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Elementary fluid mechanics lecture.

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Introduction

1.1. Why learning fluid mechanics?

The main reasons for studying fluid mechanics are:

Curiosity: Understanding can be gained of a great range of phenomena.

Applications: Predictions and designs can be made in many areas of interest and importance

which involve fluids.

Examples:

Galaxy: sun, moon,

Astrophysics: solar wind.

Meteorology: climate prediction, weather forecasts.

Earth science: inner motion of Earths materials, oceans, lakes, rivers.

Aerodynamics: airplanes, cars, ships.

Industrial applications: Turbines, engines, combustion, air pollution, material processing.

Biomechanics: birds, fishes, snakes.

Physiology & Biotechnology: human bodies, biomedical applications.

Micromechanics: MEMs (Micro-Electro-Mechanical systems)

Nanomechanics: Ultra-thin film, biomedical technology.

Fluid states:

Fluid states are mainly concerned with the pressure variation in a fluid at rest or in solid

body motion, and the magnitude and the point of action of the resultant force due to pressure

acting on different interfaces.

Fluid kinetics:

Fluid kinetics deals with the motion of fluid particles without consideration of the character

of the particles and the influence of forces on the motion.

Fluid dynamics:

Fluid dynamics involves the consideration of fluid character and forces acting on the fluid

particles in motion, and the relation between them.

Fluid: liquid and gases

Distinction between solids and fluids:

1. molecular spacing:

Average molecular spacing: solid < liquid < gas.

As far as fluid mechanics is concerned, the main difference between liquids and gases is in

their relative compressibility: liquid < gas

2. mechanical point of view:

Technically or mechanically, the distinction between a solid and fluid is their relative

capabilities to resist external forces.

Solid: capable of withstanding a certain amount of tensile, compressive, and shear forces.

Fluid: has very little tensile strength, can support compressive force only when properly

confined.

!!! cannot sustain any shear stress !!!

Definition of fluid:

A fluid is a substance that deforms immediately, continuously, and permanently under the

application of a shear (tangential) stress (no matter how small).

Permanently:

A fluid does not return to its original state after the shear stress is removed.

Mechanical properties related to the response of solids and liquids when stress are applied.

solid liquid

Normal stress Youngs modulus Bulk modulus

Shear stress Shear modulus compressibility

Matters in fluid state are essentially discrete on the microscopic or molecular level.

However, when dealing with engineering problems on the macroscopic level in which the

dimensions are very large compared with the molecular distances, we are interested in

average effects of many molecules.

It is these macroscopic effects which can be perceived and measured; and are to be

described using continuum model.

Two facts determining the validity of the continuum model are:

1. The mean free path or molecular spacing should be very small in comparison to the

characteristic length of the flow (the mean free path of atmospherical air is 2~3x10-6 in,

1mm3 contains about 2.7x1016 molecules.)

2. The elapsed time of molecular interaction or collision should be sufficiently small so that the

random statistical nature of molecular activities is preserved.

Remarks:

1. Under the continuum model, the macroscopic properties such as mean density, mean

pressure, etc, are assumed to vary continuously with the size of element, position in the

medium and time.

Consequently, the mean properties of a fluid particle are, in the limit, assigned to a point so

that a field representation can be adopted.

However, physically, the limit is assigned to a certain proper size.

2. The continuum model becomes invalid in the following situations.

Flow of highly rarefied gases

e.g. rocket flight at extreme altitudes, high vacuum technology.

Shock waves (a very small region of rapid change of properties)

MEMs and nanotechnology.

3. As far as fluid mechanics is concerned, the validity of the continuum model is usually

determined by Knudsen number, Kn, a dimensionless parameter defined as follows.

Kn = mean free path of molecules/characteristic length of flow field

I. Kn < 0.01: Continuum flow regime with no-slip boundary conditions.

II. 0.01 < Kn < 0.1: Continuum flow regime with slip boundary conditions.

III. 0.1 < Kn < 3: transition flow regime with kinetic theory of gases.

IV. Kn > 3: Free molecular flow regime.

1. Density,

m

lim ; actually V V '

V 0 V

2. stress tensor, ij

scalar: density ; temperature T

; force,

vector: velocity V F

tensor: stress or ij

stress tensor:

normal stress: a & b or i & j are the same.

Shear stress: a & b or i & j are different.

Chapter 2. Fluid Statics

2.1. Fundamental equations of fluid statics.

3.1. Motion of a fluid particle.

4.1. System, control volume and control surface.

5.1. Conservation of masscontinuity equation.

5.2. Stream function for two-dimension flow.

6.1. Buckingham pi theorem.

7.1. Eqautions for inviscid, non-heat-conducting flow.

7.10. Introduction to aerodynamics.

8.1. Introduction.

9.1. Boundary-layer thicknesses.

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