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Ravi Shankar, Seema Harsha, Raj Bhandary

R & D department
South End Road, 1st Floor, Nama
Aurore Building, Basavangudi,
Bangalore 560004 INDIA

Key aspects covered

Disease Diagnosis and

Cultural aspects of
disease control
Biological aspects of
disease control
Chemical aspects of
disease control

Tropica seeds pvt ltd

Global research local roots




This guide outlines the key issues that should be considered in relation to the Diagnosis and Identification of pepper diseases and also Integrated Disease
Management (IDM) for Pepper crops. The guide addresses the key control methods and their rating in an IDM system for the major disease from Fungi, Bacteria,
virus, and nematode, and it also covers non infectious diseases.

The guide is useful for research scientists, field assistants, marketing personnel and farmers.

Phone: +9180267660/79
Email: info@tropicaseeds.com
Web: www.tropicaseeds.com

This publication may be of assistance to you but Tropica seeds and its employees
do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate
for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other
Consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication.


No 54, South End Road, 1st Floor,
NamaAurore Building,
Basavangudi, Bangalore 560004
Global Research Local Roots


Contents Page no.

Plant disease diagnosis 1-2

Plant disease management 3

Bacterial diseases
Bacterial spot Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 4
Bacterial wilt Ralstonia solanacearum 5
Bacterial canker Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis 6 Viral diseases
Fungal diseases Alfalfa mosaic Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) 20
Beet curly top Beet curly top virus (BCTV) 21
Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 7 Chili leaf curl Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV) 22
Cercospora (frogeye) leaf spot Cercospora capsici 8 Cucumber mosaic Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 23
Choanephora blight (wet rot) Choanephora cucurbitarum 9 Potato virus Y Potato virus Y (PVY) 24
Fusarium wilt Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici 10 Tobacco etch Tobacco etch virus (TEV) 25
Fusarium stem and root rot Fusarium solani 11 Tobacco mosaic and Tomato mosaic Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 26
Gray leaf spot Stemphylium solani 12 Tomato spotted wilt Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) 27
Gray mold Botrytis cinerea 13
Phytophthora blight Phytophthora capsici 14 Abiotic diseases
Powdery mildew Leveillula taurica 15
Southern blight Sclerotium rolfsii 16 Blossom-end rot Deficiency of calcium in fruit 28
Verticillium wilt Verticillium spp 17 Sunscald Exposure of fruit to sunlight and heat 29
White mold Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 18

Nematodes, parasitic References- 30

Root knot Meloidogyne incognita 19


Plant Disease Diagnosis

The diagnostician must have very good observation skills, and he or she also special growth habits, colours and growth rates. If you do not know what to expect
needs to be a good detective. It is important to keep an open mind until all of of the plant you cannot recognize when something is wrong.
the facts related to the problem can be collected. The possibility of multiple
causal factors must also be considered. Control measures depend on proper Check for Symptoms and Signs
identification of diseases and of the causal agents. Therefore, diagnosis is one Identify characteristic symptoms. Describing the characteristic symptoms
exhibited by a specimen can be very difficult to do accurately. Because of this, it is
of the most important aspects of a plant pathologist's training. Without
often difficult, if not impossible, to determine what is wrong with a plant when a
proper identification of the disease and the disease-causing agent, disease
person is describing symptoms over the phone.
control measures can be a waste of time and money and can lead to further Underdevelopment of tissues or organs. Examples include such
plant losses. Proper disease diagnosis is therefore vital. symptoms as stunting of plants, shortened internodes, and inadequate
development of roots, malformation of leaves, inadequate production of
Often, plant pathologists have to rely on symptoms for the identification of a chlorophyll and other pigments, and failure of fruits and flowers to develop.
disease problem. Because similar symptoms can be produced in response to Overdevelopment of tissues or organs. Examples include: galls on roots,
different causal agents, the use of symptoms alone is often an inadequate method stems, or leaves, witches' brooms, and profuse flowering.
for disease identification. The identification of the disease-causing agent may take Necrosis or death of plant parts. These may be some of the most
a week or more. One needs to ask many questions related, in order to eliminate or noticeable symptoms, especially when they affect the entire plant, such as
identify possible causes of the problem. He also needs to consider various wilts or diebacks. Other examples include shoot or leaf blights, leaf spots,
environmental and cultural factors. As a result of his questions and observations he and fruit rots.
may: Alteration of normal appearance. Examples include mosaic patterns of
Be able to identify a disease and disease-causing agent, light and dark green on leaves, and altered coloration in leaves and flowers.
Be able to narrow the problem down to several possibilities which will
require further study in the laboratory before he can make a final diagnosis,
or Identify symptom variability. Variations in symptoms expressed by diseased
Be completely baffled by the problem. plants may lead to an improper diagnosis. These variations can result from a
couple of factors. It is possible that there is more than one problem present, and in
some cases there may be more than one pathogen infecting a plant. Symptoms
This article presents the various steps/activities which are associated with associated with these infected plants may be significantly different from the
accurate plant disease diagnosis. The process may vary with different diseases and symptoms expressed in response to each of the different pathogens acting
conditions but the overall process is relatively consistent. The steps all require separately
careful observations and questions. The steps include:
Look for signs of biotic causal agents. Signs of plant disease agents are the
Know what Normal is observable evidence of the actual disease-causing agent. Signs may include the
Proper plant identification. Identification of affected plants is one of the first mycelia of a fungal agent, fungal spores, and spore-producing bodies. Indications of
steps in diagnosing a plant disease. Both scientific and common names of the plant insects causing problems may include the actual insect, insect frass, mite webbing,
should be noted. and insect eggs. Signs are much more specific to disease-causing agents than are
Recognize healthy plant appearance. It is important to know the normal symptoms and are extremely useful in the diagnosis of a disease and identification
appearance of the plant species you are investigating. Each plant species has of the agent causing the disease. The use of a hand lens and a knife can be valuable

for a diagnostician in the field.


sterile petri dish containing a wet filter paper in the bottom of the dish and a
Identify Plant Part Affected - Are symptoms associated with specific plant triangle of glass tubing on which the sample is placed so that the sample is not
parts? directly on the wet filter paper but is exposed to humid conditions. This type of
It is important to note if the symptoms observed are associated with specific plant moist chamber will work for small and relatively flat specimens such as leaves.
parts. For example, is a wilt observed correlated with a disruption of the vascular Plastic bags or boxes may be necessary for larger specimens. Saprophytes that are
system which may be indicated by browning of the vascular system or are the roots present on the specimen can also be encouraged to grow in a moist chamber and a
of the plants abnormal including rots, decreased feeder roots, etc.; are necrotic brief surface swab with 70% isopropanol or 0.1-1% sodium hypochlorite may be
lesions observed strictly on younger leaves? The symptoms of some diseases are useful in reducing these saprophytes. Moist chambers are generally incubated at
most commonly seen on specific plant parts and this observation can be important room temperature.
in diagnosis.
Isolation and identification of biotic plant disease causal agents. Isolation of
Check distribution of symptoms. One of the first things that a diagnostician fungi usually requires that pieces of infected plant tissue be placed on various
should note is how the diseased plants are distributed over the affected area. Are nutrient media. The organism that grows out of this tissue is then isolated in pure
they distributed uniformly across an area or are they localized? Is there a definite culture. Bacteria are often isolated by chopping up infected tissue in a small
pattern to the distribution? For example, does it occur only along the edges of a amount of sterile water. This water: bacteria suspension is then streaked onto a
greenhouse near open windows, next to roadways or driveways, in low spots of a bacteriological medium such as nutrient agar. Several problems can occur when
field, along a planted row, or is it affecting plants at random in a field? This trying to isolate the plant pathogenic agent. The infected plant tissue may contain
distribution can be especially important in looking at the possibility of non- one or more saprophytes which have moved into the infected tissue. These
infectious problems, such as improper herbicide use or various soil factors. A saprophytes may outgrow the plant pathogen on the nutrient medium, obstructing
uniform pattern on an individual plant and uniform damage patterns over a large accurate identification of the pathogen. In some cases where a specific plant
area are generally not associated with biotic agents, but are usually due to abiotic pathogen is suspected, a medium selective for the suspected pathogen may be
agents. utilized. It is also beneficial to attempt to isolate the plant pathogen from the
margins of the diseased tissue where the pathogen is more numerous or more
Check for host specificity. Is the problem occurring in only one plant species or active than saprophytes that quickly colonize the recently killed tissue.
are different plant species affected? If different plant species are affected, this
suggests the possibility of a non-infectious problem which could be related to Diagnostic tests for identification of biotic causal agents. A major problem in
cultural or environmental problems. However, Phytophthora and Pythium root identification of biotic causal agents is the inability of some infectious pathogens to
rots can cause problems on many different plant species; therefore, the fact that grow on artificial media. Viruses, as well as some fungi (e.g. powdery and downy
more than one plant species is affected does not completely eliminate infectious mildew causing agents) and some prokaryotes (e.g. phytoplasmas), require a living
agents. If there is more than one species of plant involved, are these plants closely host in order to grow. In cases where the plant pathogen is difficult or impossible
related and can they be infected by a common pathogen? to grow on artificial media, other methods may be used for their detection, such as
the use of serological tests for viruses. Viral identification is often accomplished
Laboratory Tests utilizing ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which is based on the
Sometimes neither symptoms nor signs provide enough specific or characteristic binding of an antibody produced to a specific virus with the virus in the infected
information to decide the cause of an infectious plant disease. In such cases, it may plant material1. More tests are currently being developed using the polymerase
be necessary to bring a sample back to the laboratory for further tests to isolate chain reaction (PCR) for detection of specific organisms. These types of reactions
and identify the causal agent. take specialized equipment and reagents, and the tests are not commonly done
outside diagnostic and research laboratories. Other techniques used for the
Incubation of plant material. One of the first steps when getting back to the identification of viruses include negative staining and electron microscopy to view
laboratory may be to place a sample of the diseased tissue under conditions that the viral particles in plant tissue or suspensions.
will allow an infectious agent to grow and possibly induce sporulation. This can be

accomplished by placing a leaf in a moist chamber. A moist chamber can be a


Plant Disease Management

pathogens are present and that infection will occur without the intervention of
The goal of plant disease management is to reduce the economic and aesthetic protective measures.
damage caused by plant diseases. Specific management programs for specific Many cultural practices can be modified to manage the occurrence, intensity or
diseases are not intended since these will often vary depending on circumstances severity of plant diseases. These include selection of suitable growing sites for the
of the crop, its location, disease severity, regulations and other factors. Plant crop, adequate tillage to bury pathogen-infested plant residues, rotation to non
disease management practices rely on anticipating occurrence of disease and susceptible crops, selecting pathogen-free planting stocks, orientation of plantings
attacking vulnerable points in the disease cycle (i.e., weak links in the infection to improve exposure to sun and air currents, pruning and thinning to eliminate
chain). Therefore, correct diagnosis of a disease is necessary to identify the sources of infection and improve aeration in and around susceptible plants, water
pathogen, which is the real target of any disease management program. management on both plants and in soil, adequate nutrition, proper cultivation to
improve root growth and avoid plant injury, and sanitation procedures to eliminate
sources of inoculum.
The many strategies, tactics and techniques used in disease management can be Biological control involves the use of one living organism to control another, and
grouped under one or more very broad principles of action. Included four general this management technology has received much attention in recent times. However,
disease control principles, exclusion,eradication, protection&Immunization(the the number of biological agents registered for use is relatively small, success has
latter principle is more appropriately called resistance since plants do not have an been limited, and application has been largely restricted to intensively managed,
immune system) high value crops such as greenhouse plants.

This principle is defined as any measure that prevents the introduction of a Use of disease-resistant plants is the ideal method to manage plant diseases, if
disease-causing agent (pathogen) into a region, farm, or planting. The basic plants of satisfactory quality and adapted to the growing region with adequate
strategy assumes that most pathogens can travel only short distances without the levels of durable resistance are available. The use of disease-resistant plants
aid of some other agent such as humans or other vector, and that natural barriers eliminates the need for additional efforts to reduce disease losses unless other
like oceans, deserts, and mountains create obstacles to their natural spread. diseases are additionally present.


This principle aims at eliminating a pathogen after it is introduced into an area but Integrated Disease Management (IDM) is a concept derived from the successful
before it has become well established or widely spread. It can be applied to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems developed by entomologists for insect
individual plants, seed lots, fields or regions but generally is not effective over large and mite control. In most cases IDM consists of scouting with timely application of
geographic areas. a combination of strategies and tactics. These may include site selection and
preparation, utilizing resistant cultivars, altering planting practices, modifying the
PROTECTION environment by drainage, irrigation, pruning, thinning, shading, etc., and applying
This principle depends on establishing a barrier between the pathogen and the pesticides, if necessary. But in addition to these traditional measures, monitoring
host plant or the susceptible part of the host plant. It is usually thought of as a environmental factors (temperature, moisture, soil pH, nutrients, etc.), disease
chemical barrier, e.g., a fungicide, bactericide or nematicide, but it can also be a forecasting, and establishing economic thresholds are important to the
physical, spatial, or temporal barrier. The specific strategies employed assume that management scheme.


Bacterial spot of pepper

Causal organism: Xanthomonas campestris pv.

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre) (days)
Characteristic bacterial spot symptoms can Xanthomonas is seed-borne on Use pathogen-free seeds and Copper hydroxide 2g/litre 0 7-10 day interval
appear on the leaves, fruits, stem, and the seed surface and within transplants. (kocide) application
petioles. On leaves, symptoms begin as the seed. Infected seed and Use sodium hypochlorite-treated
small, yellow-green circular lesions transplants moved over long seed to reduce bacterial Copper sulphate 2g/litre 1 5-10 day interval; a tank
surrounded by a yellowish halo. These distances can be the initial populations. (cuproxat) mix with mancozeb will
spots appear water-soaked under wet source of inoculum for Practice crop rotation with non- give added control
conditions. As the lesions mature, a general epidemics. The bacterium also host plants such as corn and
Streptomycin 6g/10 litre 15 Should be used on
yellowing extending from the area around survives in crop debris, soybean so that peppers are sulphate+ tetracyclin younger stage of the crop
the lesions develops on diseased leaves volunteer plants and in grown only every 3 to 4 years. hydrochloride growth, do not use
and the center of the spots become brown solanaceous weeds. High However, do not use soybeans in (agrimycin) during fruiting stage
to black and sunken. Tissue in the center of relative humidity and heavy the rotation if white mold Mancozeb 3g/litre 10 Used as a protectant
the lesion often dries and breaks away, dew formation on leaves, (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) has (Dithane M-45)
giving a "shot-hole" appearance to the leaf. together with warm weather, been a problem. Deep plow to
When spots are numerous, they may join favour infection and bury infected crop debris. Avoid
together and form irregular discolored development of Bacterial Spot. working in the field when foliage Cuprous oxide 2g/litre 7 7-10 day interval
streaks along the veins and leaf margins. The bacterium is readily is wet. (Nordox)
Edges and tips of leaves may die, then dry water-splashed from infected Eliminate wild host plants such
and break away, causing leaves to appear Transplants or debris to as nightshade and ground cherry
ragged. Severely spotted leaves turn yellow healthy plants. Fruit are in and around field. Note:
or brown and fall from the plant; young infected through growth 1. Copper fungicides should not be used at flowering stage in
solanaceous crops.
leaves can be distorted. Fruit spots begin as cracks, abrasions, insect
2. Before using combination sprays, please check the label of the
green, circular, slightly raised lesions punctures and other wounds. product
which eventually become brown or dark, Secondary fruit rots often
raised, and about 1/8 inch in diameter. develop around Bacterial Spot
Centers of the spots become necrotic, lesions during damp weather.

corky, and scab-like


Bacterial wilt of Peppers

Causal organism: Ralstonia solanacearum

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g or PHI Remarks
Initial symptoms of wilt The bacterium is soil-borne and Avoid planting in contaminated land Streptomycin sulphate+ 6g/10 litre 15 Should be used on
occur in younger leaves and waterborne and can survive on or areas with previous history of high tetracyclin hydrochloride younger stage of the
slight yellowing of older diseased plant debris. It enters the BW incidence. (Agrimycin) crop growth, do not use
leaves. The wilted leaves plant through wounds on the roots Remove wilted plants including roots during fruiting stage
as soon as symptoms are observed to Copper oxychloride 3g/litre 4 Used as soil drenching
maintain their green colour due to cultivation, insect or
minimize spread of disease from plant (Blitox) at the root zone of the
and do not fall off as disease nematode feeding and emergence
to plant. plant
progresses. Under conditions of lateral roots.
favourable to the High temperatures (30-35C) and Eradicate weeds which may harbour
disease Complete wilt occurs. high soil moisture favour disease bacteria to reduce source of inoculum
Wilting and death is development. in the field. Note:
accompanied by dark brown The disease is common in heavy 1. Copper fungicides should not be used at flowering stage in solanaceous crops.
internal discoloration of the soils and in low-lying areas that Seedtreatment with Pseudomonas 2. Before using combination sprays, please check the label of the product
vascular elements. can retain soil moisture for long fluorescens at the rate of 4g/kg of seed
White, milky strand of periods. before sowing.
bacterial ooze The bacteria is spread by furrow
Seedling root dip with P.fluorescens
flows out when a freshly cut irrigation or surface water,
(10 g/litre of water) and planting in
section of infected stem base cultivation, transplanting, green manure amended soil.
is placed in water. wounding and pruning. It is
spread from one field to another Crop rotation with maize-sorghum-
through infested soil transported ragi or maize-onion or garlic and rice.
with seedlings or with farm


Bacterial canker of Pepper

Causal organism: Clavibacter michiganensis
subsp. michiganensis

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
Symptoms of bacterial canker in pepper The bacterium enters the plant Sow only tested seed and Streptomycin sulphate+ 6g/10 15 Should be used on
include leaf and fruit spots and, less via wounds and stomata. certified transplants. tetracycline hydrochloride litre younger stage of the crop
frequently, systemic wilt. In localized Clavibacter may be seedborne Do not transplant peppers into (agrimycin) growth, do not use
infections, symptoms first appear as and may infest the seed ground used for tomatoes during fruiting stage
small blisters or raised white spots on externally or under the seed coat. during the previous season. Copper oxychloride 3g/litre 4 Used as soil drenching at
leaves and stems. Later, the centres of High relative humidity and Clean cultivation equipment (Blitox) the root zone of the plant
the leaf spots become brown and daytime temperatures between before entering a new field,
necrotic, and develop a white halo. Stem 25 and 30C (77 and 86F) Avoid entering fields when
lesions often develop a crusty favor the disease. Dense plant foliage is wet and incorporate Note:
appearance and elongate to form populations and overhead plant debris immediately after 1. Copper fungicides should not be used at flowering stage in
solanaceous crops.
cankers. Symptoms on fruit first appear irrigation also provide an ideal harvest to help reduce losses.
2. Before using combination sprays, please check the label of the product
as very small, round, slightly raised environment to spread the Never harvest fruit from
spots. These spots gradually increase in bacterium. Insects, tools, and symptomatic plants.
size and may develop a brown centre human contact may also aid Rogue all symptomatic and
and a white halo. When these are spread. adjacent plants. Rotate to a non-
numerous, spots merge and take on a host for a minimum of three
crusty appearance. In systemic years if the disease is found in a
infections, a gradual wilting occurs.y field.
plant death.


Anthracnose of Pepper
Causal organism: Colletotrichum capsici

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre) (days)
Circular or angular sunken The pathogen is soil-borne and Plant only seed from disease- Mancozeb+carbendazim 2+1g/litre 3 Used as a protectant as
lesions develop on immature overwinters on plant debris from freeplants or seed treated to reduce any (Dithane M-45+ well as curative action
fruit of any size. Often multiple infected crops and in other plant fungal populations. Seed can be Bavistin)
lesions form on individual fruit. species disinfested with a 30-minute soak at
When disease is severe, lesions Spores produced on foliage can 52C. Use only transplants free Pyraclostrobin (cabrio) 1g/litre 0 7-14 day interval; no
may coalesce. Often pink to be carried through rain splashes of disease symptoms. more than two
orange masses of fungal spores to the developing green fruit. Crop rotation Fields should be planted sequential application;
form in concentric rings Although symptoms do not with crops other than tomatoes,
on the surface of the lesions. In appear until the fruit is ripening, eggplants, or other solanaceous crops
older lesions, black structures the infection actually occurs or strawberries, which are also hosts. Chlorothalonil (kavach) 2g/litre 3 5-6 day interval as a
called acervuli may be when fruits are small and green. Apply overhead irrigation during the protective application
observed. With a hand lens, Diseased fruit, foliage and stems early part of the day so that plants can
these look like small black dots; are source of secondary dry before sundown.
Azoxystrobin (amistar) 0.5ml/litre 0 No more than two
under a microscope they look inoculum, which spreads from In areas where market constraints and
application per season,
like tufts of tiny black hairs. The plant to plant in the field. other diseases do not limit the choice of
can be tank mixed
pathogen forms spores quickly The disease is favoured by cultivar, cultivars demonstrating a
with protectant
and profusely and can spread moderate temperature (20-24C) moderate level of resistance (e.g.,
rapidly throughout a pepper and frequent rainfall. Colossal, Brigadier, and Paladin) should
Trifloxystrobin+ 1g/litre 3 Used as curative
crop, resulting in up to 100% be chosen.
Tebuconazole(nativo) applicant
yield loss. Lesions may also
appear on stems and leaves as
irregularly shaped brown spots
with dark brown edges
For mixing chemical always see the label of the product.


Cercospora leaf spot

Causal organism: Cercospora capsici

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
Circular spots appear with a The fungus survives in or on seed, Use pathogen-free seeds and Chlorothalonil 2g/litre 3 Can be used as a
light gray center and a reddish- and as tiny black fungal tissue known seedlings. Remove and destroy (kavach) protective application;
brown margin, growing up to 1 as stromata in old affected leaves in infected plants/fruits as soon as 5-7 days interval
cm in diameter. Spots later the soil. Spores will survive in symptoms are observed to minimize
become tan with a dark ring and infected debris for at least one spread of disease. Mancozeb 2g/litre 7 Used as a protective
a yellowish halo around the season. Foliar infection occurs by Avoid overhead irrigation or (Dithane M-45) application; 5-7 days
ring, resulting in a frog-eye direct penetration of the leaf. prolonged moisture to minimize interval
appearance. The fungus spores require water for disease severity.
Under conditions of high germination and penetration of the Staking increases air movement and
humidity, and using a good high host; however, heavy dew appears to may help reduce infection in the Copper hydroxide 2g/litre 0 Used as protective
magnification hand lens, thin, be sufficient for infection. The disease field. (kocide) application
needle-like spores may be seen is most severe during periods of Remove and destroy infected
in the center of the spots arising warm temperatures; for example, 20 pepper tissues immediately after
from small black fungal tissue. 25C during the day and excessive harvest. Trifloxystrobin+ 1g/litre 3 Used as curative
The affected centers of lesions moisture (either from rain or Crop rotation for 2 years may help Tebuconazole applicant
dry and often drop out as they overhead irrigation). Fungal growth reduce inoculum in the soil. (nativo)
age. When numerous spots is limited if the temperature is < 5C
occur on the foliage, the leaves or > 35C. Note:
turn yellow and may drop or The fungus is spread by Splashing For mixing chemical always see the label of the product.
wilt. Defoliation is often serious, water, wind-driven rain, wind, on
exposing fruits to sun scald. implements, tools, workers, and by
leaf-to-leaf contact. It is not known
whether the fungus will infect
solanaceous weeds.


Choanephora Blight (Wet Rot)

Causal organism: Choanephora cucurbitarum

Symptoms Conditions for disease development Cultural and Biological Chemical control
control measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
Water soaked lesions appear on the The fungus is found throughout the Remove and destroy infected Chlorothalonil(kavach) 2g/litre 3 Can be used as a
leaves and the margins and leaf tips tropics on many crops including plants/fruits as soon as protective application;
are blighted. Older lesions turn beans, peas, squash, cucumber, symptoms are observed to 5-7 days interval
necrotic and appear dried out. The eggplant and pepper. Extended minimize spread of disease. Mancozeb 2g/litre 7 Used as a protective
entire plant may wilt. Flowers and periods of rain, high humidity and Avoid overhead irrigation or (Dithane M-45) application; 5-7 days
flower buds turn dark and wilt. high temperature favor fungal prolonged moisture to minimize interval
Young fruit can be infected. sporulation and disease development. disease severity.
The fungus is spread via wind and Staking increases air movement Propineb 2g/litre 2 5-7 days interval
Whiskers of the fungus, which are splashing water, and on clothing, tools and may help reduce infection in (Antracol)
fungal strands, with dark-colored, and cultivation equipment. the field.
knobby sporangiola, can be seen with Remove and destroy infected Trifloxystrobin+ 1g/litre 3 Used as curative
a hand lens. pepper tissues immediately Tebuconazole applicant
after harvest. (nativo)
Morning is the best time to look for Myclobutanil 1g/litre 14 Used as protective and
the fungus. Symptoms may be (Systhane) curative, not more than 4
confused with Phytophthora blight application per season
(Phytophthora capsici). Note:
For mixing chemical always see the label of the product.


Fusarium wilt of pepper

Causal organism: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp capsici

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
Symptoms first appear as a slight The fungus survives in the soil Plant on raised beds to help promote Copper oxycloride 3g/litre 3 Used as drenching in the
yellowing of foliage and wilting of for several years and is spread soil water drainage away from roots. (Blitox) soil; for large scale
upper leaves. As wilting by farm equipment, irrigation Thoroughly disinfect equipment before application drenching is
progresses, leaves may turn dull- water and infected plant moving from infested to clean fields. not feasible.
green to brown and remain debris. Warm soil Carbendazim 1g/litre 3 Used as drenching in the
(Bavistin) soil: for large scale
attached to the plant. When the temperatures (33 C; 92 F) Application of bio control agents like
application drenching is
stem and roots are cut diagonally, and high soil moisture Trichoderma viridae or Trichoderma not feasible
reddish-brown streaks are visible generally favour rapid disease harzianum along with FYM at the time
in the vascular tissues. development. planting( 1 kg mixed with 200 kg of FYM Note
for one acre of land) 1) For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label
2) Soil fumigation with effective materials is the only chemical control
available for reducing soil borne populations of the pathogen.
3) Various chemical (e.g. chloropicrin, dazomet, formaldehyde, metam
sodium) or non-chemical (e.g. steaming, solarization, bio fumigation)
methods can be used on infested soil. None are 100% effective and
they will only penetrate to a limited depth. Plants can still become
infected if the wilt pathogen is re-introduced into the treated area by
drainage / run-off water or capillary action, or by the roots growing
down beyond the treated soil.
4) Fungicide treatment against wilt diseases gives variable and often
poor results. For this reason there are few specific recommendations


Fusarium stem and root rot

Causal organism: Fusarium solani
The perfect stage (Nectria haematococca)

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control not recommended since it is mainly restricted to
development measures if any green house, so go for sanitation measures
Soft, dark brown or black cankers The ascospore germination occurs Do not allow rockwool blocks to dry a. Discard slabs, bags, cubes or other media that had infected plants growing in
are formed on the stem, usually at during prolonged periods of high out at the top because damaging them previously.
b. Do not replant into the same material unless it has been steam-sterilized.
nodes or wound sites. These may humidity (ie. greater than 95%). levels of evaporated fertilizer salts c. Remove and discard strings that may harbour spores from affected plants.
girdle the stem in later stages of A slow temperature increase early may accumulate around the stem d. If the crop was grown in soil, disinfect the beds.
disease development. There is a in the morning of 1C per hour base and thus favour infection. e. Discard soilless growing media far away from the greenhouse or bury it.
dark brown discolouration of the ensures that fruit and stem Avoid dripping fertilizer solution at f. Avoid handling diseased plants and fruit.
internal portion of the stem that temperatures reach daytime the stem base by positioning the g. Remove them from the greenhouse carefully, taking care not to allow
may extend a considerable targets before sunrise. Also, if the dripper away from the stem base. contact of affected portions of plants with adjacent plants, and place
distance. The lesions may greenhouse has restricted Avoid excessively high fertilizer them in a plastic bag.
eventually develop cinnamon or ventilation and poor drainage, this concentrations that contribute to h. Discard the diseased material at a location away from the
light orange-coloured, very small may create a "wet" climate that N. salt damage. greenhouses to ensure that this fungus inoculum or subsequent
(<1 mm diameter), flask-shaped haematococca can exploit for Avoid overlap of crop production overwintering spore inoculum is not carried back into the
fruiting structures known as ascospore germination. Perithecia since the airborne spores of Nectria greenhouses by workers, wind, on tires, and by insects such as shore
perithecia, which are the fruiting present on rockwool blocks and on haematococca could be spread from flies and fungus gnats. Additionally, remove about 1-2 plants on
bodies of the fungus Salmon-white fruit lesions provide further aerial the old crop to the early seeded
either side of the plant(s) exhibiting symptoms and place in garbage
cottony-like growth representing inoculum which, when peppers.
the imperfect stage of the fungus accompanied by a "wet" Seedling root dip treatment of bio
i. If the material is disposed of in a cull pile then ensure that the cull
and known as fungus mycelium greenhouse climate, result in control agents like Trichoderma
pile is located away from the greenhouse as far as possible.
may also be present on the surface numerous fruit and stem viridae or Trichoderma harzianum
j. Cover the cull pile to prevent insects such as shore flies and fungus
of stem cankers in late stages of infections. Other factors, such as during transplanting(10g/1litre of
disease development. Stem over-watering of the rockwool water) gnats from carrying the fungus spores back into the greenhouses.
cankers restrict the upward flow of blocks, can stress the plants k. Alternatively, infected plant debris may be burnt or taken to a
water resulting in wilting and through oxygen depletion, landfill.
death of the plant. resulting in a high incidence of l. Do not leave it in an open field or incorporate it into the soil in fields

crown lesions. where other susceptible crops may be grown


Gray leaf spot of Pepper

Causal organism: Stemphylium solani

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
Small spots develop on pepper These fungi survive in soil and Plant high quality transplants free from Chlorothalonil 2g/litre 3 Can be used as a
leaves, petioles, stems, on plant debris from one year to gray leaf spot. Practice a three-year or (kavach) protective application;
peduncles and calyx. Although the next. In addition, volunteer longer crop rotation to non-hosts such as 5-7 days interval
mature plants can be infected, pepper and tomato and small grains. Mancozeb 2g/litre 7 Used as a protective
young seedlings are most solanaceous weeds can serve as Eliminate crop debris, volunteers, and (Dithane M-45) application; 5-7 days
susceptible. Infection begins as sources of inoculum. Fungal weeds that can serve as alternate hosts.
Propineb 2g/litre 2 5-7 days interval
small red to brown spots that spores are spread from the Reduce periods of leaf wetness by avoiding (Antracol)
later expand into lesions with surface of infected tissues by overhead irrigation and dense plantings.
white to gray centers and red wind and splashing water. Orientating rows parallel to the prevailing Difenoconozole 0.5ml/litre 10 Used as curative
to brown margins. When Warm and humid or wet wind direction can promote rapid leaf (Score) fungicide
numerous lesions develop, weather generally favour drying and help reduce periods of extended
leaves turn yellow and drop. disease development. The leaf wetness. Copper hydroxide 2g/litre 3 Used as a protective
Gray leaf spot does not affect disease also can be a problem in Remove plant debris, provide adequate (kocide) application
fruit. arid climates when dew periods ventilation for seedling beds and treat with
are long. fungicides to help reduce losses from this Tebuconazole 1ml/litre 7 Used as a curative
disease. (Folicur) application

For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label.


Gray mold of pepper

Causal organism: Botrytis cinerea

Symptoms Conditions for disease development Cultural and Biological Chemical control
control measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
This fungus typically causes This fungus has a wide host range. It is Prune plants to promote Iprodione+carbendazim 1g/litre 5 5-7 days interval; used as
damping-off or tip dieback in an efficient saprophyte and can survive adequate ventilation, and apply (quintal) protective and curative
young seedlings. However, it can as sclerotia in soil and infected plant Fungicides to the pruning application
infect through wounds in all debris for long periods. Botrytis wounds to help reduce losses Chlorothalonil 2g/litre 3 Can be used as a
above-ground parts of mature cinereais considered a weak parasite from this disease. Carefully (kavach) protective application;
plants. On stems, initial infection and typically infects plant tissues manage irrigation and air 5-7 days interval
appears as elliptical, water soaked through wounds. Overcast, cool, humid circulation to avoid long periods
lesions that later expand, and can weather is required for disease of high relative humidity in
girdle and kill the plant. Leaf development. Under these conditions, greenhouses. Pyraclostrobin 1g/litre 0 For disease suppression
infections usually begin at points gray masses of fungal spores are (Cabrio) only
of injury and develop into V- produced and are readily wind-
shaped lesions. Under high disseminated. Close spacing andpoor Difenoconozole 0.5ml/litre 10 Used as curative
humidity, stem and leaf lesions can ventilation in greenhouses can lead to (Score) fungicide
be covered by Sporulating gray severe gray mold problems.
mycelia. Fruit infection begins as Copper hydroxide 2g/litre 3 Used as a protective
water-soaked spots that increase (kocide) application
rapidly in size to form gray-brown
Sporulating lesions.
Pyrimethanil 0.5ml/litre 7 Repeat applications at
(scala) 7-14 day intervals

For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label.


Phytophthora blight
of Peppers
Causal organism: Phytophthora capsici

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
Symptom development in relation to The disease is favoured by Rotate away from susceptible crops Mancozeb 2g/litre 7 Used as a protective
plant maturity. For example, seedlings warm, wet weather and is for a minimum of two years, (Dithane M-45) application; 5-7 days
may die rapidly from lesions on the polycyclic within seasons. preferably four years. Grain crops interval
lower stems while mature plants may The pathogen may survive as are most suitable (e.g., corn and Chlorothalonil 2g/litre 3 Can be used as a
develop crown rot, fruit rot and foliar overwintering spores in the small grains) but crucifers are also (kavach) protective application;
lesions. The disease is most likely to soil for many months and good options. 5-7 days interval
occur at the soil line or on the lower 12 serve as inoculum or in Avoid poorly drained soils and low
Propineb 2g/litre 2 5-7 days interval
to 18 inches of the plant where water infected plant tissues. lying areas;
often pools or splashes. The most Fruits in contact with the soil Do not allow soil build-up at the
common symptoms regardless of the are most prone to infection. headlands of fields but create
Dimethomorph 1g/litre 4 5-7 days interval , not
host plant are crown rot and fruit rot. Sporangia/spores are easily drainage ditches to ensure (Acrobat) more than 3 application
On peppers, the disease causes a black dispersed by wind and rain maximum soil-surface drainage per season
lesion just above the soil line. Affected splashes to leaves and stems from furrows;
plants wilt and progressively die of healthy plants. Break up hardpans and plow-pans Metalaxyl+mancozeb 2g/litre 14 Protective and curative
(Ridomil MZ gold) application.5-7 days
Foliar lesions are less common, but can Excess soil moisture due to by subsoiling to increase soil
occur, especially when conditions are excess rain or irrigation, and drainage; Azoxystrobin 0,5ml/litre 0 Used as a curative
particularly favorable. The classic soil temperature of 18C Always plant peppers and bush-type (Amistar) application.
leaf lesion caused by P. capsici is fairly 30C arising from high air cucurbits on dome-shaped ridges
circular with a tan margin and brown, temperature are needed for Avoid excessive overhead irrigation;
necrotic center. Fruit of known hosts are disease development. Enter infested fields last and clean Note
For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label.
highly susceptible to the disease, but equipment before moving to other
crown tissue susceptibility varies widely fields;
among hosts.


Powdery mildew of peppers

Causal organism: Leveillula taurica

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological Chemical control

development control measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
Pepper powdery mildew needs living The fungus survives from season to Restrict visitor access to the Wettable sulphur 3g/litre 0 Should not be used at
host plant tissue to grow and survive. season on living pepper plants or greenhouse, Follow strict flowering stage
The fungus only infects the leaves not alternative hosts. Thefungus is not greenhouse hygiene throughout
the fruit or stems of pepper plants. found on or within pepper seed. the growing season Conduct a
Check for pepper powdery mildew by The disease is favoured when large through year-end clean up and Dinocap 1ml/litre 7 Used as contact
closely inspecting the underside of day/night temperature and dispose of all crop debris off- (karathane) fungicide, 5-7 days
older leaves for the first signs of the humidity fluctuations occur, which site or by burning or burying in application interval
disease. Look for fluffy, white patches promote periods of leaf wetness. a landfill. For more information
Myclobutanil 1g/litre 14 Used as curative
of powdery mildew on the underside Development of L. taurica is consult the fact sheet
(Systhane) application, should not
of leaves. With time, these patches favoured by warm (25C) and dry Greenhouse Vegetable Crop be used at flowering
may turn brown rather than (less than 80% RH) days followed Clean-Up. stage
remaining white. The upper surface by humid (greater than 85% RH) Control outdoor weeds Fluzilazole 2ml/10litre 15 For preventive
of the leaf may appear normal or have nights. Temperatures of 25C are surrounding the greenhouse (nustar) application apply once in
diffuse, yellow patches which associated with a higher rate of Keep ornamentals and imported 15 days
correspond to the mildew colonies on disease development than tropical plants out of the
the lower surface. Early powdery temperatures of 1820C. Young greenhouse and immediate area
mildew infections can be seen more plants are less susceptible than Improve greenhouse climate to Carbendazim 1g/litre 3 Used as preventive and
(Bavistin) curative application,
easily by holding the leaf up to the older plants. reduce relative humidity and
apply at 5 days interval
light and looking for developing Other factors such as close plant increase air circulation
mildew colonies. Severely infected spacing and luxuriant plant growth Note
leaves wither and drop off causing arising from high nitrogen levels are For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label.
plants to die. likely to foster greater disease


Southern blight of Pepper

Causal organism: Sclerotium rolfsii

Symptoms Conditions for disease development Cultural and Biological Chemical control
control measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
This fungus infects emerging Sclerotium rolfsii has a wide host Rotate with grasses and deep- Carbendazim 2g/litre 3 Used as drenching
seedlings below or at the soil level range. The fungus overwinters as plow to bury sclerotia tohelp (Bavistin)
and causes damping-off. mycelium or sclerotia in and on reduce soil inoculum level.
Under favorable environmental infected plant debris. Sclerotia can Grow plants in raised beds to Copper hydroxide 2g/litre 0 Used as drenching
conditions, Sclerotium rolfsii is survive in soil for many years. Rainfall promote soil drainage. In small- (kocide)
able to infect any part of the plant. or irrigation following a period of scale plantings, rogue infected
Fluzilazole 2ml/10litre 15 For preventive
The first symptoms of disease in drought generally stimulates plants when symptoms are first (nustar) application apply once in
mature plants are dark-brown germination of sclerotia and initiates visible to reduce disease spread. 15 days
lesions on the stem at or just the infection process. High humidity Soil fungicides and biological
beneath the soil line. First foliar and warm temperatures generally control using Trichoderma spp. Tebuconazole 1ml/litre 5 For preventive
(Folicur) application and curative
symptoms are progressive favour rapid fungal growth and disease and Gliocladium virensoffer
yellowing and wilting. Later, the development. A soil pH between 3 and some protection.
fungus produces fan-like webs of 5 is best for fungal growth. At a soil pH Note
whitish mycelium around the of 7 or above, germination of sclerotia For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label.
rotted stem. Small brown sclerotia is inhibited. Sclerotia spread short and
form within the mycelial mass. As long distances in infected transplants,
the disease progresses, infected plant debris, soil, surface water, and on
plants wilt and die. farm equipment and poor quality seed.


Verticillium wilt of Pepper

Causal organism: Verticillium dhaliae

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological Chemical control

development control measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
Verticillium dahliae can infect pepper Verticillium wilt, caused by Because of the longevity of Carbendazim(bavistin) 2g/litre 3 Used as drenching
plants at any growth stage. Symptoms Verticillium dahliae, is a soil borne microsclerotia and the broad
include yellowing and drooping of fungus that colonizes the vascular host range of V. dahliae, crop
leaves on a few branches or on the tissues of plants. Verticillium rotation is usually not a feasible Copper 2g/litre 0 Used as drenching
entire plant. The edges of the leaves dahliae has a broad host range, option for control of hydroxide(kocide)
roll inward on infected plants, and causing vascular discoloration and Verticillium wilt in many crops.
foliar wilting ensues. The foliage of wilt of many economically However, rotations with
severely infected plants turns brown important crops. Microsclerotia broccoli, corn, wheat, barley, 1) For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label
and dry. Growth of pepper plants produced by V. dahliae may sorghum or safflower for a 2) Soil fumigation with effective materials is the only chemical control
inoculated with aggressive strains of V. survive under field conditions for period of at least 2 years (the available for reducing soilborne populations of the pathogen.
dahliae in greenhouse or of pepper up to 14 years in the absence of a longer the rotation, the better) 3) Various chemical (e.g. chloropicrin,dazomet, formaldehyde,
plants infected early in the season host. The microsclerotia germinate can reduce inoculum and metamsodium)or non-chemical (e.g.steaming, solarization,
under field conditions is severely in the vicinity of host roots and subsequent plant infection. biofumigation)methods can be used on infested soil.None are 100%
stunted with small leaves that turn cause infection. Verticillium wilt is These crops are not hosts for effective and theywill only penetrate to a limited depth.Plants can still
yellow-green. Subsequently, the dried favoured by cool air and soil the Verticillium pathogen, and become infected if thewilt pathogen is re-introduced into the treated
area by drainage / run-offwater or capillary action, or by theroots
leaves and shriveled fruits remain temperatures. Peppers are populations of the pathogen will
growing down beyond thetreated soil.
attached to plants that die. Brown resistant to isolates of V. dahliae decline in fields where host 4) Fungicide treatment against wiltdiseases gives variable and often
discoloration of the vascular tissue is from many hosts, and only certain plants are not present. In severe poorresults. For this reason there are fewspecific recommendations
visible when the roots and lower stem strains of V. dahliae, such as those cases, do not replant peppers in
of a wilted plant are cut longitudinally. from eggplant and pepper, are the field for a minimum of 3
pathogenic on peppers. years.


White mold of Peppers

Causal organism: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological Chemical control

development control measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
or ml/litre)
The first symptoms of white mold Plant surfaces must remain Plant in well-drained soil, use Carbendazim(Bavistin) 2g/litre 3 Used as drenching
are dark-green, water-soaked continuously wet for 48- 72 hours for wide row spacing and water
lesions that develop on foliage, infection to occur. Disease develops deeply, early in the day. Remove
stems and fruit. Occasionally, the most rapidly at 20- 25C (68- 77F), all plant debris from previous Copper 2g/litre 0 Used as drenching
host may exhibit dry lesions on the and not at all above 30C (86F). crops. Manure and plant hydroxide(kocide)
stalk, stem or branches with a well- This fungus has a wide host range and mulches suspected to come
defined border between healthy and survives from one season to the next from infected locations should
diseased tissues. Stem infections as sclerotia in soil and in plant debris. not be used unless sterilized. Flusilazole(nustar) 2ml/10litre 15 For preventive
frequently girdle the stem at the soil White mold is most common in Establish a crop rotation with application apply once in
line, causing plants to wilt and die. temperate regions but is also known non-host crops such as corn, 15 days
Petiole or bud infections proceed to occur in hot, dry areas. Dew, fog small grains and grasses. Tebuconazole (Folicur) 1ml/litre 5 For preventive
downward in the plant rapidly. Fruit and frequent rain generally favour Soil fumigation can be effective application and curative
infected directly from the soil disease development. The most at helping to reduce soilborne
surface or through the peduncle rot important means of longdistance inoculum.
quickly and turn into a watery mass. spread are airborne ascospores that Note
In advanced stages, white, cottony erupt from sclerotia. Moving For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label
mycelium blankets affected tissue, contaminated soil and fertilizing with
and sclerotia form on the surface. manure from animals fed infected
Sclerotia also may form within the plant debris are two common ways of
stem pith and fruit cavities, short-distance spread of sclerotia or
becoming black and hard as they mycelium. Irrigation water may also
mature. spread thefungus from field to field.


Root knot of Pepper

Causal organism: Meloidogyne spp

Symptoms Conditions for disease Cultural and Biological control Chemical control
development measures if any Chemical name Dosage(g PHI Remarks
Nematode infestations damage the plant roots, The host range of these In fields infested with root knot Methyl bromide As a 15 Preplant, tarped, or
and therefore symptoms reflect poorly three nematode species is nematodes, crop rotation may not be fumigant mulched for 24-48
functioning root systems. Aboveground very wide and includes feasible because of their extensive host hours. Application 10=14
symptoms of severe root knot and stubby root many agricultural crops range; care is needed in the selection of days before planting.
nematode infestations include patches of and weeds. rotation crops because some may be Oxamyl 2ml/litre 14 Foliar applications are not
(vydate) effective for moderate and
chlorotic, stunted, necrotic, or wilted plants. Disease is most severe in good alternate hosts. New resistant
high populations of
Nematode-infested plants are more susceptible warm areas with long varieties of peppers may prove useful. nematodes.
to moisture or temperature stress and exhibit growing seasons. In Soil solarization may help to lower the Carbofuron 4kg/hac 30 Soil application,
stress symptoms earlier than other plants. general, lighter, sandy nematodes in the top layers of the soil (Furadan) application into soil before
Furthermore, root systems that have been soils favour nematode and avoid an early infestation of the planting.
damaged by nematodes are often more infection and result in plants. Roots are likely to become
susceptible to infection by soil-inhabiting fungi more severe damage to infested as the season progresses by Fenamiphos 30L/hac or 7 days Soil application Apply
such as Fusarium and Verticillium species. roots. nematodes that survived in the deeper (nemacure) 1L/100 prior to anytime from 7 days
Feeding by root knot nematodes results in soil layers. litre of planting before up to the time of
characteristic galls on roots. Severely galled Application of 2 kg of MULTIPLEX water planting.
roots may appear malformed and the root Niyantran (Poaecilomyces) in 100 kg Note
For tank mixing of different chemicals see the label
system shortened and thickened. Roots of FYM and broadcast to 1 acre uniformly.
plants infested with stubby root nematode are Application of 250-400 kg of neem
likely to have numerous, short and stubby cake/hac
lateral roots.


Alfa Alfa mosaic of Peppers

Causal organism:Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV)
Transmission: Aphids

Symptoms Conditions for disease development Control measures

The foliage has a distinct bright yellow to Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is found most commonly Pepper varieties resistant to AMV are not available. Various control measures
white mosaic that sometimes causes large in pepper crops that have been planted near alfalfa, are required because AMV is transmitted by seed, aphids, and mechanically.
areas of interveinal leaf tissue to be clover or other legumes. It is generally considered to Control measures must take into account the diseases wide host range (alfalfa,
bleached in appearance. Chlorotic line be a minor threat to pepper production. pepper, tomato, tobacco, potato, clover, many cucurbits and beans, and several
patterns and veinal necrosis also may other crops and weeds) and numerous aphid vectors.
occur. Generally, the leaves are not Transmission by seed is the primary means of
distorted in shape. If infected when establishment of the virus while aphid transmission Use virus-free pepper seed. Check transplants for any symptom development
young, the plants may be stunted and is more important for the subsequent spread in field and discard those with symptoms. Aphid control may be difficult because the
their fruit will be misshapen. plantings. AMV is transmitted by many species of virus is transmitted very rapidly by these insects. Use fast acting insecticide
aphids including the green peach aphid, sprays since aphids may move to other nearby unsprayed plants when
Myzuspersicae. The aphid can acquire the virus by disturbed.
feeding on an infected plant for less than a minute
and can transmit it as quickly, but the aphid actually Disinfect tools, stakes, and equipment before moving from diseased areas to
retains the virus for only a short period of time. The healthy areas. Work in diseased areas last, after working in unaffected parts of
virus is also readily transmitted mechanically and by a field. Other less effective measures include: planting barrier crops that are not
grafting. susceptible to AMV such as corn, applying sticky traps, or covering the ground
with an aphid deterrent material Another control strategy is to grow trap crops
nearby that attract aphids and then spray these plants with a contact
insecticide to destroy the aphid populations. Also, spray the pepper crop with
mineral oil to delay virus spread in the field by interfering with aphid
transmission of the virus.


Beet curly top of peppers

Causal agent:Beet curly top virus (BCTV)
Transmission: The beet leafhopper (Circulifertenellus)
Symptoms Conditions for disease development control measures

Relatively common virus disease of tomatoes, peppers and This virus has a wide host range affecting more than 300 Transplant virus-free seedlings. Rogue infected
beans that mimics symptoms of moisture stress. Its called Curly species. Common hosts are tomatoes, beets, peppers, squash, plants to avoid transmission in the field. Control
Top, and as the name implies, one of the symptoms is beans, cucurbits, spinach, potatoes, cabbage and alfalfa. The weeds near pepper fields to reduce vector and
curling leaves.When seedlings are infected, leaves turn yellow, beet leafhopper transmits BCTV in a persistent manner. virus reservoirs. Transplant early or late to
twist and curl upward, and thicken to become stiff and crisp. Warm temperatures and dense leafhopper populations are escape leafhopper infestations, increase plant
Petioles may curl downward. Fruit set is reduced. Fruit appear conducive to the spread of BCTV. Viruliferous leafhoppers density to compensate for losses due to BCTV.
dull and wrinkled, and tend to ripen prematurely. This virus is migrate seasonally and can be moved long distances by wind. Insecticides are not effective to control beet curly
not mechanically transmitted. top.

The best way to determine the difference between wilting from

lack of water and wilting from curly top virus is to simply
irrigate. Soak the soil around the distressed plant in the early
evening. Check the plant the following morning. If the plant has
not revived overnight, its likely the plant has curly top.


Chili leaf curl

Causal agent: Tobacco leaf curl virus
Transmission: White flies

Symptoms Conditions for disease development control measures

Symptoms consist of upward and downward curling of Field spread occurs due to Whitefly insect vector Cultural
leaves. Leaf margins develop pale green to yellow color, (Bemisia tabaci). This disease increase with 1. Growing of nursery under Nylon net cover (50 mesh).
which extends into the interveinal areas. The nodes and increase in temperature coupled with relative 2. Eradication of early infected plants and weed hosts from
internodes are significantly reduced in size. The infected humidity. The virus mainly perpetuates on weed the field.
plants assume bushy appearance with severe stunted growth hosts. Warm and dry weather favors disease 3. Two rows of border cropping with Maize, Jowar, or Bajra
look pale and produce more lateral branches giving a bushy spread. In southern India the disease epidemics give a reduction in the disease spread.
appearance. The fruits from infected plants are small and will be more during March to June, where as in Chemical control
deformed. It is a single stranded DNA virus Northern Indian conditions epidemics will occur 1. Spray seedlings with Acephate (0.15%)
from June to October. or Monocrotophos (0.1%) prior to transplanting.
2. Spray insecticides like Monocrotophos (0.15%), Acephate
(0.15%), at fortnightly intervals after transplanting till
flowering stage.
3. Chemical spray followed by neem seed kernel extract
(2%) is also effective in rotation with insecticides.


Cucumber mosaic on
Causal agent: cucumber mosaic virus
Transmission: Aphids

Symptoms Conditions for disease development control measures

Symptoms vary widely. One of the most common Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is not Current control measures for CMV are mainly preventive due to the
expressions is a severely stunted, non-productive plant transmitted through pepper seed. CMV can be wide host range of the virus and the numerous aphid vectors.
that has dull light green foliage with a leathery mechanically transmitted but because it is not Grow seedlings in a structure or seedbed protected with netting of mesh
appearance but not distinctive foliar markings. In some as stable as TMV, workers handling infected size of 32 or greater to prevent aphids from entering.
cases the leaves become narrow and no longer expand, pepper plants do not as readily transmit it. Disinfect tools, stakes, and equipment before moving from diseased areas
while in other cases, small necrotic specks or ring spots to healthy areas. Hands and tools may be washed with soap or milk.
with oak leaf patterns develop. More than 80 species of aphids including the Insecticide sprays that are not fast-acting may not be that effective
Sometimes a necrotic line develops across the leaf. green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, are vector because the aphids move to other nearby unsprayed plants when
Affected leaves may drop prematurely. Older plants that of CMV; weeds are hosts for the virus as well as disturbed.
are infected may show foliar mottling or no symptoms on for the aphid vectors. The large number of Other less effective measures include: planting barrier crops that are not
foliage or fruit. Fruit may be wrinkled, bumpy, and pale to aphid vector species and natural host susceptible to CMV such as corn, applying sticky traps, or covering the
reservoirs accounts for the high incidence of ground with an aphid deterrent material Another control strategy is to
yellowish green in colour, sometimes with sunken lesions.
CMV in field plants. grow trap crops nearby that attract aphids and then spray these plants
On some varieties lines or ring spots may develop.
with a contact insecticide to destroy the aphid populations.


PVY on Peppers
Causal agent: Potato virus Y
Transmission: Aphids

Symptoms Conditions for disease development Control measures

Plants can be infected at any growth stage by virus Many species of aphid, including the green Spray weeds bordering the field with an insecticide prior to seeding or
transmitting aphids. peach aphid, Myzus persicae, transmit the planting the field. This will prevent the aphids from moving to other plants
Symptoms of potato virus Y (PVY) include plant virus at different degrees of efficiency. The and infecting them when subsequent weed control is started. Destroy all
stunting, systemic vein-clearing, leaf mosaic or different aphid species can acquire the virus annual weeds in the field, including those in ditches, hedge or fencerows,
mottling, and dark green vein-banding of the leaves. by feeding on an infected plant for less than a and other locations.
Necrosis in the veins and petioles often develops. This minute and can transmit it as quickly also. Where feasible, infected plants should be pulled up and destroyed, but only
may be followed by stem necrosis and defoliation, The aphids will retain the virus for periods of after spraying them thoroughly with an insecticide to kill any insects they
death of the top bud and plant death. Affected fruit may 1 day or longer if the aphids do not feed after may be harbouring.
be smaller, deformed, and with a mosaic pattern. acquiring the virus. Avoid planting peppers close to established tomato, tobacco, and pepper
PVY symptoms may be masked by symptoms of other PVY infection in tomato and tobacco is an fields since these fields may harbour aphids. Plant earlier to avoid high
viruses. important source of the virus for pepper. aphid populations that occur later in the season. Reflective mulches may be
Weeds may also act as a reservoir for the used to repel aphids, thereby reducing the rate of spread of aphid-borne
virus in tropical regions. viruses.
The mineral oil sprays will reduce the frequency of transmission of the
virus by the vector and thereby delay development of the disease in the
pepper crop.


Tobacco etch on Peppers

Causal agent: Tobacco etch virus (TEV)
Transmission: Aphids

Symptoms Conditions for disease development control measures

All stages of plant growth are affected. The severity TEV is transmitted by the green peach aphid, Use a net house or screen house with 32-mesh or finer to keep out aphids and to
of symptoms depends on time of infection, the Myzus persicae, and by several other aphid grow seedlings for transplant use.
variety grown and the virus strain present. Affected species in a non persistent manner similar to Use virus-free transplants. Minimize plant handling during the growing season to
pepper plants show foliar mottling or mosaic PVY. The virus is also readily transmitted reduce the amount of virus spread mechanically.
patterns, leaf distortion, and stunting. Vein-clearing mechanically but transmission by aphids is Remove nearby volunteer plants and solanaceous weeds from production fields,
and vein-banding symptoms also occur. the principal method. It is not found in seeds. nearby ditch banks, hedges, fence-rows or other locations. Plant earlier to avoid
Plants infected early have small, misshapen fruit high aphid populations that occur later in the season. Mulches to reduce aphid visits
and can be severely stunted. Fruits from such to plants and thus delay virus spread. This results in reduced virus incidence and
plants have severe mosaic symptoms. Tabasco increased yields. Monitor aphid populations early in the season and apply fast-
pepper infected with tobacco etch virus (TEV) acting insecticide treatments when needed.
show root necrosis, wilting and death. Symptoms The mineral oil sprays will reduce the frequency of transmission of the virus by the
may be confused with other viruses such as potato vector and thereby delay development of the disease in the pepper crop
virus Y (PVY) or pepper mottle virus (PMV).


TMV on Peppers
Causal agent: Tobacco mosaic virus
Transmission: Mechanical

Symptoms Conditions for disease development control measures

Symptoms of infection by TMV and ToMV in pepper and TMV and ToMV have very wide host ranges and infect Enforce strict sanitation practices during production and
eggplant can vary greatly with the strain of virus, temperature, over 200 plant species, including varieties of pepper, harvest to minimize infection and prevent spread.
light intensity, day length, age of the plant when infected and tomato, eggplant and tobacco. TMV can infect all species Restrict access to the crop, wash hands and equipment
cultivar. Foliar symptoms include chlorotic mosaic, distortion, of pepper, but not tomato, tobacco or eggplant. Infected with a soap solution between plants or rows of plants and
and at times, systemic necrosis and defoliation. Plants infected transplants, seed and debris are common sources of before entering a greenhouse.
as seedlings can be stunted and are generally chlorotic. Infected inoculum. These viruses can be found on and under the There are reports of successful prevention of Tobamo
plants produce disfigured fruit that are usually small with seed coat and in the endosperm. Tobamo viruses are virus spread by coating hands, plants and equipment with
distinct chlorotic and/or necrotic areas. Foliar symptoms of very stable and extensive spread can occur through a solution of powdered non-fat milk.
TMV in pepper are also variable but are generally mild. Plants handling, tools, trays, pots, stakes, twine and clothing, as Rogue symptomatic and adjacent plants and rotate to non-
infected as seedlings remain stunted. Leaves develop a subtle well as pollination, pruning and other cultural practices. solanaceous crops to manage disease. Use seed tested and
mosaic, can be crinkled, and remain small. Symptoms may first Tobamo viruses can remain viable for several years in treated for Tobamo viruses. Many hot pepper varieties
appear on fruit. Fruit can be mottled and necrotic, are usually plant debris but lose their ability to infect as debris contain hypersensitive resistance to TMV and ToMV. Use
small and distorted and have a rough or wrinkled appearance. decomposes. resistant varieties in greenhouse production where
Tobamo viruses are a problem. Some strains of TMV may
overcome the commercial resistance.


Tomato spotted wilt on Peppers

Causal agent: Tomato spotted wilt virus
Transmission: Thrips
Symptoms Conditions for disease development control measures

Plants infected while they are young Thrips are the primary means of transmitting Tomato The presence of thrips in pepper fields can be monitored using yellow sticky cards. If the
display severe stunting, yellowing or Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). Thrips are small, they disease appears in a crop, infected plants should be removed and destroyed immediately
chlorotic flecking of the whole plant, multiply quickly, feed on a wide range of plants, and are either by burning or burying them.
and very little yield. constantly being blown into fields. Thrips feed on the Maintain seedbeds away from cropped areas and from other susceptible plants.
Leaves infected later may show juices of leaves, stems, fruits and flower parts. Remove volunteer plants and weeds from the production field and surrounding areas by
chlorotic line patterns or mosaic Feeding damage causes new growth to become maintaining a 10-m plant-free border
with necrotic spots. Necrotic streaks misshapen and deformed. The wingless immature thrips Avoid sequential planting because thrips can continue to emerge from the soil for 23
appear on stems extending to the acquire the virus and the more mobile adults later weeks after crop residues are ploughed and roto-tilled. Keep infected field areas fallow for
terminal shoots. transmit the virus among plants. 3-4 weeks to allow thrips to emerge from crop debris and disperse from the field.
Fruit of infected plants may show The life cycle of thrips varies from 7 to 14 days at During the first stage of plant production, use a net house structure or seedbed covered
necrotic spots and streaks, mosaic, fluctuating temperatures between 2037C. with a netting of 40-mesh or higher to exclude thrips from seedlings prior to
and ring patterns. On ripe fruit, Consequently, there are multiple generations during the transplanting. Use virus free transplants.
yellow spots with concentric rings growing season. TSWV may persist from year to year in Several insecticide applications should be made at 5-day intervals to significantly reduce
or necrotic streaks may be present. infected plants from which thrips can spread the disease an infestation.
to nearby crops.


Blossom end rot of Pepper

Causal agent: Calcium deficiency

Symptoms Conditions for disease development control measures

Applying lime or gypsum can provide calcium. Lime

Blossom-end rot begins as a light-coloured area on the Blossom-end rot is caused by a calcium deficiency in the corrects both low pH and low calcium levels, while
blossom end of the fruit. The affected area enlarges developing fruit. This problem results from low levels of calcium in gypsum only affects calcium level.
and darkens, sometimes involving up to half the fruit the soil or from a lack of soil moisture. Uptake of calcium from the Calcium chloride sprays applied to the foliage may help
prevent blossom-end rot on developing fruit. Calcium
surface. soil depends on adequate moisture moving into the roots. Any
chloride is applied at four pounds per 100 gallons/acre
On peppers, the rot is tan and may be mistaken for condition that reduces roots ability to absorb water, and hence,
four times on a weekly schedule, beginning when
sun scald. Sun scald, however, results in a bleached, take up calcium, can cause blossom-end rot. Heavy fertilization, symptoms first appear
white area on the fruit. On bell pepper, the rot usually resulting in an accumulation of ammonium, potassium, sodium or Avoid excessive rates of ammonical nitrogen fertilizer.
occurs on the tip of the lobes. On pimento pepper, the magnesium salts in the root zone, often increases the incidence of Damage to the roots by deep cultivation should also be
side of the pod near the tip is affected. Secondary fungi blossom-end rot by reducing calcium uptake. Also, excessive avoided, especially after fruit set and in dry weather.
may cause the tan area to turn dark. vegetative growth demands calcium, and may divert it away for the


Sunscald of Pepper
Causal agent: Environmental

Symptoms Conditions for disease development Cultural and Biological control measures if any

Affected areas are straw-colored or white, soft, sunken, and This occurs on fruit suddenly exposed to intense No resistant cultivars are available. Provide sufficient
wrinkled. These dead areas form only on the side exposed to the sunlight at high temperatures and high humidities. nitrogen for healthy plant growth. Keep foliage
sun, in contrast to blossom end rot where the symptoms will Sudden exposure may be due to loss of foliage cover, healthy by controlling diseases and insect pests. Also,
appear on unexposed areas as well. defoliation, or prolonged wilting. Also, breakage of avoid drought stress. If feasible, provide support for
The dead areas eventually become papery in texture, and may branches due to rough handling during harvest or pepper plants by use of stakes or use of string
become dark-colored if infection by secondary fungi occurs. Fruit from heavy rains may expose fruit to sunscald. running along the rows, or wire running horizontally
affected by sunscald is unmarketable along the beds. Growing under shade net.


1. Vegetable diseases fact sheet, Edited by Tom Kalb. Photos by L.L. Black and E.L.Shannon. Published by AVRDC.
2. Vegetables 2014 final report. Plant Disease Diagnostic Center LSU/LSU AgCenter Department of Plant Pathology & Crop Physiology
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803.
3. Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers Illinois University of Illinois Extension Indiana.
4. K.Pernezny, P.D. Roberts, J.F. Murphy and N.P. Goldberg(eds.), Compendium of pepper diseases. American Phytopathological Society
Press, St. Paul, MN.


"For better or for worse, plant pathology

had its genesis in fields and granaries
more than in halls of ivy. Society needed
agriculture and agriculture need plant
"Plant pathology has helped reveal
profound and useful truths. It was among
the pioneers in revealing the vast and
variable world of microorganisms and in
identifying mans friends and foes
amongst them. It has shown how to
combat many of the bad ones and how to
utilize some of the good ones."
E. C. Stakman. 1959