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Issue 18 / April 2006


supported by the DG Research

of the European Commission

Structural Assessment Monitoring Control Issue 18 / April 2006


g SAMCO Association
page 1

g History of SAMCO SAMCO Strategy 1 person, 200,-- for companies nominating 3

European Association on Structural persons and 250,-- for companies
page 2 - 3 Assessment Monitoring and Control nominating 5 persons as members. Members
(SAMCO) will receive full access to the database and
benefit from reduced admission fees at the
g News from The Steering Committee has decided to found workshops and conferences.
Profession & a European Association on Structural
Practice Assessment Monitoring and Control In terms of internationalisation the new
(SAMCO) after the termination of the Association will join the International Society
page 4 - 6 European funded network. The main for Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent
motivation is to keep the well functioning Infrastructure (ISHMII) which organises bi-
g Company Profile network alive and benefit from our joint annual events (2007 in Vancouver, 2009 in
achievements. This is a call to everyone to Switzerland, 2011 in the U.S.A, 2013 in
Kinemetrics Inc.
become a founding member of this Singapore). You will have the same rights and
page 7 Association. The foundation will happen at the access to the ISHMII database and
SAMCO workshop at EMPA on 31. March information.
g Announcements 2006. The motivation to join could be: More details and a registration form will be
page 8 sent in case this offer is interesting for you.
becoming part of a strong European The Association will start its operation in April
monitoring community (overseas 2006.
partners are welcome)
Please dont hesitate to ask me any details on
Published by VCE. to receive consolidated information on this proposal.
monitoring and assessment
to get access to the lobbying efforts
towards the 7th framework program
With best regards
to receive priority in new research
proposals Helmut Wenzel
to participate and benefit from the
huge possibilities in international
collaboration the network has
worldwide Contact

to benefit from joint activities VCE Holding GmbH

to become a European Centre of Dr. Helmut Wenzel
Hadikgasse 60
The Association will be organised by the 1140 Wien
SAMCO coordinator for the 1 working period Austria
of 2 years. After that the organiser will be
selected on a vote from all members. To carry t +43 (0)1-90292 / 1116
the costs of organisation it will be necessary to f +43 (0)1-8938671
collect membership fees. It has been decided e-mail wenzel@vce.at
that the individual fee will amount to 90,-- for

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SAMCO Results

History of SAMCO Events

Within the framework of SAMCO project connections and to inform each other
1 Kick-Off Meeting, 12 Workshops and 2 about the state-of-the-art in bridge
Summer Academies were held in order monitoring.
to bring together top experts in
structural assessment, monitoring and
control from all over the world and to
build connections across the borders.

The 1 SAMCO Workshop was held in
Como / Italy in April 2002, half a year after
the SAMCO Kick-Off Meeting in Assisi.
22 persons attended this first workshop of
which the main subjects were the Progress
of the SAMCO activities as well as the 6th
Framework Programme. Further the NEES
Project was touched on and a prototype of
th st
the SAMCO Database was launched. The 4 SAMCO Workshop was the 1
International Summer Academy on
Structural Assessment, Monitoring and
Control. It was a One-Week-Event in July
2003 at the Robinson College of Cambridge
University. About 90 persons from 22
countries participated in the event, 37% of The 7 SAMCO Workshop took place in
them came from industry; the others were June 2004 in Rome / Italy. In the course of
researchers and students. The first Summer the workshop a view on SAMCO covering
Academy was a great success for the the entire positive and negative sides of the
SAMCO network. The way of dealing with network as well as suggestions how to
subjects in longer presentations was unique improve the cooperation were presented. At
and provided unusual quality of information this it was mentioned that SAMCO had a
nd transfer. The collected contributions were good core group, however the role of
The 2 SAMCO Workshop, held in women might be enhanced to become
outstanding and provided a very good
Brussels dealt mainly with the topics equal. Further a connection to
insight into the current practice in the field.
Monitoring and Assessment, Seismic environmental and social sciences would be
Assessment and Active Control. The basic The main topics of the 5 desired, items which were briefly discussed
idea was to disseminate information about SAMCO Workshop with the will to seize those suggestions.
the SAMCO network, show recent research taking place in Vienna / Some of the requests have already been
work in the field and stimulate a discussion Austria were the SAMCO covered by I-SAMCO.
on new projects to be submitted within the progress, the second call
6th framework programme. of NMP under the Sixth
Framework Programme
as well as a range of
proposals for projects
within the framework of
SAMCO, introduced by
SAMCO members and
The 3 SAMCO partners.
Workshop took place in
Vienna / Austria where
the integrated project E- th
In April 2004 the 6 SAMCO Workshop
MOI and its sub- was held in Warsaw / Poland. This was the
projects, in particular the first NAS (Newly Associated States)
items determination of Workshop in the History of SAMCO. The
the final consortium, aim of the Workshop was at first to bring
financial allocation together experts in structural assessment,
within the project and monitoring and control from Poland and the
definition of detailed former EU member states to build
objectives were discussed.

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The 8 SAMCO Workshop in September The first International Workshop, the NEES
2004 was the Harmonization Workshop in and NEESgrid Seminar, was held in Ispra /
rd th
Ispra / Italy with the aim to enable Italy from May 23 to May 24 2005. The
international collaboration, harmonise seminar taking place on the premises of
communication and standardise data and JRC Ispra 2005 was organized by NEESit
protocols. The intention was to invite (international Partner NSF) and JRC
researchers from Europe, America and Asia (project participant.
dealing with experimental data to give
presentations on the subject explaining the This international workshop held in the
current practice of their regions. Each course of the I-SAMCO project had the
presentation was followed by an in depth following objectives:
discussion on a probable global format to Identification of the current
be proposed and standardised. The practice and state of the art
workshop ended in a resolution on Meeting of the International
international collaboration, comprising a
roadmap for data format standardisation, a forum
definition of priority areas and programs, Integration of SAMCO partners
international joint calls (NSF-EU-Japan- Coordination and harmonization
China) and funding mechanisms.
of ongoing RTD activities

31 persons mostly from Slovenia

participated in the 13 SAMCO Workshop
dedicated to the newly associated states
(NAS) of the European Union and which
took therefore place in Ljubljana / Slovenia
th th
from October 10 to October 11 2005.

The 14 SAMCO (NAS) Workshop was
planned to be held in Hungary, however it
was cancelled.
80 persons from 27 nations from all over the The Final Workshop took place from
world participated in the SAMCO Summer th st
March 30 to 31 at EMPA / Switzerland. It
The I-SAMCO (International SAMCO) Kick- Academy, which took place from was very well attended with around 50
th th
Off Meeting took place in Vienna / Austria in September 5 to September 9 2005 in the persons. Amongst other items the history
May 2004. As the specific support action I- province of Salzburg in Austria, to be more and achievements of the SAMCO project,
SAMCO is embedded in SAMCO it was precise, in Thumersbach, situated at the the future of SAMCO as well as project
concurrently the 9 SAMCO Workshop. mountain lake Zeller See opposite the small ideas for FP 7 were outlined. Further the
Large networks and projects have been town Zell am See. European Association for SAMCO was
identified worldwide acting along the same founded in the course of the workshop.
lines as SAMCO to accommodate the
international demand for standardization
initiatives. I-SAMCO is scheduled to
operate until November 2006.
The 10 SAMCO Workshop took place on
April 28th and 29th at BAM (Federal
Institute for Materials Research and
Testing) in Berlin / Germany and was well
attended by 28 participants from all over

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News from Profession & Practice

Damage Detection after Condition

Compensation in Frequency Analyses
Recent publications raised doubts that The following analysis is based on
damage in structures can be detected by investigations on the Europabrcke a well
the application of frequency analyses. In known Austrian steel bridge near Innsbruck,
fact temperature changes very often show opened in 1963 which is one of the main
larger reactions in spectra than any smaller alpine north-south routes for urban and
damage. Beside temperature, other freight traffic. A long-term preoccupation of
environmental influences, such as a VCE with BRIMOS (BRIdge MOnitoring
radiation from sunshine, create changes in System) on the Europabrcke (since 1997)
the structural systems which have to be led to the installation of a permanent
considered. measuring system in 2003 [1].
The present paper demonstrates the The bridges reference sensor (3D-forced
capabilities of new compensation methods balance accelerometer) is installed within
in frequency analyses. When the the main span, at a distance of 0,4 times of
environmental conditions are monitored the spans length from pier II. At this base
together with the structural response a point, global stiffness and its dependence to
proper reaction can be predicted. The several environmental influences are
described compensation process in general assessed (sampling rate = 100 Hz, file
deals with the following sources of input: length = 330sec).
Temperature By evaluating results (frequency spectra) of
(daily and annual cycles) several measurements, telescoping them
Compensation of live load together and viewing them from above (so
(moving vehicles etc.) called trend cards), the following visuals are
Influence of wind loads obtained, which exemplarily show the main
Bearing friction spans relevant vertical stiffness-patterns of
Restoring forces a particular day with a distinct progression
Change of boundary conditions of temperature. Fig. 1: Trend of stiffness during one day; 0,30-
Impact energy 10 Hz / 0,30-1,10 Hz / 0,60-0,80 Hz
For the sake of completeness, the
Instrumentation corresponding frequency spectra The permanent monitoring system exhibits
After elimination of all operational and themselves are shown in Figure 2, again the remarkable loading impact, as the
environmental factors, stable frequencies over a period of this day. An individual bridge is currently stressed by more than
are achieved. procedure has been developed in [2], which 30000 motor vehicles per day
contains some measurement (approximately 20% of them are freight
preconditioning (offset elimination & traffic). By applying the previously
f total = f 0 + fi
i = factors
( 1) bandpass-filtering). To enable a more
stabilized automatically performed peak
described method to the reference
sensors measurement data for the whole
picking in different ranges of frequency, the day, a progression of stiffness, which
where response spectra are smoothed in the consist of 281 single peaks is obtained
course of frequency assessment.
f total vector of total (measured-like)

f0 vector of structural (own-like)


fi vector of influenced (measured)

i considered operational and
environmental factors
Any deviation therefrom can be interpreted
as damage or extraordinary event. This
procedure opens new possibilities for
structural management and lifetime
Fig. 2: The trendcards front views for
prediction. The present paper demonstrates one day; 0,30-10 / 0,30-1,10 /
some investigation on two sources, which 0,60-0,80 / 0,68-0,74 Hz
are assumed to be the major ones.

Published by

(Figure 3-left) and represents randomly Due to this relation, temperature sensitive According to the widely known eq. 2,
occurring ambient and forced vibration asphalt layer is implemented into the cross frequency of vibration is proportional to the
conditions ( => scatter ). sections of the global structural analysis square-root of the moment of inertia [4]. For
that reason, a curve in terms of frequency
needs to be generated (Figure 5- middle)
1. Eigenfrequency Temperature for the next step, when a temperature-
00:00:00 based stiffness path is eliminated from the
Time Time
22:00:00 22:00:00 overall trend (from Fig. 5 left to Fig. 5 right).
20:00:00 20:00:00 The obtained trend shows very clearly the
18:00:00 18:00:00
remaining impact of freight traffic itself,
which strongly affects the timeframe
16:00:00 16:00:00 between 5 a.m and 10 p.m, when trucks are
14:00:00 14:00:00 allowed to pass the bridge and cause two
characteristic offsets during the course of
12:00:00 12:00:00
the day.
10:00:00 10:00:00

08:00:00 08:00:00

06:00:00 06:00:00

04:00:00 04:00:00

02:00:00 02:00:00
[Hz] [C]
00:00:00 00:00:00
0,710 0,720 0,730 0,740 0,750 0,760 0,770 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0

Fig. 3: Pattern of 1st Eigenfrequency and its obvious dependency on temperature

The complementary relation between model, which leads to a distinctive

stiffness and the air temperature itself progression of the mid spans flexural
(registered at the bridges base point rigidity (Figure 4- right).
Fig. 6: Comparison of expected (above) and
directly above the pier II) is obvious and can
1 actual (below) consequences of
be interpreted as a long sinusoidal wave of 2
EI 2 temperature-compensated natural
the main span in the vertical direction. In f = i
i ( 2) frequency patterns
the course of the described procedure it 2L m
should be considered, to omit the described
bandpass filtering and replace it by a further
optimized smoothing of the frequency 1. Eigenfrequency
Root-Value of the Mom ent of modified 1. Eigenfrequency
spectra for reasons of stabilizing the 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00

accuracy of peak picking. 22:00:00

Time T ime
22:00:00 22:00:00

Stiffness vs. Temperature 20:00:00 20:00:00 20:00:00

18:00:00 18:00:00
To describe the verified phenomenon 16:00:00
16:00:00 16:00:00
mechanically, it has to be focused on
14:00:00 14:00:00
temperature dependence of the roadbeds 14:00:00

asphalt layer, as the change of steel 12:00:00 12:00:00 12:00:00

characteristics under varying climate 10:00:00 10:00:00 10:00:00

conditions is negligible. In the first step, a 08:00:00 08:00:00 08:00:00

characteristic relationship of the dynamic 06:00:00 06:00:00 06:00:00

Youngs modulus in dependence of 04:00:00 04:00:00 04:00:00

temperature is used [3]. 02:00:00 02:00:00

[cm2] [Hz]
00:00:00 00:00:00
29600 29400 29200 29000 0,710 0,720 0,730 0,740 0,750 0,760 0,770
0,710 0,720 0,730 0,740 0,750 0,760 0,770

Fig. 3: Pattern of 1st Eigenfrequency before

and after compensation of temperature COMPENSATION OF ADDITIONAL
Flexural rigidity
00:00:00 The modified trend of the main spans
16000 Time 22:00:00 stiffness already includes lots of
14000 14000
20:00:00 characteristics of the prevailing freight traffic
Asphalt Covering - characteristic curve
progression. Unfortunately traffic data from
Edyn [N/mm2]

the competent authorities are available only
9500 14:00:00
per hour. For some introductive exploration
8000 12:00:00
on approximate additional mass
compensation steps need to be undertaken.
2750 06:00:00 Frequency of vibration, based on eq. 2
2000 1000 04:00:00 again, is inversely proportional to the
Tem p [C]
02:00:00 square root of the mass. This means, that
-15 -5 5 15 25 35 45

8000 6000 4000 2000 0

00:00:00 live loads cause increase in effective mass,
which leads to hourly calculated factors to
Fig. 4: Progression of the asphalt layers flexural rigidity in dependence of its temperature modify the fluctuating frequency. Due to

Published by

that relation the scattered trend of CONCLUSIONS

frequency is straightened in dependence of
modal contribution of trucks per hour The discussed approach benefited by
(Figure 8) permanent monitoring allows to reach the
conducted goals, even if already

Heavy Freight traffic Ove rall traffic

modified 1. Eigenfrequency
00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00
22:00:00 22:00:00 22:00:00

20:00:00 20:00:00 20:00:00

18:00:00 18:00:00 18:00:00

16:00:00 16:00:00 16:00:00

14:00:00 14:00:00 14:00:00

12:00:00 12:00:00 12:00:00

10:00:00 10:00:00 10:00:00

08:00:00 08:00:00 08:00:00

06:00:00 06:00:00 06:00:00

04:00:00 04:00:00 04:00:00

02:00:00 02:00:00 02:00:00

trucks / h
00:00:00 00:00:00
motor vehicles / h 00:00:00
0,710 0,720 0,730 0,740 0,750 0,760 0,770 3000 2000 1000 0
800 600 400 200 0

Fig. 4: Modified pattern of stiffness being strongly affected by traffic loading (moving additional

gained experience with the applied methods

add mass korr is still of some approximation in character.
The results are very promising, although
using air-temperature instead of that of
20:00:00 structural elements. The shown approach
18:00:00 represents an innovation in stiffness
16:00:00 assessment appropriate for long-term
application. The goal of generating
frequency progressions over time without
major environmental and operational impact
has come into reach.

The procedure will be optimized in
progressive stages, as soon as the already
introduced cantilever-sensor based
[Hz] approach is implemented.
0,710 0,720 0,730 0,740 0,750 0,760 0,770

Fig. 5: Stiffness pattern after approximate REFERENCES
compensation of additional masses)
1. Wenzel, H., and D. Pichler. 2005. VCE Holding GmbH
In fact the permanent monitoring systems Ambient Vibration Monitoring, J. Wiley
and Sons Ltd., Chichester - England, Helmut Wenzel and
present configuration would provide the Robert Veit
possibility to develop a more sophisticated ISBN 0470024305
and more reliable, strictly measurement 2. IMC: FAMOS Version 3.2, Reference Hadikgasse 60
data-based method. Parts of a certain Manual. Berlin Germany. 2001 A - 1140 Wien
pattern recognition procedure output 3. Willberg, U. 2001. Asphaltschichten
auf hydraulisch gebundenen Tel: (+43) 1 - 90292 1116 or 1420
(introduced in [5]) - based on smoothing of
Tragschichten Untersuchungen zum Fax: (+43) 1 - 8938671
the measurement signals, could be utilized.
Tragverhalten, Doctoral Thesis., Email: wenzel@vce.at
Forced Balance Accelerometers located in Munich - Germany, pp. 10-11. veit@vce.at
a defined distance along the cantilevers 4. Blevins, R.D.1979. Formulas for
outer edges - in both directions of traffic natural frequency and mode shape,
enable the verification of recurring truck Van Regional Company, New York University of Ottawa /
passages and their related velocity and 5. Veit R., H. Wenzel and J. Fink. 2005. Department of Civil Engineering
tonnage without any disturbance of traffic. Measurement data based lifetime- Hiroshi Tanaka
estimation of the Europabrcke due to
By this way the moving loads within each traffic loading - a three level approach, 161 Louis Pasteur
measurement file - passing the main span In International Conference of the Ottawa, Ontario
simultaneously - could be identified and International Institute of Welding. Canada, K1N 6N5
would lead to a shifting of the single peak in Prague.
the frequency response spectrum, which Tel: (613) 562-5800 ext. 6144
represents the registered time history in Fax: (613) 562-5173
each measurement file. Email: htanaka@uottawa.ca

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Company Profile

About Kinemetrics Inc. Through cooperative efforts with each other Solutions
and with other strategic partnerships, the Aspen:
Kinemetrics Inc. is a leader in the two organizations successfully designed, Environmental Monitoring
earthquake instrumentation industry. For delivered, installed and now maintain is a distributed open-
over thirty five years, the company has national seismic networks and architecture system designed to
been creating products for monitoring observatories in such diverse areas as the provide a comprehensive set of
bridges, dams, structures, seismic arrays Middle East, South America and Asia. environmental monitoring data
and networks, as well as systems for the and processed information.
nuclear power industry. With a reputation
Nuclear Treaty Verification
for high-quality products and superior The Verification Data Acquisition
reliability Kinemetrics pays careful attention System VDAS is a commercial-
to customer service and satisfaction. off-the-shelf distributed, open-
architecture system addressing
the special needs of the nuclear
treaty verification community.
Seismic Monitoring
Sierra provides rapid information
for earthquake mitigation by
monitoring seismic events from
local, regional and national
networks and arrays.
Power Plants
Kinemetrics importance in the world market The most comprehensive
is often a source of surprise for those who earthquake monitoring solution
Kinemetrics, with its corporate office in live in or visit Pasadena in Southern for nuclear power plants (NPPs) -
California and its additional sales, services California. Few people are aware that this - including seismic-event data
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quality instruments. Over 45 reliable and supply engineers with valuable Oasis:
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Since the transfer of ownership to Oyo Liberty, San Franciscos Golden Gate
structural integrity.
Corporation of Japan in 1991, Kinemetrics Bridge, Egypts Sphinx, Athens Parthenon Contact
also has developed into the undisputed and Indias Taj Mahal.
world leader for cutting-edge seismic
Corporate Headquarters:
instrumentation. With the 1999 acquisition Kinemetrics manufacturing and design
of Quanterra Inc. of Harvard, facilities in Southern California enable the Kinemetrics Inc.
Massachusetts, the company continues company to take advantage of the unique
with its strategic plan of creating a new opportunities of the region. Partnerships 222 Vista Avenue
generation of very broadband seismic with leading higher education and scientific Pasadena, CA 91107
instrumentation and network solutions. research institutions ensure that the USA
company will remain in the forefront of
technological innovation. Tel: (626) 795-2220
Fax: (626) 795-0868
In addition to the acquisition of Quanterra in Web Site: www.kinemetrics.com
1999, Kinemetrics became certified that Email: sales@kmi.com
same year with the International Standards
Organizations ISO9001 quality European Office:
management system. The company has
since upgraded its certification to Kinemetrics SA
ZI Le Trsi 3
Kinemetrics continues to be known and CH-1028 Prverenges
respected around the world for producing
reliable, high-quality products. The
company values, present since Kinemetrics Tel: ++4121 803 2829
inception in 1969, are still reflected in their Fax: ++4121 803 2895
Quality Statement: Email: kmi_sa@bluewin.ch

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th th
2006 AUGUST g 18 to 19
rd th
JUNE g 23 to 26 I-SAMCO Workshop
g 12th 16th ICDVC-2006 - "Advances in Structural
Advances in Modeling The Second International Monitoring of Historical
and Control of Flexible Conference on Dynamics, and Modern Structures"
Prague / Czech Republic
Mechanical Systems Vibration and Control
Udine / Italy Beijing / China LOCATION

ADMISSION Institute of Theoretical and Applied

Mechanics, Czech Academy of
The registration fee is 450 for students
and participants on the regular staff of
universities and research centres, or 650
for other participants. OBJECTIVES

Applicants must apply at least one month The workshop should bring together
before the beginning of the course. scientists and practicing experts in the field
Application forms can be sent by post or on- who will present their work and should
line through our web site: http://www.cism.it attract also young entrants.
It will be focused on the different aspects
A letter of confirmation will be sent to
and problems faced during the monitoring of
accepted participants.
structures with regards to their character.
Contact SEPTEMBER More information and download of
g 13 to 15
th registration form from this site:
Andr Preumont IABSE Symposium -

Responding to Institute of Theoretical and Applied

Palazzo del Torso - Piazza Garibaldi 18
33100 Udine Tomorrows Challenges in
Italy Stanislav Pospisil
Structural Engineering
t +39 0432 248511 (6 lines) Budapest / Hungary Proseck 76
f +39 0432 248550 190 00 Prague 9
e-mail: cism@cism.it Early Bird Registration for reduced fees is Czech Republic
by May 15 2006!
Symposium Topics t +420283880854
f +420286884634 or +420605766729
JULY new functional demands, new expectations, e-mail pospisil@itam.cas.cz
th th new working practices, new opportunities.
g 5 to 7 http://www.itam.cas.cz/samco
3rd European Workshop Attractive Subject Areas
high performance materials, glass, fibre
on Structural Health reinforced polymers, challenging structures.
g 21 to 22

Monitoring Course on Structural

Granada / Spain More Information:
http://www.iabse.org/conferences/bud Health Monitoring in Civil
More information: apest2006/index.php Engineering
www.shm-europe.net Leuven, Belgium
Contact More information and download of
registration form:
Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Sissel Niggeler Programme
Aerospace Materials Department Registration Form
ETH Hnggerberg
Alfredo Gemes
CH-8093 Zrich,
Switzerland Contact
28040 Madrid
Spain t +41-44-633 3150 KUL, Dept. Burgerlijke Bouwkunde
f +41-44-633 1241 Guido De Roeck
t +34 91 3366327
e-mail niggeler@iabse.org
f +34 91 3366334 Kasteelpark Arenberg 40
e-mail aguemes@dmpa.upm.es BE-3001 Heverlee
t +32 16 321666 or +32 16 321665
f +32 16 321988
e-mail guido.deroeck@bwk.kuleuven.be