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Faculty of Engineering
Analog electronic laboratory
I Period of 2017


Snchez, Sharon [1]/ Chilito, Diego [2]/ Garca, Omar [3]/ Quiones, Jorge [4] Martnez, Carlos [5]/ Ocampo, Miguel [6]
Universidad Autnoma De Occidente
Electrical Engineering

Summaryon the following report the development of variety of application such as adders, subtractors, active
the laboratory MIXER AND TONE CONTROL, in which filters, oscillators and other circuits for instrumentation
was develop knowing basic functions studied in class and control.
such as: operational amplifiers. For the circuits analysis
the PSPICE program was used allowing confirming the
data found theoretically and have more certain when II. DESIGN ELEMENTS
making the circuits.

Key words Mixer, tone control, operational amplifiers, Resistance all at 1/4W.
adder, Gain. - 10k quantity 5.
- 1k quantity 10.
- 3,2k quantity 2.
I. INTRODUCTION - 35,8k quantity 2.
- 5,2k quantity 2.
- 9k quantity 2.
The MIXER is able to mix a number of stereophonic
Ceramic condensers.
signals not pres amplified that can be extracted directly
- 100nF quantity 5.
from the pick-up piezoelectric from a guitar, of the pick-
- 10uF quantity 5.
up piezoelectric from a turntable or a microphone. - 22nF quantity 2.
The tone control its a monaural signal corrector for Trimmer short with knob on top, pines in on line.
audio equipment that doesnt require cable for the - 100k quantity 10.
potentiometer, avoiding jamming. It has a volume Green terminals.
control, grave and acute. - 3 pines quantity 2.
- 2 pines quantity 5.
Is base on the specific application of the integrated Operational amplifier.
LF353, this is an amplifier electronic device of signals of - LF353 quantity 4.
electrical current, its normally presented has an Base holder integrated 8 pines quantity3.
1 meter of welding
integrated circuit and thanks to its characteristics of
impedance allow to obtain optimum development
when refereeing to the voltage and currents. An
electronic device (normally shown as an integrated
circuit) the operational amplifier its a differential
amplifier of high gain that uses feedback to obtain levels
of amplification in an accurate and stable way. Without
feedback the operational amplifier is characterize for a
high amplification of the voltage, impedance on the
input and low impedance on the output. It has a great
= 0.1
1 +

10000 = 100 + 0.1

= = 99 100

To obtain attenuation by 10, the trimmer

1 , 2 3 must be of 100k.

The mixer step consists of an investor adder circuit

follow by an investor of variable gain. The equation of the investor step is:

The equation that characterizes the adder is: 6

5 4
4 4 4
4 = ( 1 + 2 + ) The objective, besides the normalization of the input
1 + 1 4 + 2 1 + 3 3
signal phase, its to define a gain control and the general
For each one of the inputs adder a determinate attenuation of the mixer, that are define also as 10.
resistance was set follow by a variable one to control
the gain in each channel. Its took 6 = 10

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 Are determinate resistance. 6

5 + 4
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 Are variable resistance.
4 = 0
The maximus gain and maximus attenuation are define
as 10, like this: = 10
Its set 4 = 10
= 5
4 10
+ 10
= 1 = 5
= 0 10

4 To have a maximums attenuation of 10 an 5 de 1k

= 10 must be taken.

4 10
= = 0.1
10 1 + 4
10 10000 = 100 + 0.14
= 1 = 4 = 99 100
To obtain a gain by 10, the resistance 1 , 2 3 must To have a maximums attenuation of 10 an 4 =
be of 1k. 100 must be taken.
The gain adjust has to be done basing it on the The frequency cut its 250 Hz
maximums amplitude of the input signals.
Its selected 1 = 22 so
A tone control its a circuit that separate the signals
based on it frequency allowing to variety the gain per 2 22 4
band to delivered a mixed signal supplied by each filter.
2 44
If a typical value of 250 Hz it used, defines until its
considered low to high frequency. For that reason 2 2 = 100
frequency bands are going to be control, the first one
its a low pass with a frequency cut of 250Hz, the other Now we found the values of 1 y 2
one its a high pass with a frequency cut of 250Hz, for 1,2
which its going to be use a butterworth filter of second (1,4142) (100 109 ) (1,4142) (100 109 ) 4(1)(22 109 )(100 109 )
4(250)(22 109 )(100 109 )
order with a Sallen-key structure, because of its lineal
behavior and easy calculations. 1 35,773 = 35,8

2 = 5,15


Its determinate by the next equations.

1 = 2 =
The filters are of united gain, the gain control will be
made by a second step mixer type included in the tone 1
1 =
control, who allows to modificate the gain depending 1
on the frequency band that corresponds. Because the
adder inverts the signal its necessary to return to the 2 =
4 1
real phase, because of that the output of the inverter
pass through a variable gain inverter, so allows to It was already defined 1 = 1,4142 1 = 1,0 because of
modificate the gain of the final output of the system. the order and type of filter (Butterworth of order 2)


The formulas that describe this filter are: Its set as the value of the capacitor

41 1 = 2 = = 100
2 1
1 2
1 2 1 2 2 2 41 1 2
1,2 = 1
4 1 2 1 = = 9
(250)(100 109 )(1,4142)
Base on the table, the coefficients of butterworth are:
2 = = 3183 3,2
1 = 1,4142 4(250)(100 109 )(1)

1 = 1,0

3 3
8 = ( 6 + )
1 + 1 2 + 2

Allows adjusting the gain for each output of the filters.

The maximums attenuation and gain its of 10, because

they are the same as the mixer already calculated we

1 = 2 = 1 y 1 = 2 = 100 con 3 = 10


In the preview image its shown the results of having on
Adjust of the phase and total gain of the tone control the input of the Mixer3 signals of 60 Hz and amplitude
the maximus attenuation and gain are 10, because of 1Vac each one, the gain of the circuit its adjust to be
that: unitary, thus its obtain in MX a signal of 60Hz with
amplitude 3Vac.
9 =
4 + 4 8

4 = 1

4 = 100

5 = 10


In the next to images the simulation its shown of the
Mixer circuit, each image as a 4 graphics space, the
yellow ones represent the Mixers output (MX), the On the preview image its illustrated a new proof, in the
blue ones its the first input signal (CH1), the red one its input Mixer there are 3 signals of amplitude 1Vac but of
the second input signal (CH2), the green one its the different frequencies, the gain of the circuit its adjust to
third input of the signal (CH3). be unitary, in the graphic it can be seen that the
amplitude of CH1 is -250mV, CH2 is -750mV and CH3 is
1V, making an MX with amplitude 0V.


Coming up its going to be show the simulation of the

circuit to the tone control. This circuit as two steps of
filtering in parallel functioning, one its a low pass filter
and the other one its a high tone filter, the frequency
of cut for the design its 250Hz in both of the filters

To simulate the circuit under the same conditions of the

final use, the tone control signal was the output signal
of the Mixer. On the following images 2 part of the
graphic are presented, on the left the form of the input
signals are shown CH1, CH2, CH3 and on the right its
represented the output of the Mixer (MX- yellow), the
output of the low pass filter (FL blue), the output of
the high pass filter (FH red) and the final output of the
tone control (CT green).

For low frequency input signals (<250Hz) the circuit that

delivers more amplitude in the output signal is the low
pass filter, as a proof of this they were set to the input
signals, with a set amplitude of 1Vac, the signals with
different frequency Ch1= 60Hz, CH2= 120Hz, and CH3= Finally a test were made with input signals with a
80Hz. frequency between both operation zones CH1= 300Hz,
Ch2= 120Hz and CH3=80Hz. As a result we obtain the
On the Fl graphic most of the input signals is found in input in operation in both filters at the same time,
there, leaving FH with a low amplitude in its wave defining CT as a combination of FL and FH. CT differs the
shape, making the circuit exit (CT) its define because is MX because the cut frequency in both filters is 250Hz,
on the exit of FL. (see next image) making lower the amplitude of the signal that is outside
this filter, it can be consider a 250Hz frequency as a
frequency of rejection

On the other hand, for high frequencies (>250Hz) the

circuit that predominates in the shape of the output IV. CONCLUSIONS
wave is what the FH delivers, a test were made setting The circuit only as a regulation of treble and grave but
the input signals with a set amplitude of 1Vac and with when is realize in an analog form is possible to add it
a frequency CH=1 440Hz CH2= 520Hz and CH3= 400Hz. more steps as a regulation means, or add it more bands
giving as a result a graphic equalizer, but the idea of this
How it was waited to be, the shape of the wave of CT its
circuit it was to control tones simple and standard.
define by the output of FH, because FL took a very low
amplitude because its out of it acceptation band. (See Knowing the idea on the previews paragraph we can
next image) conclude that in the development of the project it was
difficult to obtain elements of a great quality, the
prototype as a deficiency because of that and as a
generation of faint noise.

The operational amplifiers give an outnumber of

options that must be studied, besides they offer a good
relation of price and quality

[1] A. Malvino, Principios de electrnica, 7Ed, Mc Graw

[2] http://www2.udec.cl/~gspano/Laboratorio%20de%

[3] http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/Hon

[4] http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/1N%2F1N4001.