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CHEMICAL BONDING II: ATOMIC


ORBITALS, MOLECULAR ORBITALS
AND MOLECULAR GEOMETRY

PROF. MADYA DR. MOHAMMAD B. KASSIM
TEL: +60489213980; EMAIL: mbkassim@ukm.my
Room: G0146 (CHEMISTRY)

ElectronegaWvity
Electron density in heteronuclear diatomic molecules X-Y is asymmetrical
If Ze of Y > X
the bonding-electron pair is drawn closer to Y
Electronega/vity is a term introduced by Linus Pauling (1930s)
the power of an atom to draw electrons to itself
commonly known as electron withdrawing power
P is a symbol used to described the Pauling electronegaWvity values
Formula for electronegaWvity
Homonuclear, aH(X,g) = x D(X-X)
The dissociaWon energy for heteronuclear
D(X-Y) = x [D(X-X) + D (Y-Y)]
e.g calculate the value of D (H-F), given D(H-H)=436 & D(F-F)=158 kJ mol-1
There are 2 others , i.e. M and AR but there less useful for inorganic
applicaWons

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DIPOLE MOMENT

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DIPOLE MOMENTS
Symmetrical electron distribuWon in the bond of
homonuclear diatomic results in non-polar bond
In heteronuclear, electron withdrawing power of
atoms are dierent
Bonding electrons are drawn towards the more
electronegaWve atom
Results in polar bonding
There exists an electric dipole moment,

= q e d where q = point charge, d = distance c = charge on
the electron (1.602 x 10-19 C)
SI unit for is coulomb metre (Cm), but conveniently refer to as
debyes (D)
1 D = 3.336 x 10-30 Cm

DIPOLE MOMENTS
The parWal charge separaWon in polar
diatomic molecule is represented by symbol
+ and -
the symbols are placed on the appropriate centres
SI convenWon
arrow points from the end of the bond to the + end
+
H F

Note: Lone pairs eect the dipole moment, thus, calculaWon
made based on charge separaWon only should be treated with
cauWon

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Molecular Dipole Moments


Polarity is a molecular property
For polyatomic molecules, there is a net
dipole moment
Dependence on the magnitudes and direcWons of
all bond dipole moments
lone pairs also contribute to overall value of

P(C) = 2.6 and P(F) = 4.0 F

net = 0 +
C
C F
F
F
F

Molecular Dipole Moments


Other example, H2O
P(H) = 2.2 and P(O) = 3.4
Lone pairs on O atom forces the molecule to be
non-linear
thus, there is a net vector for dipole moment acWng on
the molecule as shown
for H2O in gas phase = 1.85 D

Self-test
Explain why NF3 is less polar than NH3?

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Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

MOLECULAR ORBITAL THEORY

Heteronuclear InteracWons
Allowed for orbital with the right geometry
In heteronuclear molecule
set of atomic orbitals are dierent
or similar orbitals but dierent energies
e.g. CO

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