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# Chapter 1.

Introduction
1.1. Why learning fluid mechanics?
The main reasons for studying fluid mechanics are:
Curiosity: Understanding can be gained of a great range of phenomena.
Applications: Predictions and designs can be made in many areas of interest and importance
which involve fluids.
Examples:
Galaxy: sun, moon,
Astrophysics: solar wind.
Meteorology: climate prediction, weather forecasts.
Earth science: inner motion of Earths materials, oceans, lakes, rivers.
Aerodynamics: airplanes, cars, ships.
Industrial applications: Turbines, engines, combustion, air pollution, material processing.
Biomechanics: birds, fishes, snakes.
Physiology & Biotechnology: human bodies, biomedical applications.
Micromechanics: MEMs (Micro-Electro-Mechanical systems)
Nanomechanics: Ultra-thin film, biomedical technology.

## 1.2. What will be studied in fluid mechanics?

Fluid states:
Fluid states are mainly concerned with the pressure variation in a fluid at rest or in solid
body motion, and the magnitude and the point of action of the resultant force due to pressure
acting on different interfaces.
Fluid kinetics:
Fluid kinetics deals with the motion of fluid particles without consideration of the character
of the particles and the influence of forces on the motion.
Fluid dynamics:
Fluid dynamics involves the consideration of fluid character and forces acting on the fluid
particles in motion, and the relation between them.

## 1.3. What is fluid?

Fluid: liquid and gases
Distinction between solids and fluids:
1. molecular spacing:
Average molecular spacing: solid < liquid < gas.
As far as fluid mechanics is concerned, the main difference between liquids and gases is in
their relative compressibility: liquid < gas
2. mechanical point of view:
Technically or mechanically, the distinction between a solid and fluid is their relative
capabilities to resist external forces.
Solid: capable of withstanding a certain amount of tensile, compressive, and shear forces.
Fluid: has very little tensile strength, can support compressive force only when properly
confined.
!!! cannot sustain any shear stress !!!
Definition of fluid:
A fluid is a substance that deforms immediately, continuously, and permanently under the
application of a shear (tangential) stress (no matter how small).
Permanently:
A fluid does not return to its original state after the shear stress is removed.
Mechanical properties related to the response of solids and liquids when stress are applied.
solid liquid
Normal stress Youngs modulus Bulk modulus
Shear stress Shear modulus compressibility

## 1.4. The continuum model.

Matters in fluid state are essentially discrete on the microscopic or molecular level.
However, when dealing with engineering problems on the macroscopic level in which the
dimensions are very large compared with the molecular distances, we are interested in
average effects of many molecules.
It is these macroscopic effects which can be perceived and measured; and are to be
described using continuum model.
Two facts determining the validity of the continuum model are:
1. The mean free path or molecular spacing should be very small in comparison to the
characteristic length of the flow (the mean free path of atmospherical air is 2~3x10-6 in,
1mm3 contains about 2.7x1016 molecules.)
2. The elapsed time of molecular interaction or collision should be sufficiently small so that the
random statistical nature of molecular activities is preserved.
Remarks:
1. Under the continuum model, the macroscopic properties such as mean density, mean
pressure, etc, are assumed to vary continuously with the size of element, position in the
medium and time.
Consequently, the mean properties of a fluid particle are, in the limit, assigned to a point so
that a field representation can be adopted.
However, physically, the limit is assigned to a certain proper size.
2. The continuum model becomes invalid in the following situations.
Flow of highly rarefied gases
e.g. rocket flight at extreme altitudes, high vacuum technology.
Shock waves (a very small region of rapid change of properties)
MEMs and nanotechnology.
3. As far as fluid mechanics is concerned, the validity of the continuum model is usually
determined by Knudsen number, Kn, a dimensionless parameter defined as follows.
Kn = mean free path of molecules/characteristic length of flow field
I. Kn < 0.01: Continuum flow regime with no-slip boundary conditions.
II. 0.01 < Kn < 0.1: Continuum flow regime with slip boundary conditions.
III. 0.1 < Kn < 3: transition flow regime with kinetic theory of gases.
IV. Kn > 3: Free molecular flow regime.

## 1.5. Certain fluid properties.

1. Density,
m
lim ; actually V V '
V 0 V

2. stress tensor, ij
scalar: density ; temperature T
; force,
vector: velocity V F
tensor: stress or ij
stress tensor:
normal stress: a & b or i & j are the same.
Shear stress: a & b or i & j are different.

## 1.11. Background knowledge.

Chapter 2. Fluid Statics
2.1. Fundamental equations of fluid statics.

## Chapter 3. Kinetics of Fluid Motion

3.1. Motion of a fluid particle.

## Chapter 4. Basic Equations in Integral Form

4.1. System, control volume and control surface.

## Chapter 5. Basic Equations in Differential Form

5.1. Conservation of masscontinuity equation.
5.2. Stream function for two-dimension flow.

## Chapter 6. Scaling Analysis and Similitude

6.1. Buckingham pi theorem.

## Chapter 7. Ideal-Fluid Flow

7.1. Eqautions for inviscid, non-heat-conducting flow.

## 7.9. Method of images.

7.10. Introduction to aerodynamics.

## Chapter 8. Internal Incompressible Viscous Flow

8.1. Introduction.

## Chapter 9. External Incompressible Viscous Flow

9.1. Boundary-layer thicknesses.