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Global J. of Engg. & Appl.

Sciences, 2012: 2 (3)

Research Paper: Suresh, 2012: Pp.275-277


ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STRUCTURES USING STRUDS SOFTWARE
Suresh, B
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia.

ABSTRACT
Currently there are several commercially available softwares in market for analysis and design of Civil
Engineering structures like ETABS, STAAD Pro and STRUDS etc. Among these STRUDS is an ideal software
solution for the usage of structural engineers for the analysis of 2D and 3D structures and design of different
R.C.C and Steel components such as slabs, beams, columns, footings and trusses with design sketches. Struds
has inbuilt graphical data generator to model the geometry of building structure. It performs analysis using
stiffness matrix method and finite element method for maximum solution, accuracy and reliability. Struds
performs the integrated design by limit state method of all R.C.C. components of the structure by directly
reading the analysis results. If any component fails the program gives you warning messages and suggests
you the possible alternative for design. Struds prepares graphical outputs in the form of drawings and
diagrams. Design results in the text form of schedules, quantities and details are produced. The design
process is highly interactive and extremely user friendly. It facilitates to change the design parameters
anywhere in between the design process and redesign the structure. These changes are automatically
reflected in graphical and numerical output form. Struds also enables to produce the working drawings in
AUTOCAD.
Keywords: Software, struds and structural engineer.

INTRODUCTION
User can idealize a building structure in the form of Plane Truss -> Create -> Predefined Truss ->
plane grid, plane frame or space frame. Plane grid is Standard Truss
is a two dimensional structure having no horizontal -> Select Truss type -> Here we take Fan - Truss ->
(Global X, Y) movement of the structure. The OK
degrees of freedom available are Fz, Mx, My. Geometrical Parameters Dialog Box appears. Set the
Columns are modeled as supports with only Fz properties as desired Let us set
restraint (Fig. 1). A Plane frame structure is bound Span of Truss = 10 m
by a global X-Z or Y-Z coordinate system with loads Rise of Truss = 4 m -> OK
in the same plane. It has three degrees of freedom Property ->
Fx, Fz and My in X-Z plane and Fy, fz and Mx in Y-Z -> Create -> Section -> create a section say sec1.
plane (Fig. 2). Space frame is a three dimensional -> Load -> Nodal Load -> we create two Nodal
structure with loads applied in any plane and has Loads
six degrees of freedom Fx,Fy,Fz,Mx,My and Mz(Fig. N1 = 10 kN and N2 = 20 kN
3) (Johansson and Veljkovic, 2001 and Karlstrom, -> Attach -> material (steel) to all elements.
2004). And plane truss consists of truss members -> Section to all elements.
which have only axial member forces no bending. It -> Load -> Nodal Load (N2 to Node 16 and N1 to
has two degrees of freedom that is transitional in Node 14 and 18).
that plane (Fig. 4). In Struds user can start floor grid Support -> In predefined trusses supports are
structure and he can transform the same as plane already there. If one wants to change he can.
frame or space frame after attaching columns. View The default supports are hinged at Node 1 and
and space frame or any of the plane frame Roller at Node 11.
generated (Ng and Gardner, 2007 and Wu, 2011). Save -> the truss (say fan.bld)
Truss -> Analysis Files -> Current Truss -> save
Problem: files in the same folder.
Type: Plane Truss Analysis with Nodal Loads (Fan - Close the Truss and save the building (Fig 6).
Truss)
Purpose: Compare Theoretical results with STRUDS Results:
STRUDS. Axial force in the element:Element No:25
Problem: Determine the Axial Forces in all the
members of Plane Fan - Truss as shown in figure-5. Distance 1
Find also the reactions at support 0.000 -20.000
4.000 -20.000
Modeling: M factor 1.000
For modeling open a new building file in the Elemental results(Axial,B.M)-Plane struss
Preprocessor structure.
Preprocessor -> Building -> New Load combination: 1.0 D.L+1.0 L.L

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Global J. of Engg. & Appl. Sciences, 2012: 2 (3)
El.No Group Node Length Axial B.M P4-14 = 10 (Applied Nodal Force at Node 14)
1 RAFTER 1-2 1.176 32.00 0.0
2 RAFTER 2-3 1.176 32.01 0.0
For H = 0,
3 RAFTER 3-4 1.176 32.04 0.0 P14-15 = P13-14 = 25.000 kN
4 RAFTER 4-5 1.400 27.47 0.0 At Node 4:
5 RAFTER 5-6 1.475 27.46 0.0
6 RAFTER 6-7 1.475 27.46 0.0
At node 4 there are 5 elements
7 RAFTER 7-8 1.400 27.47 0.0 Force in member 31, P4-13 = 0
8 RAFTER 8-9 1.176 32.04 0.0 Force in member 23, P4-14 = 10 kN
9 RAFTER 9-10 1.176 32.01 0.0
10 RAFTER 10-11 1.176 32.00 0.0 Length of element 23, L4-14 = 2.204 m
11 Main-Tie 1-12 0.918 -24.98 0.0 Length of element 14, L14-15 = 1.093 m
12 Main-Tie 12-13 0.919 -24.98 0.0 Angle is given as
13 Main-Tie 13-14 0.918 -25.00 0.0
14 Main-Tie 14-15 1.093 -25.00 0.0 tan () = 1.093 / 2.204 => = 26.3776 degrees
15 Main-Tie 15-16 1.152 -19.39 0.0 For V = 0,
16 Main-Tie 16-17 1.152 -19.39 0.0 P4-15 * cos () + P3-4 * sin (theta) - P4-5 * sin (theta) =
17 Main-Tie 17-18 1.093 -25.00 0.0
18 Main-Tie 18-19 0.918 -25.00 0.0 10 --------(1)
19 Main-Tie 19-20 0.919 -24.98 0.0 For H = 0,
20 Main-Tie 20-11 0.918 -24.98 0.0
P4-15 * sin () + P4-5 * cos (theta) - P3-4 * cos (theta) =
21 STRUTS 2-12 0.735 0.000 0.0
22 STRUTS 3-13 1.469 0.050 0.0 0 --------(2)
23 STRUTS 4-14 2.204 -10.00 0.0 On solving these two equations (1) and (2), we get
24 STRUTS 5-15 3.079 -0.02 0.0
25 STRUTS 6-16 4.000 -20.00 0.0
P4-5 = 27.4687 kN
26 STRUTS 7-17 3.079 -0.020 0.0 P4-15 = 7.9916 kN
27 STRUTS 8-18 2.204 -10.00 0.0 At Node 5:
Theoretical results: Resolving along the inclined element 5,
The Fan - Truss taken is symmetrical in loading P5-6 = P4-5 = 27.4687 kN
also, so we will analyze the half truss only. Resolving perpendicular to the inclined element 5,
Total vertical load = 10 + 20 + 10 = 40 kN P5-15 = 0
Reaction at both Node = 40 / 2 = 20 kN At Node 15:
The inclined length = sqrt (4 * 4 + 5 * 5)= sqrt (41) At node 15 there are 5 elements
= 6.4031 m Force in member 24, P5-15 = 0
The angle theta is given as: Force in member 34, P4-15 = 7.9916 kN
tan (theta) = 4 / 5; this gives theta = 38.6598 Length of element 25, L6-16 = 4 m
(degrees) Length of element 15, L15-16 = 1.152 m
cos (theta) = 5 / sqrt (41) Angle 1 is given as
sin (theta) = 4 / sqrt (41) tan (1) = 1.152 / 4 => 1 = 16.0664 degrees
At Node 1: For V = 0,
For V = 0, P6-15 = P4-15 * cos () / cos (1) = 7.45057 kN
P1-2 = 20 / sin (theta) = 32.015 kN For H = 0,
For H = 0, P15-16 = P14-15 - P4-15 * sin () - P6-15 * sin (1)
P1-12 = P1-2 * cos (theta) = 25.000 kN = 19.3875 kN
At Node 12: At Node 16:
For V = 0, For V = 0,
P2-12 = 0 (As there is no vertical force / load at Node P6-16 = 20 (Applied Nodal Force at Node 16)
12) For H = 0,
For H = 0, P16-17 = P15-16 = 19.3875 kN
P1-12 = P1-2 * cos (theta) = 25.000 kN Comparison between theoretical and struds
At Node 2: results:
Resolving perpendicular to the inclined element 2, Axial Force in Theoretical STRUDS % Deviation
Element Results Results
P2-13 = 0
1 and 10 32.015 32.00 0.04
Resolving along the inclined element 2, 2 and 9 32.015 32.01 0.01
P2-3 = P1-2 = 32.015 kN 3 and 8 32.015 32.04 0.07
4 and 7 27.469 27.47 0.00
At Node 3: 5 and 6 27.469 27.46 0.00
For H = 0, 11 and 20 25 24.98 0.08
P3-4 = P2-3 = 32.015 kN 12 and 19 25 24.98 0.08
13 and 18 25 25 Nil
For V = 0, 14 and 17 25 25 Nil
P3-13 = 0 15 and 16 19.388 19.39 0.01
At Node 13: 21 and 29 0 0 Nil
22and28 0 0.05 Negligible
For V = 0, 23 and 27 10 10 Nil
P4-13 = 0 24 and 26 0 0.02 Negligible
For H = 0, 25 20 20 Nil
30 and 36 7.451 7.44 0.15
P13-14 = P12-13 = 25.000 kN 31 and 37 0 0.03 Negligible
At Node 14: 34 and 32 7.992 8.00 0.10
For V = 0, 35 and 33 0 0.04 Negligible

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Global J. of Engg. & Appl. Sciences, 2012: 2 (3)

Other advantages: Though it is not possible to channels, I and tubular sections. In relation to other
consider secondary moments due to eccentric soft wares ETABS file and its analysis file can be
seating beams .And no stress concentration effect imported the same in STRUDS and also export
consideration due to cut outs in slabs. But It is STRUDS file in ETABS. Also possible to import
possible to analyze beams of irregular sections that geometry from AUTOCAD to STRUDS (Gardner and
is concrete I beams and beams having hexagonal Nethercot, 2004 and 2006).
section. It is possible to design beams of inclined in
plan. Beam design is done for worst of all load CONCLUSION
combinations including pattern loads, Earth quake The analysis and design by using STRUDS software
loads and wind loads. In beam design parameters is given results with negligible difference with
user defined detailing option is given. In user manual calculations. Thus the software is good for
defined detailing one option to decide maximum using analysis and design of structures, simple and
bar length is given which will be helpful in deciding also user friendly. And also providing other
laps in detailing. And also Floating columns can be advantages to the users as specified.
considered in Struds. The user can account for the REFERENCES
soft story effect in Struds for seismic analysis. Gardner, L and D.A. Nethercot. 2004. Numerical
However the storey which is to be decided as a soft modelling of stainless steel structural
storey needs to be defined explicitily by the user. components A consistent approach. Journal
Modeling and analyzing buildings which may be of Structural engineering, ASCE, 130(10):1586
located on sloping hill sides is possible. Which 601.
provides an unique feature to modify the footing Gardner, L and N.R. Baddoo. 2006. Fire testing and
level. The effect of shear walls can be taken into design of stainless steel structures. Journal of
account by STRUDS by using Master-slave concept. Constructional Steel Research, 62:53243.
Facility to view shear wall detail for selected floors Johansson, B and M. Veljkovic. 2001. Steel plated
by selecting default levels for that particular floor is structures. Progress in Structural Engineering
given. Along these triangular slabs , trapezoidal and Materials, 3(1):1327.
slabs and flat slabs also can be designed. User can Karlstrm, P. 2004. Thin-walled steel studs in fire:
specify drawing parameters for slabs, beams, Analysis and design recommendations,
columns, shear walls and footings.Use of Fe 550 Licentiat Thesis, Lule University of
grade steel in design of slabs, beams ,columns, Technology, Sweden. Pp. 73.
shear walls and footings is implemented. Stress Ng, KT and L. Gardner. 2007. Buckling of stainless
contours to visualize the behavior of structure steel columns and beams in fire. Engineering
including principal and von mises stresses is Structures, 29(7):71730.
possible. Struds analyze a truss supported by Wu, C. 2011. Special Issue on Protection of
Reinforced concrete columns. And in steel trusses it Structures against Blast Loading. J. Perform.
is possible to create compound sections from the Constr. Facil. 25: 358359.
basic sections such as equal and unequal angles,
Fig. 1. Fz restraint model Fig. 2. Three degree freedom model

Fig. 3. Three dimensional structure model Fig. 4. Transitional plane

Fig. 5. Plane Fan - Truss Fig. 5. Analysis File - Truss

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277 ISSN 2249-2631(online): 2249-2623(Print) - Rising Research Journal Publication