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1. Three moles of an ideal gas expand isothermally and reversibly from 90 to 300 L at 300 K.

For an ideal gas, U = C v T , or in terms of molar quantities, U m = C v,m T . Since the process is

isothermal, T = 0 and so U m = 0 .

For an isothermal nRT n (V2 /V1 ) . Therefore, the work per mole is

reversible process, the work is w =

wm = RT n ( V2 /V1) . Substituting,

RT n (V2 /V1)

w m =

# 300 L &

( )

= 8.314 J mol1K1 ( 300 K) n %

$ 90 L '

(

wm = 3003 J/mol.

From the first law, U = q + w or in terms of molar quantities, U m = qm + w m . Since U m = 0 for this

isothermal process, that means that qm = w m . Thus, the heat per mole is

qm = w m

qm = 3003 J/mol.

dqrev

Finally, since dS = , for an isothermal process, the molar entropy change is

T

qm

Sm =

T

3003 J/mol

=

300 K

Sm = 10.01 J mol1K1 .

(b) If the expansion is carried out irreversibly by allowing the gas to expand rapidly into a vacuum,

determine U m , Sm , w per mole, and q per mole.

For an ideal gas, even if the process is irreversible, U m = C v,m T . Since T = 0 in this process, then

U m = 0 . This also must be true since U is a state function and the process involves the same initial and

final states as part (a).

The work is by definition dw = Pext dV , or in terms of molar quantities, dw m = Pext dVm . Since the

Since S is a state function, the change in entropy for theirreversible process must be the same as for the

reversible process in part (a) since the initial and final states are the same. Thus,

1 1

Sm = 10.01J mol K .

2

2. A normal breath has a volume of about 1 L. The pressure exerted by the lungs to draw air in is about

758 torr. Assuming that the outside air pressure is 760 torr, calculate the change in entropy of a breath

of air when it is inhaled into the lungs. Assume that the air remains at a temperature of 25C and that it

behaves ideally.

In this process, the air expands from a pressure of 760 torr to 758 torr. Assuming that the gas behaves ideally

and that the process is reversible, we have that the entropy change in an isothermal reversible process is

#V &

S = n R ln% 2 ( .

$ V1 '

Unfortunately, we are given the pressure change rather than the volume change. However, if the process is

isothermal then we can use the ideal gas equation to get

V2 P

= 1.

V1 P2

Substituting this expression into the equation for the entropy change yields

#P &

S = n R ln% 1 ( .

$ P2 '

Now in order to use the formula, we need to determine the moles in 1 L of air at 25C and an initial pressure of

760 torr (=1 atm). Using the ideal gas law,

PV

n =

RT

=

(1 atm)(1 L)

( 0.08205 Latm/molK)( 298 K)

n = 0.0409 mol.

#P &

S = n R ln% 1 (

$ P2 '

# 760 torr &

(

= ( 0.0409 mol) 8.314 J mol1K1 ln%) (

$ 758 torr '

S = 0.0009 J/K .

3

3. The molar heat capacity of solid gold is given by the relation

in units of J mol1K1. Calculate the entropy change for heating 2.50 moles of gold from 22.0C to 1000C

at constant pressure.

The entropy change for heating at constant pressure is

T2 Cp

S = T 1 T

dT ,

or since C p = n C p,m ,

T2 n C p,m

S = T1 T

dT .

T2

1

S = n T1 T

(

25.69 7.32 104 T + 4.58 106 T 2 dT )

T2 1 T2 T2

= 25.69 n T1 T

dT 7.32 104 n T1

dT + 4.58 106 n T1

T dT

&T ) &T 2 T 2 )

S = 25.69 n ln( 2 + 7.32 104 n (T 2 T1 ) + 4.58 106 n (( 2 1 ++ .

' T1 * ' 2 2 *

For 2.5 moles of gold being heated from 295 K to 1273 K, the entropy change is

"T % "T 2 T 2 %

S = 25.69 n ln $ 2 ' 7.32 10 4 n (T2 T1 ) + 4.58 10 6 n $ 2 1 '

# T1 & # 2 2 &

" 1273K % 4

= 25.69 ( 2.5mol) ln $ ' 7.32 10 ( 2.5mol) (1273K 295K )

# 295K &

" 1273K 2 295K 2 %

+ 4.58 10 6 ( 2.5mol) $

( ) ( ) '

$ 2 2 '

# &

= 93.91 J/K 1.79 J/K + 8.78J/K

S = 100.9 J/K.

4

4. A quantity of ice at 0C is allowed to melt in a large body of water also at 0C. Calculate the standard

molar entropy change for this process.

Since the process described involves a phase change, we can use the equation

H !fus

S !fus = .

T fus

!

The molar enthalpy of melting is also known as the enthalpy of fusion, H fus , which can be found in your

textbook or in the CRC.

H !fus

S !fus =

T fus

6008 J/mol

=

273.15K

S !fus = 22.0 J mol1K1 .

5. Calculate the change in entropy when one mole of aluminum is heated from 600C to 700C. The melting

point of aluminum is 660C, the enthalpy of fusion is 393 J/g, the heat capacity of solid aluminum is 31.8

J mol1K1, and heat capacity of liquid aluminum is 34.4 J mol1K1.

For heating a solid with a phase change from a solid to a liquid, the entropy change is

T fus C p ( s) n H !fus T2 C p ( )

S = T1 T

dT +

T fus

+ T fus T

dT .

Expressing the entropy change in terms of standard molar heat capacities (since that is what is given in the

problem), we have

T fus C !p,m ( s) n H !fus T2 C !p,m ( )

S = n T1 T

dT +

T fus

+ n T fus T

dT .

Assuming that the heat capacities are independent of temperature (they are listed in the problem as constants),

the expression becomes

T fus C !p,m ( s) n H !fus T2 C !p,m ( )

S = n T1 T

dT +

T fus

+ n T fus T

dT

T fus 1 n H !fus T2 1

= n C !p,m ( s) dT + + n C !p,m ( ) dT

T1 T T fus T fus T

$ T fus ' n H !fus $T '

S = n C !p,m ( s) ln& ) + + n C !p,m ( ) ln&& 2 )) .

% T1 ( T fus % T fus (

5

5. Continued

Substituting,

S = n C !p,m ( s) ln% ( + + n C !p,m ( ) ln%% 2 ((

$ T1 ' T fus $ T fus '

# 933.15K & (1mol)( 26.98 g/mol)( 393J/g)

(

= (1mol) 31.8 J mol1K1 ln% )

$ 873.15K '

( +

933.15K

# 973.15K &

(

+ (1mol) 34.4 J mol1K1 ln% ) (

$ 933.15K '

S = 14.94 J/K .

6. A mixture of 40% N2O and 60% O2 may be used in a dentist office as an anesthetic. Assuming that the

gases behave ideally, determine the entropy of mixing to produce 1 mole of the mixture.

Smix = R n i n x i ,

i

where n i is the number of moles of each species and x i is the mole fraction. One mole of the mixture would

correspond to 0.40 moles N2O and 0.60 moles of O2. The mole fraction of N2O is 0.40 and the mole fraction of

O2 is 0.60.

Substituting,

Smix = R n i n x i

i

= R ( n1 n x1 + n 2 n x 2 )

= (8.314 J/molK)[ ( 0.40 mol) n 0.40 + ( 0.60 mol) n 0.60]

= (8.314 J/molK)(0.6730 mol)

Smix = 5.60 J/K .

6

7. A quantity of 35.0 g of water at 25.0C is mixed with 160.0 g of water at 86.0C. Calculate the final

temperature and the entropy change of the system. The molar constant pressure heat capacity of water is

75.291 J/molK.

First, we need to get the final temperature of the system. We know that if two systems are placed in contact,

their final temperatures will be equal and the heat gained by one system will equal the heat lost by the other

system.

If we call the water initially at 25.0C system A, and the water initially at 86.0C system B, then

qA = qB .

= H = C T = n C T

q p p p,m .

The result given above assumes that the heat capacity is independent of temperature. Substituting,

qA = qB

or n A C p,m ( H 2O) T A = n B C p,m ( H 2O) T B .

The heat capacity of water cancels out on both sides of the equation. Also, the moles on either side can be

written in terms of masses,

w

n = ,

M

n A C p,m ( H 2O) T A = n B C p,m ( H 2O) T B

n A T A = n B T B

wA wB

T A = T B .

M H 2O M H 2O

w A T A = w B T B ,

(

or w A T final T init,A ) ( )

= w B T final T init,B .

(wA + w B ) T final = w AT init,A + w BT init,B ,

or

w AT init,A + w BT init,B

T final =

wA + w B

( )

=

35.0 g + 160.0 g

T final = 75.05! C .

7

7. Continued

The entropy change can be calculated as the sum of the entropy changes of systems A and B,

S = SA + SB .

S = Tinit T

dT = Tinit T

dT .

S = SA + SB

T final n A C p,m T final n BC p,m

=

Tinit ,A T

dT +

Tinit ,B T

dT

= n A C p,m ln&& )) + n BC p,m ln&& ))

% T init,A ( % T init,B (

( 35.0 g) 75.291J mol1K1 ln$ 348.20 K '

=

(18.015g/mol) ( & ) )

% 298.15K (

(160.0 g) 75.291J mol1K1 ln$ 348.20 K '

+

(18.015g/mol) ( & ) )

% 359.15K (

= 22.70 J/K - 20.70 J/K

S = 2.00 J/K .

1 g liquid Au According to the Third Law, for a given substance, the liquid will always have higher

absolute entropy than the solid at the same temperature.

(b) 1 mole CO at 25C and 1 atm or 1 mole CO2 at 25C and 1 atm

1 mole CO2 At the same temperature and pressure the triatomic molecular has more energy states

available to it; therefore, gaseous CO2 has higher entropy than gaseous CO.

(c) 1 mole Ar at 25C and 1 atm or 1 mole Ar at 25C and 0.01 atm.

1 mole Ar at 25C and 0.01 atm Both samples are at the same temperature, so the gas with the lower

pressure will have the larger volume and hence the larger entropy.

8

9. The thermite reaction involves solid aluminum powder reacting with iron(III) oxide (hematite) to

produce aluminum oxide and iron. The reaction is so exothermic that the iron produced is molten (liquid

!

phase). Write the balanced chemical reaction. Determine Sr for the process using the tables in the

appendix of your textbook and the standard molar entropy of liquid Fe, 34.76 J/molK. Assume standard

pressure and 25C.

The balanced reaction is

For the chemical reaction shown above, the molar entropy change is

Sr! = Sm

!

( Al2O 3) + 2 Sm! ( Fe) Sm! ( Fe 2O 3) 2 Sm! ( Al) .

At 25C, the standard molar entropies are available in the appendix of the text. Substituting,

Sr! = Sm! ( Al2O 3 ) + 2 Sm! ( Fe) Sm! ( Fe 2O 3 ) 2 Sm! ( Al)

= 50.92 + 2( 34.76) 87.40 2 ( 28.33) (in J mol 1

K 1 )

Sr! = 23.62 J mol1K 1.

10. Using the tables in the appendix of your textbook, determine the standard molar entropies of formation

of the following compounds at 25C.

H 2 ( g) + 1 O 2 ( g) H 2O ( ) .

2

For the chemical reaction shown above, the molar entropy of formation is

S !f = Sm! ( H 2O,) Sm! ( H 2 ) 1

2

Sm! (O 2 ) .

S !f = Sm! ( H 2O,) Sm! ( H 2 ) 1

2

Sm! (O 2 )

= 69.91 130.68 1

2 ( 205.14) (in J mol 1

K 1 )

S !f = 163.34 J mol1K 1.

9

10. Continued

H 2 ( g) + 1 O 2 ( g) H 2O ( g) .

2

S !f = Sm! ( H 2O, g) Sm! ( H 2 ) 1

2

Sm! (O 2 ) .

S !f = Sm! ( H 2O, g) Sm! ( H 2 ) 1

2

Sm! (O 2 )

= 188.83 130.68 1

2 ( 205.14) (in J mol 1

K 1 )

S !f = 44.42 J mol K . 1 1

S !f = Sm! (CuSO 4 ) Sm! (Cu) Sm! (S) 2 Sm! (O 2 ) .

S !f = Sm! (CuSO 4 ) Sm! (Cu) Sm! (S) 2 Sm! (O 2 )

= 109 33.15 31.08 2 ( 205.14 ) (in J mol 1

K 1 )

S !f = 366 J mol1K 1.

10

10. Continued

3

2

H 2 ( g) + P (s) + 2 O 2 ( g) H 3 PO 4 (s) .

S !f = Sm! ( H 3 PO 4 ) 3

2

Sm! ( H 2 ) Sm! ( P) 2 Sm! (O 2 ) .

S !f = Sm! ( H 3 PO 4 ) 3

2

Sm! ( H 2 ) Sm! ( P) 2 Sm! (O 2 )

= 110.50 3

2 (130.68) 41.09 2 ( 205.14) (in J mol 1

K 1 )

S !f = 536.89 J mol1K 1.

S !f = Sm

!

(C, diamond) Sm! (C, graphite) .

Substituting the standard molar entropies at 25C from the appendix,

S !f = Sm

!

(C, diamond) Sm! (C, graphite)

= 2.38 5.74 (in J mol 1 1

K )

S !f = 3.36 J mol1K1.

11

!

11. Using the tables in the appendix of the textbook, determine the standard molar entropy change Sr at

25C for the combustion reaction

CH 4 ( g) + 2O 2 ( g) CO 2 ( g) + 2 H 2O ( g) .

For the chemical reaction shown above, the molar entropy change is

Sr! = Sm

!

(CO 2 ) + 2 Sm! ( H 2O, g) Sm! (CH 4 ) 2 Sm! (O 2 ) . .

At 25C, the standard molar entropies are available in the appendix of your text. Substituting,

Sr! = Sm

!

(CO 2 ) + 2 Sm! ( H 2O, g) Sm! (CH 4 ) 2 Sm! (O 2 )

= 213.74 + 2 (188.83) 186.26 2 ( 205.14) (in J mol1 1

K )

Sr! 1 1

= 5.14 J mol K .

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