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KJM 442

HEAT & FLUIDS

CHAPTER 5
INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINES

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http://www.howcarswork.co.uk/
OBJECTIVES:
The objectives of this chapter are to:

1) Evaluate the performance of gas power cycles,

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2) Develop simplifying assumptions applicable to gas
power cycles

3) Review the operation of reciprocating engines,

4) Solve problems based on the Otto and Diesel Cycles.

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4.0 INTRODUCTION

2nd Law of
THERMODYNAMICS

The second law of thermodynamics says that when energy changes

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from one form to another form, or matter moves freely, entropy
(disorder) increases.
Differences in temperature, pressure, and density tend to even out
horizontally after a while.
From the Greek words : therme (heat) and dynamis (power) - the
efforts to convert heat into power
Process occur in a certain direction not in the reverse direction (
complement the inadequate of 1 st law )
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The study of the effects of work, heat and energy on a system.
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THERMODYNAMICS
2nd Law of
THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES
A thermodynamic cycle is a series thermodynamic
processes which returns a system to its initial state.

Properties depend only on the thermodynamic state and

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thus do not change over a cycle.

Variables such as heat and work are not zero over a cycle,
but rather depend on the process.

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4.0 INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamic cycles can be divided into:
i) power cycles Heat engines
ii) refrigeration cycles Refrigerators and heat pumps

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Thermodynamic cycles also, can be categorized as:

gas cycles or vapor cycles,


depending on the phase of the working fluid (the
substance that circulates through the cyclic device).

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4.0 INTRODUCTION
Heat engines are categorized as internal combustion
or external combustion engines.

Work can be converted to heat, BUT heat cannot be

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converted to work UNLESS with additional devices heat
engine.

Heat engines :
Receive heat from a high temperature source ( solar, fuel,
nuclear reactor).
They convert part of this heat to work.
They reject the remaining waste heat to a low temp sink.
They operate in cycle
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4.0 INTRODUCTION
It depends on how the heat is supplied to the working
fluid.

In internal combustion engines (such as automobile


engines), this is done by burning the fuel within the system

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boundary.

Reversible process a process that can be reversed


without leaving any trace on the surroundings
Do not occur in nature
Merely idealization of actual processes

Irreversible process process that are not reversible


irreversibilities :-
Friction 8

Unrestrained expansion
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PROCESS
IRREVERSIBLE
4.1 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ANALYSIS OF
POWER CYCLES
Most power-producing devices operate on cycles.
Ideal cycle: A cycle that resembles the actual cycle closely but is made
up totally of internally reversible processes.
Reversible cycles such as Carnot cycle have the highest thermal

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efficiency of all heat engines operating between the same
temperature levels. Unlike ideal cycles, they are totally reversible, and
unsuitable as a realistic model.

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2.2 THE CARNOT CYCLE AND ITS VALUE IN
ENGINEERING

Carnot Cycle a theoretical thermodynamic cycle (proposed by Nicolas


Lonard Sadi Carnot in 1824)

It provides an upper limit on the efficiency that any classical


thermodynamic cycle can achieve

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during the conversion of thermal energy into work, or conversely,

It is not an actual thermodynamic cycle but is a theoretical construct


cannot be built in practice.

A system undergoing a Carnot cycle is called a Carnot heat engine

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4.2 THE CARNOT CYCLE AND ITS VALUE IN
ENGINEERING
The Carnot cycle is composed of four totally reversible processes:

i) isothermal heat addition, An isothermal process is a change of a system,


in which the temperature remains constant: T = 0.
ii) isentropic expansion, isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic

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process that is adiabatic* and in which the work transfers of the system are
frictionless; there is no transfer of matter and the process is reversible.
iii) isothermal heat rejection, and
iv) isentropic compression.
* An adiabatic process is a process with no heat transfer
Entropy : a
thermodynamic
quantity
representing the
unavailability of a
system's thermal
energy for
conversion into 12
mechanical work ;
disorder
P-v and T-s diagrams of a Carnot cycle.
The entropy of a given mass does not
change during a process that is internally
reversible and adiabatic. A process during
which the entropy remains constant is
called an isentropic process.

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Thermal efficiency for Carnot
cycle;

A steady flow carnot heat engine


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Th = Temperature of heat source
TL = Temperature of heat sink
4.3 AIR-STANDARD ASSUMPTIONS

Air-standard assumptions: ( for


simplification)
1. The working fluid is air, which
continuously circulates in a closed loop
and always behaves as an ideal gas.

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2. All the processes that make up the
cycle are internally reversible.
3. The combustion process is replaced by
a heat-addition process from an
external source.
4. The exhaust process is replaced by a
heat-rejection process that restores
The combustion process is replaced by the working fluid to its initial state.
a heat-addition process in ideal cycles.
Cold-air-standard assumptions: When the working fluid is considered to
be air with constant specific heats at room temperature (27C).
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Air-standard cycle: A cycle for which the air-standard assumptions are
applicable.
2.4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

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http://www.flightlearnings.com/reciprocating-engines
2.4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

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Nomenclature for reciprocating engines.

Bore the diameter of the cylinder


Intake valve the way of the air or air-fuel mixture drawn into the cylinder
Stroke the distance between the TDC and BDC that the piston can travel in
one direction
Exhaust valve the way of the combustion product are expelled from the
cylinder
Spark Plug - to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder, to creates an 16
explosion
2.4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

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Nomenclature for reciprocating engines.

The piston reciprocates in the cylinder between two fixed position:

Top Dead Centre (TDC) the position of the piston when it form the
smallest volume in the cylinder

Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) the position of the piston when it forms
the largest volume in the cylinder. 17
2.4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

Compression ratio

swept volume clearancevolume Vmax VBDC


r

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v clearance volume V V
min TDC

Nomenclature for reciprocating engines.

Displacement Volume (Swept Volume) The volume displaced by the


piston as it moves between TDC and BDC

Clearance Volume - The minimum volume formed in the cylinder


when the piston is at TDC
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2.4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES
MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE (MEP)
The mean effective pressure can be used as a
parameter to compare the performances of
reciprocating engine of equal size.

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The engine with a large value of MEP will
deliver more net work per cycle and thus will
perform better.

Wnet MEP Piston Area Stroke


MEP Displacement Volume
or
Wnet
MEP (kPa)
Vmax Vmin

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2.4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

Reciprocating engines are classified as:

Spark-ignition (SI) engines the combustion of the air-fuel


mixture is initiated by a spark plug

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Compressionignition (CI) engines - the air-fuel mixture is
self-ignited as a result of compressing the mixture above its self
ignition temperature.

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2.5 OTTO CYCLE

i) The ideal cycle for spark-ignition reciprocating


engines.

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ii) In most of SI engines:
the piston executes four complete strokes (two
mechanical cycles) within the cylinder, and
the crankshaft completes two revolutions for
each thermodynamic cycle

iii) These engines are called four-stroke IC engines

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2.5 OTTO CYCLE (FOUR-STROKES ENGINE)

1) The intake stroke

On the intake stroke, the valve


has opened.

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The piston is moving down and a
mixture of air and vaporized fuel
is being pushed by atmospheric
pressure into the cylinder through
the intake valve port.

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2.5 OTTO CYCLE (FOUR-STROKES ENGINE)

2) The Compression Stroke

After the piston reaches the


lower limit of its travel, it begins to

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move upward.
As this happens, the intake valve
closes.
The exhaust valve is also closed,
so the cylinder is sealed.
As the piston moves upward, the
air/fuel mixture is compressed.

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2.5 OTTO CYCLE (FOUR-STROKES ENGINE)

2) The Compression Stroke

On some small high compression engines, by


the time the piston reaches the top of its

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travel, the mixture is compressed to as little
as one-tenth its original volume.

Thus, the compression of the air/fuel


mixture increases the pressure in the
cylinder. The compression process also
creates the air/fuel mixture to increase in
temperature.

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2.5 OTTO CYCLE (FOUR-STROKES ENGINE)
3) The Power Stroke
As the piston reaches the top of its travel on
the compression stroke, an electric spark is
produced at the spark plug.

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The ignition system delivers a high voltage
surge of electricity to the spark plug to
create the spark. The spark ignites the
air/fuel mixture.

The mixture burns rapidly and cylinder


pressure increases to as much as (600psi). All
of this pressure against the piston forces it
down in the cylinder.

The power impulse is transmitted down


through the piston, through the piston rod
(connecting rod), and to the crankshaft. The
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crankshaft is rotated due to the force.
2.5 OTTO CYCLE (FOUR-STROKES ENGINE)
4) The Exhaust Stroke
As the piston reaches the bottom of
its travel, the exhaust valve opens.

Now, as the piston moves up on the


exhaust stroke, it forces the burned

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gases out of the cylinder through the
exhaust port.

When the piston reaches the top of


its travel, the exhaust valve closes, and
the intake valve opens.

The cycle repeats again with the


intake stroke.

The four strokes are continuously 26


repeated during the operation of the
engine.
2.5 OTTO CYCLE (TWO-STROKES ENGINE)

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http://ma3naido.blogspot.com/2009/12/reciprocating-engines.html

In two-stroke engines, all four functions are


executed in just two strokes:
The power stroke
The compression stroke
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2.5 OTTO CYCLE (TWO-STROKES ENGINE)

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Operation:
The crankcase is sealed, and the outward motion of the
piston is used to slightly pressurize the air-fuel mixture in the
crankcase.

The intake and exhaust valves are replaced by openings in


the lower portion of the cylinder wall.

During the latter part of the power stroke, the piston


uncovers first the exhaust port, allowing the exhaust gases to 28

be partially expelled.
2.5 OTTO CYCLE (TWO-STROKES ENGINE)

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Operation:
Then the intake port, allowing the exhaust gases to be to
rush in and drive most of the remaining exhaust gases out of
the cylinder.

This mixture is then compressed as the piston moves


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upward during the compression stroke and is subsequently
ignited by a spark plug.
2.5 OTTO CYCLE (TWO-STROKES ENGINE)
Advantages of the two stroke engines:

Less efficient than their four-stroke counterparts because of


the incomplete expulsion of the exhaust gases

Has more get-up-and-go because it fires once every

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revolution, giving it twice the power of a four stroke, which
only fires once every other revolution.

Packs a higher weight-to-power ratio because it is much


lighter.

Is less expensive because of its simpler design.

Can be operated in any orientation because it lacks the oil


sump of a four stroke engine, which has limited orientation if
oil is to be retained in the sump. 30
2.6 THE IDEAL OTTO CYCLE
The Otto cycle is the ideal air-standard cycle for SI engine.

The Otto cycle consists of four internally reversible processes:

i) Process 1 to 2: isentropic compression


ii) Process 2 to 3: constant volume heat addition

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iii) Process 3 to 4: isentropic expansion
iv) Process 4 to 1: constant volume heat rejection

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(a) p-V diagram (b) T-s diagram


Figure 2.1: Diagram for the ideal Otto cycle
2.6 THE IDEAL OTTO CYCLE
No work is involve during the two heat transfer processes
since both take place at constant volume
Heat transfer to and from the working fluid can be expressed as:

Qin mcv T3 T2

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Unit : kJ
and
Qout mcv T4 T1

The thermal efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle under the cold air
standard assumption
Wnet Qin Qout
th ,otto
Qin Qin
Qout
1
Qin
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2.6 THE IDEAL OTTO CYCLE
Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, and 2 = 3 and 4 = 1. Thus,
k 1
k 1
T2 v1 P2 k

T1 v2 P1
k 1

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k 1
T4 v3 P4 k

T3 v4 P3
1
th 1 1
rv

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2.7 DIESEL CYCLE

Diesel cycle is the ideal cycle for Compression Ignition Engines (CI Engine).
The main difference between the petrol engine and the diesel engine are:

Petrol Engine Diesel Engine


i) The air-fuel mixture is i) The air is compressed to a

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compressed to a temperature that is temperature above the auto ignition
below the auto ignition temperature temperature of the fuel.
of the fuel.

ii) The combustion process is ii) Fuel is injected into this


initiated by firing a spark plug. compressed air (hot) in combustion
process.
iii) As mixture of air and fuel is iii) Only air is compressed during the
compressed during the compression compression stroke.
stroke.
iv) Compression ratio: iv) Compression ratio: 38

8 : 1 to 12 : 1 14 : 1 to 25 : 1
2.7 DIESEL CYCLE

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Figure 2.2: In diesel engines, the spark plug is replaced by a fuel injector,
and only air is compressed during the compression process.

Diesel cycle is less efficient than the Otto Cycle for same rv

In practice a much higher rv can be used without the danger of


knocking.
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Generally diesel engine more efficient than petrol engine
2.7.1 THE IDEAL DIESEL CYCLE

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Figure 2.3: P-V and T-s diagram for the Ideal Diesel Cycle

1 3
Compression ratio, rv and cut off ratio, rc
2 2

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2.7.1 THE IDEAL DIESEL CYCLE
The processes of ideal Diesel Engine:

Process 1 to 2: Isentropic Compression


Process 2 to 3: Constant Pressure Heating
Process 3 to 4: Isentropic Expansion

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Process 4 to 1: Constant Volume Cooling

Thermal efficiency of the diesel cycle is


expressed as

W net Q out
th 1
Qin Q in

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2.7.1 THE IDEAL DIESEL CYCLE
For the constant-pressure process and
constant-volume process:
Qin c p T3 T2 and Qout cv T4 T1

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Thermal efficiency is then
cv T4 T1 T T
th 1 1 4 1
c p T3 T2 k T3 T2

Thermal efficiency of the diesel cycle is often written in terms of the


compression ratio and the cutoff ratio

1 rck 1
th , Diesel 1 k 1
rv k rc 1

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REFERENCES

1. Yunus A. Cengel, Heat and Mass Transfer A Practical Approach,


McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, 2007

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2. Yunus A. Cengel, Introduction to Thermodynamics and Heat
Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 2008.

3. Incropera et.al., Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley, 6th Edition,
2007.

4. J.P.Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 10th Edition,2010.

5. P.K.Nag, Heat Transfer, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003.

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