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.. , ..

.. , ..



2007
531(075)
373
907


,
,

..

907 , ..

: . / .. , .. -
. : - . . . -,
2007. 136 . 500 . ISBN 978-5-8265-0618-9.

,
,

.

.
.

.
-
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531(075)
373

ISBN 978-5-8265-0618-9
(), 2007

..
..

8.08.2007.
60 84 / 32. 5,9 . . .
500 . 501

-
,
392000, , 106, . 14

:
a > b , b < a .
a > b b > c , a > c .
a > b , a + c > b + c .
a > b c > 0 , ac > bc .
a > b c < 0 , ac < bc .
a > b c > d , a + c > b + d .
a > 0 , b > 0 , c > 0 , d > 0 , a > b c > d , ac > bd .
n n
a > b > 0 n , a > b .
:
a 2 b 2 = ( a b )( a + b ) ; a 2 2ab + b 2 = ( a b )2 ;
a 3 b3 = (a b ) (a 2 m ab + b 2 );

a 3 3a 2b + 3ab 2 b3 = ( a b ) ;
3

ax 2 + bx + c = a ( x x1 )( x x2 ) ,
2
x1 x2 ax + bx + c = 0 .
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 :
b D b b 2 4ac
x1, 2 = = .
2a 2a
b c
: x1 + x2 = , x1 x2 = .
a a
:
a1 , a2 , ... , an , ... ;
d ;
an +1 = an + d ;
an = a1 + d ( n 1) n- ;
an 1 + an +1
an = ;
2
a1 + an 2a1 + d ( n 1) n .
Sn = n= n
2 2
:
a1 , a2 , ..., an , ... ;
q ;
bn +1 = b q , b 0 , q 0 ;
bn = b1q n 1 n- ;
bn2 = bn 1bn +1 ;
bn q b1 b1 (q n 1)
Sn = = n ;
q 1 q 1
b
S = 1 q < 1 .
1 q

:
sin ( x ) = sin x ; sin( x + 2k ) = sin x ;
cos( x ) = cos x ; cos( x + 2k ) = cos x ;
tg ( x ) = tg x ; tg ( x + k ) = tg x ;
ctg ( x ) = ctg x ; ctg ( x + k ) = ctg x ,
k .


3
0
6 4 3 2 2

1 2 3
sin 0 1 0 1
2 2 2

3 2 1
cos 1 0 1 0
2 2 2
3
tg 0 1 3 0
3

3
ctg 3 1 0 0
3
.
: 1 = / 180 .
, :
sin cos
sin 2 + cos 2 = 1; tg = ; ctg = ;
cos sin
1 1
1 + tg 2 = ; 1 + ctg 2 = .
cos 2 sin 2
:
2 tg
sin 2 = 2 sin cos = ;
1 + tg 2
1 tg 2
cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 = 1 2 sin 2 = ;
1 + tg 2
2 tg ctg 2 1
tg 2 = ; ctg 2 = .
2
1 tg 2 ctg
:
sin 3 = 3 sin 4 sin 3 ; cos 3 = 4 cos3 3 cos .
:
1 cos 2 1 + cos 2
sin 2 = ; cos 2 = .
2 2
:
sin( ) = sin cos cos sin ;
cos ( ) = cos cos m sin sin ;
tg tg
tg ( ) = .
1 m tg tg
:
+
sin + sin = 2 sin cos ;
2 2
+
sin sin = 2 sin cos ;
2 2
+
cos + cos = 2 cos cos ;
2 2
+
cos cos = 2 sin sin ;
2 2
sin ( )
tg m tg = .
cos cos

:
1
sin sin = (cos( ) cos( + )) ;
2
1
cos cos = (cos( ) + cos( + )) ;
2
1
sin cos = (sin ( ) + sin( + )).
2



I II III IV
sin + +
cos + +
tg + +
ctg + +

t
-
3 3
+ + + 2
2 2 2 2
sin t cos cos sin sin cos cos sin
cos t sin sin cos cos sin sin cos
tg t ctg ctg tg tg ctg ctg tg
ctg t tg tg ctg ctg tg tg ctg

:
x = ( 1) arcsin a + n ;
n
sin x = a , a 1,
cos x = a , a 1, x = arccos a + 2n ;
tg x = a , x = arctg a + n ;
ctg x = a , x = arcctg a + n ,
n .
:

arcsin x , 0 arccos x ;
2 2

< arctg x < , 0 < arcctg x < ;
2 2
arcsin ( x ) = arcsin x ; arccos( x ) = arccos x ;
arctg ( x ) = arctg x ; arcctg ( x ) = arcctg x .

: a , b , c ABC , h , p = a + b + c , S , R r -
2
.
.
a b c
= = .
sin sin sin
.
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos .
:
aha bhb chc 1 abc
S= = = , S = ab sin , S = pr , S = ,
2 2 2 2 4R
S= p ( p a )( p b )( p c ) .



= + b.

. > 0 < 0. A(
b/a; 0) B(0; b). b = 0 = . .
= 2 + b + .

, . > 0 , < 0 .
b 4ac b 2
(0; ). , . x1, x2
2a 4a

b b 2 4ac 2
1,2 = . 1 2 ax + bx + c = 0 ,
2a
.
y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d.

2
. = 3 b . 0
> 0 < 0. < 0, . -
b
K. (0; d). x4 5 .
3a
b . , tg = .
6
3a 3a
= n (n > 1 )

n- , (0; 0) (1; ) .
n > 0 < 0.
n , .

d = ( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ) .

x1 + x2 y + y2
x= , y= 1 , M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ) = M 1M : MM 2 .
1+ 1+
2 2
Ax + By + C = 0 ( A, B, C , A + B 0) .

y = kx + b k ( b , Oy ).

y y1 = k ( x x1 ) k , M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) .

y y1 x x1
= , M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ) .
y2 y1 x2 x1
x y
+ = 1 ( a , b , Ox Oy ).
a b
Ax0 + Bx0 + C
d= M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ) Ax + By + C = 0 .
A2 + B 2
k 2 k1
tg = y = k1 x + b1 y = k 2 x + b2 .
1 + k1k 2

x2 y2
+ = 1 ( a , b ).
a 2 b2
x2 y2
= 1 .
a 2 b2
2 2
y = 2 px , y = 2 px Ox ( p > 0 ).

X = x2 x1 , Y = y2 y1 , Z = z2 z1 AB A ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) B ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) .

a = X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2 a = {X ; Y ; Z } .

d= ( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + ( z2 z1 )2 M1( x1; y1; z1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) .

a b = a b cos a b ( ).

a b = X 1 X 2 + Y1Y2 + Z1Z 2 a = {X 1 ; Y1 ; Z1} b = {X 2 ; Y2 ; Z 2 } .

X 1 X 2 + Y1Y2 + Z1Z 2
cos = .
X 12 + Y12 + Z12 X 22 + Y22 + Z 22

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 ( A , B , C , A2 + B 2 + C 2 0 ).

Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D


d= M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 .
A2 + B 2 + C 2
x x0 y y0 z z 0
= = a = {l ; m ; n} , M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) .
l m n
x = x0 + lt , y = y0 + mt , z = z0 + nt .

x2 y 2 z 2
+ + = 1 ( a , b , c ).
a 2 b2 c2
x2 y 2 z 2
+ = 1 .
a 2 b2 c2
x2 y2 z 2
+ = 1 .
a 2 b2 c2
x2 y 2
+ = z (p > 0, q > 0 ).
2 p 2q
x2 y 2
= z .
2 p 2q
x2 y 2 z 2
+ = 0 .
a 2 b2 c2


sin x
lim = 1 .
x 0 x

1 x
lim 1 + = e .
x x
f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) = lim y = f ( x ) x0 .
x0 x
dy = f ( x0 ) dx f ( x ) x0 .
:
, ,

1) (u v ) = u v ;
2) (uv ) = u v + uv ;
u uv uv
3) = , v 0.
v v2

y = f ( x ) = C y = 0 ,

(Cu ) = Cu .


(x n ) = nx n1 ; ( x ) = x = 1 ;
1
2
2 x

1 = (x 1 ) = 1 .

x x2

(a x ) = a x ln a ; (e x ) = e x .


1 1
(log a x ) = ; (ln x ) = .
x ln a x
:

1
(sin x ) = cos x ; (arcsin x ) = ;
1 x2
1
(cos x ) = sin x ; (arccos x ) = ;
1 x2
1 1
( tg x ) = = sec 2 x ; (arctg x ) = ;
cos 2 x 1 + x2
1 1
(ctg x) = 2 = cosec2 x ; (arcctg x ) = .
sin x 1 + x2
y(t0 ) = f ( x0 ) (t0 ) y = f [ (t )] t0 ; x0 = (t 0 ) .
1
( y0 ) = x = ( y ) y0 = f ( x0 ) .
f ( x0 )
n( n 1) ( n 2 )
(uv)( n ) = u ( n )v + nu ( n 1)v + u v + ... + + uv ( n ) .
1 2
f (b ) f (a )
= f (c ) ; c (a , b ) .
ba
f (b ) f ( a ) f (c )
= ; c (a , b ) .
g (b ) g ( a ) g (c )
f (a ) f ( a )
f ( x ) = f (a ) + (x a) + ( x a )2 +
1! 2!
f ( n ) (a ) f ( n +1) ( )
+ ... + ( x a )n + ( x a )n +1 ; (a , x ) .
n! (n + 1)!
a = 0
f (0 ) f (0 ) 2 f ( n ) (0 ) ( n )
f ( x ) = f (0 ) + x+ x + ... + x +
1! 2! n!
f ( n +1) (0) ( n +1)
+ x .
( n + 1)!

:

x +1 dx
x + C ( 1);

dx = = ln x + C ;
+1 x
ax
a dx = ln a + C (0 < a 1); e dx = e
x x x
+ C;

sin x dx = cos x + C ; cos x dx = sin x + C;


dx dx
sin 2 x = ctg x + C ; cos2 x = tg x + C;
dx x dx
a x 2 2
= arcsin
a
+ C;
1 x2
= arcsin x + C ;

dx dx 1 x
1 + x 2 = arctg x + C ; a 2 + x 2 = a arctg a + C ;
dx 1 xa
x 2 a 2 = 2a ln x + a + C (a 0);
dx 1 x 1
x 2 1 = 2 ln x + 1 + C;
dx 1 x dx
x2 + a2 = a arctg a + C (a 0); x2 + 1 = arctg x + C;
dx
x 2 k = ln x + x k + C ;
2

dx
x 2 1 = ln x + x 1 + C.
2

f ( x ) d x x=(t ) = f [(t )](t ) dt .

b
f ( x ) dx = f [(t )](t ) dt ; () = a , () = b .
a

u( x)v( x) dx = u( x)v( x) v( x)u( x) dx .

b b

u dv = u v a v du
b
.
a a
b
f ( x ) dx = f (c )(b a ) ; c [a , b] .
a
b

f ( x ) dx = F (b) F (a ) = F ( x ) a
b
-.
a
b
s= f ( x ) dx
a

0 y f ( x ), a x b .


s = (t ) (t ) dt , : x = (t ) , y = (t ) , t .


1 2
2
s= () d , , : = () , .

b
L= 1 + ( f ( x ))2 dx , y = f ( x ) , a x b .
a

L= ((t ))2 + ((t ))2 dt , : x = (t ) , y = (t ) , t .


L= (())2 + (())2 d , : = () , .

b

( x ) dx Ox 0 y f ( x ) , a x b .
2
V = f
a
b


P = 2 f ( x ) 1 + ( f ( x )) dx Ox 0 y f ( x ) , a x b .
2

.

, ( ), , . , -
, , .
, , r B
a
, : a = AB, a = AB a = AB . A
, ( ), .
( ) .
. b , -
: OL , ; L, , LM , b. =

OM b.

. b , + b
: OA = OB = b; , ,
OC = b ( AC = OB = b OC = OA + AC ). : a2 a1.

. a1 () 2 () (), -
1 2. , , .
: OA1 = a1, OA2 = a2.
1 A2 ( ) a2 a1:

1 A2 = OA2 OA1 .
. a2 a1 a2 a1, a2 a1, .. a2 a1 = a2 + (a1).

. a () () (-
), ,
, , . = 0, -
.
: .
. , , ,
.
a
: a : .
x
a 1
.
x x
b .

ab = |a| |b| cos ( a, b ).
a () b () (), -
:

1) (AOBL ),

a b, .. |a| |b| sin ( a, b );
2) ;
3) ( ) , , b, .
.
OX, OY, OZ, , . -
, OX, OY, OZ (OX ; OY ; OZ ), XOY, YOZ, ZOX
. - UV (. . ). OX, OY, OZ
, , , , OA , OB , OC .
i, j, k.
.
, 90, Y, -
, OZ. .
. .
.
a, b, () , (.. , b -
.) , OA , OB , OC , . a, b, -
, OA , OB , , -
.
, a, b, .

n a

n
i
i =1
= .
n

i = i .

n
ai2
i =1
S= .
n(n 1)

= t (, n) S ,
t ; .


= .



0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 0,95 0,98
2 1,00 1,38 2,0 3,1 6,3 12,7 31,8
5 0,74 0,94 1,2 1,5 2,1 2,8 3,7
10 0,70 0,88 1,1 1,4 1,8 2,3 2,8

1.

1.1.

r s
v = , v = ;
t t
dr
v= ,
dt
r t; r - ; s , t.

v dv
a = , a= .
t dt

a = a + an , a = a2 + an2 ,

d 2
a = ; an = ( r
dt r
).

at 2
s = 0t ;
2
= 0 at ,
0 .

d
= .
dt

d
= .
dt

2
= = = 2n,
t T
T ; n ( n = N / t , N , t ).

t2
= 0 t ; = 0 t t ,
2
0 .

s = R ; v = R; a = R ; an = 2 R ,
R .

1.2.

( )
p = mv .
( )
dv dp
F = ma = m = .
dt dt

dv mv 2
F = ma = m ; Fn = man = = m2 R .
dt R

F = fN ,
f ; N .

F = f N / r ,
f ; r .

n
p = mi v i = const ,
i =1
n ( ), .
:
mi xi mi yi mi zi
xC = ; yC = ; zC = ,
mi mi mi
mi i- ; xC , yC , zC .
( )
ma = F + Fp ,
dm
Fp = u ( u ).
dt

m0
v = u ln ,
m
m0 .

1.3.
,
dA = Fdr = Fs ds = Fds cos ,
Fs ; .
, , s
A = Fs ds = F cos ds .
s s

t
N = A / t .

dA
N= , N = Fv = Fs = F cos .
dt



= mgh,
g .

F = kx ,
; k .

= kx 2 / 2 .
( )
T + = = const .

= n / n ,
n n .

m1 m2 :

(m1 m2 ) 1 + 2m22
1 = ;
m1 + m2

(m2 m1 ) 2 + 2m11
2 = ,
m1 + m2
1 2 .


m11 + m2 2
= .
m1 + m2
1.4.

J = mr 2 ,
m ; r .
()
n
J = mi ri2 ,
i =1
ri mi .
2
J = r dm .
( ; m ):




R
mR 2
1
R
mR 2
2
- 1
l
ml 2
12
- 1 2
l
ml
3
2
R

mR 2
5

J = J C + ma 2 ,
J C , ; J ,
; m .
, z ,

T = J z 2 / 2 ,

J z z ; .
, ,
1 1
T= mC2 + J C 2 ,
2 2
m ; C ; J C , ;
.

M = [rF ] ,
r -, F.

M = Fl ,
l ( ).

dA = M z d ,
d ; M z z .
( )
Lz = mi i ri = J z ,
ri z ; mi i ; J z z ;
.
()
dL d
M= ; M z = Jz = J z ,
dt dt
; J z z .
( )
L = const.

= F / S,
F () ; S .
()
= l / l,
l (); l .
()
' = d / d,
d (); d .
() ' ()
' = ,

()
= E,
.
()
l
1 ES E 2
= Fdx = (l )2 = V,
0
2 l 2
V .
1.5. .

T12 R13
= ,
T22 R23
T1 T2 ; R1 R2 .

m1m2 r
F=G ,
r2 r
F ( ) m1 m2 , r ; G -
.

P = mg ,
m ; g .

g = F/m ,
F , m, .
m1 m2 , r ,

= Gm1m2 / r .

= /m ,
m, .

i, j, k .

1 = gR0 , 2 = 2 gR0 ,
R0 .

ma = ma + F ,
a a , F .

F = F + F + F ,
F , 0: F = ma0; F (
, , R): F = m2R; F
( , , v :
F = 2m[v].

1.6.
h
p = gh ,
.

F = gV ,
F ; V .

S = const ,
S ; .

2
+ gh + p = const ,
2
2
; ; / 2
; h , ; gh .
, ,

2
+ p = const .
2
, ,

= 2 gh ,
h , .


F = S,
x
; / x ; S .
, ,
Re = < > d / ,
; < > ; d , , .
, , ,
F = 6r ,
r ; .
, , t l,

V = R 4 pt / (8l ) ,
R ; p .

2
Rx = C x S,
2
C x ; ; ; S
.

2
Ry = C y S,
2
C y .
1.7. ()

x t t x / c 2
x = , y = y , z = z , t = ,
2 2
1 / c 1 2 / c 2
, K x K , x x
, y y , z z ; c .


= ,
1 2 / c 2
, ; -
, .
()

l = l0 1 2 / c 2 ,
l0 , , ( ); l ,
, .

ux u y 1 2 / c 2
ux = ; uy = ;
1 u x / c 2 1 u x / c 2
u z 1 2 / c 2
uz = ,
1 u x / c 2

, K x K , x x
, y y , z z .

s12 ( )

2
s12 = c 2t12
2 2
l12 = inv ,

t12 1 2; l12 , .

m0 m0 v
m= , p= ,
2 2
1 / c 1 2 / c 2
m0 .

dp
F= ,
dt
p .

E = mc 2 = m0c 2 + T , T = (m m0 ) c 2 .

E 2 = m02c 4 + p 2c 2 , pc = T (T + 2m0c 2 ) .


n
E = m0i c 2 M 0c 2 ,
i =1

m0i i- ; M 0 , n .
2.

2.1. -

-
V = const = const, m = const,
; V ; ; m .
-
V = V0 (1 + t ) , V1 / V2 = T1 / T2
p = const, m = const;
p = p0 (1 + t ) , p1 / p2 = T1 / T2
V = const, m = const,
1
t ; V0 p0 0 ; = 1 / 273 ; 1 2
.

n
p = pi ,
i =1

pi i- .
( -)
pVm = RT ( ),
pV = ( m / M ) RT ( ),
Vm ; R ; M ; m ; m/M = .

p = nkT ,
k ( k = R / N A , N A ).
-
1 2
p = nm0 ,
3

2
2 m0 2
pV = N = E ,
3 2 3

1 2 1 2
pV = Nm0 = m ,
3 3
; ; n
, m0 ; m = Nm0 ; N V.
:

= 2 RT / M = 2kT / m0 ;

= 3RT / M = 3kT / m0 ;

= 8 RT / ( M ) = 8kT / ( m0 ) ,
m0 .

3
0 = kT .
2

dN ( ) m 3/ 2
= 4 0 2e m0 / ( 2 kT ) ,
2
f ( ) =
N d 2kT
f () dN ( ) / N N , -
+ d .

dN ( ) 2
f ( ) = = (kT )3 / 2 1/ 2e / ( kT ) ,
N d
f ( ) dN ( ) / N N -
2
, = m0 / 2 , + d.

ph = p0e Mg ( hh0 ) / ( RT ) ,
ph p0 h h0 .

n = n0e Mgh / ( RT ) = n0e m0 gh / ( kT ) , n = n0e / ( kT ) ,
n n0 h h = 0 ; = m0 gh .
, 1 ,

z = 2 d 2 n ,
d ; ; .

1
l = = .
z 2 d 2 n

dT
Q = St ,
dx
Q , S t; dT / dx ; :

1
= cV l ,
3
cV ; ; -
; l .

d
M = D St ,
dx
, S t; d / dx , D :

1
D= l .
3
()
d
S,F =
dx
F S; d / dx ; :
1
= l .
3
2.2.
, ,
1
1 = kT .
2

i
= kT ,
2
i , (i = n + n + 2n ) .

i m i
U = RT = RT ,
2 M 2
; m ; ; R .

Q = U + A ,
Q , ; U ; .

dQ = dU + A.
Cm
Cm = cM ,
.

i i+2
CV = R, Cp = R.
2 2

C p = CV + R .

m
dU = CV dT .
M
, ,
A = pdV .

V2
A= pdV ,
V1

V1 V2 .
:

m
A = p(V2 V1 ) , A = R(T2 T1 ) ;
M

m V m p
A= RT ln 2 , A = RT ln 1 .
M V1 M p2
( )
pV = const , TV 1 = const , T p1 = const ,
= C p / CV = (i + 2 ) / i .

m
A= CV (T1 T2 ) ,
M

1 1
RT1 m V1 p1V1 V1
A= 1 = 1 ,
1 M V2 1 V2

T1 , T2 V1 , V2 .
()
A Q1 Q2 Q
= = = 1 2 ,
Q1 Q1 Q1
Q1 , ; Q2 , ; , .

T1 T2
= ,
T1
T1 ; T2 .
1 2
2 2
dQ dU + A
Si2 = S 2 S1 = = .
1
T 1
T

2.3. ,

( --)
a
p + V 2 (Vm b ) = RT ,
m
Vm ; b --, .
--
2a V
p + 2 b = RT ,
V

2a
p + 2 (V b ) = RT ,
V
= / .
, ,
p = a /Vm2 .
(, ) b --
V = 3b , p = a / (27b 2 ), T = 8a / ( 27 Rb ) .

U = (CV T a /Vm ) ,
CV .

U1 + p1V1 = U 2 + p2V2 ,
1 2 .

= F / l , = E / S ,
F , l, ; , -
S .

p = (1 / R1 + 1 / R2 ) ,
R1 R2 ; ,
( ), , ( ). -

p = 2 / R .

2 cos
h= ,
gr
; r ; ; g .

CV = 3R ,
CV () .
-,
,
dp L
= ,
dT T (V2 V1 )
L ; (V2 V1 )
; ( ).
3.
3.1.

1 Q1 Q2 r
F= ,
40 r2 r
F Q1 Q2 ; r ; 0 , 8,85
1012 /.

E = F / Q0 ; = / Q0 = A / Q0 ,
F , Q0 , ; Q0 ; A -
.

1 Q r 1 Q
E= ; = .
40 r 2 r 40 r

d E = EdS = En dS ,
dS = dSn , dS, n ; En E
.
S
E = EdS = E n dS .
S S

()
n n
E = E i ; = i ,
i =1 i =1

E i , i , .


E = grad E = i + j+ k ,
x y z
i, j, k .
, ,
d
E= .
dr
( )
p = Q l,
I .
,
dQ dQ dQ
= ; = ; = ,
dl dS dV
.. , , .

n
1 1
E = EdS = E n dS =
0
Qi = dV ,
S S i =1 0 V
n
0 ; Qi , S ; n ;
i =1
.
,
E = ( 2 0 ) .
,
E = 0 .
, R c Q r

E = 0 r < R ( );
1 Q
E= r R ( ).
4 0 r 2
, R Q r
1 Q
E= r R ( );
40 r 3
1 Q
E= r R ( ).
40 r 2
, R r ,
E = 0 r < R ( );
1
E= r R ( ).
40 r

Edl = El dl = 0 ,
L L
El dl. L.

, Q0 1 2
2 2
A12 = Q0 (1 2 ) , A12 = Q0 Edl = Q0 El dl ,
1 1
El dl.

P = pi V ,
i

V ; pi i- .


P = 0E ,
.
:
= 1+ .
E0
E = E0 P 0 , E = E0 .

D = 0 E .
D , E P
D = 0E + P .

n
D = DdS = DndS = Qi ,
S S l =1
n
Qi S ; Dn D
l =1
, dS, n .
.

E = / ( 0 ) ,
.

C = Q/ ,
Q , ; .

C = 0 S / d ,
S ; d .

20l
C= ,
ln( r2 / r1 )
l ; r1 , r2 .

r1r2
C = 40 ,
r2 r1
r1 r2 .

n n
1 1
= C = Ci ,
C i =1 Ci i =1
Ci i- ; n .

C2 Q Q 2
W= = = .
2 2 2C

1 n
W= Qi i ,
2 i =1
i , , Qi , i-.

C ( )2 Q Q 2
W= = = ,
2 2 2C
Q ; C ; .

Q2 2 S 0 E 2 S
F = = = .
2 0 S 2 0 2

0E 2 SU 2 0E 2
W= Sd = 0 = V,
2 2 2
S ; U ; V = Sd .

0E 2 ED
w= = ,
2 2
D .

3.2.

dQ I
I= ; j= ,
dt S
S .

j = ne v ,
v ; n .

, ,

= A / Q0 = E dl ,

Q0 ; A ; .

R , G -

R = l / S ; G = 1 / R ; = 1 / ,

; S ; l .


n n
1 1
R = Ri = ,
i =1 R i =1 Ri

Ri i- ; n .


= 0 (1 + t ) ,
.
:

I =U / R ;

I = (1 2 + E12 ) / R ;

I = E/ R ,
U ; R ( ); (1 2 ) ; E12 ...
, ; E ... .

j = E ,
E .
t
U2
A = IUt = I 2 Rt = t.
R

U2
P = IU = I 2 R = .
R
-
Q = I 2 Rt = IUt ,
Q , t .
-
w = jE = E 2 ,
w .

n n n
Ii = 0 ; I i Ri = Ei .
i =1 i =1 i =1

3.3. ,

1 2
A1 A2 kT n1
1 2 = + ln ,
e e n2
A1 , A2 ; k ; n1 , n2 .

k n
E= (T1 T2 ) ln 1 ,
e n2
(T1 T2 ) .
-
j = CT 2e A / ( kT ) ,
j ; C , ; A -
.

3.4.
, , ,
M = [p m B] ,
B ; p m :
p m = ISn ,
S ; n .
B H
B = 0H ,
0 ; .

--
0 I [dl , r ]
dB = ,
4 r2
dB , dl I ; r -, dl ,
.
dB
0 Idl sin
dB = ,
4 r2
dl r .
()
B = Bi ,
i

B ; Bi .

,
0 2 I
B= ,
4 R
R .

I
B = 0 ,
2R
R .

dF = I [dI , B] ,
dF , dl I , .

dF = IBl sin ,
dl .
I1 I 2
0 2 I1I 2
dF = dl ,
4 R
R ; dl .

0 Q [ v r ]
B= ,
4 r 3
r -, .

0 Qv
B= sin ,
4 r 2
v r.

F = Q [v B ] ,
F , Q, v.

F = QE + Q [v , B] ,
F , Q, -
.

IB
= R ,
d
; I ; d ; R = 1 / (en ) ( ).
( )
n

Bdl = Bidl = 0
k =1
Ik ,
L L

0 ; dl , ; Bi = B cos
n
L ( ); dl ; Ik -
k =1
, .
( ), N ,
B = 0 NI / l ,
l .
( )
B = 0 NI / 2r .
( ) dS
d B = BdS = Bn dS ,
dS = dS n , dS, n ; Bn
.
S
B = BdS = BndS .
S S

( , )
N 2I
= 0 S,
l
.

dA = Id ,
d , .

dA = Id ' ,
d ' , .

3.5.

d
Ei = ,
dt
Ei ... .

... , S B ,
Ei = BS sin t ,
t n .

, I L,
= LI .
...
dI
s = L ,
dt
L .
()
N 2S
L = 0 ,
l
N ; l .

I = I 0e t / ; I = I 0 (1 e t / ) ,
= L / R ( L ; R ).
... (..., )
dI
E = L12 ,
dt
L12 .

( N1 N 2 , ,
N1 N 2
L12 = L21 = 0 S,
l
0 ; I ; S .

N 2 2 I1
= = ,
N1 1 I 2
N , , I , ... .
, , I,
W = LI 2 / 2 .

B2 H 2 BH
w= = 0 = .
2 0 2 2
3.6.
p m L e
e
p m = gL e = Le ,
2m
g = e / ( 2m ) .

J = Pm / V = p a / V ,
Pm = p a , .

J = H ,
.
B, H, J
B = 0 (H + J ) ,
0 .

= 1+ .
( )

Bdl = Bl dl = 0 ( I + I ) ,
L L
dl , ; Bl L
; I I' ( ) ( ),
.

Hdl = I ,
L
I , L.

3.7.


D E P
j = = 0 + ,
t t t
E P
D ; 0 ; .
t t
:

B
Edl = t dS ; DdS = dV ;
L S S V

D
Hdl = j + t dS ; B dS = 0 .
L S S

B
rot E = ; div D = ;
t
D
rot H = j + ; div B = 0 ,
t
D = 0E; B = 0H; j = E (0 0 ; ( ;
).
4.

4.1.


s = A cos (0t + ) ,
s ; ; 0 = 2 / T = 2 () ; = 1/T
; ; 0 .
, ,
ds
= A0 sin (0t + ) = A0 cos 0t + + ;
dt 2
d2s
= A0 cos (0t + ) = 02 s .
dt 2
m
mv 2 mA202
T= = sin 2 (0t + ) .
2 2

mA202
= cos 2 (0t + ) .
2

mA202
E= .
2

m&x& = kx &x& + 02 x = 0 ,

( 2
k k = 0 m . )

T = 2 m / k ,
m ; k .

T = 2 J / ( mgl ) = 2 L / g ,
J ; l ; L = J / (ml)
; g .

T = 2 l / g ,
l .
, L
,

T = 2 LC .
:

&& + 1 Q = 0; Q = Q cos ( t + ) ,
Q m 0
LC
Qm ; 0 = 1 / LC .
,
,
A2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos(2 1 ) ,
A1 A2 ; 1 2 .

A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2
tg = .
A1 cos 1 + A2 cos 2

T = 2 / .
, ,
x 2 2 xy y2
+ cos + = sin 2 .
A2 AB B2
; .
:
d 2s ds
2
+ 2 + 02 s = 0 ; s = A0e t cos (t + ) ,
dt dt
s , ; ( = r / (2m) = R/(2L)
); 0 ; = 02 2
t
; A0e .

A (t )
= eT ,
A (t + T )
A (t ) A (t + T ) , , .

A (t ) T 1
= ln = T = = ,
A (t + T ) N
= 1 / ; N , .

0
Q= = .
2

d 2s ds
+ 2 + 02 s = x0 cos t ; s = A cos ( t ) ,
dt 2 dt
s , ( x0 = F0 / m , x0 = U m / L -
);
x0 2
A= ; = arctg .
(02 ) + 4
2 2 2 02 2


x0
= 02 2 2 ; A = .
2 02 2
Z , R, L
, U = U m cos t ,

2
1
= R 2 + ( RL RC ) ,
2
Z = R2 + L
C
RL = L ; RC = 1 / (C) .

L 1 / ( C )
tg = .
R
()

I = Im / 2 ; U = Um / 2 ,

, ,
1
P = I mU m cos ,
2

R
cos = .
2
1
R + L
2

C

4.2.
, :
= T ; = ,
( ).
, ,
( x, t ) = A cos (t kx + 0 ) ,
( x, t ) x t; ; () ;
k = 2 / = 2 / ( T ) = / ( ; ; ); 0 .


= 2 .



max = 2m ; min = ( 2m + 1) ,
2 2
m = 0, 1, 2, ... .
u ,
d d
= ; u= ; u = .
k dk d

2
( x, t ) = 2 A cos x cos t = 2 A cos kx cos t .


1
x = m ; x = m + , m = 0, 1, 2, ... .
2 2 2

L = lg ( I / I 0 ) ,
I ; I0 (I0 = 1 /2).

= RT / M ,
R ; ; = p /V ;
.

( ) 0
= ,
m
, ; 0 , ; ;
; . ,
, .

4.3.

1 1 c
= = ,
0 0
c = 1 / 0 0 ; 0 0 ;
.
() (H)

0 E = 0 H ,
.

E = E0 cos (t kx + ) ; H = H 0 cos (t kx + ) ,
0 0 ; ; k = / ;
= 0.

0E 2 0H 2
w= + .
2 2

S = [EH].

5. .

5.1.


i1 = i1 ; sin i1 / sin i2 = n21 ,
i1 ; i1 ; i2 ; n21 = n2 / n1
; n1 n2 .

sin i . = n2 / n1 = n21
.
( )
n2 n1 n2 n1
= ,
b a R
R ; n1 n2 ; ,
, ; b . R > 0
, R < 0 .

1 2 1 1
= = + ,
f R a b
a b ; f ; R .

1 1 1 1 1
= = ( N 1) + = + ,
f R 1 R2 a b
f : N = n / n1 ( n n1
); R1 R2 (R > 0 ; R < 0 ); a b
.

Ie = e / ,
e ; , .
, ,
0 = 4I ,
I .

R = /S ,
, ; S .

B = I / ( S cos ) ,
I ; S ; .

E = /S ,
, ; S .
R B , ,
R = B .

5.2.

= c/n ,
; n .

2 2
= ( L2 L1 ) = ,
0 0
L = sn (s ; ); = L2 L1 -
; 0 .

= m 0 , m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... .

0
= ( 2m + 1) , m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... .
2

l
x = 0 ,
d
d , l , ,
l >> d.
, ,
(n0 = 1),
0
2dn cos r = 2d n 2 sin 2 i 0 = m 0 ,
2 2
m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ;
0
2dn cos r = 2d n 2 sin 2 i 0 = (2m + 1) 0 ,
2 2 2
m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ,
d ; n ; i ; r . 0 / 2 -
: n > n0, , n < n0 .
( )
rm = (m 1 / 2) 0 R , m = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
m ; R .

rm* = m 0 R , m = 1, 2 , ... .

n = nc ,
nc ; n .

5.3.
m-

ab
rm = m ,
a+b
m ; ; a b ,
.
, :

a sin = ( 2m + 1) , a sin = 2m , m = 1, 2, 3, ...,
2 2
a ; ; m ; .
, :

d sin = 2m , m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ;
2

d sin = 2m , m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3, ..., 0, N , 2 N , ... ,
N
d ; N .

d = 1/ N0 ,
N0 , .
( -)
2d sin = m, m = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
d ; .

m
D = = .
d cos
,
,
1,22 / D .
D ; .


R= = mN ,

, ( + ) , ; m ; N .

5.4.

= A ( n 1) ,
n .

n= .
( )
eE0
&x& + 02 x = cos t ,
m
0 , ; 0 ; -
; .
, ,
n0 i e2 / m
n2 = 1 + ,
0 02 i 2
0 ; n0 i 0 i; m ; .
( )
I = I 0 e x ,
I0 I ;
.

1 2 / c 2
= 0 ,
1 + ( / c ) cos
0 , ;
; ; v ,
, .
( = / 2 )

= 0 1 2 / c 2 .
-
cos = c / ( n) ,
; n .

5.5.

I max I min
P= ,
I max + I min
Imax Imin , .

I = I 0 cos 2 ,
I , ; I0 , -
; .

tg iB = n21 ,
iB , ; n21 .
l
= l (no ne ) = klE 2 ,
no, ne , ; -
; k .

= (no ne ) d = (m + 1 / 4) 0 , m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ,
, ; 0 .
:

= d ;

= []Cd ,
d , ; 0 [] ;
.

5.6.
-
Re = T 4 ,
Re () ; -; .
Re r ,T (r ,T )

Re = r ,T d = r , T d .
0 0

RTc = AT T 4 ,
AT .

max = b / T ,
max , ; b .

(r ,T ) = CT 5 ,
= 1,30 105 /(3 5).
-
2 2
r ,T = kT ,
c2
k .

0 = h = hc / .

2 2 h
r ,T = ,
c 2 e h / ( kT ) 1
2c 2 h h
r ,T = 5 hc / ( kT )
.
e 1
p

Tp = 4 A T ,
.

= h = A + Tmax ,
2
= h , ; ; Tmax = mmax / 2
.

0 = A / h ; 0 = hc / A ,
0 (0 ), .

h h
m = = ; p = ,
c2 c2 c
h .
Ee
p= (1 + ) = w (1 + ) ,
c
Ee = Nh ( , ); ; w
.

h 2h
= = (1 cos ) = sin 2 = 2C sin 2 ,
m0c m0c 2 2
; m0 ; ; C = h / ( m0 c ) .
6. ,

6.1.
, ,
1 1
= R 2 2 ,
m n
; R ; m (m = 1, 2, 3, ...); n
(n = m +1, m + 2, ...): = 1 ( ), m = 2 ( ), m = 3 ( ), m = 4 ( ), m = 5 (
), = 6 ( ).
( )
me rn = nh , n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
me ; n- rn.
( )
h = E n E m ,
En Em ().
n-
1 Z 2 me e 4
En = , n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
n 2 8h 2 02
Z ; 0 .

6.2.
p
= h / p = h / (m) ,
m ; .

= / k = E / p = c 2 / ,
E = h ( ); p = hk ( k = 2 / ).

d dE
u= = .
dk dp
:

xp x h ,
yp y h ,
zp z h ,
x, y , z ; p x , p y , p z ;

Et h ,
E ; t .
dV
2
dW = dV = dV ,
= ( x , y , z , t ) , ; * , ; ||2 = *
;

2
dW = dV = dV ,
= ( x , y , z ) () .


2
dV = 1,

, .. x , y , z +.
x1 2
x2

( x ) 2
W= dx .
x1

L, , , ,
+

L
2
L = dV .

= ( x , y , z , t ) , ; h = h /(2) ; ;
2 2 2
= 2 + 2 + 2 ; i = 1 ; U = U ( x , y , z , t ) , .
x y z

2m
+ (E U ) = 0 ,
h2
(
U (r ) ( x , y , z , t ) = ( x , y , z ) e
i ( E / h )t
) ; U = U ( x , y , z) ;
.

; p x = kh ; E = h .
n , n- -
,
2h 2
En = n 2 , n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
2ml 2
l .
, ,
2 n
n ( x) = sin x, n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... .
l l
D l,
2
D = D0 exp 2m(U E )l ,
h
D0 , ; U ; .

2 2m m02 x 2
+ 2 E = 0 ,
x 2
h 2
2 2
m0 x / 2 = U ; 0 ; m .

1
En = n + h0 , n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... .
2

1
E0 = h0 .
2

6.3.

U (r )

Ze 2
U (r ) = ,
40 r
r ; Z ; 0 .
n
1 Z 2 me 4
En = , n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... .
n 2 8h 2 02

me 4
Ei = E1 = .
8h 202
( )

Ll = h l (l + 1) ,
l , n : l = 0 , 1, ... , n 1 ( n ).
z
Llz = hml ,
ml , l : ml = 0 , 1, ... , l ( (2l + 1) ).

l = 1 ml = 0 , 1 .
, ls- ( ) ,
1
100 ( r ) = e r / a ,
3
a
a = 40h / me
2
( 2
) , .
, ls-, r r + dr
2 2
dW = 100 dV = 100 4r 2dr .
( )
Ls = h s ( s + 1) ,
s (s = 1/2).
z
Lsz = hms ,
ms (s = 1/2).

Z ( n, l , ml , ms ) = 0 1 ,
Z ( n, l , ml , ms ) , , : n , l -
, ml , s .
Z(n), , n,
n 1
Z ( n ) = 2( 2l + 1) = 2n 2 .
l =0


min = ch / (eU ) ,
; U , .
, ,
1 1
= R ( Z ) 2 2 ,
2
m n
R , Z ; ; m
( = 1, 2, 3, ...); n (n = m + 1, + 2, ...).
K ( = 1)
1 1
= R ( Z 1)2 2 2 .
1 2
6.4.
- -
1 1
Ni = , Ni =
e( Ei ) / ( kT ) 1
e( Ei ) / ( kT ) + 1
N i Ei ; k ; T
( Ei ) / ( kT )
; . e >> 1 -
Ei / ( kT ) / ( kT )
N i = Ae , A = e .
-
1
N (E ) = ,
e( E EF ) / ( kT ) + 1
EF .
= 0
1 E < FF ,
N (E ) =
0 E > FF .
( T << TD)
TD = hD / k ,
, ,

ne 2 lF
= ,
m uF
n ; lF , ; uF
.

6.5.


ne = C1 e ( E2 EF ) / ( kT ) n p = C2 e ( E1 EF ) / ( kT ) ,
2 , ; E1 , ; EF ; -
; C1 2 , (
1 = 2).

EF = E / 2 .
.

= 0 e E / ( 2 kT ) ,
0 , .

7.

7.1.

R = R0 A1 / 3 ,
15
R0 = 1,4 10 ; ( ).

E = [Zm p + ( A Z ) mn m ] 2 =
= [Zm + ( A Z ) mn m] 2 ,
m p , mn , m , ; Z ( ); ; mH = m p + me ,

(11 H ) ; m .

m = [Zm p + ( A Z )mn ] m = [Zm + ( A Z )mn ] m .
( , )
E = E / A .
, t t + dt,
dN = Ndt ,
N t; .

N = N 0 e t ,
N t; N0 ( t = 0);
.
, t,
N = N 0 N = N 0 (1 e t ) .
1/2
T1/ 2 = (ln 2) / .

= 1/ .

dN
A= = N .
dt
:
-
A A 4 4
Z X Z 2Y + 2 He ;
-

A A 0
Z X Z +1Y + 1e ;
+-
A A 0
Z X Z 1Y + +1e .

A
A
Z X + a Z Y + b
A
ZX (a , b ) AZY ,
A A
ZX Z Y Z Z' ', b -
( ) .

Q = c 2 [( m1 + m2 ) ( m3 + m4 )] ,
m1 m2 - ; (m3 + m4) . Q > 0
, Q < 0 .

Q = (T1 + T2 ) (T3 + T4 ) ,
T1, T2, T3, T4 -, , .

dN N ( k 1) ( k -1) t / T
= , N = N 0e ,
dt T
N0 ; N t; T ; k -
.


( )


g 9,81 /c2

G 6,67 1011 3/( 2)

NA 6,02 1023 1

F 96,48 103 /


8,31 /

-
Vm 22,4 103 3/

k 1,38 1023 /

3,00 108 /

- 5,67 108 /(2 4)



b 2,90 103

h 6,63 1034

= h/2 1,05 1034

R 1,10 107 1

0,529 1010

me 9,11 1031

mp 1,6726 1027

mn 1,6750 1027

- m 6,6425 1027

... 1,660 1027

mp/me 1836,15

e 1,60 1019



e/me 1,76 1011 /


2,43 1012

Ei 2,18 1018 (13,6 )

0,927 1023 2

0 8,85 1012 /

0 12,566 107 /

- I A

- K


T 1 1
2
, LMT 2

, - L1MT 2 1 2

, , L2MT 2 2 2

, L2MT 3 2 3

- TI
(-
)
L2MT 3I 1 2 3 A1
,

,
-
-
, -

L2M 1T 4I 2 2 1 4 A2

L2MT 3I 2 2 3 A2

L2M 1T 3I 2 2 1 3 A2

L2MT 2I 1 2 2 1
- MT 2I 1 2 1

, L2MT 2I 2 2 2 2
-

J
L2J 2
- T 1 1
(
-
)
L2T 2 2 2


,


1 = 1010
1 ... = 1,661027
1 = 3,16107
1 = 86 400
1 = 103 3
1 / = 0,278 /
1 = 6,28
1 = 105
1 = 9,81
1 /2 = 0,1
1 /2 = 9,81
1 = 9,81104
1 = 1,01105
1 . = 133,3
, 1 = 107
1 = 9,81
1 = 1,61019
1 = 4,19
1 / = 107
1 / = 9,81
1 q = 3,331010
, ... 1 U = 300
1 = 1,111012

1 = 79,6 /



-

, ,
, ,
/3

6,95 108 1,99 1030 1,41 25,4


6,37 10 6
5,98 1024 5,52 1,00
1,74 10 6
7,35 1022
3,30 27,3
: 1,49 1011 .
: 3,84 108 .






,
,
106

57,87 0,241 0,056


108,14 0,615 0,817
149,50 1,000 1,000
227,79 1,881 0,108
777,8 11,862 318,35
1426,1 29,458 95,22
2867,7 84,013 14,58
4494 164,79 17,26


/3 /3

3,5 0,88
2,7 1,00
19,1 1,26
1,6 0,90
() 7,8 0,80
19,3 13,6
8,65 1,26
8,9 0,79
0,916 1,1
8,9 0,72
10,2
0,97 ( /3
)
8,9
7,4
1,25
21,5
0,77
0,20
0,09
11,3
1,293
10,5
1,43
4,5
0,72
19,0
1,98
2,3
3,21
7,0
.
-
-

, G, ,
1
m,
70 26 0,34 0,10 0,014
130 40 0,34 0,30 0,007
16 5,6 0,44 0,015 0,022
() 200 81 0,29 0,60 0,006
60 30 0,25 0,05 0,025
0,49

-

-

,
,
, /( ) q, /
0,90 374 660 321
0,46 467 1535 270
2,09 0 333
0,39 329 1083 175
0,13 89 328 25
0,23 210 960 88
. -
.


, /( )
0,59
0,023
0,20
2,90

-



,
, /( ) q, /( )
, /
10 73 4,18 2250
1500 66 2,42
16 470 0,14 284
12 24 2,42 853
. :
(20 ), ,
q .

- --
-
( CP
d,

=
CV , b,

) ,
6 6 3
10
2

(4) 1,67 141,5 18,9 0,20


r (40) 1,67 16,2 22,1 0,35 0,132 32
2 (2) 1,41 168,4 8,4 0,27 0,024 27
N2 (28) 1,40 24,3 16,7 0,37 0,137 39
2 (32) 1,40 24,4 19,2 0,35 0,137 32
2 (44) 1,30 23,2 14,0 0,40 0,367 43
2 (18) 1,32 15,8 9,0 0,30 0,554 30
(29) 1,40 24,1 17,2 0,35

. , .

,
t, C p, t, C p, t, C p,
5 400 8 1070 40 7 335
0 609 9 1145 50 12 302
1 656 10 1225 60 19 817
2 704 12 1396 70 31 122
3 757 14 1596 80 47 215
4 811 16 1809 90 69 958
5 870 20 2328 100 101 080
6 932 25 3165 150 486240
7 1025 30 4229 200 1 549 890

81 2,3

1,00058 7,5

7,8 26

2,0 6,0
2,0 6,0

3,5 2,7



-

( 20), ,
,
1

25 4,5 1010
50 4,8 1015

90 6,5 1013
20 4,0 1013

16 4,3 1014
190 4,2 1014

15 4,1 1017

-
1, 106 1, 106

0,013 0,063
0,38 7,5
1,9 9,0
14 10,3
23 12,6
176 12,6
360 15,1
3400 176
n
n n n
1,00030 1,50 2,42

1,00029 1,33 1,46


1,00027 1,47 1,50
()
1,63
.
, n -
.


,

ne no ne no

687 1,484 1,653 1,550 1,541


656 1,485 1,655 1,551 1,542

589 1,486 1,658 1,553 1,544

527 1,489 1,664 1,556 1,547


486 1,491 1,668 1,559 1,550
431 - 1,495 1,676 1,564 1,554
400 1,498 1,683 1,568 1,558



, , /

275 120,0
344 70,6
373 58,8
405 48,9
436 41,5
49 31,1
590 21,8
656 17,4
670 16,6

( = 589 )

V, . /

2,59
0,016
0,053
1,072


, , ,

3,74 2,15 4,84


2,29 4,25 5,29
4,62 2,39 4,28
4,50 4,47 3,92
4,36 4,27 1,89
4,58 2,27 3,74


Ei, Ei,

2,18 10 18
13,6

3,94 10 18
24,6

1,21 10 17
75,6

1,66 10 18
10,4

, 2/( )

1,27 10 4
1,81 104
5,4 104 7,4 104
1,4 104 1,9 104
K-
Z , Z ,
23 226,8 47 48,60
26 174,1 50 42,39
27 160,4 74 17,85
28 148,6 78 15,85
29 138,0 79 15,35
30 128,4 82 14,05
42 61,9 92 10,75


( , )
/ , 2/
,

10 0,16 0,16 0,36 3,8
20 0,18 0,28 1,5 4,9
30 0,29 0,47 4,3 14
40 0,44 1 9,8 31
50 0,48 0,66 2,0 19 54
60 0,75 1,0 3,4 32 90
70 1,3 1,5 5,1 48 139
80 1,6 2,1 7,4 70
90 2 2,8 11 98
100 2,6 3,8 15 131
150 8,7 12 46 49
200 21 28 102 108
250 39 51 194 198


- -

d, 108 , 1014 1 d, 108 , 1014 1

2 0,741 8,279 HF 0,917 7,796

N2 1,094 4,445 HCl 1,275 5,632

2 1,207 2,977 r 1,413 4,991

F2 1,282 2,147 HI 1,604 4,350

S2 1,889 1,367 1,128 4,088

Cl2 1,988 1,064 NO 1,150 3,590

r2 2,283 0,609 0,971 7,035

I2 2,666 0,404

60 5,2 () 222Rn 3,8 ()

90Sr 28 () 226Ra 1620 ()

10 138 () 238U 4,5 109 ()



Z , Z ,
... ...
11
0 n 0,00867 6 0,01143
1 12
1 0,00783 0
2 13
0,01410 0,00335
3 13
0,01605 7 N 0,00574
3 14
2 0,01603 N 0,00307
4 15
0,00260 N 0,00011
6 15
3 Li 0,01513 8 0,00307
7 16
Li 0,01601 0,00509
7 17
4 0,01693 0,00087
8 19
0,00531 9 F 0,00160
9 20
0,01219 10 Ne 0,00756
10 23
0,01354 11 Na 0,01023
10 24
5 0,01294 Na 0,00903
11 24
0,00930 12 Mg 0,01496

. ...,
.




- -
- -
- -
- - - -


1018 a 101 da
1015 f 102 h
1012 p 103 k
109 n 106 M
106 109 G
103 m 1012 T
102 c 1015 P
101 d 1018 E





, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

3
.. 13
28
... 29
1. 29
1.1. 29
1.2. -
31
1.3. . 32
1.4. . 35
1.5. . 39
1.6. 41
1.7. ()
. 44
2.
47
2.1. -
.. 47
2.2. . 52
2.3. , 55
3. . 59
3.1. ... 59
3.2. 66
3.3. ,
.. 69
3.4. .. 70
3.5. . 75
3.6. .. 77
3.7. -
79
4. . 80
4.1. -
. 80
4.2. 85
4.3. .. 87
5. . -
. 89
5.1.
.. 89
5.2. . 91
5.3. . 93
5.4.
. 95
5.5. .. 97
5.6. ... 99
6.
, . 102
6.1. .. 102
6.2. . 103
6.3.
107
6.4. ... 110
6.5. ... 112
7. 113
7.1. .. 113
.. 116

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