Report On Mix Design

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 6

Report On Mix Design

© All Rights Reserved

- File
- Shrink Specs
- ASTM C142
- US Army: crd c100
- 20320140506013-2
- Minerals Engineering tutorial
- Concrete Troubleshooting Guide
- Material Testing Lab Manual
- catlog
- Practical 1
- plast
- Aggregate Test -1
- Final Thesis -With Appendices
- Refoster Itp 15.04.10 Revised
- Chemplast AR 340
- Comparitive Strength & Cost of Concrete
- 19-32
- 3. Report
- 3. Report.docx
- File 1606

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

1. INTRODUCTION

Concrete is the basic engineering material used in most of the civil engineering structures. Its

popularity as basic building material in construction is because of, its economy of use, good

durability and ease with which it can be manufactured at site. The ability to mould it into any

shape and size, because of its plasticity in green stage and its subsequent hardening to achieve

strength, is particularly useful.

Concrete like other engineering materials needs to be designed for properties like strength,

durability, workability and cohesion. Concrete mix design is the science of deciding relative

proportions of ingredients of concrete, to achieve the desired properties in the most economical

way.

With advent of high-rise buildings and pre-stressed concrete, use of higher grades of concrete is

becoming more common. Even the revised IS 456-2000 advocates use of higher grade of

concrete for more severe conditions of exposure, for durability considerations.

With advent of new generation admixtures, it is possible to achieve higher grades of concrete

with high workability levels economically. Use of mineral admixtures like fly ash, slag, meta

kaolin and silica fume have revolutionised the concrete technology by increasing strength and

durability of concrete by many folds. Mix design of concrete is becoming more relevant in the

above-mentioned scenario.

However, it should be borne in mind that mix design when adopted at site should be

implemented with proper understanding and with necessary precautions.

SSET, Karukutty 1

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

2. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

The specific gravity of an aggregate is the mass of the aggregate in air divided by the mass of an

equal volume of water. An aggregate with a specific gravity of 2.50 would thus be two and one-

half times as heavy as water. Higher the specific gravity, heavier is the sand particles and higher

is the density of concrete. Conversely a lower specific gravity of sand will result in lower density

of concrete. Specific gravity of sand is found with help of pycnometer bottles. Specific gravity of

coarse aggregate is found with help of wire basket. Test for specific gravity was conducted as per

IS 2386 part III

The pycnometer was cleaned and dried. Its cap was screwed tightly. The weight (W1) of

the pycnometer, brass cap and washer was found out.

About 200 to 400g of oven-dried soil was taken and was put in the pycnometer. The

weight (W2) of the pycnometer was found out.

The pycnometer was filled to half its weight with distilled water and it was mixed

thoroughly with a glass rod. More water was added and stirred. The screw top was

replaced and the pycnometer was filled flush with the hole in conical cap. The

pycnometer was dried from outside and the weight (W3) was found.

The pycnometer was emptied, cleaned thoroughly and it was filled with distilled water up

to the hole in the conical cap and the weight (W4) was found.

The test was repeated thrice.

SSET, Karukutty 2

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

OBSERVATION NO: 1 2 3

Weight of Pycnometer and dry soil (g)

962 948 959

, W2 =

Weight of Pycnometer, soil and water

1580 1567 1554

(g) , W3 =

Weight of Pycnometer and water (g) ,

1265 1265 1265

W4 =

2.73 2.66 2.48

(W2W1)

G=

(W2W1) (W3W4)

SSET, Karukutty 3

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

Take about 2kg sample larger than 10mm. Wash the sample thoroughly to remove fine

particles and dust.

Place the sample in a wire basket and immerse it in distilled water at a temperature

between 22oC and 320C with a cover of at least 5cm water above the top of the basket.

Remove the entrapped air by lifting the basket containing sample 25mm above the base

of the tank and allowing it to drop 25 times, each per second, care being taken to see that

the sample is completely immersed in water during the operation.

With the sample in water at a temperature of 22oC to 320C, take the weight of the sample

in the density basket(A1).

Remove the basket and aggregate from water and allow to drain for a few minutes. Then

empty the aggregate from basket to a shallow tray.

Immerse the empty basket in water 25 times and then find the weight of the basket in

water(A2).

Place the aggregate in oven at a temperature of 1000C to 1100C for 24 hours. Remove it

from the oven and cool it and find the weight(C).

a) Weight of saturated aggregate in water, g (A) = A1 A2 = 4172 2910 = 1262 g

b) Weight of oven dried aggregate in air, g (C) = 2000 g

c) Apparent Specific gravity = (C) / ( C A ) = (2000) / (2000 1262) = 2.71

SSET, Karukutty 4

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

Sieve analysis is the process of dividing a sample of aggregate into fraction of the same size. The

purpose of doing this analysis is to determine the grading or size distribution of the aggregate

which is important to find out whether the aggregate pile we are studying is good for the mix or

not. The grading of the aggregate usually affects the workability of the fresh concrete.

2.2.1 Objectives:

1. To determine the grading or the size distribution of the aggregates using the sieve analysis.

2. To determine the fineness modulus.

3. To draw the grading curve of pile of aggregate.

The aggregate of interest is thrown into a series of sieves nested in order with the smallest at the

bottom, and after shaking the mass of retained aggregate in each sieve is calculated. The

aggregate we use in our experiment should be representative to the pile we obtained it from, so

we cant just take the mass we need for the experiment arbitrary because this arbitrary specimen

might not contain a certain size of the aggregate. For that reason the Quartering Method is used,

this method involves taking a big amount of aggregate from the pile of interest (more than the

amount we need) and then divide them into quarters or halves till we gain the amount we need

for the experiment.

After sieving the specimen, we calculate the retained mass in each sieve and a table is made and

the grade curve is drawn.

The table should contain the following columns: Sieve size, Mass retained, Percentage retained,

Cumulative percentage passing and Cumulative percentage retained. The percentage retained can

be gained by the following formula: mass retained / total mass x 100%

The grading curve is drawn by using the information of the table. The grading curve represents

the relationship between the Sieve size (the abscissa) and the Cumulative percentage passing (the

ordinates), we use the logarithmic scale to plot the graph. The standards usually give an Upper

limit graph and a lower limit graph so that our graph should be between these 2 graph to be

usable in mixes. The graph is drawn by drawing line segments between the points. Fineness

SSET, Karukutty 5

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

Modulus is a measure to the grading of an aggregate pile, and it is used to compare aggregate

that are gained from the same source. It can be defined as the sum of the Cumulative percentage

retained on the sieves of the standard series divided by 100.

1. Set of sieves.

2. A dried specimen of aggregate.

3. Trays.

4. Electronic weighting machine.

5. Mechanical shaker.

2.2.3 Procedure

Sieve analysis and grading were done as per the specifications given in the codes IS 383- 1970

and IS 2386 (Part 1) 1963

About 2 kg of all in aggregates were taken in which the proportion of coarse aggregate

used was equal to 64% of weight of total aggregate weight of all in aggregates to be taken

was selected from the table 2 of IS 2386 (Part I) 1963.

The sample for sieving ( Table IV IS 2386 ) shall be prepared from the larger sample

by quartering

Required is sieves were taken. Sieves used are IS sieve 20 mm, IS sieve 10 mm, IS sieve

4.75 mm, IS sieve 2.36 mm, IS sieve 1.18mm, IS sieve 0.6 mm, IS sieve 0.3 mm, IS sieve

0.15 mm.

They were cleaned using a wire brush and were arranged in with 20 mm IS sieve at the

top. This was followed by other sieves in the descending order. A pan was placed at the

bottom of this assembly.

They were then placed in the mechanical shaker and was shaken for 10 minutes

Then the weight of the retained aggregate in each sieve is calculated using the Electronic

weighing machine.

Table of the results is established and the Grading curve is drawn.

SSET, Karukutty 6

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

opening opening retained weight % of weight fineness

in (mm) in in (gm) retained retained

(micron)

20.00 20000 11 0.55 0.55 99.45

10.00 10000 552 27.60 28.10 71.90

4.75 4750 709 35.45 63.60 36.40

2.36 2360 8 0.40 64.00 36.00

1.18 1180 211 10.55 74.55 25.45

0.60 600 152 7.60 82.15 17.85

0.30 300 265 13.25 95.40 4.60

0.15 150 70 3.50 98.90 1.10

IS requirements for aggregates as per IS 383 table V

% Passing For All In

Mix M 40 Aggregate Grading

Grading 30% 34% 36.00%

Design Grade

Sieve

20mm 10mm Sand Proportion Maximum Minimum

size

20mm 64.8 100 100 20mm 89.4 100 95

10mm 3.2 98.1 100 10mm 70.3 75 60

4.75mm 0 26 99.3 4.75mm 43.1 50 30

2.36mm 0 2 99.6 2.36mm 34.6 45 23

1.18mm. 0 0 79 1.18mm. 26.9 40 16

600mic 0 0 37.4 600mic 12.7 35 10

300mic 0 0 9.3 300mic 3.2 21 5

150mic 0 0 2.6 150mic 0.9 6 0

SSET, Karukutty 7

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

GRADATION CURVE

120

100

80

% PASSING

Proportion

60

maximum

minimum

40

20

0

20mm 10mm 4.75mm 2.36mm 1.18mm. 600mic 300mic 150mic

The aggregate we studied consists of coarse aggregate mainly; we noted that from the above

results. From the Grading graph we note that the aggregate we have tested are good for using in

mixes, as the gradation curve of the aggregate lies between the upper limit and the lower limit.

SSET, Karukutty 8

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

3. MIX DESIGN

Concrete like other engineering materials needs to be designed for properties like strength,

durability, workability and cohesion. Concrete mix design is the science of deciding relative

proportions of ingredients of concrete, to achieve the desired properties in the most economical

way.

Concrete is an extremely versatile building material because, it can be designed for strength

ranging from M10 (10 Mpa) to M100 (100 Mpa) and workability ranging from 0 mm slump to

150 mm slump. In all these cases the basic ingredients of concrete are the same, but it is their

relative proportioning that makes the difference.

4. Fine Aggregate Along with cement paste it forms mortar grout and fills the voids in the

coarse aggregates.

workability, setting properties, imperviousness etc.

Concrete needs to be designed for certain properties in the plastic stage as well as in the

hardened stage.

Workability

Cohesiveness

SSET, Karukutty 9

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

Strength

Imperviousness

Durability

Concrete mix design is the method of correct proportioning of ingredients of concrete, in order to

optimize the above properties of concrete as per site requirements. In other words, we determine

the relative proportions of ingredients of concrete to achieve desired strength & workability in a

most economical way.

Better strength

3.2.2 Economy

It is possible to save up to 15% of cement for M20 grade of concrete with the help of concrete

mix design. In fact higher the grade of concrete more are the savings. Lower cement content also

results in lower heat of hydration and hence reduces shrinkage cracks.

Site conditions often restrict the quality and quantity of ingredient materials. Concrete mix

design offers a lot of flexibility on type of aggregates to be used in mix design. Mix design can

give an economical solution based on the available materials if they meet the basic IS

requirements. This can lead to saving in transportation costs from longer distances.

c) Other properties:

SSET, Karukutty 10

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

Mix design can help us to achieve form finishes, high early strengths for early deshuttering,

concrete with better flexural strengths, concrete with pumpability and concrete with lower

densities.

The basic objective of concrete mix design is to find the most economical proportions

(optimisation) to achieve the desired end results (strength, cohesion, workability, durability, As

mentioned earlier the proportioning of concrete is based on certain material properties of

cement, sand and aggregates. Concrete mix design is basically a process of taking trials with

certain proportions. Methods have been developed to arrive at these proportions in a scientific

manner. No mix design method directly gives the exact proportions that will most economically

achieve end results. These methods only serve as a base to start and achieve the end results in the

fewest possible trials. The code of practice for mix design-IS 10262clearly states following: -

The basic assumption made in mix design is that the compressive strength of workable concretes,

by and large, governed by the water/cement ratio. Another most convenient relationship

applicable to normal concrete is that for a given type, shape, size and grading of aggregates, the

amount of water determines its workability. However, there are various other factors which affect

the properties of concrete, for example the quality & quantity of cement, water and aggregates;

batching; transportation; placing; compaction; curing; etc. Therefore, the specific relationships

that are used in proportioning concrete mixes should be considered only as the basis for trial,

subject to modifications in the light of experience as well as for the particular materials used at

the site in each case. Different mix design methods help us to arrive at the trial mix that will give

us required strength, workability, cohesion etc. These mix design methods have same common

threads in arriving at proportions but their method of calculation is different. Basic steps in mix

design are as follows:

SSET, Karukutty 11

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

3.4 IS METHOD

The IS method treats normal mixes (up to M35) and high strength mixes (M40 and above)

differently. This is logical because richer mixes need lower sand content when compared with

leaner mixes. The method also gives correction factors for different w/c ratios, workability and

for rounded coarse aggregate. In IS method, the quantities of fine and coarse aggregate are

calculated with help of yield equation, which is based on specific gravities of ingredients. Thus

plastic density of concrete calculated from yield equation can be close to actual plastic density

obtained in laboratory, if specific gravities are calculated accurately. Thus actual cement

consumption will be close to that targeted in the first trial mix itself. The water cement ratio is

calculated from cement curves based on 28 days strength of cement. This can be time consuming

and impractical at times. The IS method gives separate graphs using accelerated strength of

cement with reference mix method. This greatly reduces the time required for mix design. The IS

method suffers from following limitations: -

a) The IS method recommends 35 % sand content by absolute volume for zone II sand with

correction of +1.5 % for zone I and 1.5 % for zone III. These zones have wide range and this

correction is not adequate to achieve a cohesive mix. Sometimes a correction may be required

even when fine aggregate varies from upper side to lower side of a particular zone.

b) Though sand content is adjusted for lower water-cement ratio there is no direct adjustment for

cement content. As discussed earlier, the cement particles act, as fines in concrete and richer

mixes often require lesser fine aggregate when compared to leaner mixes. A mix in which cement

content has been lowered by use of plasticisers may require higher sand content to improve

cohesion.

c) The IS method gives different tables for determining sand content for concrete up to M 35

grade and above M 35 grade. There is an abrupt change in sand content from 35% to 25% in the

two tables when shifting from M 35 grade concrete to M40 grade concrete. The change may be

justified to account for higher cement content but it should be gradual in nature.

SSET, Karukutty 12

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

d) The IS method considers compaction factor as measure for workability, to calculate the water

demand. Compaction factor may not correctly represent workability and the revised IS 456 2000

has excluded compaction factor as a measure of workability. It recommends use of slump as a

measure for workability. Relationship between slump and compaction factor is difficult to

standardize.

e) The IS method does not take into account the effect of the surface texture and flakiness of

aggregate on sand and water content. It does not recommend any corrections when crushed fine

aggregate is used against natural fine aggregate as in case of DOE method.

f) The IS method does not easily account for blending of different fine aggregates or coarse

aggregates when they individually do not conform to IS requirements. On the other hand in RRL

method, coarse sand can be blended with fine sand or stone dust to get the required gradation

(Natural sand and stone dust will have different specific gravities). Even coarse aggregates of

different sizes, gradation and specific gravities can be blended to achieve the required gradation

in RRL method.

g) The IS method gives water demand and fine aggregate content for 10mm, 20mm and 40mm

down aggregate. In practice the maximum size of coarse aggregate is often between 20mm and

40mm, the estimation of water and sand content is difficult.

h) The quantities of fine aggregate and coarse aggregates are calculated from the yield equation.

The yield equation is based on concept, that volume of concrete is summation of absolute

volumes of its ingredients. Absolute volume of ingredients is function of specific gravities of

ingredients. The plastic density of concrete if theoretically calculated on the basis of specific

gravities, may not match with that actually measured from concrete.

i) The IS method does not have a specific method of combining 10mm aggregates with 20 mm

aggregates. The grading limits for combined aggregates in IS383 are too broad and do not help

much to arrive at particular ratio of different coarse aggregates.

j) The IS method does not have an adjustment in fine aggregate content for different levels of

workability. Higher workability mixes require more fine aggregate content to maintain cohesion

of mix.

SSET, Karukutty 13

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

OF OPC

4.1 STIPULATIONS FOR PROPORTIONING

a) Grade designation : M40

b) Type of cement : OPC 43 grade conforming to IS 8112

c) Type of mineral admixture : Fly ash conforming to IS 3812 (Part 1)

d) Maximum nominal size of aggregate : 20mm

e) Minimum cement content : 320 kg/m3

t) Maximum water-cement ratio : 0.40

g) Workability : 100 mm (slump)

h) Exposure condition : Severe (for reinforced concrete)

m) Type of aggregate : Crushed angular aggregate

n) Maximum cement (OPC) content : 450 kg/m3

p) Chemical admixture type : Superplasticizer

This is found as per the given equation

f = fck + (l.65 x s) where

fck = target average compressive strength at 28 days,

fck = characteristics compressive strength at 28 days, and

s = standard deviation.

From Table I

Standard Deviation, s = 5 N/mm2.

Therefore,

Target strength = 40 + 1.65 x 5 = 48.25 N/mm2.

SSET, Karukutty 14

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

From Table 5 of IS 456, maximum water-cement ratio = 0.40

adopted water-cement ratio is = 0.40

Maximum water Content

for 20 mm aggregate = 186 liter (for 25 to 50 mm Slump

range)

6

Estimated water content for 100mm slump = 186 + x 186 = 197 litre

100

As super plasticizer is used, the water content can be reduced up to 30 percent. Based on trials

with the given super plasticizer water content reduction of 14 percent has been achieved. Hence,

the

Adopted water content = 197 x 0.86 = 169.5 litres.

169.5

Cementitious material (cement + fly ash) content = = 423.75 kg/m3

0.4

As per Table 5 of IS 456.

Minimum cement content for severe condition = 320 kg/rn3

Hence, O.K.

Now, to proportion a mix containing fly ash the following steps are suggested:

a) Decide the percentage fly ash to he used based on project requirement and quality of materials

b) In certain situations increase in cementitious material content may be warranted. The decision

SSET, Karukutty 15

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

on increase in cementitious material content and its percentage may be based on experience and

trial.

Water Content = 169.5 kg/rn3

169.5

So, water-cement ratio = = 0.364

466.1

Fly ash ( 24% of total cementitious

material content) = 466.1 x 24% = 111.8 kg/rn3

Cement (OPC) = 466.1 111.8 = 354.3 kg/rn3

Saving of cement while using fly ash = 423.75 354.3 = 69.45 kg/m3

Fly ash being utilized = 111.8 kg/rn3

AGGREGATE CONTENT

Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm size aggregate and fine aggregate (Zone II)

For water-cement ratio of 0.50 = 0.62.

In the present case water-cement ratio is 0.40. Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate is required

to be increased to decrease the fine aggregate content. As the water-cement ratio is lower by

0.10, the proportion of volume of coarse aggregate is increased by 0.02 (at the rate of .I+ 0.01 for

every 0.05 change in water-cement ratio). Therefore corrected proportion of volume of

aggregate for the water-cement ratio of 0.40 = 0.64

Mix calculations per unit volume of concrete is as follows

a) Volume of concrete = 1m3

SSET, Karukutty 16

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

Mass of cement 1

b) Volume of cement = x

Specific gravity of cement 1000

354.3 1

= x

3.15 1000

= 0.112 m3

c) Volume of fly ash = x

Specific gravity of fly ash 1000

111.8 1

= x

2.0 1000

= 0.056 m3

Mass of water 1

d) Volume of water = x

Specific gravity of water 1000

169.5 1

= x

1 1000

= 0.170 m3

(Super plasticizer) @ 0.50 % by

Mass of admixture 1

mass of cementitious material = x

Specific gravity of admixture 1000

2.12 1

= x

1.25 1000

= 0.0017 m3

f) Volume of all in aggregate = [a - (b + c + d + e)]

= 1- (0.112 + 0.056 + 0.170 + 0.0017)

= 0.66 m3

g) Mass of coarse aggregate = f x volume of coarse aggregate x specific

gravity x 1000

= 0.66 x 0.64 x 2.71 x 1000

SSET, Karukutty 17

ICI Concrete Cube Strength Competition Test report 2013

= 1144.7 kg/m3

h) Mass of fine aggregate = f x volume of fine aggregate x specific

gravity x 1000

= 0.66 x 0.36 x 2.63 x 1000

= 624.88 kg/m3

Cement = 354.3kg/rn3

SSET, Karukutty 18

- FileЗагружено:suryavinu
- Shrink SpecsЗагружено:vahid khan
- ASTM C142Загружено:Aprizal Panjaitan
- US Army: crd c100Загружено:Army
- 20320140506013-2Загружено:IAEME Publication
- Minerals Engineering tutorialЗагружено:Adriano Chikande
- Concrete Troubleshooting GuideЗагружено:shivas34regal
- Material Testing Lab ManualЗагружено:laxmanapuppala
- catlogЗагружено:Suniljpatil
- Practical 1Загружено:Nicky Tan
- plastЗагружено:tsacrl9415
- Aggregate Test -1Загружено:Lavanya Prabha
- Final Thesis -With AppendicesЗагружено:Azkalzstriker Den
- Refoster Itp 15.04.10 RevisedЗагружено:Ajay Malik
- Chemplast AR 340Загружено:Saulat Jillani
- Comparitive Strength & Cost of ConcreteЗагружено:PradeepLokhande
- 19-32Загружено:Squeak Dollphin
- 3. ReportЗагружено:RonyJoy
- 3. Report.docxЗагружено:RonyJoy
- File 1606Загружено:NABARD
- Quality Control of Rigid Pavements 1Загружено:pranjpatil
- USE OF COPPER SLAG AS FINE AGGREGATE ‐ A CASE STUDYЗагружено:IJIERT-International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology
- lecture-3Загружено:yeshi janexo
- Testing DetailsЗагружено:Siva Kumar
- An-overview-of-waste-materials-recycling-in-the-Sultanate-of-Oman_2004_Resources-Conservation-and-Recycling.pdfЗагружено:rahmin
- IRJET-V5I6530 M90.pdfЗагружено:Chaitanya Raj
- concreteblocks.pdfЗагружено:Ahmed Mohammed Hassen
- Rate Analysis for 1CUM Concrete.docxЗагружено:Hitesh Jani
- SieveЗагружено:Clarissa Daculan
- IRJET-V4I5699Загружено:Pitchaimani M

- Biswanath PalitЗагружено:Rana Biswas
- rifestplus_demo_en[1].pdfЗагружено:deepali0305
- Reactive Powder Concrete presentationЗагружено:Sibabrata Choudhury
- 2012SoABookOPTЗагружено:coawebmaster
- CofferdamЗагружено:Rajesh Khadka
- ASD VS LFRD.pdfЗагружено:Karen Vargas
- Brenda J. Dunne and Robert G. Jahn- Consciousness and Anomalous Physical PhenomenaЗагружено:Canola_Olive
- Capgemini s Aerospace Defence PracticeЗагружено:Sugavanan Thangavel
- TDS-230Загружено:Moery Mrt
- Analysis of TrussЗагружено:Salem Albarki
- Adhesion Coefficient _ NAVFAC DM 72Загружено:Uazzy
- UTILIZATION OF PLASTIC WASTES AND WASTE RECYCLED PRODUCT AS HIGHWAY MATERIALS IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT SYSTEMЗагружено:Umer Farooq
- WW Linear Veneered Planks Master SheetЗагружено:Chiara Nader
- Reinforced Concrete Design BS 8110Загружено:Kutty Mansoor
- What after 12th Science?Загружено:denu_rangoon
- List of IEC StandardsЗагружено:abeelc
- DD3M_RailwayLoadsonConcretePipeЗагружено:Flávio Ajeje
- ResumeЗагружено:abhinavjha7
- AS 1670.3-1997 Fire detection, warning control and intercom .pdfЗагружено:Hau Dinh Duong
- TubesЗагружено:ApoorvMathur
- GUARDAMOTOR SIEMENS.pdfЗагружено:adolfovelasquez
- qcs 2010 `Part 8.04 Pipeline InstallationЗагружено:RotsapNayrb
- Concrete BasementsЗагружено:Austin Devin
- THE EXPRIENCES OF MALAYSIAN IN INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING SYSTEM (IBS) TO ENHANCE CONSTRUCTABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTЗагружено:Mazri Yaakob
- SPEC. OF DPWHЗагружено:Rumylo Agustin
- 60364-7-711e-ed1Загружено:Egyptman Jan
- HM-27_AASHTO Material BooksЗагружено:bill_lee_242
- Brochure Oil and Gas EnЗагружено:Anonymous 70lCzDJv
- 223257953 Solutions ManualЗагружено:george
- The Profession of TransportationЗагружено:rueenabs

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.