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Lab 2: Three Phase Induction Motor

Introduction
An induction motor is coupled to a permanent magnet DC generator which acts as a
load to the induction motor. Torque is induced in the DC generator proportional to the
current flowing in the DC generator armature. This torque will load the induction
motor.

The output power from the induction motor Pout can be assumed to be linearly related
to the output power from the DC generator (VDC x IDC) by:

Pout = n(VDC IDC)

Hence, ignoring the rotational losses, the torque induced by the induction motor is
(m is the motor speed):

ind =

The equivalent electrical circuit is as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 : A form of equivalent circuit of an induction motor.

Figure 2 : Photo shows all the connections.


Result
Set 1
Resistance Phase Phase Total Speed, DC DC Power
(Ohm) Voltage, Current, Power (RPM) Voltage, Current, Out,(Watt)
(Volts) (Amps) (Watts) (Volts) (Amps)
1000 69.30 0.460 22 1056 136.9 0.137 18.755
500 68.80 0.583 31 1002 128.3 0.258 33.101
333 68.20 0.720 39 935 118.3 0.353 41.760
250 67.60 0.860 47 859 106.5 0.424 45.156
200 67.20 0.990 54 760 93.5 0.464 43.384
100 66.00 1.285 66 470 47.5 0.470 22.325
66 65.90 1.342 68 365 30.1 0.446 13.425
Table 1
Power Speed, Torque Slip
(normalized) rad/sec Torque (normalized)
0.415344583 110.58 0.169608428 0.311154684 0.296
0.733045442 104.93 0.315461736 0.578729476 0.332
0.924791833 97.91 0.426513124 0.940525918 0.376667
1 89.95 0.502012229 0.920965179 0.427333
0.96075826 79.59 0.545093605 1 0.493333
0.494397201 49.23 0.453483648 0.831937202 0.686667
0.297293826 38.22 0.351245421 0.644376339 0.756667
Table 2

Power (Normalized) VS Speed and Torque


1.2 (Normalized) VS Speed Graph
1

0.8

0.6

Power(Normalized)
0.4
Torque(Normalized)

0.2

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Speed (Rad/sec)

Figure 3
Set 2
Resistance Phase Phase Total Speed, DC DC Power
(Ohm) Voltage, Current, Power (RPM) Voltage, Current, Out,(Watt)
(Volts) (Amps) (Watts) (Volts) (Amps)
1000 69.60 0.311 46 1401 117.8 0.118 13.900
500 69.50 0.372 60 1358 113.6 0.228 25.901
333 69.20 0.443 75 1306 108.8 0.327 35.578
250 69.10 0.520 89 1249 103.5 0.413 42.746
200 69.00 0.597 102 1182 97.5 0.488 47.580
100 68.20 0.930 152 755 60.0 0.600 36.000
66 68.00 1.026 164 486 37.3 0.557 20.776
Table 3
Power Speed, Torque Slip
(normalized) rad/sec Torque (normalized)
0.292148 146.73 0.094735 0.208074 0.90218
0.544363 142.23 0.182105 0.399973 0.90518
0.747743 136.78 0.260108 0.571298 0.90881333
0.898392 130.81 0.326775 0.717726 0.91279333
1 123.79 0.384361 0.844205 0.91479333
0.756620 79.07 0.455293 1 0.94728667
0.436656 50.90 0.408175 0.896510 0.96606667
Table 4

Power (Normalized) VS Speed and Torque


1.2 (Normalized) VS Speed Graph
1

0.8

0.6

Power(Normalized)
0.4
Torque(Normalized)

0.2

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Speed (Rad/sec)

Figure 4
Discussion and Conclusion
In theory, the torque-speed curve is nearly linear between no load and full load. The
rotor resistance is significantly higher than the rotor reactance, hence the rotor current,
the rotor magnetic field, and the induced torque increase linearly with increasing slip.

When under no load or the rotor turns at synchronous speed, the slip becomes zero,
whereas at full load or when the rotor is stationary, the slip value becomes one. If
rotor speeds beyond the synchronous speed, the torque becomes negative and the
machine will stop and starts to act as a generator.

The speed at maximum torque is highly affected by the rotor resistance although
maximum torque is independent of the rotor resistance. As the rotor resistance
increases, the pullout speeds of the motor decrease. The curves of power output
versus speed will be similar to those of torque versus speed.

We have taken 2 set of data from two trials with different motors. The results from
both experiments show similar results however slightly difference occurred. This may
be due to the continuous rotating that produce heat that affect the experiment and
different motor performs different specifications. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the
characteristic of torque-speed and power-speed curves which are similar as predicted.
The maximum power occurs at a slightly higher rotor speed than the maximum torque.
The output is plotted relative to the motor speed since the torque and power output
obtained from the experiment is normalized.

In conclusion, this lab experiment was successful when the results calculated match
the theory. The results can be improved if more switches on the resistive load box are
used. This would further reduce the increments between the resistive values and result
to obtain a smoother graph.

Contribution
Lee Zi Qiang Introduction and Graphs
Ding Teck Kang - Discussions and Conclusion
Lim Beng Hooi Discussions and Conclusion
Chan Su Ming - Figures
Mohammed Khondhokar Isteak Ahamed Tables