamin B12.
A condition in which the hemoglobin IRON- DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
concentration is lower than normal
Results when the dietary intake of iron is
inadequate to produce hemoglobin
A condition characterized by decreased APLASTIC ANEMIA
number of RBC as well as WBC and platelets
Anemias characterized by abnormally large MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIAS
RBC secondary to impaired DNA synthesis
due to deficiency of Folic acid and/or vitamin
Due to the absence of intrinsic factor secreted PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
by the parietal cells
Intrinsic factor binds with Vit. B12 to promote
A severe chronic incurable hemolytic anemia SICKLE CELL
that results from heritance of the sickle
hemoglobin gene.
Refers to an INCREASE volume of RBCs POLYCYTHEMIA
Malignant disorders of blood forming cells LEUKEMIA
characterized by UNCONTROLLED
proliferation of WHITE BLOOD CELLS in
the bone marrow- replacing marrow elements .
The WBC can also proliferate in the liver,
spleen and lymph nodes.
A coagulopathy that is an autoimmune disorder IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC
in which the life span of platelets is decreased PURPURA (ITP)
by antiplatelet antibodies. This can result in
severe hemorrhage following a cesarean birth
or lacerations
Contains the amylase enzyme (ptyalin) that Saliva
aids in digestion.
Collapsible muscular tube about 10 inches Esophagus
long, Carries food from the pharynx to the
Kills microorganisms, breaks food into small Hydrochloric acid
particles, and provides a chemical environment
that facilitates gastric enzyme activation.
Is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. Intrinsic factor
reduces maltose to monosaccharide glucose Maltase
Activates trypsinogen to trypsin. Enterokinase
Lines the abdominal cavity and forms the Peritoneum
mesentery that supports the intestines and
blood supply
Backward flow of gastric or duodenal contents GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX
into the esophagus DISEASE (GERD)

Dietary and Lifestyle Management for GERD > elimination of acid foods
> avoiding food which relax esophageal
sphincter or delay gastric emptying
> maintain ideal body weight
> eat small meals and stay upright for
> elevate the head of bed
> no smoking
> avoid bending and wear loose fitting clothing

Types of Hernia:
gastroesophageal junction and fundus of Sliding Hiatal Hernia: gastroesophageal
stomach slide through the esophageal hiatus junction and fundus of stomach slide through
the esophageal hiatus
the gastroesophageal junction is in normal
place but part of the stomach herniates through Paraesophageal hiatal hernia: the
the esophageal hiatus; hernia can become gastroesophageal junction is in normal place
strangulated; client may develop gastritis with but part of the stomach herniates through the
bleeding esophageal hiatus; hernia can become
strangulated; client may develop gastritis with

characterized by impaired peristalsis of smooth Achalasia

muscle of esophagus and impaired relaxation
of lower esophageal sphincter
inflammation of stomach lining from irritation GASTRITIS
of gastric mucosa which is normally protected
from gastric acid and enzymes by mucosal
excavation or ulceration that penetrates the PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE (PUD)
mucosal wall of the GI tract
Types: Types:
a. Duodenal ulcers: a. Duodenal ulcers: most common; affect
b. Gastric ulcers: mostly males ages 30 to 55; ulcers found near
c. Zollinger- Ellison syndrome: pylorus
b. Gastric ulcers: affect older persons; found on
lesser curvature and associated with increased
incidence of gastric cancer
c. Zollinger- Ellison syndrome:
> peptic ulcer disease caused by
> excess gastric acid leads to
ulceration and often bleeding and perforation
> excess hydrochloric acid
production also leads to diarrhea and
functional disorder of motility characterized by IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhea (Spastic Bowel, Functional Colitis)
inflammation of peritoneum, lining that covers PERITONITIS
wall (parietal peritoneum) and organs (visceral
peritoneum) of abdominal cavity
includes two separate but closely related INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
conditions: ulcerative colitis and Crohns
disease; both have similar geographic
distribution and genetic component
Types: Types:
a. Ulcerative colitis a. Ulcerative colitis
> inflammatory process usually
confined to rectum and sigmoid colon
b. Crohns disease > inflammation leads to mucosal
hemorrhages and abscess formation, which
leads to necrosis and sloughing of bowel
> mucosa becomes red, friable, and
ulcerated; bleeding is common
> chronic inflammation leads to
atrophy, narrowing, and shortening of colon

b. Crohns disease
> can affect any portion of GIT, but
terminal ileum and ascending colon are more
commonly involved
> inflammatory aphthoid lesion of
mucosa and submucosa develops into ulcers
and fissures that involve entire bowel wall
> fibrotic changes occur leading to
local obstruction, abscess formation and
fistula formation
> fistula develops between loops of
bowel; bowel and bladder; bowel and skin
> absorption problem develops
condition on which intestinal mucosa MALABSORPTION SYNDROME
ineffectively absorbs nutrients, resulting in
excretion of nutrients in stool
chronic malabsorption disorder due to Celiac Disease (nontropical sprue)
sensitivity to gluten, protein found in barley,
rye, oats, wheat; commonly affects Caucasians
of European descent
occurs in tropical climates; cause unknown; Tropical Sprue
pathological changes similar to celiac disease
but not affected by gluten
condition involving malnutrition in clients who Short Bowel Syndrome
have had surgical resection of significant
portions of the small intestine
defect in abdominal wall that allows abdominal HERNIA
contents to protrude out of abdominal cavity

Types: Types:
a. Reducible hernia a. Reducible hernia
> abdominal contents protrude
through abdominal wall to form a sac covered
b. Incarcerated hernia by skin and subcutaneous tissues
> contents move into a sac when
intra-abdominal pressure increases
c. Strangulated hernia > contents return inside when
pressure returns to normal or when manual
pressure applied

b. Incarcerated hernia: contents of

hernia cannot be returned to abdominal cavity
c. Strangulated hernia: blood supply to
bowel contents in hernia is compromised
leading to necrosis; if left untreated, it can
result in perforation and peritonitis
varicose veins, varices, or varicosities of veins HEMORRHOIDS (Piles)
in anus, anal canal region
Types: Types:
a. a. Internal hemorrhoids affect venous
affect venous plexus above mucocutaneous plexus above mucocutaneous junction of anus
junction of anus
b. External hemorrhoids affect venous
b. plexus below the mucocutaneous junction
affect venous plexus below the mucocutaneous
Removal of ascitic fluid from Paracentesis
peritoneal cavity
Excess fat in stools Steatorrhea
enlargement of liver enlargement of liver
Stage of hepatitis marked by jaundice, Icterus
light or clay colored stools, dark urine,
and pruritis
Stage of hepatitis marked by malaise, Preicterus
severe headache, R. upper quadraant
pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fever,
arthralgia, rash, enlarged lymph nodes,
uticaria, enlargement and tenderness of
Stage of hepatitis marked by fatigue, Posticterus
malaise, liver enlargement,
Golden yellow color of skin, mucous Jaundice
membranes, and sclera of the eye
Chronic, progressive Liver disease Cirrhosis
Enlargement of breast tissue in males Gynecomastia
Surgical removal of gallbladder Cholecystectomy
Obstruction of common bile duct Choledocholithiasis
Presence of gallstones Cholelithiasis
Accumulation of excess fluid in the Ascites
peritoneal cavity
Removal of ascitic fluid from the Paracentesis
peritoneal cavity
Product of normal breakdown of old Bilirubin
red blood cells in the liver
Delivers blood from the intestines to Portal vein
the liver
Ingest old red blood cells & bacteria Kupffer cells
Stores bile from liver and releases it Gallbladder
into duonedum
Delivers blood from aorta to the liver Hepatic artery
Connect pancreas to the duonenum Pancreatic duct
Formed by the hepatic duct and cystic Common bile duct
duct joining
Large organ responsible for metabolism Liver
of glucose, protein,and lipids. Also
responsible for detoxification,
Production of antibodies&
metabolizing adrenocortical hormones,
estrogen, testosterone and aldosterone
Passage that delivers bile produced in Cystic duct
liver to the gallbladder
Removal of a small specimen of liver Liver Biopsy
tissue for study
Complication of liver biopsy if the lung Pneumothorax
is accidentally punctured during the
The use of sound waves to produce an Ultrasonography
image of an internal organ
A radioactive substance is injected into Liver scan
a vein, and visualized in a radiograph to
reveal tumors or abscesses
Complication of liver biopsy, because Hemorrhage
of the rich blood supply and potential
for impaired coagulation
Infectious hepatitis, caused by HAV & Hepatitis A
transmitted through water, food or
medical equipment that has been
contaminated with infected fecal matter
Unknown cause, but may be from Noninfectious Hepatitis
exposure to toxins
caused by alcoholism the liver becomes Alcoholic Cirrhosis
enlarged and knobby and then shrinks
Caused by obstruction of bile flow Billiary Cirrhosis
Results from Venous congestion and Cardiac Cirrhosis
excessive ammonia in blood resulting hepatic encephalopathy
in swelling of brain tissue and cognitive
Portal hypertension causes collateral Esophageal varices
vessels to develop in the esophagus and
anterior abdominal wall. they are
fragile and bleed easily and may cause
fatal hemorrhage
Obstruction of blood coming into the Portal Hypertension
liver causes blood to back up into the
portal system
Renal failure following diuretic Hepatorenal syndrome
therapy, Paracentesis, or GI
hemorrhage in the Cirrhosis patient,
reason is unknown
Build up of fat cells in the liver caused Fatty liver
by excess alcohol consumption. is
reversible if alcohol intake ceases
inflammation of liver caused by heavy Alcoholic hepatitis
alcohol consumption
Advantages of the use of shunts for provides a mechanism to collect protein rich
cirrhotic ascites ascitic fluid and return it to the vascular system
and Increases urine output which eliminates
excess sodium and water
Liver failure associated with injury. Fulminate liver failure
Used to prevent liver transplant Corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents
Pancreatic enzymes Tripsin - protein digestion
Amylase - Starch, sucrose & fructose digestion
Lipase - fat digestion
Synthesis of glucose from substances Gluconeogenesis
other than carbohydrates
Episodic colicky pain in epigastric are Cholecystitis
which radiates to back and shoulder,
Indigestion or chest pain after eating
fatty or fried foods, Nausea, vomiting
or flatulence. These signs and
symptoms are found in?
Abdominal pain, anorexia, ascities, Cirrhosis
fatigue, jaundice, nausea, vomiting.
These are symptoms of?
Abdominal tenderness and distention,
abrupt onset of pain in epigastric region
radiating to shoulder, substernal area Pancreatitis
back and flank. Aching, burning,
stabbing, pressing abdominal pain,
nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and
tachypnea, this are the clinical
manifestations of?

Blood chemistry reveals increased Cholecystitis

alkaline phosphotase, bilirubin, direct
bilirubin, transaminase, amylase, lipase,
aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and
lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels.
Cholangiogram shows stones in biliary
tree. These are the test results of a
client with?
Hyposecretion of one or more of the pituitary Hypopituitarism
hormones caused by tumors, trauma,
encephalitis, autoimmunity, or stroke.
Hyposecretion of ADH caused by strokes or Diabetes insipidus
trauma, or may be idiopathic
Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones Addison's disease
(glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids)
state resulting from hyposecretion of thyroid Hypothyroidism
hormones T3 and T4.
characterized by the destruction of the Type 1 diabetes mellitus
pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin;
this results in absolute insulin deficiency.
usually arises because of insulin resistance, in Type 2 diabetes mellitus
which the body fails to use insulin properly,
combined with relative (rather than absolute)
insulin deficiency.
3 Ps of diabetes mellitus Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
Characterized by a hypersecretion of Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome
glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex (hypercortisolism)
Excess ADH is released, but not in response to Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic
the body's need for it. hormone (SIADH)
Hypersecretion of growth hormone by the Hyperpituitarism
anterior pituitary gland in an adult; caused
primarily by pituitary tumors.
Inflammation of brain tissue Encephalitis
Weakness on one side of the body Hemiparesis
Paralysis on one side of the body Hemiplegia
Pressure within the cranium or skull Intracranial pressure
Nerve pain Neuralgia
Biochemical messengers at nerve Neurotransmitters
endings that activate receptors to
stimulate or inhibit a response
Convulsions, series of involuntary Seizures
contractions of voluntary muscles
Main cell body Neuron
Conduct impulses away from the cell Axon
Conduct impulses toward the cell body Dendrites
Considered as common Acetycholine, Norepinephrine, epinephrine,
neurotransmitters: dopamine
Consist of brain and spinal cord CNS
All nerves including spinal and cranial Peripheral Nervous system
Fight or flight response Sympathetic nervous system
Returns body to resting state Parasympathetic nervous system
Controls awareness and alertness Brain stem and Diencephalon
through reticular activating system.
composed of fibers scattered through
the mid-brain,pons and medulla
Abnormal electrical activity may be Partial Seizures
generated in localized areas of brain
Occurs in part of 1 central hemisphere - Simple Seizures
consciousness not impaired. May
include motor, somatosensory,
autonomic or psychic symptoms
Abnormal brain activity remains Focal motor seizures
localized to a specific motor area, May
or may not occur with "Jacksonian
Term for when an abnormal activity in Jacksonian March
one area "marches" (spreads) to
adjacent areas
can progress to involve entire brain = Partial Seizure
partial seizures with secondary
Involves entire brain from onset. Generalized Seizure
Consciousness is lost
In a ___ _____seizure, there is transient Complex Seizure
staring, feelings of fear, lip smacking,
eye blinking, chewing, swallowing, and
purposeless behaviors.
Bones serve as an attachment for Tendons, Muscles
muscles, which are connected to bones
by _____. Bones act as a lever for
_____, Movement occurs as a result of
of muscle contractions applied to these
Describe the 3 types of bone cells. Osteoblasts- basic bone-forming cells
(synthesize organic bone matrix)
Osteocytes- mature bone cells
Osteoclasts- participate in bone remodeling by
assisting in the breakdown of bone tissue
_____ _______ is the removal of old Bone remodeling
bone by osteoclasts
______ is an inflammation of a bursa Bursitis
sac. The inflammation can be acute or
Deficiency of what electrolyte can Calcium
cause tetany, the involuntary
contraction of skeletal muscle.
Decrease in _____ ____ can contribute Bone density
to loss of height due to vertebral
compression, back pain, deformity such
as dowager's hump (kyphosis) caused
by vertebral compression
What is crepitation? The noise produced by rubbing bone or
irregular cartilage surfaces together, as in
The __________is the bony structure of the orbit
skull that surrounds the eye and offers
protection to the eye.
the dense transparent outer layer cornea
the fibrous white of the eye sclera
Middle layer of the eye is consists of choroid, ciliary body, and iris
the dark brown membrane located between the choroid
sclera and the retina that has dark pigmentation
to prevent light from reflecting internally
connects the choroid with the iris and secretes ciliary body
aqueous humor that helps give the eye its
shape; the muscles of the ciliary body control
the thickness of the lens.
the colored portion of the eye, located in front iris
of the lens, and it has a central circular opening
controls the amount of light admitted into the pupil
(darkness produces ________and light Dilation
produces_____________) constriction
bordered externally by the choroid and sclera retina
and internally by the vitreous.
Compares air conduction from bone Rinne Test
conduction; differentiates conductive and Normal : air conduction is
sensorineural hearing loss. better than bone air
conduction (the tone is
louder in front of the
Conductive hearing loss:
bone conduction is
better than the air
conduction (the tone is
louder behind the ear)
Sensorineural hearing
loss: same as the normal
It the single most important diagnostic Audiometry
instrument in detecting hearing loss.
It involves interference with conduction of Conductive hearing loss
sound impulses through the external auditory
canal, the ear drum or the middle ear.
It involves both conduction and sensorineural Mixed hearing loss
hearing loss.
It results from disease or trauma to the inner Sensorineural hearing loss
ear or acoustic serve.
This is an inflammation of the outer ear which Otitis Externa
is lined by skin. The condition is usually
bilateral and the symptoms start with itching.
The patient scratches the ear which becomes
infected, painful and sometimes blocked by a
thin muco purulent discharge.
Characterized by accumulation of endolymph Menieres Disease (Endolymphatic Hydrops)
in the inner ear. It is chronic, with remissions
and exacerbations.
Types of Ear Surgeries:

Myringoplasty- closure of perforated tympanic membrane

Tympanoplasty- closure of perforated tympanic membrane if

middle ear is involved

Myringotomy- simple incision in the tympanic membrane

Ossiculoplasty- ossicular reconstruction

Stapedectomy- removal of stapes followed by prosthesis


Stapedotomy- use of laser to create a hole in the footplate of

the stapes and prosthesis is placed in the hole.

Labyrinthectomy- surgical removal of membranous labyritnth

through the oval window or through mastoid
a rare, severe, bilateral, granulomatous uveitis Sympathetic Ophthalmia (Sympathetic Uveitis)
of unknown cause
occurs anytime from 10 days to several years
following penetrating injury near the ciliary
body or following a retained foreign body.
Eye deviation o Esotropia inward /
o Esotropia convergent deviation of
o Exotropia the eyes
o Hypertropia o Exotropia outward /
o Hypotropia divergent deviation of
the eyes
o Hypertropia upward
deviation of the eyes
o Hypotropia downward
deviation of the eyes.
Laboratory Values: (Serum) Laboratory Values: (Serum)
Na= Na= 135-145 mEq/L
Cl= Cl= 95-105 mEq/L
K= K= 3.5-5 mEq/L
Ca= Ca= 4.5- 5.5 mEq/L
Mg= Mg= 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
PO4= PO4= 1.8-2.6 mEq/L
Serum osmolality= Serum osmolality= 280-300
Urine osmolality= mOsm/L
Urine osmolality= 250-900

Body water- distribution vary with age Body water- distribution vary with age
and sex and sex
Infant- Infant- 80% body weight
Male- Male- 60% body weight
Female- Female- 50% body weight (fat
is water free. Females have
more adipose tissues, so they
have lesser percentage of body
Normal Fluid Intake and Loss in Adults Normal Fluid Intake and Loss in Adults
Intake Intake
Water in food Water in food 1,000ml
Water from oxidation Water from oxidation 300ml
Water as liquid Water as liquid 1,200ml
Total: Total: 2,500ml
Output Output
Skin Skin 500ml
Lungs Lungs 300ml
Feces Feces 150ml
Kidneys Kidneys 1,500ml
Total: Total: 2,500ml
Body Fluids Body Fluids
Intracellular fluid (ICF) Intracellular fluid (ICF) 70%-
Extracellular fluid (ECF) inside the cells
Interstitial fluid Extracellular fluid (ECF) 30%-
Intravascular fluid outside the cells
Transcellular fluid Interstitial fluid (25%)-
surrounds the cells
Intravascular fluid 5%-
inside the blood vessels
Transcellular fluid-
(approximately 1-2%)
digestive juices, water
and solutes in the renal
tubules and bladder,
pleural fluid, CSF
Types of Solutions: Types of Solutions:
1. 1. Isotonic solutions
a. Have the same osmolality as a. Have the same osmolality as
body fluids body fluids
b. Increase extracellular fluid b. Increase extracellular fluid
volume volume
c. Do not enter the cells because c. Do not enter the cells because
no osmotic force exists to shift no osmotic force exists to shift
the fluids the fluids
2. 2. Hypotonic solutions
a. Are more dilute solutions and a. Are more dilute solutions and
have a lower osmolality than have a lower osmolality than
body fluids body fluids
b. Cause the movement of water b. Cause the movement of water
into cells by osmosis into cells by osmosis
c. Should be administered c. Should be administered
slowly to prevent cellular slowly to prevent cellular
edema edema
3. 3. Hypertonic solutions
a. Are more concentrated a. Are more concentrated
solutions and have a higher solutions and have a higher
osmolality than body fluids osmolality than body fluids
b. Concentrate extracellular b. Concentrate extracellular
fluid and cause fluid and cause
movement of water from cells movement of water from cells
into the extracellular fluid by into the extracellular fluid by
osmosis osmosis
4. 4. Colloids
a. Also called plasma expanders a. Also called plasma expanders
b. Pull fluid from the interstitial b. Pull fluid from the interstitial
compartment into the vascular compartment into the vascular
compartment compartment
c. Used to increase the vascular c. Used to increase the vascular
volume rapidly, such as in volume rapidly, such as in
hemorrhage or severe hemorrhage or severe
hypovolemia hypovolemia
Normal Values Normal Values
o Blood pH: o Blood pH: 7.35- 7.45
o PO2: o PO2: 80-100 mmHg (TORR)
o PCO2: o PCO2: 35- 45 mmHg (TORR)
o HCO3: o HCO3: 22- 26 mEq/ L
o BE/ BD: o BE/ BD: 2
Identify the Acid-Base Imbalance
pH= decreased, PaCO2= increased, HCO3=
increased Compensated respiratory acidosis

pH= increased d, PaCO2= increased, HCO3=

increased Compensated metabolic alkalosis

pH= decreased, PaCO2= decreased, HCO3=

decreased Compensated metabolic acidosis

pH= increased, PaCO2= decreased, HCO3=

decreased Compensated respiratory alkalosis

pH= decreased, PaCO2= increased, HCO3=

normal Respiratory acidosis

pH= increased, PaCO2= normal, HCO3=

increased Metabolic alkalosis

pH= increased, PaCO2= decreased, HCO3=

increased Simultaneous Respiratory and Metabolic
What is the major ECG change for . Prominent U- wave
What are the major ECG changes for tall and peaked T- wave
The concentration of more than 20- 40 Phlebitis
mEqs of potassium can cause ______
to the vein?
What drug toxicity can aggravate digitalis toxicity
After traumatic injury, what is the most Hyperkalemia
common electrolyte imbalance?
What organ of the body is responsible Kidney
for 80% of the excretion of potassium?

What IV must be infused in IV calcium gluconate

management of patients with
What is the most common bowel Constipation
symptom will the patient with
hypercalcemia present?
What electrolyte imbalances will the Hyperphosphatemia
increase intake of antacids result?
What electrolyte imbalance can be seen Hypomagnesemia
commonly in critically- ill alcoholic

Potassium- sparing diuretics can result Magnesium

to increase in serum level of potassium
and _____

What IV fluid is infused to antagonize IV calcium

the effect of hypermagnesemia?

What IV fluid is infused to increase Saline infusions

renal excretion of magnesium?


Pair of bean shape, brownish red structures Kidneys
located retroperitoneally
The three regions of the renal tubules are Proximal convoluted tubules, loop of henle and
the distal convoluted tubules.
The female urethra is ____________, while the The female urethra is 1 and 2 inches, while
male is ____________________ in length. The the male is 5 to 6 inches up to 8 inches in
shorter urethra among females increases length. The shorter urethra among females
propensity to _________________. increases propensity to urinary tract infection.
Direct visualization of urethra, bladder wall, Cystoscopy
trigone, urethral opening through a lighted
instrument (cystoscope
X-ray visualization or renal circulation as Renal Arteriogram
contrast medium is injected into renal artery
through catheter
The two types of renal failure are as follows: The two types of renal failure are as follows:
Acute Renal Failure. Acute Renal Failure. It is sudden loss of renal
function; but it is potentially reversible. The
Chronic Renal Failure. renal tubules are damaged, but the glomeruli
remain intact.
Chronic Renal Failure. It is gradual,
progressive loss or renal function. It is
irreversible. The glomeruli are damaged
three stages of acute renal failure are as three stages of acute renal failure are as
follows: follows:
o There is decreased urine output; o Oliguric phase. There is
increased BUN, decreased urine output; increased
hypermagnesemia; BUN, hypermagnesemia;
hyperphosphatemia; hyperphosphatemia;
hyponatremia; and metabolic hyponatremia; and metabolic
acidosis. This stage lasts for 1-3 acidosis. This stage lasts for 1-3
weeks. weeks.
o This signifies that the kidneys o Diuretic phase. This signifies
are starting to regain their that the kidneys are starting to
functions. There is increased regain their functions. There is
urine output (3-5 L/day), with increased urine output (3-5
excessive loss of potassium L/day), with excessive loss of
(hypokalemia). This stage lasts potassium (hypokalemia). This
for 1 week. stage lasts for 1 week.
o It takes 3-12 months for the o Recovery phase. It takes 3-12
kidneys to recover. During this months for the kidneys to
time, the client should avoid recover. During this time, the
nephrotoxic drugs client should avoid nephrotoxic
stages of chronic renal failure are as stages of chronic renal failure are as
follows: follows:
o 40-50% Remaining GFR o Renal Impairment: 40-50%
(glomerular filtration rate). Remaining GFR (glomerular
o 20-40% Remaining GFR. filtration rate).
o 10-20% remaining GFR. o Renal Insufficiency: 20-40%
o less than 10% remaining GFR. Remaining GFR.
o Renal Failure: 10-20%
remaining GFR.
o End-Stage-Renal Disorder
(ESRD). It is also called
Uremia- less than 10%
remaining GFR.
Urinary stones are called? Urinary Calculi
It is gradual enlargement of the prostate gland BPH
with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of normal
Name the three Components of 1. Adequate cardiac pump
Adequate Blood Flow 2. Effective vasculature or circulatory system
3. Sufficient blood volume

Types of burns Types of burns

exposure to dry heat (flame), moist Thermal- exposure to dry heat (flame),
heat(steam) moist heat(steam)
skin contact with acid or alkaline Chemical-skin contact with acid or
direct current, as with lightning strike alkaline
from sunburn or treatments Electrical- direct current, as with
lightning strike
Radiation- from sunburn or treatments
Classification of burns Classification of burns
Superficial partial thickness Superficial partial thickness (1st
Deep partial thickness degree)- involve epidermis, painful,
Full thickness reddened with possible blisters
Deep partial thickness (2nd degree)-
involves epidermis and upper dermis,
painful, blistered, mottled, weeping
Full thickness (3rd degree)- involves
epidermis, dermis and sometimes
subcutaneous, pain free, dry, pale,
white, leathery or charred
Rule of Nine: Rule of Nine:
Head, face, neck Head, face, neck 9%
Anterior trunk Anterior trunk 18%
Posterior Trunk Posterior Trunk 18%
Upper extremities (each) Upper extremities (each) 9%
Lower extremities (each) Lower extremities (each) 18%
Genitals Genitals 1%
Crystallized Resuscitation (Baxter and Crystallized Resuscitation (Baxter and
Parkland) Parkland)
Formula: 4mls LR x wt. in kg x %TBSA
1st 24H 1st 24H
- 1st 8H= - 1st 8H= 50%
- 2nd 8H= - 2nd 8H= 25%
- 3rd 8H= - 3rd 8H= 25%

Fluid Replacement Fluid Replacement

Types of fluids: Types of fluids:
Colloids: Colloids: blood, plasma
Electrolytes: expanders
Non- electrolyte: Electrolytes: Lactated Ringers
Non- electrolyte: D5W


Shock caused by decrease in Hypovolemic
intravascular volume

Shock caused by pump failure Cardiogenic

Shock caused by nervous system injury Neurogenic

or impairment that leads to alteration of
vascular smooth muscle tone

Shock caused by systemic infection Septic

Shock caused by hypersensitivity Anaphylactic shock

shock states that are caused by loss of circulatory shock

vascular muscle tone

Three types of circulatory shock septic, neurogenic, anaphylactic

What are the 3 Physiological Responses 1. Hypo perfusion of tissues

common to all types of shock 2. Hyper metabolism
3. activation of inflammatory response


Inflammation of vaginal epithelium, Candidiasis
producing itching, reddish irritation
White, cheese like discharge clinging to
Usually no edema or erythema of vulva Gardnerella-associated
or vagina bacterial vaginosis
Gray-white to yellow-white discharge
clinging to external vulva and vaginal
Inflammation of vaginal epithelium, Trichomonas vaginalis
producing burning and itching vaginitis (STD)
Frothy yellow-white or yellow-green
vaginal discharge
Erythema around vestibular gland Bartholinitis (infection
Swelling and edema of greater vestibular
Abscessed vestibular gland gland)
Profuse purulent discharge Cervicitis: acute and
Backache chronic
Urinary frequency and urgency
Discharge and irritation from alkaline Atrophic vaginitis
pH of vaginal secretions
Removal of the uterus, ovaries, Radical hysterectomy
fallopian tubes, proximal vagina, and bilateral
nodes through an abdominal incision
Stages of Ovarian Cancer I Cancer is contained within the ovary (or
II Cancer is in one or both ovaries and has
involved other
organs (ie, uterus, fallopian tubes, bladder, the
sigmoid colon, or the rectum) within the pelvis.
III Cancer involves one or both ovaries, and
one or both of
the following are present: (1) cancer has spread
the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen; (2)
cancer has spread to lymph nodes.
IV The most advanced stage of ovarian cancer.
Cancer is in one or both ovaries. There is
distant metastasis to
the liver, lungs, or other organs outside the
cavity; ovarian cancer cells in the pleural
cavity are evidence of stage IV disease.
also called impotence, is the inability Erectile Dysfunction
to achieve or maintain an erect penis
defined as the occurrence of Disorders of Ejaculation
ejaculation sooner than desired, either before
or shortly after
penetration, causing distress to either one or
both partners
an inflammation of the prostate gland that is Prostatitis
often associated with lower urinary tract
symptoms and symptoms of sexual discomfort
and dysfunction.
the most common procedure used, can be Transurethral Resection of the Prostate
carriedout through endoscopy. The surgical
and optical instrument
is introduced directly through the urethra to the
prostate, which can then be viewed directly.
The gland is removed in
small chips with an electrical cutting loop
a relatively uncommon disorder, is defined as a Priapism
persistent penile erection that may or may not
be related to sexual stimulation.
an acquired, benign condition that involves the Peyronies disease
buildup of fibrous plaques in the sheath of the
corpus cavernosum.
is the surgical excision of the foreskin Circumcision
(prepuce) of the glans penis
What STD's are reportable to the health a. syphillis
department? b. gonorrhea
c. hpv (genital warts)
d chlamydia
e. HIV ( except herpes simplex virus)
What is the virus associated in the Human Papilloma Virus
development of cervical cancer?
True or False. Chlamydia can be o True.
What are the female symptoms of o a. mucourethral drainage
Chlamydia? b. cervical bleeding
c. ectopic pregnancy
d. infertility
What are the male symptoms of a. epidydimitis
Chlamydia? b. prostitis
c. male infertility

True or False. If Chlamydia crosses the True

placenta, it can cause blindness in the
Describe female symptoms of o *salpingitis
Gonorrhea *changes in vaginal discharge
*spotting after sex
Describe male symptoms of Gonorrhea *prostatitis
*swollen testicle
*penile discharge
What type of symptoms does the MSM *anal itching
have from Gonorrhea? *anal bleeding
*anal infection
What is considered as a silent STD? Chlamydia
A viral disease caused by human virus, which Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
destroys T cells, thereby increasing
susceptibility to infection and malignancy
High-risk groups for Acquired 1. Heterosexual or homosexual
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) contact with high-risk
2. Intravenous drug abusers
3. Persons receiving blood
4. Health care workers
5. Babies born to infected
outer most layer, thin but tough, Epidermis
replaced every 4 weeks
inner supportive layer, consist of Dermis layer
connective tissue (collagen), nerves,
sensory receptors, blood vessels,
lymphatics, hair follicles, sebaceous
glands, and sweat glands
Identify the 4 appendages to the skin in Hair
the integumentary system. Sebaceous glands - produce sebum
Sweat glands
Nails - hard, keratin plates
It is a primary skin lesion,flat Macule
unelevated patch, 1mm to 1 cm. Ex.
What to consider in Past Medical any systemic problems,
History for Skin, Hair, Nails any problems specific to skin, hair, nails
Family history to consider for skin, skin cancers, psoriasis, allergies, infestations
hair, nails
Personal and Social History of skin, self-care habits
hair nails exposure to environmental/occupational stress
alcohol/street drug use
A rough thickened, hardened epidermis Lichenification
resulting from chronic irritation or
FLAT (unlike keloid), irregular Scar
connective tissue left after a lesion or
wound. New scars may be red or
purple, older scars may be silvery or
A flat, nonpalpable, irregular-shaped Patch
macule more than 1 cm in diameter.
Elevated, firm, and rough lesion with Plaque
flat top surface greater than 1 cm in
Elevated irregular-shaped area of Wheal
cutaneous edema; solid, transient;
variable diameter
Elevated, firm, circumscribed lesion; Nodule
deeper in dermis than a papule; 1 to 2
cm in diameter
Vesicle greater than 1 cm in diameter Bulla
Irregular-shaped, elevated, Keloid
progressively enlarging scar; grows
beyond the boundaries of the wound
A reddish purple, non blanchable spot Ecchymosis
of variable size. This is caused by
trauma to the blood vessel resulting in
bleeding under the tissue.
are sudden catastrophic events that disrupt Disaster
patterns of life and in which there is possible
loss of life and property in addition to multiple
up to 10 people involved Multiple Patient- up to 10 people
more than 10 not more than 100 involved
more than 100 Multiple Casualty Disasters- more than
10 not more than 100
Mass Casualty Disasters- more than
sorting prioritizing Triage
for patient with highest chance of Military triage- for patient with highest
survival chance of survival
for patient with most life- threatening Civilian triage- for patient with most
injury life- threatening injury
Triage Categories: Triage Categories:
patients have the highest prioritytheir Emergent- patients have the highest priority
conditions are life threatening, and they must their conditions are life threatening, and they
be seen immediately must be seen immediately
Urgent- patients have serious health problems,
patients have serious health problems, but not but not immediately life threatening ones; they
immediately life threatening ones; they must must be seen within 1 hour
be seen within 1 hour Non-urgent- patients have episodic illnesses
that can be addressed within 24 hours without
patients have episodic illnesses that can be increased morbidity
addressed within 24 hours without increased Fast Track- These patients require simple first
morbidity aid or basic primary care. They may be treated
in the ED or safely referred to a clinic or
These patients require simple first aid or basic physicians office.
primary care. They may be treated in the ED or
safely referred to a clinic or physicians office.
Color-coded triage system: Color-coded triage system:
dead Black- dead
critical/ life-threatening (ABC, Cardio, Red- critical/ life-threatening (ABC,
head injury..etc) Cardio, head injury..etc)
serious/ urgent, can wait for Yellow-serious/ urgent, can wait for
transportation (fracture, burn less than transportation (fracture, burn less than
40%) 40%)
minimal, ambulatory, can be treated by Green- minimal, ambulatory, can be
non- professional treated by non- professional

Four emergency action principles: Four emergency action principles:

Survey the scene
Primary assessment
Activate EMS
Secondary assessment
When to terminate CPR: When to terminate CPR:
spontaneous circulation and ventilation
have been restored
resuscitation efforts have been
transferred to another equally
responsible individual
a physician assumes responsibility for
resuscitation procedure
the victim is transferred to an
emergency medical service
the rescuer is exhausted and is unable
to continue
The patient is placed supine on a firm, flat Log rolling technique
surface. If the patient is lying face down, the
body is turned as a unit so that the head,
shoulders, and torso move simultaneously with
no twisting
After one hand is placed on each side of the Jaw-thrust
patients jaw, the angles of the victims lower
jaw are grasped and lifted, displacing the
mandible forward. This is a safe approach to
opening the airway of a victim with suspected
neck injury because it can be accomplished
without extending the neck
Remove stinger by scrapping it
one of the most common toxic gases; it cannot Carbon Monoxide
be filtered with the use of cloth face mask;
Toxicity occurs because of the higher affinity
of the hemoglobin
poisonous substances absorbed through the Contact Poison
skin or mucousmembranes
most common form poisoning by ingestion is Ingested Poison
by ingestion ofpoisonous substance and
ingestion of an excessive amount of drug.
Intervention Guidelines SIRES Stabilize the Individual
Identify the Toxic Substance
Reverse the Effect
Eliminate the Substance from the Body
Syrup of Ipecac
Gastric lavage/ gut lavage
Support the person/ significant others
physically and psychologically
death after submersion in very cold water, Immersion Syndrome
thought to be caused from dysrrhythmias.
refers to injury to two or more body systems MULTIPLE TRAUMA
and occurs with such severe injuries.
The total surgical episode is called? Peri- operative nursing

.What is the effect of Cortisone or Stress of operation may require higher doses of
steroid use in surgery? steroid during early recovery. However, long-
term use impairs wound healing.
At what age group is ECG required Males older than 40 and females older than 50
prior to surgery? years old.

What is the best position of the clients sitting or supine position

for capping exercises?
Up to how many hours will the client 8-10 hours
be on NPO prior to surgery?
Is enema required for all types of No. only for procedures involving the GI tract,
surgery? perineal and pelvic area
What is the focus in the care of the clients emotional well- being, and physical
client during intra- operative period? factors such as safety, positioning and asepsis
When is the final preparation for begins 1- 2 hours before surgery for the clients
surgical procedure done? in the hospital or upon admission for same-
day admission clients
What are the roles of the circulating Ensuring All equipment are working properly
nurse Guaranteeing sterility of the instruments
assisting with positioning
Performing surgical skin preparation
Monitoring the room and team members for
break in sterility
Assisting anesthesia personnel with induction
and physiologic monitoring
Handling specimens
Coordinating activities in other departments
Documenting care provided
Minimizing conversation and traffic within the
operating suite

What is the role of the scrub nurse? gathering all the equipment for the procedure
Preparing all supplies and instruments using
the sterile technique
Handling instruments and supplies during the
Maintaining accurate counts of sponges and
instruments with the circulating nurse before
and after surgery.
What is the last sense to be depressed Hearing
during induction of general anesthesia?
What are the characteristics of an Client experience rapid loss of consciousness
intravenous kind of GA? (within 30 seconds). It can act as a calming
Anesthesia is commonly achieved oxygen, narcotic and neuromuscular blocking
using the combination of what? agent
What is the route of administration of through a mask or endotracheal tube
inhalation anesthesia?
What does the word volatile in the medication can be exhaled through the
inhalation anesthesia means? lungs
Up to how long will the spinal may last a week
headache be present post-op for client
who had undergone spinal anesthesia?
What are the commonly used gases nitrous oxide and isoflurane
anesthetic for inhalation anesthesia?
What are the nursing intervention for Apply tight abdominal binder
clients having spinal headache Provide fluids
administer analgesics as ordered
What is cryothermia? is the use of cold to induce anesthesia
This is a genetic disorder characterized malignant hyperthermia
by uncontrolled skeletal muscle
contraction leading to potentially fatal
What combination of anesthetics can combination of succinylcholine and inhalation
pose great risk for the clients for ( halothane)
possible malignant hyperthermia?
What is the drug of choice to decrease Dantrolene
muscle rigidity during malignant
Up to how many centigrade will the up to 43 degree Celsius
temperature rise in malignant
Autograft- Autograft- self
Allograft- Allograft-donor of the same species but
Isograft- different genetic makeup
Xenograft- Isograft- donor of the same species and
Split- same genetic makeup
Domino- Xenograft- Tissue from an animal of
Heterotrophic- one species used as a temporary graft
Orthotopic- (as in cases of severe burns) on an
Bioengineered grafts- individual of another species
Split- divided into parts
Domino- continuous
Heterotrophic- different site
Orthotopic- same site
Bioengineered grafts- synthetically
determines the degree to which the donor Tissue typing determines the degree to
and recipient tissue match which the donor and recipient tissue match
tests the recipient for antidonor Cross-matching tests the recipient for
antibodies that may have developed from antidonor antibodies that may have
a prior organ transplant, blood developed from a prior organ transplant,
transfusion or pregnancy blood transfusion or pregnancy
Rejection Rejection
Hyperacute Hyperacute occurs 2-3 days
Acute after transplantation
Chronic Acute occurs 4 days to 3
months after transplantation
Chronic occurs 4 months to
years after transplantation
1905: First successful transplant by Eduard cornea transplant
What is genetics? The field of science that looks at how traits
(such as eye color) are passed down from
parents to their children through genes
What is the genome? The totality of the approximately 25000
genes that humans have in their genetic
genes are contained in ___ Chromosomes
Chromosomes are located within the ____ cell nucleus
__ __ is a display of its genome, revealing Human karyotype
all the chromosomes present in an
__ pairs of chromosomes are autosomes. 22
One pair of chromosomes is a __ Sex
What are the 4 chemicals that compose -Adenine
DNA -Thymine
What is the name of the enzyme that helps dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase DPD
metabolize the drug fluorouracil?
What is heterozygous? alleles of a particular gene are non-identical
What is homozygous? alleles of a particular gene are identical
What are X linked traits? Traits that are passed from parents to
offspring on the X chromosome
What are the common X linked recessive colorblindness and hemophilia
What are some alternative methods or massage, changing positions, change linens,
behaviors nurses can do to decrease oral care
Is it better to treat pain around the clock Around the clock. Less medication is used, it
or PRN? Why? decreases hospital stay, and increases quality
of life.
What are some objective indicators of Grimacing, restlessness, stillness, verbal or
pain? nonbverbal vocalization, holding something
tight (side rails)
How can we advocate for the patient Call the healthcare provider
when it comes to pain treatment being
Who can we refer patients to for pain Pain CNS-RN (pain specialists), support
management? groups
How do TENS units work? Electrodes stimulate the A-Beta touch fibers to
close the pain gate.
Surgical severing of the dorsal spinal Rhizotomy
Destruction of the ganglia by incision Sympathectomy
or injection
Removal of part of the nerve Neurectomy
An incision into the anterolateral tracts Cordotomy
of the spinal cord to interrupt the
transmission of pain
Anesthesiologic approaches to pain Nerve blocks, epidural steroid injections,
intraspinal drug administration, trigger point
injections, invasive nerve stimulation
Types of medications used to treat pain NSAIDs, Narcotics, Antidepressants,
Anticonvulsants, Local anesthetics
How does age as a factor affect pain Not controlled well in elderly, studies are
response? being conducted in neonates
Describe chronic intractable Clients are unable to cope well with the pain.
nonmalignant pain syndrome. Pain may be mild to severe. The pain itself
becomes the pathologic process.
sensory nerve fibers that conduct pain Nociceptors
impulses from the periphery to the
central nervous system
A nurse is observing a patient during a Reassure patient that those sensations are
cardiac catheterization procedure. During normal.
the procedure, the patient reports feeling Sensations that may be experienced during
chest flutters and have an irregular cardiac catheterization include palpitations
heartbeat. What should be the nurses as the catheter is passed up the left
initial action? ventricle, and a feeling of heat or hot flash
as the medium is injected into either side of
the heart.
A patient with a history of acute renal Mucomyst
failure is about to have cardiac
catheterization. The nurse caring for the Fluids and acetylcysteine (mucomyst) may
patient should anticipate administering be given 12-24 hours before the procedure
which medication before the procedure? for renal protection.
A nurse is assessing a patient who received Lower the head of the bed
a prescribed dose of nitroglycerin 5
minutes ago. The patients current blood If the patients BP is less than 100 mmHg
pressure is 90/40 mmHg. What should be systolic or 25 mmHg lower than the
the nurses next action? previous reading, lower the head of the bed
and notify primary healthcare provider.
Hypotension can be dramatic, and
intensified by the upright position.
Which of the following complications is Development of lactic acidosis
associated with the use of glucophage for a
patient undergoing a cardiac angiogram Combination of contrast medium and
procedure? glucophage could cause the development of
lactic acidosis. Drug should be
discontinued the day before the procedure
and 48-72 hours post-procedure.
The nurse administered the 1st dose of Within 1-3 minutes of taking the drug
NTG sublingual for a patient experiencing
chest pain. The nurse should know that Pain relief with NTG use should begin
pain relief should be evident: within 1-2 minutes and should be clearly
evident in 3-5 minutes. After 5 minutes,
assess the patients pain level and vital
A nurse working in the telemetry unit is Sinus tachycardia with premature
assessing the latest ECG readings for the ventricular contractions
patients in the unit. Which of the following
cardiac rhythm indicates that a patient has Sinus tachycardia with PVCs frequently
recently experienced an MI? occurs in the first few hours after an MI.
With acute MI, PVCs may be considered
warning dysrhythmias, possibly triggering
ventricular tachycardia or ventricular
The nurse is caring for a patient on a Administer PRN dose of antacid
mechanical ventilator with an NG tube in
place. Upon assessment, the nurse notes Stress ulcers occur in many patients
that the gastric aspirate from the NG tube receiving mechanical ventilation. These
has a pH level of 4.0. Based on the finding, ulcers complicate the patients nutritional
what should be the most appropriate status and increase the risk for systemic
nursing action? infections. Antacids are often prescribed as
soon as the patient is intubated.
During assessment, the nurse notes high- Call rapid response team
pitched noise during inspiration and
excessive coughing for a patient who had Stridor, a high-pitched noise during
an endotracheal tube removed several inspiration caused by laryngospasm, is a
hours ago. Which of the following should late manifestation of a narrowed airway
be the initial action by the nurse? and requires prompt attention. Reintubation
may be needed.
A. A. Humoral response
1. is immediate. 1. Humoral response is immediate.
2. This type of response provides 2. This type of response provides
protection against acute, rapidly protection against acute, rapidly
developing bacterial and viral developing bacterial and viral
infections. infections.
B. B. Cellular response
1. is delayed; this is also called delayed 1. Cellular response is delayed; this is
hypersensitivity. also called delayed hypersensitivity.
2. This type of response is active 2. This type of response is active
against slowly developing bacterial against slowly developing bacterial
infections and is involved in infections and is involved in
autoimmune responses, some allergic autoimmune responses, some allergic
reactions, and rejection of foreign cells. reactions, and rejection of foreign cells.

Known as clean technique Medical asepsis

Procedures used to reduce and prevent
the spread of microorganisms
Examples of medical asepsis hand
hygiene; using clean gloves to prevent
contact with blood and body fluids; and
routine environmental cleaning.
Procedures used to eliminate all Surgical asepsis
microorganisms including pathogens
and spores from an object or area
An area or object is considered
contaminated if touched by any object
that is not sterile
Commonly performed in the operating
room, labor and delivery, and major
diagnostic areas, and can be used at
clients bedside
Bodys Normal Defenses Against Non Specific Defenses
Infection -Intact skin and mucus membranes
Body defense systems
-Normal body flora internal and external
-Inflammatory response
Specific Body Defenses
-Antibody mediated defense
-Cell-mediated defense
a collagen disease; it is a form of systemic Polyarteritis nodosa
vasculitis that causes inflammation of the
arteries in visceral organs, brain, and skin
a chronic connective tissue disease similar to Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis)
SLE that is characterized by inflammation,
fibrosis, and sclerosis
Chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
disease that can cause major organs and
systems to fail with common feature of
Erythema butterfly or rash of the face
also called native or innate immunity. Natural immunity
It is present at birth and includes biochemical,
physical, and mechanical barriers of defense,
as well as the inflammatory response.
is received passively from the mother's Acquired or adaptive immunity
antibodies, animal serum, or antibodies
produced in response to a disease.
is the absence or inadequate production of Immunodeficiency
immune bodies.
is an abnormal, individual response to certain allergy
substances that normally do not trigger such an
exaggerated reaction.
a serious and immediate hypersensitivity Anaphylaxis
reaction that releases histamine from the
damaged cells.
Body is unable to recognize its own cells as a Autoimmune disease
part of itself.
is a rare autoimmune disease that occurs Pemphigus
predominantly between middle and old age.
The cause is unknown, and the disorder is
potentially fatal. Treatment is aimed at
suppressing the immune response that causes
blister formation.
an autoimmune disorder; autoantibodies are Goodpasture's syndrome
made against the glomerular basement
membrane and alveolar basement membrane.
is an infection caused by the spirochete Lyme disease
Borrelia burgdorferi, acquired from a tick bite
(ticks live in wooded areas and survive by
attaching to a host)
a viral disease caused by human Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys
T cells, thereby increasing susceptibility to
infection and malignancy

Proverbs 3:5-6

Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; Acknowledge
Him in all your ways and He shall make your path straight.

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