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WARNING

Servicing a vehicle can be dangerous. If you have not received service-related


training, the risks of injury, property damage, and failure of servicing
increase. The recommended servicing procedures for the vehicle in this
service manual were developed with Chery-trained technicians in mind. This
manual may be useful to non-Chery trained technicians, but a technician
with our service-related training and experience will be at less risk when
performing service operations. However, all users of this manual are
expected to at least know general safety procedures.
This manual contains Warnings and Cautions applicable to risks not
normally encountered in a general technicians experience. They should be
followed to reduce the risk of injury and the risk that improper service or
repair may damage the vehicle or render it unsafe. It is also important to
understand that the Warnings and Cautions are not exhaustive. It is
impossible to warn of all the hazardous consequences that might result from
failure to follow the procedures.
The procedures recommended and described in this manual are effective
methods of performing service and repair. Some require tools specifically
designed for a specific purpose. Persons using procedures and tools which
are not recommended by Chery Company must satisfy themselves
thoroughly that neither personal safety nor safety of the vehicle will be
jeopardized.
The contents of this manual, including drawings and specifications, are the
latest available at the time of printing, and Chery Company reserves the
right to change the vehicle designs and alter the contents of this manual
without notice and without incurring obligation.
Parts should be replaced with genuine Chery replacement parts. Persons
using replacement parts of lesser quality than that of genuine Chery
replacement parts must take all the consequences.
Chery Company is not responsible for any problems which may arise from
the use of this manual. The cause of such problems includes but is not limited
to insufficient service-related training, use of improper tools, use of
replacement parts of lesser quality than that of genuine Chery replacement
parts, or not being aware of any revision of this manual.

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Chery A series car service manual

FOREWORD

This manual contains on-vehicle service and diagnosis for Chery A series cars.
For proper repair and maintenance, a thorough familiarization with this manual is important,
and it should always be kept in a handy place for quick and easy reference.
All the contents of this manual, including drawings and specifications, are at latest available
at the time of printing. As modification affecting repair or maintenance occur, relevant
information supplementary to this volume will be made available at Chery dealers. This
manual should be kept up-to-date.
Chery company reserves the right to alter the specifications and contents of this manual
without obligation or advanced notice.
CHERY AUTOMOBLE CO., LTD
ANHUI CHINA

CONTENT

Title Section
General Information GI
Engine B
Lubrication System D
Cooling System E
Fuel and Emission Control System F
Engine Electrical System G
Clutch H
Manual Transmission J
Axles And Suspension System M
Steering System N
Braking System P
Body S
Body Electrical System T
Air Conditioner System U
Technical Data TD
Special Tools ST

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GENERAL INFORMATION
HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL GI-2
RANGE OF TOPICS GI-2
SERVICE PROCEDURE GI-2
ADVISORY MESSAGES GI-2
UNITS GI-4
UNITS GI-4
FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURE GI-5
PROTECTION OF VEHICLE GI-5
PREPARATION OF TOOLS AND MEASURING EQUIPMENT GI-5
DISASSEMBLY GI-5
INSPECTION DURING REMOVAL, DISASSEMBLY GI-5
ARRANGEMENT OF PARTS GI-6
CLEANING OF PARTS GI-6
REASSEMBLY GI-6
ADJUSTMENT GI-7
RUBBER PARTS AND TUBING GI-7
HOSE CLAMPS GI-7
VISE GI-7
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM GI-8
ELECTRICAL PARTS GI-8
CONNECTOR GI-8
ELECTRICAL TROUBLESHOOTING TOOL GI-11
TOWING GI-12
TOWING GI-12
TOWING HOOKS GI-12
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER LOCATION GI-14
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) GI-14
DESCRIPTION OF VIN GI-14
ENGINE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER GI-15
PRE-DELIVERY INSPECTION GI-16
PRE-DELIVERY INSPECTION GI-16
SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE GI-17
SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE TABLE GI-17

GI-1

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HOW TO USE THIS MUNUAL

RANGE OF TOPICS
This manual contains procedures for performing all required service operations. The
procedures are divided into the following five basic operations:
Removal/Installation
Disassembly/Assembly
Replacement
Inspection
Adjustment
Simple operations which can be performing easily just by looking at the vehicle (i.e.,
removal/installation of parts, jacking, vehicle lifting, cleaning of parts and visual
inspection) have been omitted.

SERVICE PROCEDURE
Inspection, adjustment
Inspection and adjustment procedures are divided into steps. Important points regarding the
location and contents of the procedures are explained in detail.
Repair procedure
1. Most repair operations begin with an overview illustration. It identifies the components.,
show how the parts fit together and describes visual part inspection. However, only
removal/ installation procedures that need to be performed methodically have written
instructions.
2. Expendable parts, tightening torques and symbols for oil, grease and sealant are shown in
the overview illustration. In addition, symbols indicating parts requiring the use of special
service tools or equivalent are also shown.
3. Procedures steps are numbered and the part that is the main point of that procedure is
shown in the illustration with the corresponding number. Occasionally, there are
important points or additional or additional information concerning a procedure. Refer to
this information when serving the related part.

ADVISORY MESSAGES
Youll find several Warnings, Cautions, Notes, Specifications and Upper and Lower
Limits in this manual.
Warning
A Warning indicates a situation in which serious injury or death could result if the warning
is ignored.
Caution
A Caution indicates a situation in which damage to the vehicle or parts could result if the
caution is ignored.

GI-2

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Note
A Note provides added information that will help you to complete a particular procedure.
Specification
The values indicate the allowable range when performing inspections or adjustments.
Upper and lower limits
The values indicate the upper and lower limits that must not be exceeded when performing
inspections or adjustments.

GI-3

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UNIT

UNIT

Electric current Aampere


Electric power Wwatt
Electric resistance ohm
Electric voltage Vvolt
Length mmmillimeter
kPakilo pascal
Negative pressure Kg/cm2kilogram force per square centimeter
Bar (bar)
kPakilo pascal
Positive pressure
Kg/cm2kg/square centimeter
Torque N.mNewton meter
Lliter
Volume
mlmilliliter
ggram
Weight
Kg (kilogram)

GI-4

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FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES

PROTECTION OF VEHICLE
Always be sure to cover fenders, seats and floor
areas before starting work.

PREPARATION OF TOOLS AND MEASURING EQUIPMENT


Be sure that all necessary tools and measuring
equipment are available before starting any work.

DISASSEMBLY
If the disassembly procedure is complex,
requiring many parts to be disassembled ,all parts
should be marked in a place that will not affect
their performance or external appearance and
identified so that reassembly can be performed
easily and efficiently.

INSPECTION DURING REMOVAL, DISASSEMBLY


When removed, each part should be carefully
inspected for malfunction, deformation, damage,
and other problems.

GI-5

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ARRANGEMENT OF PARTS
All disassembled parts should be carefully
arranged for reassembly.
Be sure to separate or otherwise identify the parts
to be replaced from those that will be reused.

CLEANING OF PARTS
All parts to be reused should be carefully and
thoroughly cleaned in the appropriate method.

Warning
Using compressed air can cause dirt and
other particles to fly out causing injury to
the eyes. Wear protective eye wear
whenever using compressed air.

REASSEMBLY
Standard values, such as torques and certain
adjustments, must be strictly observed in the
reassembly of all parts.

If removed, these parts should replace with new ones.


Oil seals
Gaskets
O-rings
Lockwashers
Cotter pins
Nylon nuts

Depending on location:
Sealant and gaskets, or both, should be applied to specified locations. When sealant is
applied, parts should be installed before sealant hardens to prevent leakage.
Oil should be applied to the moving components of parts.
Specified oil or grease should be applied at the prescribed locations (such as oil seals)
before reassembly.

GI-6

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ADJUSTMENT
Use suitable gauges and/or testers when making
adjustment.

RUBBER PARTS AND TUBING


Prevent gasoline or oil from getting on rubber
parts or tubing.

HOSE CLAMPS
When reinstalling, position the hose clamp in the
original location on the hose and squeeze the clamp
lightly with large pliers to ensure a good fit.

VISE
When using a vise, put protective plates in the jaws of the vise to prevent damage to parts.

GI-7

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ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

ELECTRICAL PARTS
Battery cable
Before disconnecting connector or removing
electrical parts, disconnect the negative battery
cable.

Wiring Harness
To remove the wiring harness from the clip in the
engine room, pry up the hook of the clip using a
flathead screwdriver.

CONNECTORS
Disconnecting connectors
When disconnecting connector, grasp the
connectors, not the wires.

Connectors can be disconnected by pressing or


pulling the lock lever as shown.

GI-8

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Locking connector
when locking connectors, listen for a click
indicating they are securely locked.

Inspection
When a tester is used to inspect for continuity or
measuring voltage, insert the tester probe from
the wiring harness side.

Inspect the terminals of waterproof connectors


from the connector side since they cannot be
accessed from the wiring harness side.

Caution
To prevent damage to the terminal, wrap
a thin wire around the tester probe before
inserting into terminal

Terminals
Inspection
Pull lightly on individual wires to verify that they
are secured in the terminal.

GI-9

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Replacement
Use the appropriate tools to remove a terminal as
shown. When installing a terminal, be sure to
insert it until it locks securely.
Insert a thin piece of metal from the terminal side
of the connector and with the terminal locking tab
pressed down, pull the terminal out from the
connector.

Sensors, Switches, and Relays


Handle sensors, switches, and relays carefully.
Do not drop them or strike them against other
objects.

Wiring Harness
Wiring color codes
Two-color wires are indicated by a two-color code symbol.
The first letter indicates the base color of the wire and the second the color of the stripe.

M/G
CODE COLOR CODE COLOR N/R
V Green R Red BLACK

H Gray Z Purple
A Blue B White
N Black G Yellow
M Brown

Fuse
Replacement
When replacing a fuse, be sure to replace it with
one of the same capacity. If a fuse fails again, the
circuit probably has a short and the wiring should
be inspected.
Be sure the negative battery terminal is
disconnected before replacing a main fuse.
When replacing a pullout fuse, use the fuse
puller.

GI-10

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ELECTRICAL TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
Jumper wire
A jumper wire is used to create a temporary
circuit. Connect the jumper wire between the
terminals of a circuit to bypass a switch.

Caution
Do not connect a jumper wire from the
power source line to a body ground. This
wiring harnesses or electronic
components.

Voltmeter
The DC voltmeter is used to measure circuit
voltage. A voltmeter with a range of 15V or more
is used by connecting the positive (+) probe (red
lead wire) to the point where voltage will be
measured and the negative (-) probe (black lead
wire) to a body ground.

Ohmmeter
The ohmmeter is used to measure the resistance
between two points in a circuit and to inspect for
continuity and short circuits.
Caution
Do not connect the ohmmeter to any
circuit where voltage is applied. This will
damage the ohmmeter.

GI-11

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TOWING
TOWING
Proper lifting and towing are necessary to prevent damage to the vehicle. Government and
local laws must be followed.
A towed vehicle should have its front wheels off the ground. If excessive damage or other
conditions prevent this, use wheel dollies.
When towing with the rear wheels on the ground, release the parking brake.

Caution
Do not two the vehicle backward with
driving wheels on the ground. This may
cause internal damage to the transaxle.

Caution
Do not tow with sling-type equipment.
This could damage your vehicle. Use
wheel-lift or flatbed equipment.

Caution
Do not use the hook loops under the
front and rear for towing. They are
designed ONLY for tying down the
vehicle when it is being transported.

TOWING HOOKS
Caution
The towing hooks should be used only in an emergency(to get the vehicle out of a
ditch or a snow bank, for example).
when using the towing hooks, always pull the cable or chain in a straight direction
with respect to the hook. Apply no sideways force.

GI-12

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FRONT

REAR

GI-13

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IDENTIFICATION NUMBER LOCATIONS

VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN)


The VIN of Chery A series vehicle is available at two places of the engine compartment. The
specific position are illustrated in the following pictures:

VIN on Wiper Groove

VIN on the right foot of front glass

DESCRIPTION OF VIN
LVV: International identity code of manufacturer
D: Brand of the Vehicle
A: Type of Vehicle Chassis
1: Type of Transmission
1: Type of Engine
A: Constrain System
7: Check Digit
5: Manufacture Year
D: Assembly Factory Code
023437: Production Serial Number

1. LVV is the code of vehicles manufactured by Chery Automobile Co., Ltd.


2. The fourth digit of VIN code stands for the brand of the vehicle. The brand Chery is
represented by letter D.

GI-14

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3. The fifth digit of VIN code stands for the type of chassis of the body. The letter A stands
for the chassis of three-box, five-door, and 4X2 type; B for two-box, five-door, and 4X2
type; C for three-box, four-door, two-lid, and 4X2 type; and D for two-box, five-door, and
4X4 type.
4. The sixth digit of VIN code stands for the type of transmission. 1 stands for manual
transmission and 2 for automatic.
5. The seventh digit of VIN code stands for the type of engine. 1 stands for the electronic
fuel injection gasoline engine of 1.5L~2.0L (excluding 2.0L) series; 2 for below 1.5L
(excluding 1.5L), and 4 for 2.0L~2.5L (excluding 2.5L).
6. The eighth digit of VIN code stands for the Constrain System. A stands for manual safety
belt, and B for manual safety belt and airbag in the front row.
7. The ninth digit of VIN code is the check digit. It is to check accuracy of VIN record, and
is made out through computation after confirming the other sixteen digits of VIN.
8. The tenth digit of VIN code stands for the manufacture year according to the following
table.

YEAR CODE YEAR CODE YEAR CODE YEAR CODE

1999 X 2002 2 2005 5 2008 8


2000 Y 2003 3 2006 6 2009 9
2001 Z 2004 4 2007 7 2010 A

9. The eleventh digit of VIN code stands for the assembly factory. The Chery Automobile
Co., Ltd is represented by the letter D.
10. The twelfth to the seventeenth digits of VIN code stand for production serial number.

ENGINE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

GI-15

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PRE-DELIVERY INSPECTION
PRE-DELIVERY INSPECTION
PRE-DELIVERY INSPECTION TABLE
Appearance and interior Setting and checking of clock
Defects of appearance and interior
Paint, galvanized components and interior trim Shut down engine
Carrying items, tools, spare tire, operation manual for jack and Alarming lamp of not shut down lamps
keys
Remove anti-vibration cover for tires and body protective film Shut down all the lamps
Self-lock function of steering wheel
Engine Adjusting of hand-brake
Lock and hinge of engine hood Adjusting of steering wheel angle
Poles of battery Sun visor
Electrolyte level Center lock and remote control(alarming sound)
Main ground Indoor lamp
Main fuse and spare parts Reading lamp
Oil level of engine Front & rear safety belt
Coolant level and water quality Angle of seat back and adjusting of seats
Power steering oil level Open of trunk lid (rear door)
A/T oil level Trunk lamp
Glass washing liquid level Open of fuel filling cover and fuel grade
Degree of tightness of timing belt (power steering, generator and Close of trunk lid and its locking
compressor)
Throttle control cable(A/T control cable) Close the engine hood Open all the four doors
Operation and Control Manual windows
Height and free distance of clutch pedal Rear door children lock
Height and free distance of brake pedal Fill lube for lock & hinge
Acceleration pedal Close doors and inspect the assembly
Inspect the indoor fuse and spare parts
Turn ignition switch to position Lift car
Radio debug Wear or broken of pipes for chassis, engine, brake and fuel
Radio/Cassette/CD and antenna Tightening and bolts of suspension system
M/T oil level
Turn ignition switch to position
Lower car
Inspection of all the alarming lamps, defects of dynamo,
Confirm all the torques for tire nuts
hand-brake, oil pressure, brake, A/T gear display, ABS, SRS
Label of tire pressure
AT startup protector
Tire pressure (including spare tire)
Tool and jack
Start engine
The operation of battery and dynamo as well as the displays of Driving test
various alarming lamps Driving performance
Idle speed Noise from interior, suspension and brake system
Operation of front washer Brake system and hand-brake
The operation of front wiper Automatic return of steering wheel
Turn signal light Vibration and its position of steering wheel
Side light and license plate light A/T gear shift (up and down)
Head lamp and high beam light (high beam indicator) Reading and canceling of odometer
Switch of fog light
Brake light and backup light Final inspection
Instrument light and light adjusting switch Cooling fan
Horn Idle speed/emission
Cigar lighter Leaking of fuel, engine oil, coolant and exhaust gas
Operation of sun roof Performance of hot startup
Fog-remover of rear windscreen and indicator Check ABS performance with ABS tester
Performance of air condition under each gear (refrigeration and
amount of blast) Final preparation
Cycle switch Clean the inside and outside of car
Power rear view mirror Check if water leaking into the car including trunk

GI-16

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SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE

SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE TABLE

MileageKm
Items 5000 15000 30000
Light, warning flasher, horn: check performance

Wiper and washing system: check performance, add washer fluid if necessary

Check clutch free pedal travel, adjust it if necessary

Cooling system: check antifreeze level, replace if necessary

Oil: Replace

Oil filter: Replace

Engine: check leakages (oil, antifreeze, fuel, A/C system)

Engine: adjust valve clearance (only applied on SQR 7160 sedan)

Battery: check electrolyte solution level, refill distilled water if necessary

Timing belt: check belt tension and wear, adjust or replace if necessary.

Engine hood hinge and lock: lubricate

Door hinge and door stopper: lubricate

Spark plug: check and replace if necessary

Air filter: clean shell, clean filter element and replace it if necessary.

Ignition timing: check

Fuel filter: replace

Exhaust system: check if leak and damage

Wedge belt: check tension, adjust or replace as necessary

Driver: check if leak or damage

Constant velocity joint dust boot: check if damaged

Steering tie rod joint: check clearance and if dust boot damaged

Steering universal joint assembly boot: check if misplaced or damaged

Power steering system: check if power steering oil level, steering gear & rack

clearance improper
Brake system: visually check if leak or damage and brake fluid level

Hand brake: check the travel, adjust if necessary

Brake lining: check its thickness

Under-body protective cover: check if damaged

Seat belt: check if damaged

Toe-in value and camber angle: measure, adjust if necessary

Ball pin: check the clearance

GI-17

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MileageKm
Items 5000 15000 30000
Engine oil sump bolt: check if loose, tighten if necessary

Control arm rubber boot: check if damaged

Braking hose: check if aged or damaged

Braking pipe: check if damaged, eroded or leaky connection

Fuel system connections: check if aged, damaged, abnormal loosening or rubbing

Tire (including spare tire): check tires veins depth, adjust tire pressure, check

wheel bolt tightening torque.
Tires exchange

Chassis and body connecting bolts: check if loose, tighten if necessary

Wheel: check if loose

Rear wheel hub bearing: check clearance and lubricating condition

CO content at idle: measure and adjust if necessary

Road test: check if all mechanism operates normally.

Note:
For manual transmission, replace gear oil in transmission case every year or 30,000 km. Replace brake fluid
every 2 years or 50,000 km.

When driving mileage reaches 5,000 km, perform 5,000 km maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 10,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 15,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 15,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 20,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 25,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 30,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 30,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 35,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km

GI-18

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maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 40,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 45,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 15,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 50,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 55,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 60,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 30,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 65,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 70,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 75,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 15,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 80,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 85,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 5,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 90,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 30,000 km
maintenance item.

When driving mileage reaches 95,000 km or 6 months after last service, perform 15,000 km
maintenance item.

GI-19

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ENGINE

LOCATION INDEX B-3

MECHANICAL LOCATION INDEX B-3

ENGINE TIMING B-4

TOP AND BOTTOM TIMING GEAR COVER ASSEMBLY B-4

TIMING BELT REMOVAL B-4

TIMING BELT INSTALLATION AND ALIGNMENT B-5

DRIVER BELT, TENSION PULLEY AND GENERATOR B-7

DETERMINATION OF ENGINE TIMINGTDC FOR CYLINDER 1 B-7

VALVE CLEARANCE B-9

VALVE MECHANISM COMPONENTS B-9

VALVE COVER AND GASKET B-10

ROCKER MECHANISM B-11

HYDRAULIC TAPPET B-12

VALVE, VALVE SPRING AND OIL SEAL ASSEMBLY OF THE VALVE B-13

COMPRESSION PRESSURE B-17

COMPRESSION INSPECTION B-17

CYLINDER HEAD GASKET B-19

CYLINDER HEAD GASKET REPLACEMENT B-19

FRONT OIL SEAL B-21

CRANKSHAFT PULLEY B-21

CRANKSHAFT GEAR B-22

FRONT OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT B-22

REAR OIL SEAL B-23

FLY WHEEL REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION B-23

B-1

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REAR OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT B-23

CAMSHAFT B-25

CAMSHAFT GEAR B-25

CAMSHAFT AND CAMSHAFT THRUST SPACER B-25

SIZE OF CAMSHAFT JOURNAL AND HOLE OF THE CYLINDER HEAD B-27

CRANKSHAFT B-28

CRANKSHAFT, CRANKSHAFT THRUST SPACER

BEARING SHELL AND MAIN BEARING CAP B-28

PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY B-33

PISTON REMOVAL, MEASURE AND INSTALLATION B-33

INSTALLATION OF THE PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY B-38

B-2

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LOCATION INDEX
MECHANICAL LOCATION INDEX

TIMING BELT
1
(SEE B-4 ENGINE TIMING)
VALVE MECHANISM COMPONENTS
2
(SEE B-9 VALVE CLEARANCE)
CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
3
(SEE B-19 CYLINDER HEAD GASKET REPLACEMENT)
FRONT OIL SEAL
4
(SEE B-21 FRONT OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT)
REAR OIL SEAL
5
(SEE B-23 REAR OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT)
CAMSHAFT
6
(SEE B-25 CAMSHAFT)
CRANKSHAFT
7 (SEE B-28 CRANKSHAFT, CRANKSHAFT THRUST SPACER, BEARING SHELL AND
MAIN BEARING CAP)
PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD
8
(SEE B-33 PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY)

B-3

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ENGINE TIMING

TOP AND BOTTOM TIMING GEAR


COVER ASSEMBLY
Removal
Loosen and unscrew two bolts of the top timing
gear cover assembly.
Remove the top timing gear cover and gasket
assembly.
Remove the gasket from the top timing gear
cover.
Remove the crank pulley.
Loosen and unscrew the two bolts on the timing
gear cover.
Remove the timing gear cover and gasket
assembly.
Remove the gasket from the bottom timing gear
cover.

Installation
Clean the bottom timing gear cover and fix the
new gasket on the bottom timing gear cover with
glue. Install the bottom timing gear cover and
gasket assembly on the crank shaft, screw in two
bolts by hands and tighten them for a moment of
9.0~11N.m.
Clean the top timing gear cover and fix the new
gasket on the top timing gear cover with glue. Fix
the top timing gear cover and gasket assembly on
the cylinder head with two bolts for a tightening
moment of 9~11N.m.

TIMING BELT REMOVAL

Rotate the crank shaft to the compression TDC


on the first cylinder. Loosen the two bolts on the
tension pulley (as indicated by the arrows in the
figure) and push the tension pulley towards one
side by a large-size screwdriver to release the
belt tension.

B-4

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Note: After the belt is taken out, do not rotate
the gear to a large extent, otherwise the
piston head and the valve will be damaged
due to collision. To continue using the
removed belt, carefully check whether
there is abnormal abrasion, stratified
cracks (especially those around the root)
or fouling on the belt. Replace it
immediately even if the slightest suspicion
exists.

TIMING BELT INSTALLATION AND


ALIGNMENT
Check whether the crank shaft is in the TDC
position for the first cylinder. If necessary,
slightly rotate the crank shaft for alignment and
lock it around the flywheel ring gear. Make the
tooth of the timing belt and the gullet of the
flywheel in gear and drag the belt to the right in
an upward vertical direction to enable it to
engage with the cam gear and slot.
When installing the old belt, be sure to keep the
original direction of movement and engage it with
the original engaging teeth. After the belt is in
place, check it and be sure that the positions of
two gears havent been changed.

Carefully coil the belt around the tension pulley


to enable it to engage with water pump gear.
Check it again to ensure that the positions of the
two teeth havent been changed.
Loosen the two fixing bolts of the tension pulley
to try to push it to the right (seeing from the
direction of pulley) as possible, tighten its two
fixing bolts and loosen the locking device of the
crankshaft.
Rotate the crankshaft clockwise (seeing from the
direction of pulley) for two circles to the
compression TDC position on the first cylinder.

B-5

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Hold the middle of the right belt that is away
from both the crankshaft gear and camshaft gear
with the thumb and the first finger. If the tension
of the belt is up to standard, the belt shall be
able to twist at 90at this point.

To adjust the tension of the belt, loosen the two


fixing bolts of the tension pulley, push the
tension pulley to the right with a screwdriver as
a ram, then fasten the fixing bolts again, rotate
the crank shaft and check the tension again.
Right tension may be obtained after 2~3
adjustments. Fasten the tension pulley with
fixing bolts for a moment of 16-20N. after such
adjustments are completed.

Timing gear

Bush

Key

Bolt: M12*1.5*30
Tightening torque: 52~60Nm

Tension Pulley
Bolt: M8*25
Tightening torque: 16~20Nm

Key

Crankshaft Gear

B-6

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DRIVER BELT, TENSION PULLEY AND
GENERATOR
Removal
Pull the abutment on the tension pulley by tools
to the direction of the generator (or align the
gauge holes on the front and rear part of the
tensioning device and drive a pin to fix the
tensioning device).
Remove the driver belt and the two fixing bolts
on the generator to take the generator out.

For installation, reverse the above removal


steps.

Tension pulley and Generator Bracket


Removal
Remove the three fixing bolts on the belt tension
pulley to take it out.
Loosen the connecting nuts on the cylinder head
and binding bolts on the cylinder block on the
generator bracket.

For installation, reverse the above removal


steps.

DETERMINATION OF ENGINE TIMING


TDC FOR CYLINDER 1

Unscrew 2 M6 bolts to remove upper timing gear


cover. Put one wrench on the bolts of crank
pulley, rotate the crank shaft clockwise (seeing
from the direction of pulley) until the top dead
center (TDC) gap indicator on the pulley lines up
with the TDC indicator (O) on the bottom timing
gear cover.

Note: The spark plug can be taken away


before rotating the crank for labor
saving.

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Check whether the TDC indicator on the cam
shaft gear lines up with that on the front end of
cylinder head. If not, rotate the crank shaft
clockwise in one full circle to make them line up
with each other. At this time, the engine is in the
position of TDC of the first cylinder.

In case the crank pulley and timing gear have


been removed, the TDC for the first cylinder can
be determined as follows:

Rotate the crankshaft to make the TDC indicator


on the crank pulley line up with that on the oil
pump body. Check whether the TDC indicator on
the cam shaft gear lines up with that on the front
end of cylinder head. If not, rotate the crank shaft
for one circle to make the cam gear indicator line
up with that on the cylinder head.

B-8

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VALVE CLEARANCE

VALVE MECHANISM COMPONENTS

Rocker arm (8 pcs) Rocker nut (16 pcs)


Tightening torque: 25~29Nm

Rocker ram seat (8 pcs)

Valve keeper (16 pcs) Rocker ram seat washer (8 pcs)


Hydraulic tappet (8 pcs)
Upper seat of valve Clearance: 0.023~0.065
spring (8 pcs)

Valve spring (8 pcs)


Rocker arm stud (8 pcs)
Lower seat of valve Torque: 18~23Nm
spring (8 pcs)

Exhaust valve (4 pcs) (LH)


Clearance: 0.046~0.095

Intake valve (4pcs) (RH)


Clearance: 0.02~0.069

B-9
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VALVE COVER AND GASKET

Cupped gasket
Valve Cover
Cupped
Removal gasket

for valve cover


Gasket assembly
Remove 9 bolts to take out the cupped gasket
and high tension wire support, clutch and
throttle cable support.

Remove the valve cover and gasket assembly.


Take the sheet gasket out.

Installation

Clean the junction face of the cylinder head


and the valve cover.
Push the wedge of the sheet gasket for the
valve cover into corresponding valve cover to
integrate them.
Install the combined valve cover and sheet
gasket assembly on the cylinder head.
Put 9 hexagonal-head long cylindrical end
bolts into the cupped gaskets and supports and
screw them into the cylinder head.
Tighten the bolts in 2 steps according to the
graphics and tightening order. First step:
tighten them to the moment of
4.0-6.0Nm.Second step: tighten them to the
moment of 8.0-10.0Nm.

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ROCKER MECHANISM

Removal
Loosen the rocker nuts to take them out.

Take the level bracket out.


Take the rocker arm out.
Take the gasket of the level bracket out.
Place each set of rock arm and level
bracket in one same plastic bag for
distinction. The removed rocker nuts
cannot be reused.

Installation:
Check whether theire is abnormal abrasion on
the contact surface of the rocker. Replace it if
necessary.
Put the rocker seat gasket into the stud.
Lubricate the rocker arm and rocker seat by
motor oil.
Install the rocker arm and seat, screw in the
new nuts by hands, then tighten them for the
moment of 2529N.m.

Note: The corresponding hydraulic


tappet shall be in the Min.
position before each rocker
arm is installed and tightened
with nuts.

B-11

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HYDRAULIC TAPPET

Removal
Take the hydraulic tappets out and place them
into an oil-filled vessel to prevent the hydraulic
tappet oil from leaking out.
Check the top and bottom contact surfaces of
the hydraulic tappet to observe whether there
are abnormal abrasion or scrapes. If yes,
replace it with new one if necessary.

Installation
Apply hyperbolic gear oil or motor oil on the
tappet and external diameter as well as its two
ends and place the tappet into the cylinder
head hole in the original order.

Tappet

Size of Hydraulic Tappet

Outside circle diameter Hole diameter of the cylinder Fit clearance


Class
(unit: mm) head tappet (unit: mm) (unit: mm)
Standard 22.200~22.212 22.250.015 0.023~0.065
T25 22.454~22.466 22.500.015 0.023~0.065

B-12

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VALVE, VALVE SPRING AND OIL SEAL
ASSEMBLY OF THE VALVE
Removal

Compress the valve spring with a special


compression device and take the valve cotter out.
Do not over compress the spring, which shall be
compressed to the travel stroke that the valve
cotter can slide from the groove, otherwise the
valve stem may bend.
If the valve cotter cannot slide out when the spring
is compressed, remove the compression device and
place a proper pipe on the spring seat. In this way,
the valve cotter will not be collided. Place a piece
of wood on the valve head (with the side of the
combustion chamber of the cylinder head towards
the table) and then hammer at the top of the pipe.
Reinstall the special compression device and
compress the valve spring to take the cotter out.
After the valve cotter is taken out, slowly loosen
the bolts to remove the compression device.
Remove the valve spring seat and valve spring and
take the valve oil seal and spring seat assembly out
with a screwdriver. The seal oil seal spring seat
must be replaced.

CYLINDER
1
Put one set of valve, valve cotter, spring and spring
seat into one plastic bag, each of which shall be
tagged with numbers for installing them back to the
original position.

B-13

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Valve stem size and fit clearance

Intakemm Exhaustmm
Class Inner Diameter
Diameter of Inner Diameter
Diameter of Clearance of valve Clearance
valve stem of valve guide
valve guide stem

Standard 8.043 +00.018 8.0638.094 8.017 +00.018 8.0638.094


0.02 0.046
0.069 0.095
Oversized
8.443 +00.018 8.4638.494 8.417 +00.018 8.4638.494
0.4

Measure the free length and elasticity of the


valve spring

Free Length
Compression Spring load
of Spring
length (mm) (N)
(mm)
L1=37.084 422

L2=27.7 892.7 L0=47.2

L3=27.0 945

B-14

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Grinding valve and valve seat ring

UAESs new
two-valve

Face angle of intake valve 4430---4530


Width of the sealing band
for the intake valve seat 1.75---2.32mm
ring
Face angle of exhaust
91 (0-030)
valve
Width of the sealing band
for the exhaust valve seat 1.440.1
ring

Installation
Before installation, the cylinder head shall be
completely cleaned and there shall be no any trace
of abrasive dust on the cylinder head, valve or
valve guide.
Lubricate the valve stem and valve guide bore with
clean motor oil.
Install the valve. The assembly shall be completed
according to the original valve indicators.
Note: The intake valves are interchangeable, but
the exhaust valves are not.

Press the valve oil seal and spring seat assembly


into the upper end of the valve guide, apply some
motor oil on the guide opening or the edge of the
valve oil seal and wrap the glove of the valve cotter
by adhesive tape. After the valve is installed, take
away the adhesive tape.

Install the valve spring and valve spring seat,


compress the valve spring seat to the stroke that
enables the valve cotter groove to appear by special
compression device and install the cotter. Then
slowly release the compression device and remove
it.

After the whole valve cotter is installed, put the


cylinder head on a piece of wood and knock at the
small end of the valve stem by a plastic or copper
hammer to help the valve mechanism to be in place
better.

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Size of intake valve seat ring and cylinder head
seat ring bore
Diameter of Diameter of
intake the seat ring Interfer
Class valve seat bore of ence
ring (unit: cylinder (mm)
mm) head (mm)

Standard 43.877 +00..01


01 43.763 0+0.025
0.079
Oversized +0.01 +0.025

44.377 0.01 44.263 0
0.5
0.124
Oversized
44.877 +00..01
01 44.763 0+0.025
1.0

Size of exhaust valve seat ring and cylinder head seat ring bore
Diameter of exhaust valve Diameter of cylinder head Interference
Class
seat ring (mm) seat ring bore (mm) (mm)
Standard 38.877 +00..01
01 38.263 0+0.025
Oversized
39.377 +00..01
01 38.763 0+0.025 0.0790.124
0.5
Oversized
39.877 +00..01
01 39.263 0+0.025
1.0
UAESs
new 38.377 +00..01
01 38.263 0+0.025
two-valve
Oversized 0.0790.124
38.877 +00..01
01 38.763 0+0.025
0.5
Oversized
39.377 +00..01
01 39.263 0+0.025
1.0

Size of valve guide and valve guide bore


Valve guide bore Diameter of cylinder head Interference
Class
(unit: mm) guide hole (unit: mm) (unit: mm)

Standard 13.555 00.01 13.48113.519

Oversized 14.305 00.01 14.23114.269 0.0260.07

Oversized 14.505 00.01 14.48114.519

B-16

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COMPRESSION PRESSURE
COMPRESSION INSPECTION
Warning
Hot engines and oil can cause severe burns. Be careful not to burn yourself during
removal/installation of each component.
1. Verify that the battery is fully charged.
Recharge it if necessary.
2. Warm up the engine to the normal operating temperature.
3. Stop the engine and allow it to cool off for about 10 min.
4. Perform Fuel Line Safety Procedures. Leave the fuel pump relay removed.

Warning
Fuel vapor is hazardous. It can very easily ignite, causing serious injury and damage.
Always keep sparks and flames away from fuel.
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious injuries
or death and damage. Fuel can also irritate skin and eyes. To prevent this, always
complete the Fuel Line Safety Procedure.

5. Remove the ignition coil connector.


6. Remove the spark plugs.
7. Connect a compression gauge into the spark plug
hole.
8. Fully depress the accelerator pedal and crank the
engine.
9. Note the maximum gauge reading.
10. Inspect each cylinder as above.

If the measured value is less than the limited value, or there is a cylinder whose
compression value varies from that of other cylinders, add a small amount of engine oil
through the spark plug hole. Then measure the compression pressure and perform the
respective operations for the following cases.
If the compression increases, the piston, the piston rings, or cylinder wall may be worn
and overhaul is required.
If the compression stays low, a valve may be stuck or improperly seated and overhaul is
required.
If the compression in adjacent cylinders stays low, the cylinder head gasket may be
damaged or the cylinder head distorted and overhaul is required.

B-17

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Cylinder Pressure Standard Value1.00-1.35 Mpa (10-13.5 kgf/cm2)

11. Disconnect the compression gauge.


12. Install the spark plugs.
13. Connect the ignition coil connector.
14. Install the fuel pump relay.

B-18

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CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
CYLINDER HEAD GASKET
REPLACEMENT

Removal
Rotate the cam shaft clockwise until the key slot
goes downwards vertically.
Loosen the bolts on the cylinder head in the order
illustrated in the figure.

Note: The bolts removed from the cylinder head


must be changed and cannot be reused.

Inspection and Installation


Check the out-of-flat of the base plane of the
cylinder head, which shall not be above 0.15mm.

Clean the threaded holes of the cylinder block. No


lubricant shall be settled in the threaded holes,
otherwise the liquid pressure may lead to the
cracking of the cylinder block after the bolts are
screwed in.

Rotate the crank shaft clockwise to the position


that enables the piston of the first cylinder to be
about 20mm lower than the top plane of the
cylinder block, thus to avoid the valve to collide
with the top of the piston when installing the
cylinder head assembly.

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Put the cylinder gasket into the dowel.

Note: The side with indicator of the cylinder


gasket shall be upward.

Install the cylinder head in place with the key slot


of the cam shaft downward vertically.

Note: The cylinder gasket can only be used for


one time, so the removed one shall be A. Location Pin B. Gasket
replaced with a new one when removing
the cylinder head.

Put the bolts and the flat gasket of the cylinder


head into the threaded hole to screw them in by
hands.

Tighten the bolts of the cylinder head in four steps


according to the order illustrated in the figure:

a. First step: tighten it at the moment of


20-40N.
b. Second step: tighten it at the moment of
20-40N.
c. Third step: rotate 90 degrees.
d. Fourth step: rotate 90 degrees.
e. Moment-angular tension indicating
wrench can be used for degree rotation.

B-20

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FRONT OIL SEAL

CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
Removal

Removal 3 fixing bolts on the starter to take it out.


Fasten the flywheel ring gear with a proper
screwdriver or rod to disenable the crank shaft to
rotate.

Loosen the fixing bolts of the crank pulley and


take out the bolts and washer to pull out the pulley
(use a gear puller, if necessary).

Installation
Bolt: M12*35
Clean the pulley and crankshaft journals and wipe Tightening torque: 100~115Nm
clean the lube in the pulley groove. Install the
pulley on the crank shaft journal, with the key slot
to line up with the whiney key.
Put the washer over the bolts and screw it in by
hands. Fasten the flywheel ring gear to disenable
Pulley
the crank shaft to rotate. Tighten the bolts for a
moment of 100-115N.m

B-21

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CRANKSHAFT GEAR

Removal
Fix the crankshaft to disenable it to rotate and
remove the pulley.
Pull the crankshaft gear out by a wheel puller or
two large-size screw drivers and remove the
whiney key.
Installation
Check whether there are abrasion, pit corrosion or
scrapes on the gear.
Install the whiney key, with a protrusion height of
1.392-1.739mm.
Install the gasket and pay attention to its direction
(with the warped surface forward).
Install the crank shaft gear (with the convex
surface forward), place it on the locating abutment
with a auxiliary pulley and bolts.

FRONT OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT


FRONT
Front Oil Seal Removal OIL SEAL

Cut the oil seal lip using a razor knife.


Remove the oil seal using a screwdriver protected
with a rag.

Front Oil Seal Installation Note

Apply clean engine oil to the oil seal lip.


Push the oil seal slightly in by hand.
Tap the oil seal in evenly using the SST and a
hammer.

B-22

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REAR OIL SEAL

FLY WHEEL REMOVAL AND


INSTALLATION

Removal
Remove 9 fixing bolts. New bolts shall be used
for installation.
Remove the fly wheel to check whether there
are cracks on the friction surface of the clutch
plate and there is abrasion and pit corrosion on
the teeth of the ring gear, etc.

Installation
The clearance of the ring gear and the fly
wheel is 0.48-0.86mm. The ring gear shall be
pressed into the fly wheel after heating.
The gauge holes of the fly wheel and the
locating journal are easy fit at a clearance of
0.012-0.074mm. It shall be gently pushed into
the journal after alignment. Do not hammer at
the crank shaft.
During the assembly process, align the
installation mark bore and the manufacturing
bore on the crank shaft. Tighten 9 new bolts
applied with a coat of glue in advance at a
moment of 82-92Nm.

REAR OIL SEAL REPLACEMENT

Removal
Remove 4 bolts (as indicated by arrows).
Take the rear oil seal support assembly out.
Take the rear oil seal support gasket.

B-23

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Pries the rear oil seal out of the rear oil seal
support with a chisel or a screwdriver. Note: do
not damage the rear oil seal support.

Installation
Put the support on the vice clamp whose jaw
has a piece of wood.
Make the side with the part numbers of the rear
oil seal outward and align the rear oil seal with
the rear oil seal support bore. Press the rear oil
seal into its support with a vice clamp, with the
clearance between the rear oil seal and oil seal
support bore to be 0.260.50mm.

Install the new rear oil seal support gasket.


Install the rear oil seal assembly. Before
assembling, wrap a piece of plastic plate on the
crank shaft to avoid colliding the oil seal. And
apply some motor oil on the oil seal edge and
oil seal journal.
Measure the out-of-flat of the bottom plane of
the rear oil seal bracket and the sump flange
surface of the cylinder block, which shall be
within the range of 0.26mm.

Tighten the 4 M6 bolts to a moment of


8.0-11.0Nm.
Take away the plastic tape.

Seal
Bolt: M6*20(4 pcs)
washer
Tightening torque: 8~11Nm

B-24

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CAMSHAFT

CAMSHAFT GEAR
Removal
Rotate the crankshaft to the compression TDC
position of the first cylinder.
Remove the belt.
Put one pole into one hole of the cam shaft gear to
lock it. Loosen the gear bolts and remove them and
the gasket.
Note:
New bolts shall be used for reinstallation. The
camshafts of different engines are not
interchangeable. In case the cam shaft shall be
replaced, replace it with a new one according to
the indicators on the original gear.
Installation
Check whether there are abrasion, pit corrosion or
scrapes on the gear.
Install the whitney key of the cam shaft, with a
protrusion height of 1.64-2.11mm.
Install the camshaft gear onto the camshaft and put
new bolts into the gasket. The new bolts that
havent been applied with a coat of glue in
advance shall be applied with a coat of glue first
and be tightened for a moment of 52-60N.m.
Check whether the crank shaft is in the
compression TDC position.

CAMSHAFT AND CAMSHAFT THRUST


SPACER

Removal
Measure the axial clearance of the cam shaft,
which shall be between 0.049~0.129mm.
Loosen the bolts of the thrust spacer to take them
out.
Take the thrust spacer out (as illustrated in the
figure).

B-25

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Draw the cam shaft assembly out from the rear end
of the cylinder head and be careful not to damage
the cam shaft hole of the cylinder head during this
process.

Inspection
Check whether there is any abrasion on the cam
and the journal of the cam shaft. Change the one
with serious abrasion.
Change the thrust space if the axial clearance of
the cam shaft is above the specification.
Measure the bore diameter of the cam shaft of the
cylinder head or check the relative displacement of
the journal and bore with the cam shaft. Change the
cam shaft if the bore is excessively wore.

Cam Height
Engine model Admission cam T (unit: mm) Exhaust cam T (unit: mm)
480 38.602 37.586
480E 37.559 37.559

B-26

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SIZE OF CAMSHAFT JOURNAL AND
HOLE OF THE CYLINDER HEAD
Installation
To replace the cam shaft, observe the shape of the
rear end of the cam shaft for right selection.
Before installation, apply the cam of the cam shaft
with hyperbolic gear oil or motor oil. The cam
shaft shall be assembled from the cylinder head in
a back-to-front order.
Apply some motor oil to the thrust spacer of the
cam shaft and put the thrust spacer into the groove
of the cylinder head.
Screw two bolts into the threaded holes of the
thrust spacer and tighten them for a moment of
913Nm.
Check the axial clearance of the cam shaft, which
shall be within the specified range.
If adopting oversized hydraulic tappet (0.25), a
carefully selected cam shaft shall be used,
otherwise it will block the hydraulic tappet.

1. Standard size

Number of cam shaft Diameter of cam shaft journal Diameter of the cam shaft hold of the
journal (unit: mm) cylinder head (unit: mm)
1 44.7444.76 44.78344.808
2 44.9945.01 45.03345.058
3 45.2445.26 45.28345.308
4 45.4945.51 45.53345.558
5 45.7445.76 45.78345.808

2. Oversized (0.38)

Number of cam shaft Diameter of cam shaft journal Diameter of the cam shaft hold of the
journal (unit: mm) cylinder head (unit: mm)
1 45.1245.14 45.16345.188
2 45.3745.39 45.41345.438
3 45.6245.64 45.66345.688
4 45.8745.89 45.91345.938
5 46.1246.14 45.16345.188

B-27

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CRANKSHAFT

CRANKSHAFT, CRANKSHAFT THRUST


SPACER, BEARING SHELL AND MAIN
BEARING CAP
Removal
Check the axial clearance of the crank shaft before
removal.
Kiss the end side of the crank shaft with the
contacts of a dial gauge (less degree of shrinkage).
Push the crank shaft away from the contacts and
adjust the dial gauge to 0, then push the crank shaft
to the direction of contacts as possible with a0 stout
carrying pole. Check the reading of the dial gauge,
which shall be the axial clearance. The axial
clearance of a crank shaft is 0.092-0.303mm.
The leaf of a clearance gauge can be used to check
the axial clearance of a crank shaft if there is no
dial gauge, which shall be placed between the third
main bearing cap and crank shaft (push and pull the
crank shaft).
Loosen the bolts and studs of the main bearing
shell, (beginning from the middle bearing cap),
take out the bolts and the threaded rods to remove
the main bearing cap and the lower shell of the
main bearing shell. This lower shell shall still
remain in the main bearing cap.
Take the crank shaft out.
Remove the crank shaft thrust spaces (2 pieces)
from the cylinder block.

Inspection
Check the main journal and main bearing shell
clearance.
Clean the main journal of the crank shaft, the
internal bore of the main bearing cap and main
bearing shell with a non-woven fabrics. Place the
plastic clearance gauge (its length slightly shorter
than the length of the main journal) on the main
journal, which shall be in parallel with the
generator of the main journal.
Note: Do not rotate the crank shaft

B-28

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Install the main bearing cap. Tighten the bolts of
the main bearing cap at the moment of 90-100N.m
by hands. Do not rotate the crank shaft.

Remove the main bearing bolts. Carefully take


out the main bearing cap and arrange them in order.
Read the bearing clearance according to the ratio
on the envelope of the plastic clearance gauge.
Check the bearing clearance from the third main
bearing and extend to both sides. The main bearing
clearance shall be 0.0110.058mm.
Check the bearing clearance of the connecting rod.
Check the bearing clearance of the connecting rod
according to the above methods. The bearing
clearance of the connecting rod shall be 0.006
0.06mm.

Size of connecting rod journal and connecting-rod bearing shell

Diameter of Thickness of
connecting rod connecting-rod
Class journal bearing shell
(unit: mm) (unit: mm)
Standard 47.8947.91 1.4801.487
Downsized
47.8947.91 1.4921.499
by 0.025
Downsized
47.6447.66 1.6051.612
by 0.25
Downsized
47.3947.41 1.7301.737
by 0.5
Downsized
47.1447.16 1.8551.862
by 0.75
Downsized
47.8946.91 1.9801.987
by1.0

B-29

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Diameter of main journal and size of main bearing shell

Diameter of the main bearing Thickness of the main


Diameter of main
Class bore of the cylinder block bearing shell
journal (unit: mm)
(unit: mm) (unit: mm)
Standard 57.9858.00 62.2935+0.0065 2.1312.138
Oversized by 0.4 57.9858.00 62.6935+0.0065 2.3312.338
Downsized by 0.02 57.9858.00 62.2935+0.0065 2.1412.148
Downsized by 0.25 57.7357.75 62.2935+0.0065 2.2562.263
Downsized by 0.50 57.4857.50 62.2935+0.0065 2.3812.388
Downsized by 0.75 57.2357.25 62.2935+0.0065 2.5062.513
Downsized by 0.25
and oversized by 57.7357.75 62.6935+0.0065 2.4562.463
0.4
Downsized by 0.50
and oversized by 57.4857.50 62.6935+0.0065 2.5182.558
0.4
Downsized by 0.75
and oversized by 57.2357.25 62.6935+0.0065 2.7062.713
0.4

Size of crank shaft thrust, thrust spacer and cylinder block thrust

Size of cylinder block thrust Size of crank shaft thrust Thickness of thrust
Class
(unit: mm) (unit: mm) spacer (unit: mm)
Standard 24+0.03 28.825-28.875 2.326+0.025
Oversized
24+0.03 29.205-29.255 2.516+0.025
by 0.38

2 thrust spacers

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Installation
Before installation, tap the threaded hole on
the cylinder block with tapping drill,
especially those of the cylinder head bolts and
main bearing bolts.
Cylinder head bolt: M10X1.5~6H
Main bearing bolt: M12X1.75~6H
Installation of the whiney key of the crank
shaft: gently drive the whiney key into the key
slot. The clearance between the whiney key
and key slot is 0.00~0.051mm. Check the
protrusion after the whiney key is installed,
which shall be 1.392~1.739mm.
There are two pieces of crank shaft thrust
spacers, which are installed on the front and
rear thrust surfaces. Before installation, apply
some motor oil on the side of the thrust spacer
with oil groove and make this side towards the
cylinder block and the other side towards the
crank shaft.
Apply some motor oil on the main journal,
connecting rod journal, thrust surface and
bearing shell before the crank shaft is
installed.
The top of the main bearing cap is cast with
numbers- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and one arrow. During
the assembly, start the installation in a
front-to-back order and enable the guide
finger towards the front end surface of the
cylinder block. The width of 1, 2, 4, 5 main
bearing cap is same, but that of the third main
bearing cap is larger than others. The location
of the main bearing cap depends on the rabbet
and the rabbet and the cylinder block is
interference fit, with the interference to be
0.025~0.145mm. After the assembly, the sides
of the first and fifth main bearing cap shall be
even with or lower than the back and front
end surface of the cylinder block.

Among the main bearing bolts, 9 are


hexagonal-head flanged bolts and 1 is stud.
For transverse engine, the stud shall be
installed on the left threaded hole of the
second main bearing cap (seeing from the
front) for installing the support of the suction
strainer. For a north-south engine, the stud

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shall be installed on the left threaded hole of
the fourth main bearing cap (seeing from the
front).
Apply some motor oil on the head joint before
installing the main bearing cap bolts.
Tighten the main bearing cap bolts and stud
by hands, then tighten them to the moment
of 90~100Nm.

The twist moment of the crank shaft


(assembly with piston connecting rod) is
16Nm max.

Oil baffle assembly


Removal
Take the oil baffle assembly out from the
right side of the back of the cylinder block
(seeing from the front)
Installation
Install the oil baffle assembly from the right
side of the back of the cylinder block (see
from the front). The tension spring of the oil
baffle assembly shall be lower than the
crankcase flange of the cylinder block.

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PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
PISTON REMOVAL, MEASURE AND INSTALLATION

Removal

Rotate the crank shaft to the bottom dead


center (BDC) of the removed cylinder, check
whether there is a cylinder number on the
connecting rod body and cap, which shall be
on the left of the rod (seeing from the front).
If there is no such a number, number each
cylinder before removal.

Remove the connecting rod bolts to dismantle


the connecting rod cap, take the
connecting-rod bearing shell out and label the
cylinder number and bottom and top shell on
the back of the shell.

Push the connecting rod and piston out from


the cylinder block with a wooden club and
take the cylinder rod out.
Remove the piston ring with a special tool or
the leaf of a clearance gauge and label each
cylinder and bottom and top leaf.

Press the piston pin out of the piston and the


small end of the connecting rod with a press
machine and put the piston, piston ring and
pin of each cylinder together.

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Rinsing and inspection

Rinse and clean the carbon deposit on the


piston, piston ring and pin.
Rinse and clean the carbon deposit on the
bottom of the cylinder bore.
Measure the diameter of the cylinder bore.

480 M cylinder bore (unit: mm) 480 E cylinder bore (unit: mm)
1 79.94-79.95 1 79.94-79.95
Ex-factory 2 79.95-79.96 2 79.95-79.96
grouping 3 79.96-79.97 3 79.96-79.97
4 79.97-79.98 4 79.97-79.98
A 80.23-80.24 A 80.23-80.24
Ex-factory
B 80.24-80.25 B 80.24-80.25
repair
C 80.25-80.26 C 80.25-80.26
Standard 79.965-77.975 Standard 79.965-77.975
For
Maintenance Oversized by 0.29 80.245-80.255 Oversized by 0.29 80.245-80.255
Oversized by 0.5 80.466-80.475 Oversized by 0.5 80.466-80.475

Grind the cylinder bore according to the size for


maintenance with the grinding angle to be 50
~60.

Measure the piston from the point that is 19mm


away from the bottom of the skirt.

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Diameter of UAESs
Diameter of 480M piston skirt Diameter of 480E
new two-valve piston
(unit: mm) piston skirt (unit: mm)
skirt (unit: mm)
1 79.91-79.92 79.915-79.925 79.915-79.925
Ex-factory 2 79.92-79.93 79.925-79.935 79.925-79.935
grouping 3 79.93-79.94 79.935-79.94 79.935-79.94
4 79.94-79.95 79.945-79.955 79.945-79.955
A 80.20-80.21 80.205-80.215 80.205-80.215
Ex-factory
B 80.21-80.22 80.215-80.225 80.215-80.225
repair
C 80.22-80.23 80.225-80.235 80.225-80.235
Standard 79.93-79.955 79.965-79.975
Spare
Oversized by 0.29 80.21-80.235 80.245-80.255
parts
Oversized by 0.5 80.43-80.455 80.465-80.475 80.435-80.455

Measure the diameter of piston pin bore

Diameter of 480M piston pin bore (unit: mm) Diameter of 480E piston pin bore (unit: mm)
White 20.630-20.633 White 20.630-20.633
Red 20.633-20.636 Red 20.633-20.636
Blue 20.636-20.639 Blue 20.636-20.639

Measure the diameter of the piston pin

Diameter of 480M piston pin bore (unit: mm) Diameter of 480E piston pin bore (unit: mm)
White 20.622-20.625 White 20.622-20.625
Red 20.625-20.628 Red 20.625-20.628
Blue 20.628-20.631 Blue 20.628-20.631

Measure the end clearance of the piston


ring
First compression ring: 0.30-0.50mm
Second compression ring: 0.30-0.50mm
Oil ring: 0.40-1.40mm

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Measure the axial clearance of piston ring in the piston groove

Height of the piston Size of piston ring Fit clearance


ring (unit: mm) groove (unit: mm) (unit: mm)
First compression ring 1.60 0-0 012 1.6 +0.06
+0.04 0.050-0.082
Second compression 2.0 0 2.0 +0.06
-0.012 +0.04 0.050-0.082
ring
Sealing strip of oil ring 0.610.025
0.01-0.23
Spring of oil ring 2.680.05 4.0 +0.03
+0.01

Cast iron oil ring 4.0 -0.015 4.0 +0.03


0.025-0.055
-0.025 +0.01

480 UAESs new two-valve

Height of the piston ring Size of piston ring groove


(unit: mm) (unit: mm)
First compression
1.2-0.03-0.01 1.20.030.05
ring
Second
1.5-0.03-0.01 1.50.020.04
compression ring
Sealing strip of 0.460.02
oil ring 2.750.05 30.010.03
Spring of oil ring 2.00.02

Measure the small-end bore diameter of the


connecting rod20.589
Check whether the big-end injection hole of the
connecting rod is blocked, with the outlet
diameter to be 1mm.

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Installation

Piston weights and spare piston skirts are not


grouped, but the piston pin holes shall be
grouped. Before assembly, check the piston
crown marks. The marks of the four cylinders
must be same.
Heat the small end of the connecting rod to Forward
230~400, apply SAE50 lube or glue type of pointing bump
graphite oil, then press the piston pin into the
small end bore of the connecting rod and the
piston pin bore. One end of the piston pin can
be 0.7mmmaxhigher than the pin boss or
lower than the pin seat, and the other end shall
be in the pin boss.
The forward pointing arrow on the piston
crown and the forward pointing bump on the
external surface of the piston pin seat shall be
in the same direction with the F near the big
end on the connecting rod body (For some
blanks forged with the number 480, the side
with the number shall be upward.
After connecting the piston, piston pin and the
connecting rod together, print or chisel the
cylinder number (size: 3mm) on the top of the
piston, connecting rod body and left of the
connecting rod cap. The printing shall not lead
to the distortion of the junction plane.

When installing the piston ring, the side with


characters shall be upward and the external
slit of the second compression ring shall be
downward. Detailed order is as follows: (1)
install the oil control piston ring; (2) install
the second compression ring and (3) install
Only one side
the first compression ring. When installing the
First compression ring
ring, the max. expanding must be less than
(size of cylinder bore + 1.65mm) , otherwise
the ring is subject to distortion or broken off. 2nd compression ring
The opening of the two sealing strips of Steel
belt combination oil control ring shall be
Steel belt combination
staggered from each other by 120while the oil control ring
one of cast iron oil ring shall be stagger from
that of spiral bushing ring by 180. The Cast spiral oil control ring
piston shall be able to rotate freely in the ring
groove and no jamming shall exist.

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Size of piston ring

480# piston ring


Paint mark (type) Paint mark (type)
No paint (Standard) No paint (Standard)
Purple paint (oversized by 0.29) Purple paint (oversized by 0.29)
Blue paint (oversized by 0.5) Blue paint (oversized by 0.5)

INSTALLATION OF THE PISTON AND


CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY

Apply some motor oil in the piston, piston ring


and cylinder, with the first and second
compression ring staggered from the opening
of the oil control piston ring by 120, then
install the piston and connecting rod assembly
into the cylinder. The piston and connecting
rod assembly may be pushed into the cylinder
by a hammer.
Apply some motor oil on the connecting-rod
bearing shell and install the connecting rod cap
and body. The connecting rod cap is fixed by
two elastic dowels.
Tighten the connecting rod bolts to the moment
of 30-36N.m. Before installation, apply some
motor oil on the bolt heads and threads.
The side clearance of the big end of the
connecting rod is 0.0092-0.268mm.

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LUBRICATION SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION OF LUBRICATION SYSTEM D-2

OIL PAN D-3

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY D-3

OIL FILLING D-5

OIL STRAINER ASSEMBLY D-5

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY D-5

OIL PUMP AND FRONT OIL SEAL D-6

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY D-6

OIL FILTER AND OIL PRESSURE SENSOR D-10

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY D-10

OIL PRESSURE TESTING PARAMETER LIST D-11

D-1
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ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION OF LUBRICATION SYSTEM

The rotor oil pump (1) at the front end of the


crankshaft sucks oil out of the oil pan (3) by
oil strainer (2) and pressurizes oil, and then
the pressurized oil will enter the full-flow oil
filter through the auxiliary oil passage (4) at
the left side of the cylinder(view from the
front). A relief valve (6) is set up inside the oil
pump to control the pressure at the main oil
passage. The relief valve opens at
440kpa+20kpa, and the filtered oil flow from
the center hole in oil filter through the center
hole of the filter terminal to the engine main
oil passage.

The main oil passage lubricate the main


bearing through holes on the cylinder block
and lubricate the connecting-rod bearing
1. Oil Pump Rotor Assembly 6. Oil Pump Relief Valve
through the oil passage inside the crank shaft. 2. Oil Strainer 7. Oil Filter
3. Oil Pan 8. Oil Pressure Sensor
4. Cylinder Auxiliary Oil Passage 9. Camshaft
5. Cylinder Main Oil Passage 10. Hydraulic Jib

On the side of the vent pipe of the


connecting-rod bearing is a small oil hole
from where oil will eject to lubricate piston
pin and cylinder.

Oil pressure sensor (8) is close to oil filter,


connected to the main passage through an
internal oil passage. And engine oil will be
provided upward to the third camshaft journal
from the upper oil passage.

Other camshaft journals get oil from the


middle passage of the camshaft, whose ends
are sealed with steel balls.

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Hydraulic jib gets oil through the oil passage
through which the oil tank at the camshaft
supplies oil to the cylinder cap.
The interface between valve rocker and hydraulic
jib is lubricated by oil through the oil hole in
hydraulic jib.
Rocker seat is lubricated by oil through cylinder
cap oil passage. The interface between valve
small end and rocker is lubricated through
splashes.

OIL PAN

Disassembly:
To unscrew the oil-tapping bolt and empty the
pan.
To unscrew 18 M6X20 bolts.
To take out the oil pan gasket.
To check if both reinforcing pads are clamped
tightly on the back of the oil pan flange.

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Assembly:
To spread Letai 598 seal glue or GY409
anaerobic glue on the connecting areas between
cylinder oil pan flange and oil pump body and
rear oil seal support.

A From crankcase to oil pump body


B From crankcase to rear oil seal support

To put the new rubber gasket on the cylinder


body, placing both ends of the gasket into the rear
oil seal support and oil pump rut.
To install oil pan, placing both ends of the gasket
into oil pan rut. F

To screw up the bolts (the bolts shown in the up


left figure first) manually.
To screw up the bolts to 5.0 8.0N.m in order as
shown in the left figure.

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OIL FILLING

To fill the engine with 3.1 0.15L of oil


(SAE10W/30SF grade, or SAE5W/30SJ grade at
temperature lower than -18)
The oil surface shall be between max and
min on the dipstick.

OIL STRAINER ASSEMBLY

Disassembly:
To unscrew the locknut of the oil strainer support
and take out the nut and gasket.
To unscrew and take out the support bolt.
To unscrew oil strainer flange bolts (two) and
take out two gasket bolts with spring.

To install the new oil strainer gasket to the oil Oil Strainer Assembly
pump flange, setup the oil strainer assembly and M6X16: M6x16 Bolt
screw up two bolts with gaskets. To screw the Fastening Torque Of 8.0-12.0N.M
Washer Bolts with Spring (Two)
Fastening Torque Of
8.0-12.0N.M
oil strainer support to the cylinder using M8
Nut
bolts, put the support onto the stud on the left of
the second main bearing cap, place back the flat
washer and screw up the nuts manually. Flat

To screw up the oil strainer flange bolt to


8-12N.m.
To screw up the support bolt to 17-23N.m.
To screw up the locknut to 17-23N.m

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OIL PUMP AND FRONT OIL SEAL

Disassembly:
To unscrew and take out six M6X30 hexagon
flange bolts.
To take out oil pump and front oil seal assembly.

To use a screwdriver or chisel to take out the


crankshaft front oil seal and pay attention not to
touch or damage the front oil seal.

To take out 7 M6 bolts (as indicated by the


arrows in the figure).

To demount the oil pump cover plate.

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To take out the internal and external rotors.

To check out the clearance between the pump


external rotor and pump body. The oil pump
external rotor shall have a clearance of
0.06-0.19mm with oil pump body.

To check out the radial clearance between oil


pump internal rotor and external rotor. The
clearance between internal and external rotors
shall be 0.05-0.18mm.

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To check out the rotor end clearance.
The rotor end clearance shall be 0.014-0.100mm.

To unscrew and take out the horizontal internal


hexagon bolts (small ones).
To take out relive vale spring and relief valve
ball.
To check out the spring load and free length.

The free length is 46mm;


The spring load is 32.8N2N at 29mm;
The installation length of relief valve spring is
38.5mm.

Bad relief vale spring, if any, has to be changed.

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Assembly:
To place external and internal rotors into the oil
pump body, making sure the installation marks
on the external and internal rotors are upward.

To place the oil pump cover plate onto the oil


pump, screw up the 7 bolts to 7-10N.m.
To install the relief valve and relief spring into
the oil pump hole.
To screw the bolt into the oil pump body to
20-25N.m.
To use oil to adhibit the new oil pump gasket to
the front end of the cylinder body.
To mount the oil pump to the front end of the
crankshaft, pointing to the internal hole of the
internal rotors.

To screw up the six installation nuts manually.


To check out and adjust evenness between the oil
pump bottom and cylinder oil pan flange to the
range of 0.26mm.
To screw tightly the oil pump set bolts to
8-11N.m.
To spread engine lubrication oil on the
crankshaft oil seal journal.
To cover the crankshaft oil seal journal with a
thin plastic strip to prevent damages to crankshaft
oil seal edge.
To spread engine lubrication oil onto the
crankshaft oil seal edge and use appropriate
sleeve and crank belt wheel and belt wheel to
screw tightly the bolts and washers to press the
oil seal in place.

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To remove the thing plastic strip.

OIL FILTER AND OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

Disassembly:
To demount the oil filter by rotating the filter
counterclockwise.
To remove the oil pressure sensor.

Assembly:
To spread engine lubrication oil onto the oil filter
gasket and screw it up to the fitting to 12-17N.m., 8.0-25.0N.M Fastening Torque Of 8.0-25.0N.M
or screw the oil filter manually and screw more
3/4-1 round when the rudder gasket reaches the
cylinder.
To spread Letai 243 seal glue onto the oil
pressure sensor screw threads and screw it to the
cylinder main oil passage to 25-29N.m.
Oil pressure sensor screw threads are 1/4-18NPTF.
Oil Filter
The supply voltage of oil pressure sensor is 6-24V.
The alarm triggering pressure is 3015Kpa.

Oil Pressure Sensor

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OIL PRESSURE TESTING PARAMETER LIST

Serial Rev Pressure Kpa Index


Subject Judgment
No. r/min (Kgf/cm2) Achievement
Oil yield
1 Oil Yield Starting Times 200 4
starting
2 Oil outputL/min 800 1962 >6
Oil outputL/min 3000 2943 >28

Opening Pressure of 44020


Oil yield
3 Pressure Limit Valve: Kpa 2000 4.49
starting
(Kgf/cm2) 0.2
No oil
leakage on
4 Seal 6867.0 Passed
each faying
face

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COOLING SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION OF COOLING SYSTEM E-2
COMPONENTS OF 480 ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM E-2
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF COOLING SYSTEM E-2
PARAMETERS OF COOLING SYSTEM E-3
ENGINE COOLANT E-3
COOLANT DISCHARGE E-3
COOLING SYSTEM CLEANING E-3
COOLANT FILLING E-4
COOLING SYSTEM CHECKUP E-5
COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE WARNING E-5
WARNING E-5
WATER PUMP E-6
STRUCTURE E-6
DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY E-6
THERMOSTAT E-7
DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY E-7
WATER TEMPERATURE SENSOR E-9
DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY E-9
CHECKING E-9
COOLING FAN E-9
DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY E-9
GUIDELINE FOR DISASSEMBLY E-10
EXPANSION RESERVOIR E-11
DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY E-11
ASSEMBLY OF RADIATOR E-12
DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY E-12

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COOLING SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION OF COOLING SYSTEM


COMPONENTS OF 480 ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM

Engine cooling system is used to cool engine to


prevent the engine from overheating, ensuring the Warm Air/Heat Exchanger Pressure Cap Expansion Tank

normal operation of engine. It is composed of the Hose Hose


Hose
timing belt-driven water pump, transverse radiator, Hose
water tank, water pipe, thermostat, temperature control
switch of electrically-driven fan and water temperature
sensor. Engine Hose

Water Temperature Sensor Thermostat Chassis and

Water Pump Inlet


WORKING PRINCIPLE OF COOLING SYSTEM Cooling Water Pipe Assembly
Thermostat Assembly

Hose Assembly
When the temperature of engine coolant is Hose Assembly
Electrically-Driven Fan
relatively low, the thermostat shall turn it off, and the Thermo-Switch

coolant shall circulate and flow among the cylinder Radiato

block, water pump and warm air exchanger. This kind


of circulation is called small circulation.
When the temperature of engine coolant is
relatively high, the thermostat shall turn it on, the
coolant shall flow into the radiator, the electrically
-driven fan shall operate to lower down the temperature
of coolant. And then the coolant shall flow back to the
engine cylinder block. This kind of circulation is called
big circulation. As the big circulation operates, the
small circulation shall also play its role.
As the engine works under normal work
temperature the engine coolant shall expand. Under this
circumstance, the overflow valve installed on the
thermostat chassis shall turn it on, the coolant shall
flow into the expansion water tank through the
overflow pipe; and as the system cools down, the
coolant shall flow back to the water pump inlet from
the expansion reservoir.
The operation of electrically-driven fan is
controlled by the thermo-switch installed on the right
water chamber of radiator. When the contact points of
thermo-switch meet together, the electrically-driven fan
shall run. The water temperature sensor is fitted on the
back of cylinder head lying at the side of exhaust pipe.

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PARAMETER OF COOLING SYSTEM
Cooling system Parameter
Total system capacityL 8
Engine capacityL 3.3
Coolant capacity
Radiator capacityL 2.1
Expansion reservoir capacityL 0.4
Diameter: 280mm
Number of blades: 6
Operating voltage: 9-15V
Fan Rotating speed gear: high-speed engine 2000200
low-speed engine 1800200
Rotating speed II gear: high-speed engine 2800200
low-speed engine 2600200
Diameter of impeller: 72mm
Water pump Transmission rate: 1.053:1
Opening pressure of the pressure cap: 160kPa
Front face area: 0.202m
Radiator
Heat abstraction area: 8.93m
Opening temperature: 85-89
Thermostat
Full opening temperature: 99-102
Switch-on temperature gear95 C gear 102 C
Thermo-switch Switch-off temperature gear84 C gear91 C
Operating voltage: 12V

ENGINE COOLANT
Coolant Discharge:
To demount the pressure cap of expansion
reservoir;
To install a vessel under the radiator, demount
the radiator outlet hose under the radiator and
discharge the coolant.
Cooling System Cleaning:
To discharge coolant, mount the radiator outlet
hose;
To inject clean water up to the position of the
largest water surface of the expansion reservoir
from the expansion reservoir filler, and then close
the pressure cap;
To start up engine to make it operate at idle speed,

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preheat up to normal operating temperature, shut
down and cool down;
To discharge coolant;
To repeat the above-mentioned steps until the
discharged water is the same as the clean water;
To clean the cooling system according to the
following methods if the coolant is not correctly
used and replaced to meet the requirements in the
former utilization:
a. To discharge coolant;
b. To demount the radiator inlet hose, insert the main
water hose into the radiator filler until the outlet
water becomes clean;
c. In order to flush out the engine, you should connect
the main water hose with the water outlet of the
thermostat to clean the engine until the discharged
water flowing from the water pump inlet becomes
clean;
d. To repeat cleaning operations if the radiator is very
dirty, and connect the main water hose with the
radiator water outlet until the water flowing from
the radiator water outlet becomes clean.
Coolant Filling:
To check whether the pipeline is well connected
and fastened before injecting coolant;
To open the pressure cap; fill up coolant into the
expansion reservoir filler slowly. Since the
expansion reservoir is at the highest position in the
cooling system. Therefore, as the coolant level
rises, the air in the system shall be discharged into
the expansion reservoir and shall be discharged out
of the expansion reservoir by injecting coolant
slowly.
To continuously inject coolant up to the highest
coolant level. And then close the filler to prevent
coolant from spilling.
To start up the engine to make it operate at idle
speed and preheat up to normal operating
temperature. And until the fan begins to run,
observe water thermometer and check if the engine
is at overheating condition. If the coolant level in

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the expansion reservoir descends quickly, coolant
should be injected up to the highest position to cut
down the air circulation in the system.
To shut the engine down to have it fully cooledif
possible, leave the engine alone for one night.;
To open the pressure cap to check the coolant level, and
inject coolant up to the highest position.

Cooling System Checkup:


To check the coolant level, start up the engine and
preheat it. Put the engine under idle speed
circumstance until the cooling fan runs, and check
if coolant leakage exists at various pipe joints. Shut
down the engine and wait for engine cooling. And
then check if the coolant level in the expansion
reservoir is at normal condition.
To try best to prevent the coolant spilling from
scalding operator during checkup.
To timely check if water flows into the engine oil
pan (the lubricating oil shall become milk white
after water flows) when no pipe leakage is found
and the expansion reservoir is short of coolant, and
timely stop water from flowing in when finding it.

COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE WARNING


Warning:
To try best not to move radiator cap or loose the radiator discharging plug when the engine
is under operation or the engine and radiator are at a very high temperature. Scorching
coolant may spill out, hurting the people and damaging the engine and cooling system.
To shut down the engine until it cools down, and then carefully demount the radiator cap.
Meanwhile, wrap a large thick cloth onto the radiator cap, rotate it slowly to the position
of the first clip along the counter-clockwise direction and then release the pressure slowly.
To use a cloth to push down the radiator cap, rotate and remove the radiator cap after the
operator ensures all the intensity of pressure has been released.

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WATER PUMP
Structure:
1Water pump housing
2Water pump impeller
3Water pump gear
4Water pump shaft bearing
5Water pump seal (ceramics-lead)

Disassembly:
To disconnect the negative terminal of battery;
To discharge engine coolant (refer to the coolant
discharge process);
To disconnect poly V-belt and power pump belt;
To demount timing shield;
To unscrew and take 4 bolts out of the front side of
cylinder block.
To demount the water pump assembly;
To demount the water pump gasket.

Assembly:
To install the new gasket on the water pump;
To install the water pump assembly in the cylinder
block and screw up 4 fixing bolts by hand, and
then screw up to 7.010.0Nm;
The water pump impeller installed in the cylinder
block should be able to rotate freely;
To refill engine coolant;
To check leakage occurrences of engine coolant.
Note: Because water pump assembly can not be Gasket
Tightening Torque
repaired, it should be replaced when seal ring or bearing
is worn and torn.

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THERMOSTAT

Disassembly:
To unscrew 3 M640 bolts and then demount the
bolts;
To demount thermostat chassis and thermostat
assembly.

To pry out the spring clamps by using chisel or


screwdriver.

To take the thermostat out;


To clean up the thermostat;

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To take the seal ring out, and replace it if it being
worn and torn.
To demount the gasket from the thermostat chassis.
To replace with new gasket if it is worn and
torn, and allow no repeated use.

To measure the thermostat opening temperature


under hot water.

Assembly:
To clamp the thermostat and then put the gasket
into the thermostat aperture.
To install thermostat (the side with spring facing
outward).
To embed spring clamp to ensure the clip within
the thermostat chassis slot;
To mount new gasket onto thermostat chassis;
To mount the thermostat chassis and thermostat
assembly into the aperture at the rear side of engine
cylinder head, and screw up the bolt by hand to
912N.m.

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WATER TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Disassembly:
To demount water temperature sensor (at the
exhaust pipe flank and under the lifting eye).
Assembly:
To apply Letai 243 glue on the screw thread,
screw up the bolt to 7.010.0Nm before
installation.

Checking:
Water temperature sensor is a negative temperature coefficient sensor, which is composed of
a thermal resistor. The resistance value of the resistor shall decrease as the engine temperature
rises. The variation is detailed in the following table:
Temperature (C) Resistance Value ()
-20 29,125
-10 16,660
0 9,790
+20 3,748
+25 3,000
+60 747
+80 377
+100 204
+120 117

COOLING FAN

Disassembly:
To disconnect the negative terminal of battery;

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To demount the matching plug of the cooling fan.

To remove the fastening self-tapping screw from


the cooling fan.

To take the cooling fan out.

Assembly:
To assemble the cooling fan according to the
disassembly order (the tightening torque of
self-tapping screw is 1.8~2.2Nm)

To start up the engine and check if the cooling fan


is under normal operation.

Guideline For Disassembly:


During the disassembly process, you should pay
more attention not to pull A/C pipe to a large extent,
otherwise the A/C pipe shall crack and deform.

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EXPANSION RESERVOIR

Disassembly:
To demount the water pipe connecting with the
expansion reservoir.

To pry out the protecting hood of expansion


reservoir by using a screw drive.

To demount the fastening bolts of the expansion


reservoir by using M10 sleeve.

To pull out the plug of liquid level sensor.


To take the expansion reservoir out.

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Assembly:
To assemble the expansion reservoir according to
the order opposite to the disassembly orderthe
tightening torque of self-tapping screw is
4.0~5.0Nm.
To refill coolant.

ASSEMBLY OF RADIATOR
Disassembly:
To discharge coolant (refer to the coolant discharge
process)
To demount the cooling fan (refer to the
disassembly process of the cooling fan).

To demount the left and right wind boards by M10


sleeve.

To take out the radiator.

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To take out the radiator

Assembly:
To assemble the radiator according to the order
opposite of the disassembly order.
To install the 2 wind boards onto the radiator by
using self-tapping screws with their tightening
torque of 67Nm.

To install the radiator onto the front transom and


put it straightly towards the positioning hole.

To install the left and right tensioned plates of the


radiator, and tighten the bolts of the plates with
tightening torque of 51Nm.

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FUEL AND EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

INTAKE-AIR SYSTEM F-2

INTEGRAL INTAKE MANIFOLDS F-2

THROTTLE BODY F-2

IDLE SPEED STEP MOTOR F-3

THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR F-5

INTEGRAL AIR PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SENSOR F-6

ASEEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF INTAKE SYSTEM F-7

CANISTER SOLENOID AND INTAKE/EXHAUST PIPE F-7

OIL-VAPOR SEPARATOR F-8

EXHAUST SYSTEM .F-9

OUTLINE F-9

OXYGEN SENSOR F-9

ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF EXHAUST SYSTEM F-11

FUEL SYSTEM F-14

ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF FUEL SYSTEM F-14

OPERATION CONTROL OF ENGINE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM F-19

FUEL SYSTEM WORKING COMPONENTS F-21

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INTAKE-AIR SYSTEM

INTEGRAL INTAKE MANIFOLDS


Warning
When the engine and intake-air system are hot, they can badly burn. Turn off the
engine and wait until they are cool before removing the intake-air system.
Fuel vapor is hazardous. It can easily ignite, causing serious injury and damage.
Always keep sparks and flames away from fuel.
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious injuries or
death and damage. Fuel can also irritate skin and eyes. To prevent this, always
complete the Fuel line safety Procedure

1.Throttle Cable Supporter 2. Throttle Body 3. Idling Speed Step Motor


4. Throttle Position Sensor 5. Canister Solenoid Valve 6. Coolant Temperature Sensor
7.Fuel Injector 8. Oil Rail 9. Air Pressure/Temperature Sensor

THROTTLE BODY
According to drivers stepping force on accelerating pedal, throttle body fixed on intake
manifolds with three bolts, measures air intake volume flowed into the engine. Step motor
adjusts the auxiliary air intake volume when pedal completely released (engine at idle). In
this case, throttle valve opening control handle (3) relies on the anti-deadlock screw (2) to
keep throttle valve from closing.

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To avoid the mixture condensing and freezing in certain condition, throttle valve adjuster is
supported by anti-deadlock screw to prevent it from completely closing, and heated by
circulating coolant. Idling speed step motor (4) and throttle position sensor (5) are installed
on throttle body.

1.Throttle Cable Supporter 2.Anti-deadlock Screw


3.Throttle Valve Opening Angle Control 4.Idling Speed Step Motor
5.Throttle Position Sensor
Remark: Do not loosen the screw because the anti-deadlock screw is locked by
manufacturer during calibration of throttle valve.

IDLE SPEED STEP MOTOR


This kind of idling speed step motor (25r/m) with high accuracy and good locating ability is
used to control idle speed. Directly fixed on throttle body and composed of a step motor and a
screw/worm retarder, it enables the lock pin (3) to convert the rotation motion into linear
motion. When receiving control instruction from ECU, the step motor drive valve core
moving (about 0.04mm/step) on axis direction through screw/worm device to change the
bypass air intake volume of engine at idle, therefore the idle speed can be insured steady. The
change is regulated based on the engine coolant temperature.
Air intake efficiency of the engine at idle speed is demarcated based on opening of the
throttle valve when by-pass air intake is closed through adjusting in manufacturing.
Step motor is connected directly on throttle body by a fast clamp without fixing screw.

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1.Idling Speed Step Motor 2. By-pass Hose 3. Lock Pin 4. Throttle Valve
5. Throttle Body 6. ECU Electrical Control Unit 7.Steel Lock Ring
Qo. Air Leakage Volume Of Throttle
Q. By-pass Air Volume Of Step Motor

Specification:
The coil resistance is R=53 10 at 20. A max air intake volume will be got when the
lock pin turns back 200 steps (approx 8mm stroke, correspond to about 60kg/h air intake
volume).
Working steps are determined according to the engine running condition, including heater
opening and electrical load air condition opening etc.
Batter terminal shall be disconnected for at least 5 minutes before inserting idling speed step
motor into the throttle body. Accordingly, when the key opened, ECU will reset a new step
motor and define steps according to the coolant temperature to adjust the valve cores axial
moving (forward or backward) with a correct idle speed.
Electronic components can be diagnosed by engine ECU. Through regulating the throttle
valve position, with engine speed and intake pressure signals, the engine ECU can detect
whether the step motor (tested by a diagnosis tester) loses step or not.

Recovery:
If a failure happens, step motor will become invalid, correspondingly the adaptive function of
air fuel ratio at idle is ceased.

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THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR
The sensor, including a potentiometer, the movable part of which is controlled by the throttle
axis. ECU supplies a voltage approx. 5V to the potentiometer when working.
From idling to throttle full open, oil injection process is administrated by parameters gained
from throttle valve opening angle.
ECU identifies whether the throttle is in the open or close position according to the output
voltage and modifies the mixture ratio. When throttle closed, the voltage signal is transferred
to ECU to confirm whether the engine is in idle or fuel cut-off state (differ from engine
speed).
Signals for throttle potentiometer need not adjusting because ECU software can automatically
obtain the idle position (0-950mV) of throttle valve.

Potentiometer is installed directly on throttle body and fixed with a fast snap ring.

1.Connector 2.Resistance Circuit 3.Throttle Body 4.Throttle Valve Axis 5.Seat Snap Ring

A Ground Signal B 5V Voltage C Output Signal

Recovery:
If failure happens, the setting value is calculated through the readings of TDC (top dead
center)/ ESS (engine speed sensor) and absolute pressure sensor.
If there is a failure in the absolute pressure sensor signal, set throttle valve opening angle a
fixed value 50 degree. For the moment, adopting the methods like buffering, idling
adaptability and air fuel ratio adjustment all doesnt work.. Throttle signal cycle is also
malfunctioned when running automatic transmission.

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INTEGRAL AIR PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE SENSOR
Pressure signals are obtained from the voltage of one among four resistors in Wheatstone
bridge marked on a special diaphragm. This diaphragm is compressed and stretched under
the absolute pressure from inside of the manifolds (thus the above resistor is under pressure
too).
Air temperature sensor is a negative factor temperature sensor. So the higher the temperature
is, the lower the resistance and the weaker the pressure signals will be.
When a failure in sensor circuit happens, the air temperature is fixed at 45.

Recovery:
When a failure in sensor circuit happens, manifolds pressure value will be estimated
according to the method of data-inserting arithmetic based on the rotate speed and related
throttle valve opening angle in a pressure-recovery recorder Then the value shall be modified
by coolant temperature and the air pressure.

Pins:
1. Grounded
2. Outputs Temperature Signal
3. 5V Power Source
4. Outputs Pressure Signal

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ASEEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF INTAKE SYSTEM
Remove accessories around the engine:

1.Loosen fastening clamp, demount air


cleaner and air intake hose.

2.Remove throttle cable and clutch cable.


3.Remove all intake pipes and vacuum
hoses around engine.
4.Put down water hose to discharge
anti-freeze liquid.

5.Disassemble the throttle position sensor/


canister solenoid/crankshaft position
sensor/Injection nozzle / knock sensor
and wire plugs on electric components
like fuel pressure switch.

CANISTER SOLENOID AND INTAKE/EXHAUST PIPE

Assembly:
Fix the solenoid on the intake manifolds
with a semicircular clamp and tighten
two inner bolts.
Install the solenoid intake pipe between
the activated canister and the solenoid,
then tighten the clamp around the intake
pipe with special tool.
Install solenoid exhaust pipe between the
throttle body and the solenoid. then
tighten the clamp around the exhaust
pipe with special tool.

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OIL-VAPOR SEPARATOR

A 2
1
B

C E
D

1.Oil-vapor separator 2. Air cleaner 3.Others---ventilating pipe in crankcase

Working principle:
Main function of the oil-vapor separator is leading gas in crankcase to intake manifolds
through oil-vapor separator, which keeps pressure in crankcase within a certain range and
prevent gas in crankcase from mixing and flowing out. Oil-vapor separator shall separate the
oil vapor mixture passed the crankcase to avoid the oil entering into engine where it will
generate carbon grains that causes engine wear.
Oil-vapor separator assembly, air cleaner and ventilating pipe assembly is showed in fig. A
connect to one interface on the engine valve cover; B connect to another interface on the
engine valve cover; C connect to the crankcase interface; D connect to the intake manifold
interface. Connect the ventilating pipe to the interfaces of oil-vapor separator, air cleaner
by-pass hose and engine valve with spring clamp.
Assembly and disassembly:

Fix three iron-ventilating pipes to the bolts in engine intake manifolds using 4 M8 nuts
with a tightening torque of 101Nm.
Maintenance of fuel-vapor separator:

Disassemble it per 5000km and wash it with lead-free gasoline, then blow it to dry.

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EXHAUST SYSTEM

OUTLINE

Exhaust system inspection

Start the engine and inspect each exhaust system component for exhaust gas leakage.

If leakage is found, repair or replace as necessary.

Exhaust system removal/installation

Warning

When the engine and exhaust system are hot, they can badly burn. Turn off the engine
and wait until they are cool before removing the exhaust system.

Exhaust assembly and oxygen sensor position

1. Oxygen Sensor 2. Catalytic Converter 3. Silencer

OXYGEN SENSOR
To gain max. conversion efficiency from catalytic converter, the engine oxygen sensor always
keeps the concentration of fuel-gas mixture as chemical reaction equivalence ratio.
The sensor shall realize closed loop controlling to the mixture concentration through
measuring the proportion of oxygen in exhaust.
Oxygen sensor is installed in the first section of exhaust pipe near manifolds.
Oxygen sensor is a ZrO2 porcelain (1) with a thin platinum layer on its surface and one end is
sealed with a protection pipe inserted in. (2), the outside bushed with a metal housing (3) to
protect the sensor and to enable it to install on the exhaust manifolds. The outside of porcelain
(b) is exposed in exhaust gas, the inside (a) communicate with outer surroundings. Working
principle: voltages generated by electrode will change with the variation of oxygen
concentration; oxygen sensor measure the components of the exhaust, thus ECU will obtain

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the mixture concentration value in time and change mixture thicker or thinner to make it
always be close to chemical reaction equivalence ratio. The voltage range of which is
0.980~1.020V.
To reach working temperature rapidly (~300C), a resistor (4) installed in the sensor can
shorten the starting electric time of the porcelain. It means sensor can be installed in cold area
of exhaust hose. If mixed gas concentration is thinner than chemical reaction equivalence ratio
when working in full speed, ECU will give signal to the oxygen sensor to add mixture thicker
(half-closed loop).

Oxygen sensor doesnt work under cut-off and full load condition, which is called open loop.

Recovery:
If fault occurs in sensor or resistor, all information will be ignored and the whole system will
work as an opened loop system.

Oxygen sensor test procedure:


If diagnosis tester displays signal as lambda sensor error , please check:
If there is air leakage in every manifold, pipes, brake booster, exhaust gas and fuel-vapor
re-cycle system.
Spark wear and efficiency of high voltage wire insulator.

If timing and positioning of TDC (top dead center)/rotate speed sensor is right or not.

Tappet clearance and engine compression ratio.

If supplied oil pressure is right or not.

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Exhaust gas emission CO% HC (p.p.m.) CO2 (%)
Before catalytic converter 0.4 - 1 < 600 > 12
After catalytic converter < 0.35 < 90 > 13
See the above table, using three-way catalyst converter can reduce three types of harmful
gases in exhaust gas at the same time: HC, CO, NOx, while harmless CO2 increases.
The following factors will rapidly damage the catalytic converter:
Fuel contained lead, which will decrease converter efficiency even invalidate catalytic
converter.
Incomplete burned fuel in converter, for example, the catalytic converter will be melt and
damaged only in 30 seconds by the fuel under 800C (temperature in converter).
Do not cut off the high voltage cable no matter the engine is running for any reason to insure
ignition parts (static ignition coil, high voltage cable, spark) are effective.
Oxygen sensor signal is displayed on diagnosis tester.
This value shall continuously wave in a defined range (thin mixture<0.45V, thick
mixture>0.45V).

Oxygen sensor heater resistance is about 45 at environment temperature 20C, and its
battery voltage is 12V.

ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF EXHAUST SYSTEM

1. Installation of exhaust system with


three-way catalyst converter:

Installation of back hose hook:


Install back hose hook on the dash
panel of the body.

Screw down M8 lock nut, screw


down torque is 121Nm.

Installation of front hoses assembly:

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Install Oxygen sensor assembly on front hose assembly with a tightening torque of
454.5Nm.
Install 3 M10 double head studs on exhaust manifolds.

Lay exhaust hose pad, install front hose assembly on exhaust manifolds.

Mount 3 M10 copper nuts with a tightening torque of 603Nm.

Installation of back hose assembly and three-way catalyst converter:


Connect three-way catalyst converter assembly and back hose assembly flange with 2
M8 bolts and 2 M8 flange plane nuts and lay sealing pad with a tightening torque of
303Nm. The nuts shall near the three-way catalyst converter.
Install back hose assembly on front hose assembly with a hose clamp.

Connect back hose assembly to the back hose hook with a hang block.

Installation of three-way catalyst converter:


Connect three-way catalyst converter assembly and front hose assembly flange with 2
M8 bolts and 2 M8 flange plane nuts and lay sealing pad with a tightening torque of
303Nm.
Use one hang block connecting front hose of three-element catalytic converter to the
hook of back hose.

Installation of back silencer:


Install a buffer stopper on back silencer with a hose clamp around the opening position
of back silencer.
Set 2 hooks to welding bolts and tighten them using 2 M8 lock nuts with a torque of
303Nm.
Connect back silencer to the body with 4 flying rings (hang block).

Installation of front silencer:


Install front silencer between three-way catalyst converter and back silencer.

Install hose clamp assembly.

Tighten all bolts in hose clamps and hose clamp assembly with a torque of 303Nm.

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Note:
Eccentricity between front silencer and the intake/exhaust hose is 18mm. Adjust front
silencer position in assembly to guarantee a gap between the front silencer and the
channel heat insulator more than 10mm.
In assembly, hose clamp should not be aslant installed around the exhaust hose.
Distance between the expanding section on exhaust hose and the section of hose
clamp should be 14mm in assembly.

Installation of exhaust hose bracket:


Install exhaust hose bracket.

Mount 4 M8 lock nuts and tighten them with a torque of 121Nm.

2. Examine gas leakage in exhaust system connection and its adjustment method:
Examine leakage in exhaust system interface after engine warm-up. Certain amount of gas
leakage is permitted (but not permitted in interface between exhaust manifolds and front hose
assembly). It can be taken as a principle of no leakage if no engine wobble and no sound
like pu, pu in interface heard. If the above phenomenon is found, loosen the hose clamp in
interface and rotate it a few circles, then tighten it again after adjusting installation direction
of hose clamp.
Installation of heat insulator
Install each heat insulators to its proper position, and then tighten the clip.

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FUEL SYSTEM
ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY OF FUEL SYSTEM
Before repair procedure
Warning
Fuel vapor is hazardous. It can easily ignite, causing serious injury and damage.
Always keep sparks and flames away from fuel.
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious
injuries or death and damage. Fuel can also irritate skin and eyes. To prevent
this, always complete the following Fuel Line Safety Procedure.
Fuel Line Safety Procedure
Note
Fuel in the fuel system is under high pressure also when the engine is not
running.
1Remove the fuel-filler cap and release the pressure in the fuel tank.
2Remove the fuel pump relay.
3Start the engine.
4After the engine stalls, crank the engine several times.
5Turn the ignition switch to LOCK position.
6 Install the fuel pump relay.

After repair procedure


Warning
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious
injuries or death and damage. When installing the fuel hose, observeFuel
Leakage Inspection described below.

Fuel Leakage Inspection


Warning
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious
injuries or death and damage. Always carry out the following procedure with the
engine stopped.

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Caution
Connecting the wrong check connector terminal may possibly cause malfunction.
Carefully connect the specified terminal only.
1Short the check connector terminal F/P body GND using a jumper wire.
2Turn the ignition switch to ON position to operate the fuel pump.
3Pressurize the system in this way for at least 5minites to be sure of no leakage.
If there is fuel leakage, inspect the fuel hose, hose clamps, and fuel pipe sealing surface,
and replace as necessary.
4After repair, assemble the system and repeat Steps 1 to 3.

Fuel tank removal/installation


Warning
Repair a fuel tank that has not been properly steam cleaned can be dangerous.
Explosion or fire may cause death or serious injury. Always properly steam clean
a fuel tank before repairing it.
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious
injuries or death and damage. Fuel can also irritate skin and eyes. To prevent
this, do not damage the sealing surface of the fuel pump until when removing or
installing.
Caution
Disconnecting/connecting the quick release connector without cleaning it may
possibly cause damage to the fuel pipe and quick release connector. Always clean
the quick release connector joint area before disconnecting/connecting using a
cloth or soft brush, and make sure that it is free of foreign material.

1Lever the vehicle.


2Complete the Before repair procedure
3Disconnect the negative battery cable.
4Remove the fuel pump unit.
5Siphon the fuel from the fuel tank.
6Remove the middle pipe.
7Remove in the order indicated in the table.
8Install in the reverse order of removal.
9 Complete the After repair procedure.

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Installation of fuel case assembly:
Install fuel tank assembly.

Install 2 tapping screws (M6) on fuel tank


mouth.
Set up 3 fuel tank fixed belts and 5 M8 bolts.

Tighten 5 M8 bolts (tightening torque is 30


3Nm) and 2 tapping screws (tightening torque
is 40.5Nm).
Install fuel mouth cap and steel wire stopper.

Connect import and export tube on fuel tank,


clamp tube lock hoop by special tool.
Note: In assembly, clearance between fuel tank
assembly and back wheel cover inner
board should be more than 12mm.

Assembly and disassembly of fuel rail and fuel


injector:
Disassemble import tube lock hoop of fuel
rail. Remove injector plug.
Unscrew two root bolts under fuel rail. Take
out fuel rail and injector by carefully shaking
upwards.

Pull out fuel injector by rotating it. Replace


pad when re-install.

Pay attention to right position in assembly, and


take care of the pad.

Fuel tank inspection


Caution

Disconnecting/connecting the quick release


connector without cleaning it may possibly
cause damage to the fuel pipe and quick
release connector. Always clean the quick
release connector joint area before
disconnecting / connecting using a cloth or a
soft brush, and make sure that it is free of
foreign material.

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Installation of fuel filter:
Set up fuel filter assembly in fuel filter
protection box assembly.
Connect import and export tube in both end of
fuel filter, clamp tube lock hoop by special
tool.
Using two M8 lock nuts to install protection
box assembly under vehicle ground board.
Tighten bolts, and the tightening torque is 30
3Nm.

Installation of fuel tube:


Set up lock clamp on relevant screw under
vehicle body.
Cover protective sleeves, set up fuel tube on
relevant lock clamp.
Cover hose protection bushing, connect
relevant tube and hose.
Clamp tube lock hoop by special tool

Caution

Fuel pipe can not be bent excessively.

After insert the quick release connector,


please pull and push the quick release
connector several times to confirm it
insert in position.

Assembly and disassembly of fuel pump and


fuel level sensor:
Lay down back seat backrest forwards, lift
carpet on back cabinet, remove 3 tapping
screws on fuel pump cover, and then take
down the cover.
Loosen fast joint on import and export tube,
disassemble import and export tube.
Remove fuel pump plug, rotate fixed outer
collar of fuel pump assembly in

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counter-clockwise, slowly bring forward fuel
pump assembly.
Pull out fuel level sensor with little upwards
strength.

Installation of accelerator cable:


Install rubber jacket on vehicle front
boarding.
Thread accelerator cable through rubber
jacket, then push it to right position.
Install hook of accelerator cable in gluey
block of accelerator pedal.
Install the other end of accelerator cable on
throttle valve rocker of throttle valve body.
Adjust degree of tightness of accelerator
cable, located by locating clamp.

Caution
When adjusting degree of tightness of
accelerator cable you should ensure
that: Accelerator pedal doesnt need
any part of empty stroke at idle; when
throttle is full open, accelerator pedal
limiting screw assembly is effective
(accelerator pedal can step on
accelerator pedal limiting screw
assembly).

Adjusting of accelerator cable:

Range of free travel : 1.03.0mm

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OPERATION CONTROL OF ENGINE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM

1. Start engine:
In start process, ECU firstly inject to all cylinder at the same time to shorten start time. After
that, ECU will inject according to phase order.

2. Acceleration:
In acceleration process, ECU will add injection fuel by engine requirement and deal with
sensor signal below: throttle position, absolute pressure, upper dead center/ speed sensor,
multiply basic fuel injection time by a modification factor, which is calculated from engine
cooling temperature, throttle opening speed, and intake manifold pressure increment. When
injector is closed and if calculated injection time has a sudden change, ECU will add injection
Fuel by the modification factor mentioned above, that is to re-open injector (extra pulse) for
compensating fuel as soon as possible. In order to make vehicle more comfortable, torque
control strategy doesnt affect performance and fuel consumption in accelerating by adjusting
spark advance angle. Because exhaust regulatory become much more Stricter, a kind of much
more complicated active manage strategy is developed, which utilize some physics and
hydrokinetics phenomenon (such as fuel film mode) to gain not only a sudden change in
throttle air input but also steady air fuel ratio.

3. Deceleration:
In deceleration process, fuel engine needed is decrease to reduce pollution, ECU identifies
the phase by that throttle potentiometer signal change from high level to low level but do not
back to idle. Furthermore, it can adopt dashpot strategy to decrease output torque (reduce
engine brake), when throttle potentiometer signal shows that throttle is closed and engine is
in very high speed, ECU considers its satisfied condition that ECU will minish by-pass air
input by controlling step motor step by step.

4. Cut off:
ECU will adopt cut off strategy when ECU identifies that throttle is in idle position (throttle
potentiometer signal) and hot engine speed exceeds 1500r/m. The warm up strategy is
determined by the speed when engine coolant temperature increase strategy is running. Fuel
will be supplied again to system if throttle is not closed and hot engine speed is lower than
1400r/m. In high speed, ECU will adopt cut off strategy (part cut off) if throttle is not closed
completely but manifolds pressure is very low.

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5. Full load:
In full load status (distinguished from throttle potentiometer and absolute pressure sensor),
ECU obtains maximal output power by increase basic fuel injection time, while temperature
of catalysis converter is kept in prescriptive range.

6. Air pressure modification:


Air pressure will change with different altitude, which will cause change to volumetric
efficiency. That is why basic specified parameter (fuel injection time and by pass air input)
need to be modified. Fuel injection time modification and by pass air input compensation is
decided by altitude change, and ECU will refresh those parameters automatically when
start, or does dynamic modification (air pressure dynamic modification) on a certain
throttle position and engine speed.
.
7. Engine speed limitation:
When engine speed has exceeded critical value for 10 seconds or instantly exceeds a
certain value prescribed by manufacturer, ECU will cut off fuel injector control function.
ECU will rebuild fuel injector control function when speed comes back to normal value.

8. Fuel pump:
- When engine speed is lower than a certain value close fuel pump (approx, 50r/m);
- Open ignition switch for 2 seconds, but engine does not start fuel pump;
- Fuel pump keeps working when engine is running or vehicle is in its way.

9. Self adapting:
ECU has self adapting function for air fuel ratio. ECU can store difference between basic
pulse diagram and oxygen sensor modification factor continuously generated in running. The
difference will be permanently stored because of ageing of engine and system components. It
permits system to amend engine and components as new.
This function includes automatically consistency test and automatically diagnosis for stored
parameters, special diagnosis instrument can delete those parameters, and modification
parameters will not be lost if batter or ECU is cut off. This strategy is ineffective if canister
solenoid valve is open. After changing ECU, it should run at idle (warm up) for some time
to make ECU restore modification parameter. When engine is in high speed, modification
parameter in memory is the parameter of normal running condition. ECU another self
adapting function can modify step motor opening degree change caused by throttle leakage
and engine natural ageing. The self adaptive parameter will be lost when power off or ECU is
cut off.

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10. Electric power balance:
Normal working of electric components (front light, heat back window, etc.) will make
battery voltage lower than 12.2V, electric components power demanded in that time is larger
than electric power from generator. That is to say, negative electric power balance may
cause damage to battery. In that condition, ECU accelerates idle speed step by step (from 800
r/m to 1200 r/m) to make adequate electric power from generator. Accelerating idle will
disappear when electric power balance is positive.

Fuel supply system of this vehicle is belonging to half no scavenge fuel, there is only one
tube connecting fuel tank and fuel rail.
This system has advantages below:
- When accident occurs, no scavenge fuel tube can lower fire possibility to minimum.
-There is comparative less fuel vapor in fuel tank.
- Fuel temperature in fuel tank is lower.

FUEL SYSTEM WORKING COMPONENTS


Fuel Injection Volume Inspection
Warning
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious
injuries or death and damage. Always carry out the following procedure with the
engine stopped.

Note
If there is an after market fuel injector tester, perform the following test.
If there is no an after market fuel injector tester, perform Operation Test,
Resistance Inspection, and FUEL Leakage Testto verify the fuel injector is
ok or not.

1Complete the Before repair procedure


2Disconnect the negative battery cable.
3Remove the fuel injectors.
4Connect the fuel injector to the fuel injector tester.
5Measure the injection volume of each fuel injector using a graduated container.

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Working pressure: 350kpa
Working temperature: 30110
6Turn the ignition switch to LOCK position
and disconnect the jumper wire.
7Complete the After repair procedure.

Atomization
1Inspect atomization pattern.
If the atomization is faulty, replace the fuel injector.

Half no scavenge fuel supply integrated module


Fuel supply module is in fuel tank, which includes:
- Fuel pump;
- Diaphragm type fuel pressure adjuster;
- Fuel filter (out of the fuel tank)

1.Fuel Supply Module 2.Fuel Filter 3.Fuel Rail 4.Fuel Injector 5.Pressure Regulator
6.Cone Way Valve 7.Fuel Pump 8.Primary Filter 9.Injection Pump

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Fuel pump
Fuel pump inspection
Note
When ignition switch is at ON position, it is normal to hear the sound of fuel pump
running.

Fuel pump is located in fuel tank, and there is netlike filter in the fuel pump entrance. Internal
gear positive displacement fuel pump should use unleaded gasoline. Rotor is driven by motor,
while motor power comes from battery through relay.
There is safety valve installed in fuel pump. Safety valve will open to prevent engine from
over hot when pressure in fuel line is over 7bar.

Fuel pump can work in fuel temperature range of -30 ~ +70. Minimum rate of flow is 76

l/h on 4bar-12V(maximal current is 8.5A), while minimum rate of flow is 20 l/h on 3bar-8V.

1.Electric Terminal 2 Fuel sucking Slot 3.Fuel transporting Groove 4.Safety Valve

ECU realizes below control to fuel pump through relay:


- Fuel pump works as key switch is on for 2 seconds but engine does not start.
- Fuel pump keeps working when engine is running or vehicle is in its way.
Fuel pump will stop working if engine speed is lower than a certain value (approx.50r/m).
Remained fuel can prevent disturbance of static and electric wave. Fuel continuously flowing
can cool fuel pump and clean fuel rail.

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Fuel Pump Hold Pressure Inspection
Warning
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignite and cause serious injuries
or death and damage. Always carry out the following procedure with the engine
stopped.
Caution
Disconnecting/connecting the quick release connector without cleaning it may
possibly cause damage to the fuel pipe and quick release connector. Always clean
the quick release connector joint area before disconnecting/connecting using a cloth
or soft brush, and make sure that it is free of foreign material.

Fuel Pump Hold Pressure Inspection


Warning
Fuel line spills and leakage are dangerous. Fuel can ignition and cause serious
injuries or death and damage. Always carry out the following procedure with the
engine stopped.
Caution
Disconnecting/connecting the quick release connector without cleaning it may
possibly cause damage to the fuel pipe and quick release connector. Always clean
the quick release connector joint area before disconnecting/connecting using a cloth
or soft brush, and make sure that it is free of foreign material.

Fuel pressure regulator


Fuel pressure regulator is located in fuel tank, which is specified on fixed pressure of 3.5bar.
Caution
Due to adoption of the mechanical returnless fuel system, the pressure regulator
cannot be inspected separately.

Fuel rail
Fuel rail 1 is made of cast aluminum. Its function is distributing fuel to injector 2.

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1.Fuel Rail 2.Fuel Injector 3.Fuel Feeding Port

Fuel injector
This system adopts head supplying single hole Fuel injector, and fuel injection pressure is
3.5bar. Fuel injected from fuel injector keeps in atomization and comes into cone angle (15
degree to injection nozzle axis).
Control logic of Fuel injector is phase, order controlling. These four fuel injectors are
controlled by air input order of four cylinders. Fuel injector is open on expansion stroke till
intake stroke started.
Fuel injector is fixed on fuel rail, and fuel rail can press injector on fixed seat of intake
manifold. Two O-type pads (1) (2) are used in sealing. Fuel is entering from upper side of
fuel injector. Fuel injector includes coil (4) and electric terminal (5) on electric plug (6).

1. O-ring 2. O-ring 3. Fuel Feeding Port


4. Coil 5. Electric Terminal 6. Electric Plug

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Specification:
Voltage: 12V

Resistance: 13.8 ~ 15.2 10% on 23C

Remark: Force on fuel injector socket in assembly and disassembly must be less
than 120N, or it will influence function.

Caution
use of a deformed injector retaining clip will cause the injector to not engage
correctly. Always use a new clip when reattaching the injector, otherwise it may
cause the injector to rotate.

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ENGINE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

INPUT / OUTPUT COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEM G-2

WORKING MODULE TABLE OF FUEL INJECTION / IGNITION SYSTEM G-3

WORKING PRINCIPLE G-4

ELECTRICAL CONTROL UNIT G-5

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION CONTROL AND

ACTUATORS G-7

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MALFUNCTION DIAGNOSIS FOR ELECTRONIC FUEL

INJECTION SYSTEM G-21

DETAILED TABLE OF MALFUNTION DIAGNOSTIC CODE G-24

PROCEDURES FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS ACCORDING TO THE SYMPTOMS OF

THE ENGINE G-62

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS OF SYSTEM MAINTENANCE G-88

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN DIAGOSIS AND MAINTENANCE OF THE

GASOLINE INJECTION ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM G-88

SAFETY MEASURES G-89

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INPUT / OUTPUT COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEM

19

18

Diagnostic
connector

1 Engine ECU 11 Fuel injector


2 Air pressure / temperature sensor 12 Oxygen sensor (heater)
3 Engine speed sensor for top dead center 13 Fuel pump
4 Throttle valve position sensor 14 Carbon canister solenoid valve
5 Knock sensor 15 Two step speed fan controller
6 Coolant temperature sensor 16 Compressor relay control
7 Oxygen sensor ( signal) 17 Idling speed step motor
8 Air condition request 18 Diagnostic connection
9 Ignition coil and spark plugs 19 Relay
10 Instrument panel

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WORKING MODULE TABLE FOR FUEL INJECTION / IGNITION
SYSTEM

Power supply relay


Power supply
(Power supply +12V)
Fuel pump Power supply
(15/54)
A/C relay

Idling speed step motor

Malfunction
Fuel injector indicator

Ignition coil

Carbon canister
solenoid valve
ENGINE

Coolant temperature sensor


Engine

Throttle valve
Line K
position sensor

Air pressure /
temperature sensor

Knock sensor
Cooling temperature
overheat alarm light
Decoder alarm light
TDC/rotate speed sensor R.P.M. meter

Oxygen sensor heater

Heated Oxygen sensor heater

Fan relay

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WORKING PRINCIPLE
This system is capable of controlling the actual tested air-fuel ratio under all engine speeds to
stay close to the equivalent proportion of the chemical reaction, so as to protect the catalyst
package and subsequently reduce the discharge of pollution. The oxygen sensor analyses the
oxygen content of the discharge gas using real-time principle and makes it possible for the
ECU to control the amount of injecting fuel to correct the air-fuel ratio. The fuel with a
pressure of about 3.5 bars is directly injected into the air intake manifold near the throttle
valve.

The fuel injectors of all cylinders are utilizing a sequential phase angle control method
according to the intake sequence and the opening time of the air intake valves; the injection
destinations are stored in the ECU map, and can vary autonomously according to the engine
speeds and intake air pressures. The application of sensors in the system is a basic strategy
used to correct the engine under all operating conditions. The system is implementing an
induction type of electrical discharge ignition, where the power source module in the ECU
controls the ignition timing. The ignition advance angle is calculated according to the engine
compression ratio and intake air volume. The idling speed is maintained at stable condition
through controlling the opening of the branch-connection pipe by a step motor and also
through the changing of the ignition points.

Other than capable of obtaining the input signals and controlling the output components, the
system has also equipped with various other functions. These functions include the following:
- When self-diagnose that the sensor is faulty, adopt the restoration strategic control.
- Restoration of the self-regulating mixed concentration engine and variances in spare parts.
- Exchange data with the diagnostic tester.

The idling speed of the engine and the amount of CO in the air discharged must not be
manually adjusted.

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ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT
The ECU is located on the left of engine firewall. The ECU handles various signals from the
sensors and controls the actuator so as to achieve the best possible operating condition. Many
extra functions are added as compared with the previous model. While by the usage of a
custom-made circuit board that can achieve many special functions, the integrated functions
are enhanced so that the structure has considerably reduced in size and become much more
compact.
The hard wares in the ECU are as follows:
-16 bit CPU single chip
- 8KB RAM (2KB IRAM + 6KB ERAM)
- 2MB FLASH EPROM (12V programming voltage)
- 2KB SERIAL EEPROM
- 16 CHANNELS 10 MODULES/NO. (A/D) CONVERTER
- 4PWM OUTPUT
- CAN MODULE (CAN2.0B)

The ECU software structure is divided into two parts for data processing:
-The Application part obtained the measurement of engineering parameter through sensors
to calculate the control parameters of the fuel injectors, ignition coils and idling speed step
motor for controlling the engine starting.
-The Basic part is collecting the data from the sensors and converts it into engineering data.
After that it controls the actuator through the calculated parameter generated by the
application software, and manages the self-diagnostic programs of the various sensors and
actuators. In addition, it can also communicate with the externally connected diagnostic
tester through the use of K serial cable.

The operating system is capable of ensuring the accurate management of the matters related
with time (such as the management of definite and delay timing) and angles (related to the
engine rotation sequence). This type of management is integrated in the software and
calculated according to the precise priority to ensure the optimization management of the
engine even at its high-speed condition. This type of modular structure design allows the
possibility of achieving all kinds of flexibility control and in the mean time not tampering the
overall characteristic of the system.

The following data are transmitted into the ECU:


- Battery voltage
- Absolute pressure sensor in the air intake manifold
- Top dead center
- Throttle valve opening angle position
- Air intake temperature

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- Engine coolant temperature
- Air conditioning operation
- Signal from oxygen sensor
- Knock sensor for the accelerator meter on top of the engine crankshaft housing

The air intake efficiency is obtained by calculating through the processing of absolute
pressure, air intake temperature, engine speed, throttle valve position and other signals, and
help to determine the air intake quantity of the cylinder. The inbuilt power supply module in
the ECU is controlling the following functions:
- To control the injected fuel quantity through the control of opening timing of the fuel
injector
- Idling speed step motor
- Ignition coils of the 4 high voltage outputs
- Check valve for recirculation the gaseous fuel on top of the air intake manifold (carbon
canister)
- Temporary turnoff of the air condition compressor
- Dual speed cooling fan for the engine
- Overheating alarm light in the coolant of the engine
- Malfunction alarm light

Other than these major functions, ECU also controls:


- All the self-diagnostic strategy related to input sensors and output actuators
- Wrong signals restoration strategy works on basically effective input signals

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WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION
CONTROL AND ACTUATORS
Intake Pressure and Intake Air Temperature
Sensor
Purpose: detects manifold absolute pressure from
0.1~0.2bar and intake air temperature, provides engine
with load information.
Composition and principle: this sensor is composed
of two different sensors (i.e. manifold absolute
pressure sensor and intake temperature sensor), and is
installed above pressurizer.
Pressure-sensitive element inside intake pressure
sensor detects pressure signal on intake manifold for
injection pulse width control of EFI system. This
sensor also serves as the substitute of load signal
sensor.
TMAP
Intake air temperature sensing element is a resistor
of negative temperature coefficient (NTC), which is
similar to water temperature sensor with resistance
value decreasing with the increasing of intake air
temperature. And engine ECU monitors the variation
of intake air temperature via a comparison circuit
inside.

Failure diagnosis: The electronic device next to


intake pressure sensor detects sensor circuit troubles
such as open circuit, short circuit and sensor damages,
etc. In case ECU detects any sensor output signal that
goes beyond output characteristic curve, the sensor is
diagnosed as failed by ECU. For example: when
intake pressure is higher than upper limit or lower than
lower limit, ECU detects sensor failure (in case that
intake pressure is lower than lower limit when starting, Manifold absolute
pressure and intake air
ECU is able to recognize the starting condition), and temperature sensor
the engine fault indicating lamp goes on. Under this Circuit diagram of manifold absolute
condition the engine works in failure mode. pressure and intake air temperature sensor
Installation: to be installed on pressurizer. Pins:
1# is grounded (connecting ECU 17#);
2# outputs temperature signal
(connecting ECU 40#);
3# connects with standard 5V power
source (connecting ECU 33#);
4# outputs pressure signal (connecting
ECU 37#).

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Troubleshooting: mainly check if there is short circuit
or open circuit on the connection between 4 lines on
sensor and ECU.
If there is short circuit, open circuit or grounding
between sensor wire harnesses.

Sectional view of intake pressure and


intake air temperature sensor
1 Seal ring 5 Casing
2Stainless steel bushing 6 Pressure bracket
3 PCB 7 Welded joint
4 Sensing element 8 Bonded joint
Throttle Position Sensor
Purpose: this sensor is designed to provide ECU with
information of throttle angle. As per such information,
ECU obtains engine load information and operating
mode information (for instance: start-up, idle speed,
reverse, part load and full load) as well as acceleration
and deceleration information. This sensor is three-wire
style, and the throttle opening can be detected by ECU
via monitoring voltage variation.
Composition and principle: Consisting of two
compass sliding contact resistors and two sliding Throttle Position Sensor
contact arms, throttle position sensor is an angle
sensor that outputs linear signals. The axes of contact
arms are on the same axial line with throttle axis, with
5V power supply voltage US being applied to both
ends of each contact resistor. When throttle turns,
contact arms turn along with it and move on sliding
contact resisters, educing potential of contacts UP as
output voltage. This sensor is actually an angle
potentiometer.
Failure diagnosis: ECU monitors throttle angle, and
detects sensor failure when output signal exceeds
upper or lower limit, in which case engine will work in
failure mode, and fault indicating lamp will go on.

Installation: allowable tightening torque for fastening


screw is 1.5Nm-2.5Nm.

Circuit diagram of throttle position sensor

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Pins:
1 sensor signal ground (ECU17#)
2 5V power (ECU32#)
3 sensor signal (ECU16#)

Troubleshooting: mainly check if there is short circuit


or open circuit on the connection between 3 lines on
sensor and ECU.
Check to see if there is short circuit, open circuit or
grounding between sensor wire harnesses.

Coolant Temperature Sensor TF-W

Purpose: this sensor is designed to provide coolant


temperature information. To provide engine ECU with
water temperature signal used for control of ignition
timing and fuel injection pulse width in startup, idle
speed and normal operation.

Composition and principle: this sensor is a


thermistor of negative temperature coefficient (NTC)
with resistance value decreasing with the increasing of
Coolant Temperature Sensor
coolant temperature except linear relation. The said
thermistor is installed in a heat-conducting sleeve.
ECU monitors water temperature variation by
converting resistance value of thermistor into a
changing voltage through a bleeder circuit (inner
structure of ECU).

Failure diagnosis: When coolant temperature is


higher than allowed upper limit or lower than lower
limit, failure mark of the knock sensor is set, engine
fault indicating lamp goes on and engine works in
failure mode. In this case ECU controls ignition and
fuel injection according to set water temperature for
failure mode, at the same time the fan is running at
high-speed mode.

Circuit diagram of Coolant


Limiting data: 2.55%K temperature sensor

Installation hint: tightening torque is 15Nm in


maximum.

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Hints: the vehicle is equipped with 2 water
temperature sensors, one is single-pin water
temperature sensor, providing the water temperature
gauge with water temperature signal; the other is
double-pin, providing the engine ECU with water
temperature signal.
Pins: this sensor has 3 pins, which can interchange for
use.
1 coolant temperature sensor signal (ECU 39#)
2 sensor signal ground (ECU 35#)
3 another line connects water temperature signal of
gauge.
Troubleshooting: mainly check if there is short circuit
or open circuit on the connection between 3 lines,
ECU and gauge on sensor.
If there is short circuit, open circuit or grounding
between sensor wire harnesses.
Line grounding or defect grounding is liable to cause
engine water temperature gauge to indicate excessive
temperature.

Knock Sensor KS
Purpose: this sensor is designed to provide ECU with
engine knocking information so as to carry out 1.Knocking
block
knocking control. 2.Casing
3.Piezoelectric
Composition and principle: knock sensor is a sort of ceramics
vibration acceleration sensor, which is fixed on engine 4.Contactor
5.Electric
cylinder block. ECU controls engine ignition via connection
signals detected by pressure-sensing element.

KS with cable

Failure diagnosis: ECU monitors on various sensors,


actuators, power amplification circuits and sensing
circuits. In case any of the following situations occurs,
failure mark of the knock sensor is set.
Knock sensor failure
Knocking control data processing circuit failure
Cylinder-detecting signal is unreliable
After failure mark of knock sensor being set, knocking
closed-loop control is shut down, reducing a safety
angle from the ignition advance angle stored in ECU. Circuit diagram of knock sensor
When error frequency cuts down to below setting

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value, failure mark restores.
Installation hint: tightening torque is 205Nm.
Pins:
1 Knock sensor signal 1 (ECU19#)
2 Knock sensor signal 2 (ECU20#)
Troubleshooting: mainly check if there is short circuit
or open circuit on the connection between 2 lines on
sensor and corresponding ECU pins.
If gasket is added during installation; if tightening
torque is proper.
If there is stitching defect between sensor and cylinder,
or there is foreign matter between them.

Oxygen Sensor
Purpose: this sensor is designed to provide the
information that if there is surplus oxygen after full
combustion of fuel, which is injected into engine
cylinder in the intake air. ECU, when applying this
information, can carry out fuel quantitative
closed-loop control so as to achieve utmost conversion
and purification of the three major toxic elements (HC,
CO and NOX) in the engine exhaust with the
application of three-way catalytic converter.
Composition and principle: the sensing element of
oxygen sensor is a porous ceramic pipe, the outer side
of pipe wall is surrounded by engine exhaust, while Oxygen Sensor
inner side vents to atmosphere. According to inside
and outside oxygen concentration difference, sensor
figures out indirectly fuel injection pulse width, and
then transfers the information to ECU, and the ECU
controls the injection again.

The working voltage of oxygen sensor fluctuates


between 0.1-0.9V, 5-8 variations in 10 seconds is
required; if lower than such frequency value, it shows
that the sensor is aged, and needs replacement. The
said sensor is unrepairable.

Failure diagnosis: ECU monitors on various sensors,


actuators, power amplification circuits and sensing
circuits. In case any of the following situations occurs,
failure mark of the oxygen sensor is set.
Circuit diagram of Oxygen sensor
Accumulator voltage is unreliable

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Manifold absolute pressure signal is unreliable
Engine coolant temperature signal is unreliable.
Injector driver stage failure
After oxygen sensor failure mark is set, fuel
quantification closed-loop control is shut down, and
the primitive fuel injection time stored in ECU is used
to carry out fuel quantification.

Installation hints: the tightening torque of oxygen


sensor is 50-60Nm, a layer of rust preventive oil shall
be applied on oxygen sensor after replacing so as to
prevent from incapable removal in case of rust.


Interior structure of oxygen sensor

Troubleshooting: mainly check if the plug connection


of several wires on the sensor is in good condition, and
if there is short circuit or open circuit.
Generally, sensor damage is caused by plumbum and
phosphorus poisoning, so pay attention to fuel quality,
meanwhile excessive consumption of engine oil is
Oxygen sensor has a cable, the other end of which is
electric connection. The outside of sensor is wrapped
with asbestos fireproof covering.
There are 4 pins on the joint:
1# connecting with heating control (ECU1#);
2# connecting with heating power and main relay;
3# connecting with sensor ground (ECU36#);
4# connecting with signal (+) (ECU18#).

Electronic Control Unit ECU


Purpose: ECU is the core of electronic engine control
system. Sensors sent various signals to ECU for
electric control, and then ECU controls operations of
fuel injector and ignition coil, etc. after internal
calculation, thus controlling working of engine.

Normal operation voltage: 9-16V


Composition: it has shielded casing and printed
circuit board, which integrates lots of electronic ECU
control units for the control of EFI system.

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Installation: to be fixed by the support of bracket
under pilot trench of front windshield. Pay attention to
waterproofing.

Functions:
Multipoint sequential injection
Controlling ignition
Idle speed control
Independent knocking control on cylinder-by-cylinder
basis (knock sensor KS-1);
Providing sensors with power supply: 5V/100mA
Adopting cylinder-detecting signal (Phase sensor PG1)
closed-loop control with self-adaptation
Controlling carbon canister control valve
Air conditioning switch
Engine-fault indicating lamp
Fuel quantitative correction
Engine speed signal output (TN signal)
Speed signal input
Failure self-diagnosis with flash code function
Accepting engine load signal

Troubleshooting: due to the fact that ECU (electric


control unit) has low failure rate, so generally it is not
advisable to replace ECU for troubleshooting on any
problem. Failure of components such as periphery
circuit and sensors shall be checked and solved firstly.
Do not replace ECU until all periphery components
are confirmed to be fault-free.

Description of pins of ECU:


Pin Connection point Type Pin Connection point Type
1 Heated oxygen sensor Output 42 A/C temperature sensor Input
2 Ignition coil 2 Output 43
Non-sustained power
3 Ignition ground wire Ground 44 Input
supply
Non-sustained power
4 45 Input
supply
5 Ignition coil 1 Output 46 Carbon canister Valve Output

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Fuel injector 4 (the 2nd Fuel injector 3 (the 4th
6 Output 47 Output
cylinder) cylinder)
Fuel injector 2 (the 3rd
7 Output 48
cylinder)
Output of engine speed
8 Output 49
signal
9 50 Control of low speed fan Output
10 51 Electronic ground 2 Ground
11 52
12 Sustained power supply Input 53 Electronic ground 1 Ground
13 Ignition switch Input 54
14 The main relay Output 55
15 Engine rotary sensor A Input 56
16 Throttle position sensor Input 57 A/C compressor switch Input
17 Sensor ground 1 Ground 58
18 Oxygen sensor Input 59 Speed signal Input
19 Knock sensor A Input 60
20 Knock sensor B Input 61 Power ground 1 Ground
Non-sustained power
22 63 Input
supply
Phase angle sensor D of
23 64 Output
step motor
Phase angle sensor A of
24 65 Output
step motor
Phase angle sensor B of
25 66 Output
step motor
Phase angle sensor C of
26 67 Output
step motor
Fuel injector 1 (1
27 Output 68 Control of high speed fan Output
cylinder)
28 69 Fuel pump relay Output
29 Inspection light Output 70 A/C compressor relay Output
30 71 Diagnostic K wire I/O
31 72
32 5V power supply 2 Output 73
33 5V power supply 1 Output 74
34 Engine rotary sensor B Input 75 A/C switch Input
35 Sensor ground 3 Ground 76 Blaster switch Input
Sensor ground connector
36 Ground 77 Headlight switch Input
2
Air intake pressure
37 Input 78
sensor
38 79 Phase angle sensor Input
Temperature sensor of Power ground connector
39 Input 80 Ground
engine coolant 2
Temperature sensor of
40 Input 81
air intake
41

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Electrical fuel pump
Function: Supply the fuel from the fuel tank to the
engine at required pressure and flow (vary from
individual system).

Structure and working principle: The electrical fuel


pump is comprised of direct current motor, vane pump
and end cover (integrated with non-return valve, release
valve and anti-electromagnetic interference elements).
The pump and the motor are mounted on the same shaft
and sealed in the same house. The pump and motor are
surrounded by the gasoline for cooling and lubrication.
The battery supplies power to the electrical fuel pump
through the fuel pump relay and the pump relay
switches on the circuit of the electrical fuel pump only
during start-up and operation of the engine. If the
engine stops running due to malfunction, the fuel pump
Electrical fuel pump
will stop operation automatically. The maximum
pressure at exit of the electrical fuel pump is
determined by the release valve within the range of
450-650 kPa. However the pressure of the whole fuel
system fluctuates along with fluctuation of the air
intake manifold pressure. The difference between the
system pressure and the air intake manifold pressure,
which normally is 350kPa, is determined by the fuel
pressure regulator.

Note: The temperature of fuel has a large impact on


performance of the fuel pump. When running under
high temperature for a long time, if the fuel temperature
is higher than a certain temperature, the pressure of the
fuel pump will be decreased rapidly. So please check
carefully whether the performance of the fuel pump
under high temperature is good if the engine fails to hot
start.

Pins: The electrical fuel pump has two pins connecting


to the fuel pump relay. Beside these 2 pins there are
marks of + and - on the shell of the fuel pump
respectively, which represent the positive and negative
grid.
The 70# pin of ECU controls the fuel pump relay.

Circuit diagram of the electrical fuel

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Troubleshooting: The common malfunctions of the
fuel pump are representation of insufficient fuel
pressure, not pumping fuel and so on. It shall be
verified firstly in troubleshooting that the fuel pressure
is within rated range and the pipeline is leaked. In
addition both the positive and negative pressure of the
fuel tank will have impacts on the fuel system.

Solenoid fuel injector


Function: The fuel injector supplies atomized fuel to
the engine through injecting the fuel within the required
time according to the demand from the ECU.

Structure and working principle: The ECU sends the


electrical pulse to the fuel injector coil for generate a
magnetic force. If the magnetic force is increased
enough to overcome the composite force of the release
spring pressure force, the gravity force of needle valve,
and the friction force, the needle valve will begin to
rise and the fuel injection will start. The maximum lift
range of the needle valve is no more than 0.1mm.
When the fuel injection pulse ends, the pressure force
of the release spring will make the needle valve close
again.
Notes on installation: Only the specific connector can
be used in the fixed fuel injector and shall not be
mixed.
For the convenience of installation it is recommended
that the upper O ring connected to the fuel distributor
pipe shall be coated with silica-free clean oil. Pay
attention not to make oil contaminate the inside of the
fuel injector and the injection hole.
Place the fuel injector in the fuel injector base in
vertical direction and fasten the injector on the base by
the clasp.

Note: As for the car not being used for a long time, it is
possible that such car can not start properly because the
coagulation of fuel in the fuel injector. Under such
circumstance verify carefully that the fuel injector is
coagulated.
Fault diagnosis: The electrical injection system of A15
RHD car can conduct fault diagnosis on the driving
stage of the fuel injector in stead of conducting fault
diagnosis on its self. If the driving stage of the fuel
injector is short or overloaded to the battery power
supply short to ground or open the malfunction flag

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supply, short to ground or open, the malfunction flag
bit is set. The closed loop control of the oxygen sensor
and its memory precontrol are disabled, but the last
data stored in its memory is valid. After the
malfunction is fixed, the malfunction flag bit will be
reset.
Connected to the
Working pressure: 350 kPa 87# pin of the
Resistance of the fuel injector: 11-16 main relay

Pins Each fuel injector has two pins. Of which the


one marked by + is connected to the 87# pin of
output terminal of the fuel pump relay; the other is
connected to the 27#, 6#, 7#, or 47# pin of the ECU Circuit diagram of the solenoid fuel injector
respectively.

Troubleshooting: The common malfunctions of the


fuel injector such as unsmooth fuel injection and
defective atomization are normally resulted due to long
term use of the engine. So the fuel injector shall be
cleaned periodically. The circuit short or open in the
internal coil of the fuel injector also will result
malfunction of the fuel injection system. Verify that the
system circuits are short or open.

Idle actuator with step motor DLA


Function: The idle actuator with step motor is also
equipped with a bypass air intake duct. If the throttle is
closed air can enter the engine through such bypass
duct. The ECU can adjust the sectional area of the
bypass duct through this step motor, control the air
intake flow and in turn control the quantity of fuel
injection based on the air flow. The increase or
decrease of the engine rotary speed can be achieved
through increasing or decreasing the sectional area of Idle actuator with step motor
the bypass duct under idle speed, through which the
closed loop control of engine rotary speed under idle
speed is achieved eventually.

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Structure and working principle: The step motor is a
micro-motor, which is comprised of steel stators
installed in a circle and a rotor. Each steel stator has a
coil. The rotor is permanent magnet and the center of
the magnet is a nut. All the coils of stators are always
on. If the current direction of any coil is changed, the
rotor will turn by an angle. If all coils of stators change
their currents directions in a proper order, a rotating
magnetic field will be generated and result in the
permanent magnet rotor rotating in designed direction.
Fault diagnosis: The ECU can detect the circuit short The step motor
and circuit open in the two coils of the idle step motor. of the idle actuator
Upon the occurrence of such malfunction the engine
malfunction alarm light will be lit and the engine will Circuit of the stepper of the idle
enter the malfunction operation mode.

Pins:
Pin A is connected to the 29# pin of ECU;
Pin B is connected to the 4# pin of ECU;
Pin C is connected to the 26# pin of ECU;
Pin D is connected to the 21# pin of ECU.
Troubleshooting: Verify that the four circuits between
the step motor and the ECU are short or open. Verify
that the step motor is jammed. Verify that there is External appearance of
circuit short or circuit open inside the step motor.

Ignition coil ZSK-ROV


Function: The ignition coil transforms the low voltage
of the primary winding into the high voltage of the
secondary winding. The spark plug generates the spark
through discharging and ignites the combustion gas
mixed with air and fuel.
Structure and working principle: The ignition coil is
comprised of the primary winding, the secondary
winding, the iron core, the shell and so on. If the
battery voltage applies on the primary winding, the
primary winding is charged. After the ECU cut off the
circuit of the primary winding the charging will be
stopped and the high voltage will be inducted in the
secondary winding.

Fault diagnosis: Because the ECU is not able to


conduct diagnosing for the ignition coil, there is no
diagnostic trouble code for the malfunction of the
ignition coil. Whether the ignition coil functions
properly can be judged only by inspecting the ignition
il it Th i iti il d it l t

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coil resistance. The ignition coil produces quite a lot
heat under normal operation and the over temperature
of ignition coil will result in such malfunctions as Ignition coil with double spark
increase of the ignition coils resistance, unstable
operation of the engine and engine stall.
Primary winding: 0.47 ohms
Secondary winding: 8 ohms
Pins:
1# pin of the primary winding is connected to the 5# 87# main relay
pin of ECU;
2# pin of the primary winding is connected to the 2#
pin of ECU;
3# and 4# pins are jointly connected to the positive grid Circuit diagram of the ignition coil
of power supply.
High voltage side: 1#, 2#, 3# and 4# pins are
connected respectively to the spark plug of the cylinder
with the same number through the distributor circuit.
Troubleshooting: Verify that there is circuit short or
circuit open in the coils.
Verify that there is electrical leakage and crack on the
shell.
Verify that the electricity for ignition is not sufficient
due to coil ageing.

Carbon canister control valve


Function: It is used to control the purge airflow of the
carbon canister. The carbon canister control valve is
controlled by the ECU through the pulse length and
frequency (i.e. duty ratio) based on the engine load.
The excessive accumulation of fuel vapor in the carbon
canister will result in fuel spill and environment
pollution, so the function of the solenoid valve of the
carbon canister is to open the valve at an appropriate
time so that the excessive fuel vapor can enter the air
intake pipe and participate in the combustion.

Structure and working principle: The carbon canister


is comprised of magnetic coil, armature, valve and
other elements. There is a filter screen at its inlet. The
airflow passing the carbon canister control valve is not
only relative to the duty ratio of the pulse which is sent
by the ECU to the carbon canister control valve, but
also relative to the pressure difference between the exit
and inlet of the carbon canister control valve. If there is
no pulse, the carbon canister control valve is closed.

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The ECU can indirectly control the purge airflow Carbon canister control valve
through controlling the charging time of the carbon
canister solenoid valve based on the signals provided
by various sensors of the engine.
Fault diagnosis: The ECU doesnt have the function of
self-diagnosis for the carbon canister control valve, but
has the function of self-diagnosis for the driving stage
of control valve of carbon canister. If the driving state
of the control valve of carbon canister is short or
overloaded to the battery voltage, short to ground or
open, the basic memory of the closed loop control of
fuel quantity will be closed, the memory of idling air
demand quantity will be closed and the memory data at Carbon canister control valve
that time is valid. The common malfunctions of engine
are unstable idling or excessive high idle speed under Circuit diagram of the solenoid valve
the malfunction of the solenoid valve of carbon of the charcoal canister TEV-2
canister.

Pins:
1# pin is connected to the 87# pin on output terminal of
the main relay;
2# pin is connected to the 46# pin of ECU.
Troubleshooting: The blockage and crack of the
carbon canister will result in the increase of air intake.

Steel fuel distribution pipe assembly


Function: Store and distribute the fuel and provide a
relative stable pressure for the fuel injection system so
as to achieve the uniform fuel supply pressure and
quantity for each cylinder and stable operation of
engine.
Structure: The fuel distribution pipe assembly is
comprised of fuel distribution pipe (KVS-S) and fuel
injector (EV).
Installation requirement: The connection of fuel pipe
and rubber hose shall be fastened by clamp. The model
of the selected clamp shall match to the rubber hose to
ensure the seal connection between the fuel pipe and
the rubber hose.
Fault diagnosis: There is seldom possibility for the
malfunction occurrence in the main fuel supply pipe.
Most of the malfunctions, which result in the leakage of
the fuel system, are caused by poor assembly, so proper
note shall be paid during installation that any used
O-oil seal shall not be used again and appropriate
lubricant is allowed to be painted during assembly.

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BASIC PRINCIPLE OF FAULT DIAGNOSIS FOR ELECTRONIC

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

RECORD OF MALFUNCTION INFORMATION


The electronic control unit consistently monitors the operations of sensors, actuators,
related circuits, malfunction alarm lights, voltage of battery and so on, even the
operation of the electronic control unit itself, as well as carries out the examination on
reliabilities of the signals output by the sensors, driving signals of actuators, and
internal signals (such as oxygen closed loop control, knock control, idle speed control,
battery voltage control and etc.). Once it is found that there is a malfunction in some
chain or some signal is not reliable, the electronic control unit will set the record of
malfunction information in the RAM of malfunction memory. The record of
malfunction information is stored as diagnostic trouble code and displayed in the
same order as the occurrence of the malfunctions.
Based on their frequency of occurrence, the malfunctions can be classified as steady
state malfunction and random malfunction (such as the malfunctions caused by
temporary circuit open of wiring harness or defective contact of connectors).
MALFUNCTION STATUS
If the duration period of the identified malfunction exceeds its setting stabilizing time
at the first time, ECU will regard this malfunction as a stable malfunction and store it
in the memory of steady state malfunctions. If the malfunction disappears within its
setting stabilizing time, it will be stored as random malfunction or non existence.
If this malfunction is identified again, it will still be regarded as random
malfunction, but the existence of historic malfunction will not influence normal
operation of the engine.
MALFUNCTION TYPES
Short to positive grid of power supply;
Short to ground;
Circuit open (if there is pull up resistance or pull down resistance in input stage, the
ECU will regard the malfunction of circuit open on input terminal as the malfunction
that the input terminal is short to power supply or to ground.);
Unreliable signals.
FOUR TYPES OF MALFUNCTIONS
Maximum malfunction, the signal exceeds the upper limit of the rated range.
Minimum malfunction, the signal exceeds the lower limit of the rated range.
Signal malfunction, no signal.

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Illogical malfunction, there is signal but the signal is not logical.
LIMP DRIVE
If some detected important malfunctions last longer than the setting stabilizing time,
ECU will take proper software measures, for example, disable some control functions
including the oxygen sensor closed loop control and the like, replace some unreliable
data with the setting values and etc.. Therefore even the working condition of the
engine is quite bad at that time, but the car still can be driven. The objective of such
measures is to drive home or drive to service station limpingly so as to avoid the
embarrassment that the car has to be broken down on highway or in field. As soon as
the detected malfunction disappears, the normal data will be reused.
MALFUNCTION ALARM
Some cars equipped with M7.9.7 system have the malfunction alarm light. If some
important components such as ECU, the air intake manifold absolute pressure sensor,
the throttle position sensor, the coolant temperature sensor, the knock sensor, the
oxygen sensor, the phase angle sensor, the fuel injector, two drive stages of idle
actuator with step motor, the carbon canister control valve, the cooling fan relay have
malfunctions, when the corresponding malfunction flag bit is set, ECU will send
alarm through the malfunction alarm light until this malfunction flag bit is reset.
MALFUNCTION READOUT
The malfunction information record can be called from the electronic control unit
through the diagnostic tester, or be read through the flashing code. If the malfunction
is related to the function of fuel air mixing ratio regulator, the corresponding
malfunction information record can be read at least 4 minutes after the engine starts
running.

ISO 9141-2 Standard diagnostic connector

Connection to the diagnostic tester


This system adopts the K line communication protocol, and utilizes the ISO 9141-2
standard diagnostic connector (shown in the above figure). This standard diagnostic
connector is fixed on the wiring harness of the engine. The 4#, 7#, and 16# pins of the
standard connector are connected to the engine management system (EMS), the 4#
pin is connected to the ground wire of the car, the 7# pin is connected to the 71# pin
of ECU (i.e. the K line of engine data), the 16# pin is connected to the positive grid
of the battery.

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The detailed procedures are:
Turn on the ignition switch, but not start up the engine, ground the 7# pin of ECU by
K wire for more than 2.5 seconds, then open the ground connection, after that the
coding light starts flashing.
After the K wire is grounded for more than 2.5 seconds the output of flashing code is
the value of P-CODE. For example, the flashing method of P0203 is: consecutive
flashes of 10 times-pause-consecutive flashes of 2 times-pause,-consecutive flashes of
10 times-pause-consecutive flashes of 3 times.
CLEARING MALFUNCTION INFORMATION RECORD
After the malfunction is fixed, the malfunction information record in the memory
shall be cleared. Such malfunction information, which appeared at the time of ignition
but failed to be maintained to the end of stabilizing period, will not be recorded. If the
value Hz of frequency counter reaches 0, the malfunction information records in the
malfunction memory will be cleared automatically. The malfunction information
record will be cleared upon the demand of clearing the malfunction memory
through the diagnostic tester. The malfunction information records in the external
RAM can be cleared by disconnecting the connector of ECU or removing the wire of
the battery.
TROUBLESHOOTING:
WE ONLY CAN KNOW THE ROUGH POSITion of the malfunction whose
malfunction information record is obtained through the above measures, and it doesnt
mean that we have found out that malfunction exactly. Because any malfunction is
possibly caused by the damage of electric components (such as sensors, actuators or
ECU and the like), the circuit open, or the circuit short to ground or positive stud of
battery, even the mechanical malfunctions.
The malfunction is intrinsic and its appearance is various symptoms. After the
symptom is detected the diagnostic tester or the flashing code shall be used to search
the malfunction information record, and excluding corresponding malfunction based
on the malfunction information. And then carry out the troubleshooting based on the
symptom of the engine.

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DETAILED TABLE OF DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
Diagnostic trouble code: P0107 Undervoltage in circuit of air intake pressure
sensor
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Observe the air intake pressure in data Yes Proceed to Step 5
flow and verify that it is maintained at
2 Proceed to next
101kPa (the exact value is determined by No
step.
the atmospheric pressure at that time).
Disconnect the connector of the air intake Yes Proceed to Step 5
pressure sensor on the wiring harness and
3 inspect with multimeter to verify that the Proceed to next
No
voltage between the 3# and 1# pins of the step.
connector is about 5V.
Repair or replace
Verify that the circuits between the 17#,
Yes the wiring
33# and 37# pins of ECU and the 1#, 3#,
4 harness.
and 4# pins of the sensor connector are
Proceed to next
short to ground. No
step.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed. Step Refer to diagnosis
on the accelerator pedal slowly until the Yes
help.
nearly full opening, observe the air intake
pressure displayed on the diagnostic
5 tester and verify that the value is stable
without significant change; if step on the Replace the
No
accelerator pedal quickly until nearly full sensor.
opening, whether the value exceeds 90kPa
instantaneously.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed. Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Observe the value of Coolant help.
temperature on the diagnostic tester to
6
verify that the indicated value is increased Replace the
No
along with the temperature increase of the sensor.
engine coolant.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0118Over temperature indicated by engine coolant
temperature sensor
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step.
ON position.
Observe the coolant temperature in Yes Proceed to Step 6
data flow to verify that it matches to the
engine temperature (the exact value is
determined by the engine temperature at
2 that time).
No Proceed to next step.
Note: If the indicated value is
maintained at -40 at that time, there
may be some open malfunction occurs
in the circuit.
Disconnect the connector of the coolant
Yes Proceed to next step.
temperature sensor on the wiring
harness, inspect with multimeter to
3 verify that the resistance between 1#
and 2# pins of the sensor matches to the No Replace the sensor.
temperature (see the related part of this
maintenance manual for reference).
Disconnect the connector of the coolant Yes Proceed to Step 6
temperature sensor on the wiring
4 harness, inspect with multimeter to
No Proceed to next step.
verify that the voltage between 1# and
2# pins of this connector is about 5V.
Check whether the circuits between 39# Repair or replace the
Yes
and 35# pins of ECU and the 1# and 2# wiring harness.
5
pins of the sensor connector are short to
No Proceed to next step.
ground.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed. Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Observe the value of Coolant help.
temperature on the diagnostic tester to
6
verify that the indicated value is
No Replace the sensor.
increased along with the temperature
increase of the engine coolant.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0122 Undervoltage in circuit for throttle position
sensor
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Observe the item of throttle absolute Proceed to next
Yes
opening in the data flow to verify that the step.
2 value is maintained within 4%-10% (the
exact value varies from individual auto No Proceed to Step5
model.)
Step on the accelerator pedal slowly until Proceed to next
Yes
full opening, observe the absolute step.
opening of throttle in data flow and verify
3 that the value is increased to 85%-95%
with the increasing of the accelerator pedal No Proceed to Step 5
opening (the exact value varies from
individual auto model).
Repeat the step 3, observe the absolute Yes Replace the sensor.
opening of throttle in data flow to verify
4 Proceed to next
that there is jump during the change of the No
step.
value.
Disconnect the connector of the throttle Repair and replace
Yes
position sensor on the wiring harness to the wiring harness.
verify that the circuits between 17#, 32#,
5
and 16# pins of ECU and 1#, 2#, and 3# Proceed to next
No
pins of the sensor connector are short to step.
ground.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Yes Replace the sensor.
6 voltage between 1# and 2# pins of this Refer to diagnosis
No
connector is about 5V. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0123 Overvoltage in circuit for throttle position
sensor
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Observe the item of throttle absolute Proceed to next
Yes
opening in the data flow to verify that step.
2 the value is maintained within 4%-10%
(the exact value varies from individual No Proceed to Step5
auto model.)
Step on the accelerator pedal slowly until Proceed to next
Yes
full opening, observe the absolute step.
opening of throttle in data flow and
3 verify that the value is increased to
85%-95% with the increasing of the No Proceed to Step5
accelerator pedal opening (the exact value
varies from individual auto model).
Repeat the step 3, observe the absolute Yes Replace the sensor.
opening of throttle in data flow to verify
4 Proceed to next
that there is jump during the change of No
step.
the value.
Disconnect the connector of the throttle Repair and replace
Yes
position sensor on the wiring harness to the wiring harness.
verify that the circuits between 17#, 32#,
5
and 16# pins of ECU and 1#, 2#, and 3# Proceed to next
No
pins of the sensor connector are open or step.
short to power supply.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Yes Replace the sensor.
6 voltage between 1# and 2# pins of this Refer to diagnosis
No
connector is about 5V. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0130 Malfunction in signal circuit of upstream
oxygen sensor
(Note: The following diagnostic procedures are applicable only under the
circumstances that the trouble code of P0135 does not appear simultaneously, in case
that such trouble code appears at the same time, overhaul shall be carried out based on
the following procedures after dealing with the malfunction of P0135 firstly.)
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed until Refer to diagnosis
Yes
the temperature of coolant reaches the help.
normal value. Observe the value of
2 Oxygen sensor voltage on the diagnostic
Proceed to next
tester to verify that the indicated value is No
step.
changed quickly within the range of
100mV 900mV.
Verify that the circuits between 36# and Repair and replace
Yes
18# pins of ECU and A# (corresponding to the wiring harness.
grey connecting wire of the oxygen sensor)
3
and B# (corresponding to black connecting Proceed to next
No
wire of the oxygen sensor) pins of the step.
sensor connector are short to ground.
A. Verify that there is quite serious leakage Carry out service
in the air intake system; Yes based on the
B. Verify that there is blockage in the fuel diagnostic results.
injector;
C. Verify that the clearance of spark plug is
4 excessive large;
D. Verify that the resistance of distributor Refer to diagnosis
No
circuit is excessive large; help.
E. Verify that the air intake valve conduit is
worn out;
And etc.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0132 Overvoltage of circuit for upstream oxygen
sensor
(Note: the following diagnostic procedures are applicable only under the
circumstances that the trouble code of P0135 does not appear simultaneously, in case
that such trouble code appears at the same time overhaul shall be carried out based on
the following procedures after dealing with the malfunction of P0135 firstly.)

Item Inspection Follow-up


Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed until Refer to diagnosis
Yes
the temperature of coolant reaches the help.
normal value. Observe the value of
2 Oxygen sensor voltage on the
Proceed to next
diagnostic tester to verify that the No
step.
indicated value is changed quickly within
the range of 100mV 900mV.
Verify that the circuits between 36# and Repair and replace
Yes
18# pins of ECU and A# (corresponding the wiring harness.
to grey connecting wire of the oxygen
3 sensor) and B# (corresponding to black
Refer to diagnosis
connecting wire of the oxygen sensor) No
help.
pins of the sensor connector are short to
power supply.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0134 Signal malfunction of upstream oxygen sensor
(Note: The following diagnostic procedures are applicable only under the
circumstances that the trouble code of P0135 does not appear simultaneously, in case
that such trouble code appears at the same time, overhaul shall be carried out based on
the following procedures after dealing with the malfunction of P0135 firstly.)

Item Inspection Follow-up


Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed until Refer to diagnosis
Yes
the temperature of coolant reaches the help.
normal value. Observe the value of
2 Oxygen sensor voltage on the diagnostic
Proceed to next
tester to verify that the indicated value is No
step.
changed quickly within the range of
100mV 900mV.
Verify that the circuits between 36# and Repair and replace
18# pins of ECU and A# (corresponding to Yes the wiring
the grey connecting wire of oxygen sensor) harness.
3
and B# (corresponding to the black
Refer to diagnosis
connecting wire of oxygen sensor) pins of No
help.
the sensor connector are open.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0135 Malfunction in heating circuit of upstream
oxygen sensor
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Disconnect the connector of the oxygen Proceed to next
Yes
sensor on the wiring harness and inspect step.
with multimeter to verify that the voltage
between C# (corresponding to the white
2
connecting wire of the oxygen sensor)
No Proceed to Step4
and D# (corresponding to the white
connecting wire of the oxygen sensor)
pins of this connector is about 12V.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Proceed to next
Yes
resistance between C# (white) and D# step.
3
(white) pins of the oxygen sensor is
No Replace the sensor.
within 1~6 under 20.
Yes Replace the fuse.
Verify that the 8A fuse in heating circuit
4 Proceed to next
of the oxygen sensor is burn out. No
step.
Verify that the circuits between 1# pin of Repair and replace
Yes
ECU, 87# pin of the main relay and C# the wiring harness.
(corresponding to white connecting wire
5 of the oxygen sensor) and D#
Refer to diagnosis
(corresponding to white connecting wire No
help.
of the oxygen sensor) are open or short to
ground or power supply.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0171 Self adapting of closed loop control for air fuel
ratio exceeding the upper limit
(Note: the following diagnostic procedures are applicable only under the
circumstances that the trouble codes of intake air pressure sensor, carbon canister
control valve, oxygen sensor and so on do not appear simultaneously, in case that such
trouble codes appear at same time, overhaul shall be carried out based on the
following procedures after dealing with other malfunctions firstly.)
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed until Proceed to next
Yes
the temperature of coolant reaches the step.
normal value.
Under the full load working condition,
observe the value of Oxygen sensor
2
voltage on the diagnostic tester to verify Refer to diagnosis
No
that the indicated value is maintained at help.
100 mV without significant change for
long time under certain working
conditions.
Connect the fuel pressure gauge to the Proceed to next
Yes
feeding pipe of fuel supply system to step.
3 observe whether the fuel pressure is
Check and repair
maintained at 350kPa under full load No
the fuel system.
working condition.
Verify that the circuits between 36# and Repair and replace
Yes
18# pins of ECU and A# (corresponding to the wiring harness.
the grey connecting wire of oxygen sensor)
4
and B# (corresponding to the black Proceed to next
No
connecting wire of oxygen sensor) pins of step.
the sensor connector are short to ground.
A. Verify that there is quite serious leakage
in the air intake system;
B. Verify that there is blockage in the fuel
injector;
Carry out service
C. Verify that the clearance of spark plug is
5 Yes based on the
excessive large;
diagnostic results.
D. Verify that the resistance of distributor
circuit is excessive large;
E. Verify that the valve clearance is
excessive large; and etc.

G-32

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0172 Self adapting of closed loop control for air fuel
ratio exceeding the lower limit
(Note: The following diagnostic procedures are applicable only under the
circumstances that the trouble codes of intake air pressure sensor, carbon canister
control valve, oxygen sensor and so on do not appear simultaneously, in case that such
trouble codes appear at same time, overhaul shall be carried out based on the
following procedures after dealing with other malfunctions firstly.)
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Start up the engine, run at idle speed until Proceed to next
Yes
the temperature of coolant reaches the step.
normal value.
Under the full load working condition
2 observe the value of Oxygen sensor
Refer to diagnosis
voltage to verify that the indicated value No
help.
is maintained at 900 mV without
significant change for long time under
certain working conditions.
Connect the fuel pressure gauge to the Proceed to next
Yes
feeding pipe of fuel supply system to step.
3 observe whether the fuel pressure is
Check and repair
maintained at 350kPa under full load No
the fuel system.
working condition.
Verify that the circuits between 36# and Repair and replace
Yes
18# pins of ECU and A# (corresponding the wiring harness.
to the grey connecting wire of oxygen
4
sensor) and B# (corresponding to the Proceed to next
No
black connecting wire of oxygen sensor) step.
are short to power supply.
A. Verify that there is leakage in the fuel Carry out service
injector; Yes based on the
B. Whether there is air leakage in diagnostic results.
exhaust pipe;
C. Whether the ignition timing is correct;
5
D. Whether the air intake valve conduit
Refer to diagnosis
is worn out; No
help.
E. Whether the valve clearance is
excessive small;
And etc.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0201 Circuit malfunction of the 1 cylinder fuel
injector
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON Proceed to next step.
position.
Disconnect the connector of the 1 Yes Proceed to Step 4
cylinder fuel injector on the wiring
harness, and inspect with multimeter to
2
verify that the voltage between 1# pin of No Proceed to next step.
this connector and the negative grid of
power supply is about 12V.
Verify that the circuit between 1# pin of Repair or replace the
Yes
the connector of the 1 cylinder fuel wiring harness.
3
injector and the main relay is open, or
No Proceed to next step.
short to ground.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Yes Proceed to next step.
resistance between 1# and 2# pins of the
4 Replace the fuel
1 cylinder fuel injector is within 11~16 No
injector.
under 20.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Refer to diagnosis
Yes
voltage between the connector of the 1 help.
5 cylinder fuel injector (2# pin) and the
negative grid of power supply is about No Proceed to next step.
3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between the Repair and replace
Yes
connector of the 1 cylinder fuel injector the wiring harness.
6
(2# pin) and 27# pin of ECU is open or Refer to diagnosis
No
short to ground or power supply. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0202 Circuit malfunction of the double cylinder fuel
injector
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Disconnect the connector of the double Yes Proceed to Step 4
cylinder fuel injector on the wiring
harness, and inspect with multimeter to
2 Proceed to next
verify that the voltage between 1# pin of No
step.
this connector and the negative grid of
power supply is about 12V.
Verify that the circuit between 1# pin of Repair and replace
Yes
the connector of the double cylinder fuel the wiring harness.
3
injector and the main relay is open, or Proceed to next
No
short to ground. step.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Proceed to next
Yes
resistance between 1# and 2# pins of the step.
4
double cylinder fuel injector is within Replace the fuel
No
11~16 under 20. injector.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Refer to diagnosis
Yes
voltage between the connector of the help.
5 double cylinder fuel injector (2# pin) and
Proceed to next
the negative grid of power supply is about No
step.
3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between the Repair or replace
Yes
connector of the double cylinder fuel the wiring harness.
6
injector (2# pin) and 6# pin of ECU is Refer to diagnosis
No
open or short to ground or power supply. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0203 Circuit malfunction of the triple cylinder fuel
injector
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Disconnect the connector of the triple Yes Proceed to Step 4
cylinder fuel injector on the wiring
harness, and inspect with multimeter to
2 Proceed to next
verify that the voltage between 1# pin of No
step.
this connector and the negative grid of
power supply is about 12V.
Verify that the circuit between 1# pin of Repair or replace
Yes
the connector of the triple cylinder fuel the wiring harness.
3
injector and the main relay is open or Proceed to next
No
short to ground. step.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Proceed to next
Yes
resistance between 1# and 2# pins of the step.
4
triple cylinder fuel injector is within Replace the fuel
No
11~16 under 20. injector.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Refer to diagnosis
Yes
voltage between the connector of the help.
5 triple cylinder fuel injector (2# pin) and
Proceed to next
the negative grid of power supply is about No
step.
3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between the Repair or replace
Yes
connector of the triple cylinder fuel the wiring harness.
6
injector (2# pin) and 7# pin of ECU is Refer to diagnosis
No
open or short to ground or power supply. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0204 Circuit malfunction of the 4 cylinder fuel
injector
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Disconnect the connector of the 4 Yes Proceed to Step 4
cylinder fuel injector on the wiring
harness, and inspect with multimeter to
2 Proceed to next
verify that the voltage between 1# pin of No
step.
this connector and the negative grid of
power supply is about 12V.
Verify that the circuit between 1# pin of Repair or replace
Yes
the connector of the 4 cylinder fuel the wiring harness.
3
injector and the main relay is open or Proceed to next
No
short to ground. step.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Proceed to next
Yes
resistance between 1# and 2# pins of the step.
4
4 cylinder fuel injector is within 11~16 Replace the fuel
No
under 20. injector.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Refer to diagnosis
Yes
voltage between the connector of the 4 help.
5 cylinder fuel injector (2# pin) and the
Proceed to next
negative grid of power supply is about No
step.
3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between the Repair or replace
Yes
connector of the 4 cylinder fuel injector the wiring harness.
6
(2# pin) and 47# pin of ECU is open or Refer to diagnosis
No
short to ground or power supply. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0230 Malfunction in control circuit of fuel pump
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step.
position.
Pull out the relay of fuel pump, turn the
Yes Proceed to Step4
ignition switch to ON position, and
verify that the voltage between the power
2 supply terminal of fuel pump relay (i.e.
Proceed to next
30# and 86# pin of the relay) and the No
step.
negative grid of power supply is about
12V.
Repair or replace
Verify that the power supply circuit of the Yes
3 the wiring harness.
relay is open or short to ground.
No Proceed to Step2
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Replace the fuel
Yes
voltage between the control terminal of pump relay.
4 fuel pump relay (i.e. 85# pin of the relay)
Proceed to next
and the negative grid of power supply is No
step.
about 3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between the control Repair or replace
Yes
terminal of the relay (i.e. 85# pin of the the wiring harness.
5
relay) and 69# pin of ECU is open or short Refer to diagnosis
No
to power supply or ground. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0325 Malfunction in circuit of knock sensor
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step.
position.
Disconnect the connector of knock sensor Proceed to next
Yes
on the wiring harness, inspect with step.
2 multimeter to verify that the resistance
between 1# pin and 2# pin of this sensor No Replace the sensor.
is higher than 1M.
Verify that the circuits between 1# and 2# Repair or replace
Yes
pin of the knock sensor connector and the wiring harness.
3
19# and 20# pins of ECU are open, or are Proceed to next
No
short to ground or power supply. step.
Replace the knock sensor complying with Refer to diagnosis
Yes
the operation instructions, trial run and help.
4 make the rotary speed of engine exceed Verify that it is a
2200 rpm. Verify that the diagnostic code No random
of P0325 appears again. malfunction.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0335 Signal malfunction of crankshaft position
sensor
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step.
OFF position.
Disconnect the connector of rotary Yes Proceed to next step.
sensor on the wiring harness, inspect
with multimeter to verify that the
2
resistance between 2# pin and 3# pin of No Replace the sensor.
this rotary sensor is about 770~950
under 20.
Verify that the circuits between 2# and Repair or replace the
Yes
3# pin of the rotary sensor connector wiring harness.
3
and 34# and 15# pins of ECU are open,
No Proceed to next step.
or are short to ground or power supply.
Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Verify that the signal panel of flywheel help.
4
is in good condition. Replace the signal
No
panel.

G-40

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0336 Malfunction of improper signal of crankshaft
position sensor
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step.
OFF position.
Disconnect the connector of rotary Yes Proceed to next step.
sensor on the wiring harness, inspect
with multimeter to verify that the
2
resistance between 2# pin and 3# pin of No Replace the sensor.
this rotary sensor is about 770~950
under 20.
Verify that the circuits between 2# and Repair and replace
Yes
3# pin of the rotary sensor connector and the wiring harness.
3
34# and 15# pins of ECU are open, or are
No Proceed to next step.
short to ground or power supply.
Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Verify that the signal panel of flywheel is help.
4
in good condition. Replace the signal
No
panel.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0340 Malfunction of phase angle sensor signal
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step.
position.
Disconnect the connector of phase angle
Yes Proceed to Step 4
sensor on the wiring harness, inspect with
2 multimeter to verify that the voltage
Proceed to next
between 1# pin and 3# pin of this phase No
step.
angle sensor connector is about 12V.
Verify that the circuit between 3# pin of Repair or replace
phase angle sensor and 87# pin of the main Yes the wiring
3 relay is open or short to ground; harness.
Verify that 1# pin of phase angle sensor is Proceed to next
No
grounded properly. step.
Verify that the voltage between 2# pin of Yes Proceed to Step 6
4 the phase angle sensor connector and the Proceed to next
No
negative grid of power supply is about 9.9V. step.
Repair or replace
Verify that the circuit between 2# pin of the
Yes the wiring
phase angle sensor connector and 79# pin of
5 harness.
ECU is open, or is short to ground or power
Proceed to next
supply. No
step.
Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Verify that the signal panel of camshaft is in help.
6
good condition. Replace the signal
No
panel.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0443 Malfunction in control circuit of drive stage of
carbon canister control valve
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor, and Proceed to next
1
turn the ignition switch to ON position. step.
Disconnect the connector of carbon canister Proceed to Step
Yes
control valve on the wiring harness, inspect 4
2 with multimeter to verify that the voltage
Proceed to next
between 1# pin of this connector and the No
step.
negative grid of power supply is about 12V.
Repair or
Verify that the power supply circuit of carbon Yes replace the
3 canister control valve is open or short to wiring harness.
ground. Proceed to Step
No
2
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Proceed to next
Yes
resistance between 1# and 2# pins of carbon step.
4
canister control valve is within 22-30 under Replace the
No
20. control valve.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Refer to
Yes
voltage between 1# pin of carbon canister diagnosis help.
5
control valve connector and the negative grid Proceed to next
No
of power supply is about 3.7V. step.
Repair or
Verify that the circuit between 2# pin of Yes replace the
6 carbon canister control valve connector and wiring harness.
46# pin of ECU is open. Refer to
No
diagnosis help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0444 Undervoltage in control circuit of drive stage of
carbon canister control valve
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step.
ON position.
Disconnect the connector of carbon Yes Proceed to Step 4
canister control valve on the wiring
harness, inspect with multimeter to
2
verify that the voltage between 1# pin No Proceed to next step.
of this connector and the negative grid
of power supply is about 12V.
Verify that the power supply circuit of Repair or replace the
Yes
3 carbon canister control valve is open wiring harness.
or short to ground. No Proceed to Step 2
Inspect with multimeter to verify that Yes Proceed to next step.
the resistance between 1# and 2# pins
4 Replace the control
of carbon canister control valve is No
valve.
within 22-30 under 20.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that Refer to diagnosis
Yes
the voltage between 1# pin of carbon help.
5 canister control valve connector and
the negative grid of power supply is No Proceed to next step.
about 3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between 2# pin Repair or replace the
Yes
of carbon canister control valve wiring harness.
6
connector and 46# pin of ECU is short Refer to diagnosis
No
to ground. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0445 Overvoltage in control circuit of drive stage of
carbon canister control valve
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step.
ON position.
Disconnect the connector of carbon Yes Proceed to Step 4
canister control valve on the wiring
harness, inspect with multimeter to
2
verify that the voltage between 1# pin No Proceed to next step.
of this connector and the negative grid
of power supply is about 12V.
Verify that the power supply circuit of Repair and replace the
Yes
3 carbon canister control valve is open or wiring harness.
short to ground. No Proceed to Step 2
Inspect with multimeter to verify that Yes Proceed to next step.
the resistance between 1# and 2# pins
4 Replace the control
of carbon canister control valve is No
valve.
within 22-30 under 20.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that Refer to diagnosis
Yes
the voltage between 1# pin of carbon help.
5 canister control valve connector and
the negative grid of power supply is No Proceed to next step.
about 3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between 2# pin Repair or replace the
Yes
of carbon canister control valve wiring harness.
6
connector and 46# pin of ECU is short Refer to diagnosis
No
to power supply. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0480 Malfunction in control circuit of relay of A/C
condenser fan A
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step.
OFF position.
Pull out the relay of A/C condenser
Yes Proceed to Step 4
fan, turn the ignition switch to ON
position and verify that the voltage
2 between the power supply terminal of
the relay (i.e. 30# and 85# pins of the No Proceed to next step.
relay) and the negative grid of power
supply is about 12V.
Verify that the power supply circuit of Repair or replace the
Yes
3 the relay of A/C condenser fan is open wiring harness.
or short to ground. No Proceed to Step 2
Inspect with multimeter to verify that
Yes Replace the relay.
the voltage between the control
terminal of relay of A/C condenser fan
4
(i.e. 86# pin of the relay) and the
No Proceed to next step.
negative grid of power supply is about
3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between the Repair or replace the
Yes
control terminal of relay (i.e. 86# pin wiring harness.
5 of the relay) and 50# pin of ECU is
Refer to diagnosis
open, or is short to power supply or to No
help.
ground.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0481 Malfunction in control circuit of relay of A/C
condenser fan B
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step.
position.
Pull out the relay of A/C condenser fan,
Yes Proceed to Step 4
turn the ignition switch to ON position
and verify that the voltage between the
2 power supply terminal of the relay (i.e.
Proceed to next
30# and 85# pins of the relay) and the No
step.
negative grid of power supply is about
12V.
Verify that the power supply circuit of the Repair or replace
Yes
3 relay of A/C condenser fan is open or short the wiring harness.
to ground. No Proceed to Step 2
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the
Yes Replace the relay.
voltage between the control terminal of
4 relay of A/C condenser fan (i.e. 86# pin of
Proceed to next
the relay) and the negative grid of power No
step.
supply is about 3.7V.
Verify that the circuit between the control Repair or replace
Yes
terminal of relay (i.e. 86# pin of the relay) the wiring harness.
5
and 68# pin of ECU is open or is short to Refer to diagnosis
No
power supply or to ground. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0500 Malfunction of improper speed signal
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step.
position.
Check and service
For the vehicles equipped with ABS Yes
the ABS system.
2 system, verify that there is a diagnostic
Proceed to next
trouble code designed for ABS system. No
step.
Proceed to next
Yes
step.
Verify that the indicating needle of
3 Check and service
speedometer works properly.
No the instrument
circuit.
Proceed to next
Yes
Verify that the speed sensor works step.
4
properly. Replace the speed
No
sensor.
Verify that the circuit between the signal Repair or replace
Yes
cable of speed sensor and 59# pin of ECU the wiring harness.
5
is open, or is short to power supply or to Refer to diagnosis
No
ground. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0506 Idle speed lower than nominal idle speed
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step.
position.
Proceed to next
Yes
Verify that the adjusting screw of throttle, step.
2 accelerator pedal stay and working Carry out
condition of throttle are in good condition. No necessary
Overhaul.
Proceed to next
Yes
step.
Verify that the working condition of idle
3 Carry out
speed regulator is correct.
No necessary
Overhaul.
A. Verify that there is under pressure in the Carry out
fuel supplying system; Yes necessary
B. Verify that there is blockage in the fuel Overhaul.
4
injector;
Refer to diagnosis
C. Verify that there is blockage in the No
help.
exhaust system.

G-49

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0507 Idle speed higher than nominal idle speed
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step.
position.
Proceed to next
Yes
Verify that the adjusting screw of throttle, step.
2 accelerator pedal stay and working Carry out
condition of throttle are in good condition. No necessary
Overhaul.
Proceed to next
Yes
step.
Verify that the working condition of idle
3 Carry out
speed regulator is correct.
No necessary
Overhaul.
A. Verify that there is air leakage in the Carry out
system; Yes necessary
B. Verify that there is leakage in the fuel Overhaul.
4
injector;
Refer to diagnosis
C. Verify that there is over pressure in the No
help.
fuel supplying system.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0508 Undervoltage in control circuit of idle speed
regulator
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step
position.
Disconnect the connector of idle speed Proceed to next
Yes
regulator and inspect with multimeter to step
2 verify that the resistances between pin A
Replace the step
and D, pin B and C are 535.3 under No
motor.
20.
Verify that the circuits between pin A, B, Repair or replace
Yes
C, and D of idle speed regulator and 65#, the wiring harness.
3
66#, 67#, and 64# pin of ECU are short to Refer to diagnosis
No
ground. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0509 Overvoltage in control circuit of idle speed
regulator
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step
ON position.
Disconnect the connector of idle speed Yes Proceed to next step
regulator and inspect with multimeter to
2 verify that the resistances between pin A Replace the step
and D, pin B and C are 535.3 under No
motor.
20.
Verify that the circuits between pin A, B, Repair or replace the
Yes
C, and D of idle speed regulator and 65#, wiring harness.
3
66#, 67#, and 64# pin of ECU are short Refer to diagnosis
No
to power supply. help.

G-52

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0511 Malfunction in control circuit of idle speed
regulator
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step.
ON position.
Disconnect the connector of idle speed Yes Proceed to next step.
regulator and inspect with multimeter to
2 verify that the resistances between pin A Replace the step
and D, pin B and C are 535.3 under No
motor.
20.
Repair or replace the
Verify that the circuits between pin A, B, Yes
wiring harness.
3 C, and D of idle speed regulator and 65#,
Refer to diagnosis
66#, 67#, and 64# pin of ECU are open. No
help.

G-53

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0560 Improper voltage signal of system
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor,
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step
position.
Proceed to next
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the Yes
2 step.
voltage of battery is about 12V.
No Replace the battery.
Verify that the resistances between the Repair or replace
Yes
44#, 45#, and 63# pins of ECU and 87# the wiring harness.
3
pin of the main relay are open or short to Proceed to next
No
ground. step
Start up the engine, and verify that the Proceed to next
Yes
charging voltage of generator is step
4
maintained within 9-16V under different Replace the
No
speeds. generator.
Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Verify that the earth point of engine help.
5
wiring harness is correct. Repair or replace
No
the wiring harness.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0562 Undervoltage of system
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect the diagnostic tester and
1 adaptor, and turn the ignition switch to Proceed to next step
OFF position.
Inspect with multimeter to verify that Yes Proceed to next step.
2
the voltage of battery is about 12V. No Replace the battery.
Verify that the resistances between the Repair or replace the
Yes
3 44#, 45#, and 63# pins of ECU and 87# wiring harness.
pin of the main relay are excessive. No Proceed to next step
Start up the engine, and verify that the Yes Proceed to next step
charging voltage of generator is
4 Replace the
maintained within 9-16V under different No
generator.
speeds.
Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Verify that the earth point of engine help.
5
wiring harness is correct. Repair or replace the
No
wiring harness.

G-55

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0563 Overvoltage of system
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step
position.
Proceed to next
Yes
Inspect with multimeter to verify that the step
2
voltage of battery is about 12V. Replace the
No
battery.
Proceed to next
Start up the engine, and verify that the Yes
step
3 charging voltage of generator is maintained
Replace the
within 9-16V under different speeds. No
generator.
Refer to diagnosis
Yes
Verify that the earth point of engine wiring help.
4
harness is correct. Repair or replace
No
the wiring harness.

G-56

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0601 Malfunction of non-programmed check code in
electronic control unit
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step
position.
Clear the diagnostic trouble code and Proceed to next
Yes
2 reconfirm that this malfunction is a steady step
state malfunction. No Normal operation
3 Replace ECU. End

Diagnostic trouble code: P0602 Malfunction of non-programmed diagnostic


trouble code in electronic control unit
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON
step
position.
Clear the diagnostic trouble code and Proceed to next
Yes
2 reconfirm that this malfunction is a steady step
state malfunction. No Normal operation
3 Replace ECU. End

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0645 Malfunction in control circuit of A/C
compressor relay
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor
Proceed to next
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF
step
position.
Pull out the A/C compressor relay, turn the
Yes Proceed to step 4
ignition switch to ON position and check
if the voltage between the power supply
2
terminal of relay (i.e. 30# and 85# pins of Proceed to next
No
the relay) and the negative grid of power step
supply is about 12V.
Repair or replace
Check if the power supply circuit of relay is Yes the wiring
3
open or short to ground. harness.
No Proceed to Step 2
Inspect with multimeter to check if the Yes Replace the relay.
voltage between the control terminal of A/C
4 compressor relay (i.e. 86# pin of the relay) Proceed to next
No
and the negative grid of power supply is step
about 3.7V.
Repair or replace
Check if the circuit between the control
Yes the wiring
terminal of A/C compressor relay (i.e. 86#
5 harness.
pin of the relay) and 70# pin of ECU is
Refer to
open. No
diagnosis help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0646 Undervoltage in control circuit of A/C
compressor relay
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF Proceed to next step
position.
Pull out the A/C compressor relay, turn
Yes Proceed to Step 4
the ignition switch to ON position and
check if the voltage between the power
2
supply terminal of relay (i.e. 30# and 85#
No Proceed to next step
pins of the relay) and the negative grid of
power supply is about 12V.
Repair or replace
Check if the power supply circuit of relay Yes
3 the wiring harness.
is open or short to ground.
No Proceed to Step 2
Inspect with multimeter to check if the Yes Replace the relay.
voltage between the control terminal of
4 A/C compressor relay (i.e. 86# pin of the
No Proceed to next step
relay) and the negative grid of power
supply is about 3.7V.
Check if the circuit between the control Repair or replace
Yes
terminal of A/C compressor relay (i.e. 86# the wiring harness.
5
pin of the relay) and 70# pin of ECU is Refer to diagnosis
No
short to ground. help.

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Diagnostic trouble code: P0647 Overvoltage in control circuit of A/C
compressor relay
Item Inspection Follow-up
Operation procedure
No. results procedure
Connect the diagnostic tester and adaptor
1 and turn the ignition switch to OFF Proceed to next step
position.
Pull out the A/C relay, turn the ignition
Yes Proceed to Step 4
switch to ON position and check if the
voltage between the power supply
2
terminal of relay (i.e. 30# and 85# pins of Proceed to next
No
the relay) and the negative grid of power step.
supply is about 12V.
Repair or replace
Check if the power supply circuit of relay Yes
3 the wiring harness
is open or short to ground.
No Proceed to Step 2
Inspect with multimeter to check if the Yes Replace the relay
voltage between the control terminal of
4 A/C compressor relay (i.e. 86# pin of the
No Proceed to next step
relay) and the negative grid of power
supply is about 3.7V.
Check if the circuit between the control Repair or replace
Yes
terminal of A/C compressor relay (i.e. the wiring harness
5
86# pin of the relay) and 70# pin of ECU Refer to diagnosis
No
is short to supply. help

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Diagnostic trouble code: P1651 Malfunction in control circuit of malfunction
alarm light
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Connect diagnostic tester and adaptor,
1 and turn the ignition switch to ON Proceed to next step
position.
Check the action of engine malfunction Yes Proceed to next step
alarm light by using the actuator
2 action testing" function of diagnostic
tester and observe whether the light is No Normal operation
always on or off.
Verify that the supply circuit of engine Repair or replace the
Yes
3 malfunction alarm light is open or short wiring harness.
to ground. No Proceed to next step
Check if the supply circuit between the Repair or replace the
Yes
control terminal pin of engine wiring harness.
4 malfunction alarm light and 29# pin of
Refer to diagnosis
ECU is open, or is short to ground or No
help.
power supply.

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PROCEDURES FOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS ACCORDING TO THE

SYMPTOMS OF THE ENGINE

A preliminary inspection should be carried out before implementing the steps of fault
diagnosis according to the symptoms of engine:
(1) Verify that there is no abnormal behavior with the ECU and malfunction indicator
light (not applicable for car models without setting of malfunction indicator light).
(2) Inspect with the diagnostic tester or flashing light to verify that there is no
malfunction information record.
(3) Inspect the idle speed data of warmed up engine in the electronic control system
with the diagnostic tester and verify that they are normal.
(4) Verify that the malfunction symptom complained by the car owner exists and
locate the exact position of the symptom.
Then carry out the visual inspection: Verify that the grounding point of the wiring
harness is clean and firm.
Verify that the vacuum pipelines have any ruptures or twists together, and whether its
connections are correct.
Verify that the pipeline has any symptom of blockage.
Verify that the air inlet pipeline is flattened or damaged.
Verify that the sealing between the throttle body and the air intake manifold is in a
good condition.
Verify that the high voltage cable of ignition system has any rupture or ageing, and
whether the wire routing is correct.
Verify that the connection of conducting wire is correct and whether the connector is
loose or poorly contacted.

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1) The engine is not running or running slowly during starting
Inspection
Item Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
results
Inspect with multimeter to see whether there Yes Proceed to next step
1 is a voltage of about 10-12.5V between two Repair or replace the
No
battery terminals. battery
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Yes Proceed to next step.
Inspect with multimeter to see whether there
2 is a voltage of about 10-12.5V between the Repair the terminal
terminals connecting the ignition switch and No or replace the
the positive grid of the battery. conducting wire
Keep the ignition switch at the startup Yes Proceed to next step.
position and inspect with multimeter to see
whether that there is a voltage of more than
3 Repair or replace the
8V between the terminals connecting the No
ignition switch and the starting motor ignition switch
magnetic clutch.
Repair or replace the
Inspect with multimeter to see whether the Yes
4 starting motor
starting motor has any open or short-circuit.
No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the engine is jammed due to Yes Fix the malfunction
5
poor lubricating. No Proceed to next step.
In case of winter season, inspect to see Replace with
whether there is too much friction in the Yes appropriate
6 lubricating oil
starting motor due to the improper selection
of engine lubricating oil and gearbox oil. No Inspect other items

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2) The engine can run but cannot successfully start up during starting
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction
1
whether there is any malfunction information
No Proceed to next step.
record.
Disconnect the cylinder distribution wire and Yes Proceed to Step 8.
connect it to the spark plugs, make a space of
5-10mm between the grid of the spark plug
2
and engine body. Then turn on the engine No Proceed to next step.
with starting motor, verify that there is any
bluish-white high-voltage spark.
Yes Proceed to next step.
Verify that the resistance of the high voltage
3 Repair or replace high
cable is normal No
voltage cable
Verify that the cylinder-distribution high Yes Replace
4 voltage cable and spark plug have any
No Proceed to next step.
damage.
Verify that the cylinder identification rotor Yes Replace
5
ring in distributor is loose or damaged. No Proceed to next step.
Yes Proceed to next step.
6 Verify that the ignition coil is normal
No Replace
Yes Proceed to next step.
Verify that the plug in connector of the
7 Connect the connector
camshaft is properly connected. No
properly
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Yes Proceed to next step.
8 Verify that the fuel pump relay and fuel Service the fuel pump
No
pump is functional. circuit
Connect it to the fuel manometer valve. Yes Proceed to next step.
Make the 30# and 87# pins of fuel pump
9 relay short so as to operate the fuel pump,
No Proceed to Step 13.
and then verify that the fuel pressure is
maintained at about 350kPa.
Pull out the fuel distributing pipe together Yes Proceed to Step 12.
with the fuel injector and disconnect the fuel
injector connectors on the wiring harness one
10
by one. Connect a 12V supply directly from No Proceed to next step.
the battery to the fuel injector and verify that
the fuel injector is functioning.
After washing and cleaning the fuel injector, Yes Proceed to next step.
11 verify that it is capable of injecting fuel Replace the fuel
No
again. injector

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Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel
12
contaminated by water. No Proceed to Step 18.
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower than Yes Proceed to next step.
13
350kPa. No Proceed to Step 17.
Close the fuel manometer valve. Connect the Yes Proceed to next step.
ignition switch again to re-operate the fuel
14
pump in order to verify that the fuel pressure No Proceed to Step 16.
can be established.
Replace fuel and
Open the fuel manometer valve and clamp Yes
pressure regulator
the fuel return pipe with the fuel tube clamp
15 Repair or replace the
to stop the fuel return in order to verify that
No fuel injector or fuel
the fuel pressure can be established quickly.
pipe
Repair or replace the
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any Yes
16 fuel inlet pipe
leakage or blockage.
No Replace the fuel pump
Repair or replace the
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has any fuel return pipe
17
leakage or bending. Replace the fuel
No
pressure regulator
Connect an adapter between ECU and the Yes Proceed to next step.
wiring harness. Then verify that there is any
voltage at the ECUs pin No.44, 45, 63, 12
and 13, and to see whether the positive
18 Repair or replace the
power supply wires connected to the above No
ECUs pins and the ground wires connected wiring harness.
to the pin No. 3, 51, 53, 61 and 80 are
normal.
Verify that the parts of air intake system Yes Repair
19
have any air leakage. No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the absolute pressure and Yes Repair or replace
20 temperature sensor of air intake manifold has
No Proceed to next step.
any blockage.
Verify that the coolant temperature sensor is Yes Proceed to next step.
21
normal. No Repair or replace
Verify that the unsuccessful startup is due to Fix the mechanical
Yes
mechanical reasons such as excessive malfunction
22
clearance between the piston and cylinder or
No Replace the ECU
due to cylinder air leakage, etc.

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3) Difficult start-up of hot engine

Item Inspection Follow-up


Operation procedure
No. results procedure

Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated


Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction
1
whether there is any malfunction Proceed to next
No
information record. step.
Proceed to next
Yes
Connect the fuel manometer valve. Short step.
the 30# and 87# pins of the fuel pump relay
2
to operate the fuel pump in order to verify
No Proceed to Step 9.
that the fuel pressure is maintained at about
350kPa.
Disconnect the connecting fuel pipe and Proceed to next
Yes
turn off the ignition switch. After 1 hour, step.
3
verify that the pressure of fuel system is Repair the leakage
No
maintained between 250-300 kPa. of fuel system
Connect the connecting fuel pipe and block Replace the fuel
Yes
the fuel return pipe with the fuel tube clamp pressure regulator
as well as close the fuel manometer valve.
4
Then turn off the ignition switch, after 1 Proceed to next
No
hour, verify that the pressure of fuel system step.
is maintained between 250-300 kPa.
Replace the fuel
Yes injector and fuel
Verify that the fuel injector and fuel pipe
5 pipe
have any fuel leakages.
Proceed to next
No
step.
Inspect the coolant
Disconnect the connector of water Yes temperature and
6 temperature sensor to start up the engine. circuit
Observe whether it can successfully start up. Proceed to next
No
step.
Put adaptor between ECU and wiring Proceed to next
Yes
harness. Then verify that there is any step.
voltage at the ECUs 44#, 45#, 63#, 12# and
13# pins and to see whether the positive
7
power wires connected to the above ECUs Repair or replace
No
pins and the ground wire connected to the the wiring harness
pins of 3#, 51#, 53#, 61# and 80# are
normal.

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Yes End
Replace the fuel and try the hot start again. No Replace the ECU
8
Observe whether it can successfully start up.
No Repair or replace
Verify that the fuel pipe has any blockage or Proceed to next
Yes
bending and to see whether the pressure step.
9
regulating valve functions of fuel pump is
No Repair or replace
normally.
Proceed to next
Yes
Inspect with multimeter to see whether there step.
10 is a voltage between two terminals of the Repair or replace
plug in connector of fuel pump. No fuel pump relay
and wire
Proceed to next
Yes
Inspect with multimeter to see whether the step.
11
resistance of fuel pump is correct. Replace the fuel
No
pump
Replace the fuel
Yes
12 Verify that the fuel pump is jammed. pump
No Replace the ECU

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4) Difficult start-up under normal engine speed
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Turn the ignition switch to ON Fix the indicated
Yes
position. Inspect with the diagnostic malfunction
1
tester to see whether there is any
No Proceed to next step.
malfunction information record.
Verify that the air filter is free of any Yes Proceed to next step.
2
blockage. No Replace
After start up, verify that the air intake Yes Proceed to next step.
3 manifold pressure is maintained between Fix the leakage of air
No
35-65 kPa at idle speed. intake system
Replace and inspect the
Step on the throttle gently and observe
4 Yes throttle valve and idle
whether its easy to start up.
speed passage
Connect the fuel manometer valve. Short Yes Proceed to next step.
the 30# and 87# pins of the fuel pump
5 relay to operate the fuel pump in order to
verify that the fuel pressure is No Proceed to Step 9
maintained at about 350kPa.
Apply a voltage supply of 12V directly Yes Proceed to Step 8
between the battery and the fuel injector
6
with special connector, and verify that No Proceed to next step.
the fuel injector functions normally.
After washing and cleaning the fuel Yes Proceed to next step.
7 injector, verify that its function is Replace the fuel
No
normal. injector
Replace the fuel and verify that the fuel Yes Replace the fuel
8
is deteriorated or contaminated by water. No Proceed to Step 14
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower Yes Proceed to next step.
9
than 350kPa. No Proceed to Step 13
Close the fuel manometer valve. Yes Proceed to next step.
Connect the ignition switch again to
10 re-operate the fuel pump in order to
No Proceed to Step 12.
verify that the fuel pressure can be
established.
Open the fuel manometer valve and Replace fuel pressure
Yes
clamp the fuel return pipe with the fuel regulator
11 tube clamp to stop the fuel return in Repair or replace the
order to verify that the fuel pressure can No fuel injector or the fuel
be established quickly. pipe
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any Repair or replace the
12 Yes
leakage or blockage. fuel air inlet pipe

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No Replace the fuel pump
Repair or replace the
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has any fuel return pipe
13
leakage or bending. Replace the fuel
No
pressure regulator
Disconnect the connector of idle speed Yes Proceed to next step.
actuator before the temperature of
14 engine coolant reaches 350C in order to Repair or replace the
No
observe whether the engine speed is idle speed actuator
decreasing.
Turn the ignition switch to ON Yes Proceed to next step.
position. verify that the voltages at
Inspect the wiring
15 following ECU pins are normal: 13# is
No harness and plug in
at about 12V of battery voltage; 80# and
connector
61# are at zero.
Run the engine at idle speed; until the Yes Proceed to next step.
coolant temperature reaches normal
16 Adjust the ignition
value, then verify that the ignition No
advance angle
advance angle is normal.
Verify that the compression pressure of Yes Proceed to next step.
17
engine cylinder is normal. No Fix the malfunction
Verify that the absolute pressure and Yes Repair or replace
18 temperature sensor of air intake
No Proceed to next step.
manifold has any blockage.
Verify that the coolant temperature Yes Replace the ECU.
19
sensor is normal. No Repair or replace

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5) Difficult start-up of cold engine
Item Inspection
Operation procedure Follow-up procedure
No. results
Turn the ignition switch to ON Fix the indicated
Yes
position. Inspect with the diagnostic malfunction
1
tester verify that there is any
No Proceed to next step.
malfunction information record.
Inspect with multimeter to see Yes Proceed to next step.
whether the coolant temperature
sensor is normal. (Or connect a
1.5K resistance in series with
ECUs pin of 39# and 35# to replace
2
the function of the coolant No Replace the sensor
temperature sensor to start up the
engine. If the engine can be started, it
indicates that the coolant temperature
sensor is abnormal.)
Turn the ignition switch to ON Yes Proceed to next step.
position and connect the adaptor
between ECU and the wiring harness.
3 Verify that the voltages at following Inspect the wiring harness
No
ECU pins are normal: 13# is at about and plug in connector
12V of battery voltage; 80# and 61#
are at zero.
Verify that the air filter is free of any Yes Proceed to next step.
4
blockage. No Replace
After start up, verify that the air Yes Proceed to next step.
intake manifold pressure is
5 Fix the leakage of air
maintained between 35-65 kPa at idle No
intake system.
speed.
Inspect the throttle valve
Step on the throttle gently to verify Yes
6 and idle speed passage.
that it is easy to be started up.
No Proceed to next step.
Disconnect the connector of idle Yes Proceed to next step.
speed actuator before the temperature
7 of engine coolant reaches 35 in Repair or replace the idle
No
order to observe whether the engine speed actuator
speed is decreasing.
8 Connect the fuel manometer valve Yes Proceed to next step.
(the connecting point will depend on

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(the connecting point will depend on
the types of car models). Ground the
86# pin of the fuel pump relay
directly. Connect the ignition switch
No Proceed to Step 12
to operate the fuel pump relay and the
fuel pump in order to verify that the
fuel pressure is maintained at about
350kPa.
Provide a voltage supply of 12V with Yes Proceed to Step 11
special connector between the battery
9
and the fuel injector, and verify that No Proceed to next step.
the fuel injector functions normally.
After washing and cleaning the fuel Yes Proceed to next step.
10 injector, verify again that it can
No Replace the fuel injector
function normally.
Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel
11
contaminated with water. No Proceed to Step 17.
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower Yes Proceed to next step.
12
than 350kPa. No Proceed to Step 16.
Close the fuel manometer valve. Yes Proceed to next step.
Connect the ignition switch again to
13 re-operate the fuel pump in order to
No Proceed to Step 15
verify that the fuel pressure can be
established.
Open the fuel manometer valve and Replace the fuel pressure
Yes
clamp the fuel return pipe with the regulator.
14 fuel tube clamp to stop the fuel return
Repair or replace fuel
in order to verify that the fuel No
injector or fuel pipe
pressure can be established quickly.
Repair or replace the fuel
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any Yes
15 air inlet pipe
leakage or blockage.
No Replace the fuel pump
Repair or replace the fuel
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has return pipe
16
any leakage or bending. Replace the fuel pressure
No
regulator
Verify that the pressure of engine Yes Proceed to next step.
17
cylinder is normal. No Fix the malfunction
Verify that the engine air intake Yes Repair
18
system has any leakage. No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the absolute pressure and Yes Repair or replace
19 temperature sensor of air intake
No Replace the ECU.
manifold have any blockages.

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6) Unstable idle speed at all time
Turn the ignition switch to ON Fix the indicated
Yes
position. Inspect with the diagnostic malfunction
1
tester to see whether there is any
No Proceed to next step.
malfunction information record.
Verify that the EWD3 idle speed actuator Repair or replace idle
Yes
2 or idle speed actuator with step motor is speed actuator
jammed. No Proceed to next step.
Connect the ignition switch and verify Inspect the wiring
that the links between water temperature Yes harness and plug in
3
sensor, idle speed step motor and ECU connector
are properly connected. No Proceed to next step.
Run the engine at idle speed and cut off Yes Proceed to Step 8
the cylinders one by one in order to
4
observe whether the speed is decreasing No Proceed to next step.
or fluctuating.
Yes Proceed to next step.
Verify that the fuel injector of each
5 Inspect the fuel injector
cylinder functions normally. No
and the wiring harness
Verify that the resistance of each cylinder Yes Proceed to next step.
6
high voltage cable is normal. No Replace
Yes Replace
7 Verify that the ignition coil is damaged.
No Proceed to next step.
Yes Proceed to next step.
8 Verify that the spark plug is normal.
No Replace the spark plug
Connect the fuel manometer valve. Short Yes Proceed to next step.
the 30# and 87# pins of the fuel pump
9 relay to operate the fuel pump in order to
No Proceed to Step 13.
verify that the fuel pressure is being
maintained at about 350kPa.
Provide a voltage supply of 12V with Yes Proceed to Step 12.
special connector between the battery and
10
the fuel injector, and verify that the fuel No Proceed to next step.
injector functions normally.
After washing and cleaning the fuel Yes Proceed to next step.
11 injector, verify again that it can function
No Replace the fuel injector
normally.
Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel
12
contaminated with water. No Proceed to Step 18
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower than Yes Proceed to next step.
13
350kPa. No Proceed to Step 17.
14 Close the fuel manometer valve. Connect Yes Proceed to next step.

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the ignition switch again to re-operate the
fuel pump in order to verify that the fuel No Proceed to Step 16.
pressure can be established.
Open the fuel manometer valve and Replace the fuel pressure
Yes
clamp the fuel return pipe with the fuel regulator
15 tube clamp to stop the fuel return in order
Repair or replace the fuel
to verify that the fuel pressure can be No
injector or fuel pipe
established quickly.
Repair or replace the fuel
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any Yes
16 air inlet pipe
leakage or blockage.
No Replace the fuel pump
Repair or replace the fuel
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has any return pipe
17
leakage or bending. Replace the fuel pressure
No
regulator
Verify that the sensing holes of the Yes Clean
18 pressure and temperature sensor of air
No Proceed to next step.
intake manifold have any blockages.
Run the engine at idle speed. When the Yes Proceed to next step.
coolant temperature reaches the
temperature of activating the close- loop Inspect the oxygen
19
control, verify that oxygen sensor No sensor and the wiring
functions normally. (Fluctuating within harness
the range of 0-1V)
Verify that the engine air intake system Yes Fix the leakage
20 has any leakage. No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the pressure of engine Yes Proceed to next step.
21
cylinder is normal. No Fix the malfunction
Run the engine at idle speed until the Yes Replace the ECU.
coolant temperature reaches its normal
22
range in order to verify that the ignition No Inspect other items
advance angle is normal.

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7) Unstable idle speed during engine warm-up
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction
1
whether there is any malfunction information
No Proceed to next step.
record.
Yes Proceed to next step.
2 Verify that the air filter is free of any blockage.
No Replace
Run the engine at idle speed. Verify that the air Yes Proceed to next step.
3 intake manifold pressure is maintained Fix the leakage of air
between 35-65 kPa during warm-up. No
intake system
Shut down the engine. Turn on the ignition
Yes Proceed to next step.
switch and connect the adaptor between ECU
and the wiring harness. Verify that the voltages
4 at air intake temperature sensor, water
temperature sensor, and ECUs pins of 32# and No Service
33# (used as sensor power supply of 4.5-5V)
are normal.
Disconnect the connector of idle speed actuator Yes Proceed to next step.
5 before ending the engine warm-up and verify Replace the idle
that the engine speed is changed. No
speed actuator
Verify that the coolant temperature sensor is Yes Proceed to next step.
6
normal. No Replace
Run the engine at idle speed until the coolant Yes Replace the ECU.
temperature reaches its normal range in order
7
to verify that the ignition advance angle is No Inspect other items
normal.

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8) Unstable idle speed or stall with load (A/C and etc.)
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction
1
whether there is any malfunction
No Proceed to next step.
information record.
Turn on the A/C switch and connect the Yes Proceed to next step.
adaptor between ECU and the wiring
2 harness. Measure and see whether the Overhaul the A/C
ECUs A/C switch and pressure signal No
circuit.
have any signal input.
Verify that the pressure of A/C system, Yes Proceed to next step.
3 the magnetic clutch of compressor and
No Repair or replace.
A/C pump are normal.
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Yes Proceed to next step.
Verify that the voltages at ECUs pins of
4 Inspect the control
65#, 64#, 67#, and 66# (output connected No
circuit.
to idle actuator) are normal.
Repair or replace the
Remove the step motor to verify that it is Yes
5 step motor.
jammed or runs unfreely.
No Proceed to next step.
Start up the engine and turn on the A/C. Yes Replace the ECU.
Inspect with the diagnostic tester through
the step amount of step motor to see
6 Replace the idle
whether the idle actuator functions No
actuator.
normally. (The normal step amount will
be provided otherwise)

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9) Unstable idle speed after engine warm-up
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction.
1
whether there is any malfunction
No Proceed to next step.
information record.
Turn the ignition switch to ON position Yes Proceed to next step.
and connect the adaptor between ECU and
the wiring harness. Verify that the
voltages at following ECUs pins such as
absolute pressure sensor output of air Repair or replace the
2
intake manifold, air intake temperature No wiring harness and
sensor output, coolant temperature sensor relevant parts.
output, oxygen sensor output and ECUs
output voltage connected to idle actuators
pin are normal.
Shut down the engine and verify that the Yes Proceed to next step.
3
air filter is free of any blockage. No Replace
Verify that the air intake manifold Yes Proceed to next step.
4 pressure is maintained between 35-65 kPa Fix the leakage of air
No
at idle speed. intake system
Connect the fuel manometer valve (the Yes Proceed to next step.
connecting points will depend on the types
of car models). Short the 30# and 87# pins
5
of the fuel pump relay to operate the fuel No Proceed to Step 9
pump in order to verify that the fuel
pressure is maintained at about 350kPa.
Provide a voltage supply of 12V with Yes Proceed to Step 8
special connector between the battery and
6
the fuel injector, and verify that the fuel No Proceed to next step.
injector is functioning normally.
After washing and cleaning the fuel Yes Replace
7 injector, inspect again to see whether it Replace the fuel
can function normally. No
injector.
Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel.
8
contaminated with water. No Proceed to Step 14.
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower than Yes Proceed to next step.
9
350kPa. No Proceed to Step 13.
Turn off the fuel manometer valve. Yes Proceed to next step.
Connect the ignition switch again to
10
re-operate the fuel pump in order to verify No Proceed to Step 12.
that the fuel pressure can be established.
Turn on the fuel manometer valve and Replace the fuel
11 Yes
clamp the fuel return pipe with the fuel pressure regulator.

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tube clamp to stop the fuel return in order Repair or replace the
to verify that the fuel pressure can be No fuel injector or the fuel
established quickly. pipe.
Repair or replace the
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any Yes
12 fuel air inlet pipe.
leakage or blockage.
No Replace the fuel pump.
Repair or replace the
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has any fuel return pipe.
13
leakage or bending. Replace the fuel
No
pressure regulator.
Run the engine at idle speed until the Yes Proceed to next step.
coolant temperature reaches its normal
14 Adjust the ignition
value in order to verify that the ignition No
advance angle.
advance angle is normal.
Replace the coolant
Disconnect the coolant temperature sensor Yes
15 temperature sensor.
to verify that the engine is normal.
No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the compression pressure of Yes Proceed to next step.
16
engine cylinder is normal. No Fix the malfunction.
Verify that the resistance of each cylinder Yes Proceed to next step.
17
high voltage cable is normal. No Replace
Verify that the ignition coil and high Yes Replace
18 voltage cable have any damage parts or
No Proceed to next step.
cracks.
Yes Replace the ECU.
19 Verify that the spark plug is normal.
No Replace the spark plug.

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10) A/C system malfunction
Verify that there is enough refrigerant and Yes Proceed to next step.
1 the A/C belt, A/C clutch and pressure switch
No Fix the malfunction.
are in good condition.
Run the engine at idle speed and turn on the Fix the indicated
Yes
A/C switch. Inspect with the diagnostic malfunction.
2 tester to see whether there is any
malfunction with the A/C thermo-sensitive No Proceed to next step.
resistance.
Turn on the A/C switch and connect the Yes Proceed to next step.
adaptor between ECU and the wiring
3 harness. Measure and see whether the Inspect the wiring
No
ECUs A/C switch and A/C pressure have harness.
any signal input.
Replace the bulb or
If the car is controlled by low electrical Yes repair the wiring
4 level, verify that the A/C still functions harness.
when it is turned off.
No Proceed to next step.
Repair the A/C relay
Verify that there is any low level output
Yes and the wiring
5 from the ground terminal of A/C relay
harness.
solenoid coil in ECU.
No Replace the ECU.

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11) Periodically instability (the memory has to be restored after ECUs
power-off)
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction.
1
whether there is any malfunction
No Proceed to next step.
information record.
Verify that the air filter is free of any Yes Proceed to next step.
2
blockage. No Replace
Verify that the air intake pressure is Yes Proceed to next step.
3 maintained between 35-65 kPa at idle Overhaul air intake
No
speed. system and leakage.
Run the engine at idle speed and cut off Yes Proceed to Step 7
4 the cylinder one by one in order to verify
No Proceed to next step.
that the speed is decreased and fluctuated.
Turn the ignition switch to ON position
and connect the adaptor between ECU and Yes Proceed to next step.
the wiring harness. Verify that the
voltages at following ECUs pins
including absolute pressure sensor output
of air intake manifold, air intake
5
temperature sensor output, coolant
temperature sensor output, oxygen sensor Repair or replace the
No
output, electronic grounding, ignition wiring harness.
switch pin, and ECUs pins of 65#, 64#,
67#, and 66# (output connected to idle
actuator) are normal.
Run the engine at idle speed until the Yes Proceed to next step.
coolant temperature reaches its normal
6
value in order to verify that the ignition No Inspect other items.
advance angle is normal.
Verify that the sensing holes of air intake Yes Clean
7 manifold pressure sensor and air intake
temperature sensor have any blockage. No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel.
8
contaminated with water. No Proceed to next step.
Apply a voltage supply of 12V directly Yes Proceed to next step.
between the battery and the fuel injector Overhaul the fuel
9
with special connector, and verify that the No injector and relevant
fuel injector functions normally. wiring harness.
Verify that the resistance of each cylinder Yes Proceed to next step.
10
high voltage cable is normal. No Replace
11 Verify that the ignition coil and high Yes Replace

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voltage cable have any damaged parts or
No Proceed to next step.
cracks.
Yes Replace the ECU.
12 Verify that the spark plug is normal.
No Replace the spark plug.

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12) Too high idle speed (the memory has to be restored after ECUs power-off)
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction.
1
whether there is any malfunction
No Proceed to next step.
information record.
Verify that the fastener connected to the Yes Adjust or replace.
2
accelerator pedal is jammed or too tight. No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the carbon canister control valve, Yes Repair or replace.
the fuel pressure regulator, the crankcase
3 forced ventilation vacuum pipe, the brake
No Proceed to next step.
system vacuum booster hose are assembled
well or damaged.
Run the engine at idle speed, shift at neutral Yes Proceed to next step.
4 position, and step on the brake pedal in order
No Proceed to Step 6
to verify that the idle speed is too high.
Repair or replace the
Clamp the vacuum booster hose to verify Yes
5 vacuum booster.
whether the idle speed is normal.
No Proceed to next step.
Clamp the crankcase forced ventilation Replace the PVC
Yes
6 vacuum pipe to verify whether the idle speed valve
is changed to normal. No Proceed to next step.
Replace the carbon
Clamp the carbon canister control valve hose
Yes canister control
7 to verify whether the idle speed is changed
valve.
to normal.
No Proceed to next step.
Verify that the idle actuator is inflexible or Yes Repair or replace.
8
jammed. No Proceed to next step.
Verify that there is any leakage at other Yes Repair or replace.
9
places of air inlet pipe. No Proceed to next step.
Yes Proceed to next step.
Verify that the seal ring of fuel injector is in
10 Replace the seal
good condition. No
ring.
Verify that the absolute pressure sensor of Yes Replace the ECU.
11 air intake manifold and air intake
No Replace the sensor.
temperature sensor are in proper conditions.

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13) Malfunction to increase the speed or stall during acceleration
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction.
1
whether there is any malfunction
No Proceed to next step.
information record.
Verify that the air filter is free of any Yes Proceed to next step.
2
blockage. No Replace
Yes Proceed to next step.
Run the engine at idle speed in order to Overhaul according to
3
verify that the idle speed is normal. No the idle speed
malfunction instruction
Verify that the air intake pressure is Yes Proceed to next step.
4 maintained between 35-65 kPa at idle
No Overhaul
speed.
Run the engine at idle speed until the Yes Proceed to next step.
coolant temperature reaches its normal
5 Adjust the ignition
value in order to verify that the ignition No
advance angle
advance angle is normal.
Connect the fuel manometer valve. Yes Proceed to next step.
Short the 30# and 87# pins of the fuel
6 pump relay to operate the fuel pump in
No Proceed to Step 10
order to verify that the fuel pressure is
being maintained at about 350kPa.
Apply a voltage supply of 12V directly Yes Proceed to Step 9
between the battery and the fuel injector
7
with special connector, and verify that the No Proceed to next step.
fuel injector functions normally.
After washing and cleaning the fuel Yes Proceed to next step.
8 injector, verify again that it can function Replace the fuel
No
normally. injector.
Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel.
9
contaminated with water. No Proceed to Step 15.
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower than Yes Proceed to next step.
10
250kPa. No Proceed to Step 14.
Turn off the fuel manometer valve. Yes Proceed to next step.
Connect the ignition switch again to
11
re-operate the fuel pump in order to verify No Proceed to Step 13.
that the fuel pressure can be established.
Turn on the fuel manometer valve and Replace the fuel
Yes
clamp the fuel return pipe with the fuel pressure regulator.
12 tube clamp to stop the fuel return in order Repair or replace the
to verify that the fuel pressure can be No fuel injector or the fuel
established quickly. pipe.

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Repair or replace the
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any Yes
13 fuel air inlet pipe.
leakage or blockage.
No Replace the fuel pump.
Repair or replace the
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has any fuel return pipe.
14
leakage or bending. Replace the fuel
No
pressure regulator.
Turn the ignition switch to ON position
Yes Proceed to next step.
and connect the adaptor between ECU and
the wiring harness. Verify that the
voltages at following pins of ECU
15 including signal output terminal and
Repair or replace the
grounding terminal of the throttle position No
wiring harness.
sensor, and pins of 32# and 33# (used as
sensors power supply of 4.5-5V) are
normal.
Verify that the ignition coil, the high Yes Replace the ECU.
16 voltage cable and the spark plug are Repair the relevant
No
normal. parts.

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14) Slow respond during acceleration
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Verify with diagnostic tester to see malfunction
1
whether there is any malfunction
No Proceed to next step.
information record.
Shut down the engine and verify that the Yes Proceed to next step.
2
air filter is free of any blockage. No Replace
Yes Proceed to next step.
Run the engine at idle speed in order to Overhaul according to
3
verify that the idle speed is normal. No the idle speed
malfunction instruction
Verify that the air inlet pipe pressure is Yes Proceed to next step.
4 being maintained between 35-65 kPa at
No Overhaul
idle speed.
Turn the ignition switch to ON position Yes Proceed to next step.
and connect the adaptor between ECU and
the wiring harness. Verify that the
voltages at following pins of ECU
5 including signal output terminal and Repair or replace the
grounding terminal of throttle position No
wiring harness
sensor, and pins of 32# and 33# (used as
sensor power supply of 4.5-5V) are
normal.
Operate the engine at idle speed and wait Yes Proceed to next step.
until the coolant temperature has reached
6
its normal value in order to verify that the No Inspect other items
ignition advance angle is normal.
Connect the fuel manometer valve. Short Yes Proceed to next step.
the 30# and 87# pins of the fuel pump
7 relay to operate the fuel pump in order to
verify that the fuel pressure is maintained No Proceed to Step 11.
at about 350kPa.
Apply a voltage supply of 12V directly Yes Proceed to Step 10.
between the battery and the fuel injector
8
with special connector and verify that the No Proceed to next step.
fuel injector functions normally.
After washing and cleaning the fuel Yes Proceed to next step.
9 injector, verify again to see whether it can Replace the fuel
No
function normally. injector.
Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel.
10
contaminated with water. No Proceed to Step 16.
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower than Yes Proceed to next step.
11
350kPa. No Proceed to Step 15.

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Turn off the fuel manometer valve. Yes Proceed to next step.
Connect the ignition switch again to
12
re-operate the fuel pump in order to verify No Proceed to Step 14
that the fuel pressure can be established.
Turn on the fuel manometer valve and Replace the pressure
Yes
clamp the fuel return pipe with the fuel regulator.
13 tube clamp to stop the fuel return in order Repair or replace the
to verify that the fuel pressure can be No fuel injector or the fuel
established quickly. pipe.
Repair or replace the
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any Yes
14 fuel inlet pipe.
leakage or blockage.
No Replace the fuel pump.
Repair or replace the
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has any fuel return pipe.
15
leakage or bending. Replace the fuel
No
pressure regulator.
Verify that the exhaust system and the Yes Replace or clean.
16 3-way catalytic converter have any
No Replace the ECU.
blockages.

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15) Poor and weak performance during acceleration
Verify that there are any malfunctions such Yes Repair
as slipping of clutch, low pressure of tires,
1
delay in braking, and wrong size of tires or No Proceed to next step.
inaccurate four-wheel alignment.
Yes Proceed to next step.
2 Verify that the throttle can be fully opened. Replace or repair the
No
throttle
Turn the ignition switch to ON position. Fix the indicated
Yes
Inspect with the diagnostic tester to see malfunction
3
whether there is any malfunction
No Proceed to next step.
information record.
Run the engine at idle speed until the Yes Proceed to next step.
coolant temperature reaches its normal
4
range in order to verify that the ignition No Inspect other items.
advance angle is normal.
Turn the ignition switch to ON position
and connect the adaptor between ECU and Yes Proceed to next step.
the wiring harness. Verify that the voltages
at following pins of ECU including absolute
pressure sensor of air intake manifold,
throttle valve position sensor, air intake
5
temperature sensor, coolant temperature
Repair or replace the
sensor, oxygen grounding terminal and No
wiring harness.
signal output terminal, sensor signal
grounding terminal and pins of 32# and 33#
(used as sensor power supply of 4.5-5V) are
normal.
Verify that the air intake pressure is being Yes Proceed to next step.
6
maintained between 35-65 kPa at idle speed. No Overhaul
Connect the fuel manometer valve. Short the Yes Proceed to next step.
30# and 87# pins of the fuel pump relay to
7 operate the fuel pump in order to verify that
the fuel pressure is being maintained at No Proceed to Step 11.
about 350kPa.
Apply a voltage supply of 12V directly Yes Proceed to Step 10.
between the battery and the fuel injector
8
with special connector and verify that the No Proceed to next step.
fuel injector functions normally.
Yes Proceed to next step.
After washing and cleaning the fuel injector,
9 Replace the fuel
verify again that it can function normally. No
injector.
10 Verify that the fuel is deteriorated or Yes Replace the fuel.

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contaminated with water. No Proceed to Step 16.
Verify that the fuel pressure is lower than Yes Proceed to next step.
11
350kPa. No Proceed to Step 15.
Turn off the fuel manometer valve. Connect Yes Proceed to next step.
the ignition switch again to re-operate the
12
fuel pump in order to verify that the fuel No Proceed to Step 14.
pressure can be established.
Turn on the fuel manometer valve and Replace the pressure
Yes
clamp the fuel return pipe with the fuel tube regulator.
13 clamp to stop the fuel return in order to Repair or replace the
verify and see whether the fuel pressure can No fuel injector or the
be established quickly. fuel pipe.
Repair or replace the
Yes
Verify that the fuel inlet pipe has any fuel inlet pipe
14
leakage or blockage. Replace the fuel
No
pump.
Repair or replace the
Yes
Verify that the fuel return pipe has any fuel return pipe.
15
leakage or bending. Replace the fuel
No
pressure regulator.
Verify that the data of the absolute pressure Yes Proceed to next step.
16 sensor of air intake manifold and air intake
No Replace the sensor.
temperature sensor are normal.
Verify that the ignition coil, the high voltage Yes Proceed to next step.
17
cable and the spark plug are normal. No Replace or adjust
Inspect the A/C
Yes
18 Verify that it is caused by the A/C system. system
No Replace the ECU.

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS OF SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN DIAGNISIS AND MAINTENANCE OF THE
GASOLINE INJECTION ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
(1) Removal/installation requirements of controller
The battery negative grid must be disconnected first, followed by the removal of
controller prior to carrying out electric welding or baking finish;
In removing/installing the controller, the ignition switch must be turned to OFF
position to avoid being damaged;
The power supply wire should not be removed from the battery while the engine is
running or the electrical system is in operation;
Dont start the engine with high current of charger;
Pay attention to keep the ambient temperature around controller less than 80.
(2) Cleanliness requirements: following rules shall be complied strictly before
operating the fuel supply system and fuel injector system:
All the dismantled parts must be placed in clean environment and covered properly. It
is not allowed to use the fiber-sloughing cloth.
(3) All the wiring harness and the same for diagnostic tester can only be disconnected
or connected after the ignition switch has been turned off;
Ensure the wiring connection is correct before carrying out the voltage or grounding
measurement for the electronic control system.
Remove the power supply wire from battery or disconnect the wiring harness
controller connectors will cause the loss of diagnostic information and memory.
(4) Notes for maintaining the fuel supply system:
Attention must be paid to the followings when removing and installing the fuel pump
on a fully or semi-fully filled fuel tank:
A device that can fully absorb the potential leaked fuel should be available near the
fuel tank opening before carrying out the operation;
Avoid the skin come into direct contact with fuel;
Thoroughly clean the place and around it before loosening the connecting parts;
Put rags around the connecting parts in order to prevent the fuel from spraying via the
loosened part;
The disassembled parts that are not intended to be repaired immediately should be
covered or closed carefully;

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The spare parts should be taken out from its packing only before the assembly. Any
part without proper packing is not allowed to be used;
Pay attention not to damage the O ring while assembling the fuel injector. A small
amount of lubricating oil should be applied on the O ring for assembly convenient.
After the system has been opened up, as far as possible not to use compression air and
move the car around.

SAFETY MEASURES
Attention should be paid to the followings so as to avoid the injury of personnel and
damage of the fuel injectors and the ignition device:
(1) If the engine is running or at the start up speed, then it is not allowed to contact or
disconnect the ignition wiring harness;
(2) If the engine is driven by the starting motor instead of starting by itself, such as in
the case of inspecting the compression pressure, then the wiring harness
connectors should be disconnected from the Hall Sensor and crankshaft position
sensor.

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CLUTCH

CLUTCH INTRODUCTION H-2

CLUTCH STRUCTURE H-2

OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF CLUTCH H-2

CLUTCH CABLE ASSEMBLY STRUCTURE H-3

ASSEMBLY AND ADJUSTMENT OF CLUTCH CABLE H-4

CLUTCH DISASSEMBLY H-5

CLUTCH OVERHAUL H-6

CLUTCH INSTALLATION H-7

TROUBLE DIAGNOSIS H-8

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CLUTCH INTRODUCTION
CLUTCH STRUCTURE
As picture below, the clutch is dry diaphragm with single leaf. It consists of clutch driven
disk (2), release disk (4), intermediate disk (6), pressure plate (7) and flywheel (1).
There are diaphragm springs in the pressure plate (7), which are fixed in the crankshaft by
intermediate disk (6) and bolt (5). Driven disk (2) is pressed on the flywheel (1) by
pressure plate (7), and bolt (8) is used to fix pressure plate (7) and flywheel (1) together;
the clutch pusher (9) is used to push separator disk (4) and then the separator disk (4) to
push the small end of diaphragm springs on pressure plate (7).

1.Flywheel 2.Driven Disk 3.Snap Ring 4.Release Disk 5.BoltM10(1105N.m)


6.Intermediate Disk 7.Pressure Plate 8.Bolt (23~25N.m) 9.Clutch Pusher

OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF CLUTCH


As picture below, Picture a presents the connection status of clutch. When clutch pedal is
not treaded, the driven disk (3) is pressed on flywheel (2) by diaphragm spring (1). Driven
disk (3) and flywheel (2) are revolving synchronously, and the torque is transmitted to the
transmission-axle (6) by Separator disk (5) through driven disk (3).
Picture b presents the disconnection state of clutch. When the clutch is treaded, pusher (4)
pushes separator disk (5) which presses the small end of diaphragm spring (1) to move the
big end of diaphragm spring (1) away from driven disk (3), so the pressure is disengaged
between driven disk (3) and flywheel (2) and the clearance is generated to cut off the
motive power of engine and pass the transmission.

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a. Clutch Connection State b. Clutch Disconnection State
1.Diaphragm Spring 2.Flywheel 3.Driven Disk 4.Pusher
5.Seperator Disk 6.Transmission Axle

CLUTCH CABLE ASSEMBLY STRUCTURE

1.Clip 2.Cable Latch 3.Washer 4.Cable Cushion 5.Jacket Tie-in 6.Jacket


7.Inner Pipe 8.Cable 9.Dust Cover 10.Adjust Rod 11.Jam Nut 12.Adjust Bushing
13.Clip Ring 14.Retainer 15.Washer 16.Rubber Cushion 17.Gasket 18. Butt End

H-3

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ASSEMBLY AND ADJUSTMENT OF CLUTCH CABLE

Put dust cap up and screw jam nut (11) and


adjustment bushing (12) to the upper end
(make the adjustment travel L minimum)
so as to facilitate the assembly of clutch
cable.
Coat a little lubricant on the assembly
L (adjustment travel)
fitting surface of clutch cable.
Put clip (1) across the guiding cylinder of
Jam nut
clutch pedal on the front brattice to
connect the clutch pedal. Make sure that Adjust
When driven disk wear down,
unscrew the nuts and adjust the
washer (3) and end face of guiding bushing
bushing to a proper position
cylinder of clutch pedal are spliced.
Make butt end (18) fixed by bracket after Rubber cushion
Transmission
across the slot in release arm of Bracket
release pusher

transmission and rubber cushion through


the upper face of transmission.
After the assembly, uplift the segregation 2~3mm free
arm of transmission by hand and adjust the travel

adjustment bushing (12) down at the same


time, so the 2~3mm clearance for
segregation arm of transmission is Move direction of release
available; then tread the clutch pedal for 10 disk after driven disk wear
down
times to ensure the fitness of assembly and
readjust the adjustment bushing to
guarantee that the 2~3mm clearance for
segregation arm of transmission is
available (RemarksFor new clutch, the
adjustment travel L of driven disk cable Picture 2 Sketch Map of Western
shall not be less than 18mm. See Pic.2). Clutch Adjustment
Carry out the driving examination for the
whole automobile. Clutch and gear shifting
operation shall be normal.
Screw jam nut (11) down to close with
adjustment bushing (12), and then put
down dust cover (9).

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CLUTCH DISASSEMBLY

Disassemble the transmission.

Unscrew 9 fixed bolts in flywheel


cornerwise and dismount the flywheel.

Remove clutch plate.

Pry out snap ring of release disk by


screwdriver and remove the release disk.

Unscrew 6 connection bolts in clutch


pressure plate and output end of
crankshaft, and remove the clutch pressure
plate.

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CLUTCH OVERHAUL

Clutch friction disk: measure the dent depth of


rivet head, i.e. the distance between the rivet head
and the friction disk surface. In case it is found that
the depth reaches the using limit for any hole, the
friction disk shall be changed.
Standard value Maintenance
Rivet head
1.5mm 0.5mm
Dent depth
0.06in 0.02in
Measure the clutch disc runout using a dial indicator.
If the runout is excessive, replace the clutch disc.
Runout 0.8mm max
Clutch pressure plate:
Examine whether the diaphragm spring has
abnormal wear or damage.
Examine whether the pressure plate has wear or hot
point.
In case of any abnormality, the pressure plate shall
be changed. The pressure plate shall not be
disassembled into two parts: diaphragm spring and
pressure plate.
Measure the clutch pressure plate runout using a dial
indicator. If the runout is excessive, replace the
clutch disc.
Runout 0.25mm max
Flywheel:
Examine whether the connection surface of friction
disk exists abnormal wear or hot point; the change
or maintenance shall be conducted if necessary.
Measure the flatness of the flywheel with a straight
edge and a feeler gauge. If not as specified, replace
the clutch cover.
Maximum clearance 0.05mm
Service limit 0.15mm

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CLUTCH INSTALLATION
Before the assembly, flywheel surfaces and pressure
plate shall be clear and dry.
Assemble the pressure plate on the crankshaft
and screw up bolts in accordance with
prescribed moment.

Pressure plate Nm Kg-m 1b-ft


assembly bolt
Torque 57-65 5.7-6.5 41.5-47.0

Assemble release disk and fit on snap ring.


Assemble clutch disk.

Assemble flywheel.
Screw up flywheel bolt uniformly according to
the diagonal line.
Coat a thin layer of grease on the input axle
and then assemble the transmission with
engine.

Flywheel Nm Kg-m 1b-ft


bolt
Torque 18-28 1.8-2.8 13.5-20.0

Remarks:
When put the input axle of transmission into the
clutch friction disk, the flywheel shall be revolved
until the input axle of transmission and spline
meshed.

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TROUBLE DIAGNOSIS

Trouble
Cause Treatment method
symptom
Free travel (free play) of clutch pedal is wrong. Adjust free travel
Abrasion or oil stain for clutch friction disk. Change friction disk
Slip of clutch Distortion for friction disk pressure plate or Change frication disk,
flywheel surface. pressure plate or flywheel
Diaphragm springs become weaker. Change clutch pressure plate
Free travel of clutch pedal is wrong. Adjust free travel
Diaphragm springs become weaker or abrasion for Change pressure plate
stabber fingertip.
Uncompleted Rust for input axle spline. Lubricate
segregation of Mutilation or abrasion for input axle spline of Change the input shaft
clutch transmission.
Excessive nodding action for clutch friction disk Change friction disk
assembly.
Abrasion or oil stain for clutch friction disk. Change friction disk
Brighten of clutch friction disk (to become Repair or change friction
glassiness). disk
Oil stain for clutch friction disk. Change friction disk
Bad skid of segregation bearing on the bearing Lubricate
sleeve of transmission.
Shimmy of clutch friction disk assembly or bad Change friction disk
Vibration of connection of friction disk.
clutch Vibration reduction torsion springs of clutch Change friction disk
friction disk assembly become weaker.
Loose of rivet of clutch friction disk. Change friction disk
Distortion of pressure plate or flywheel surface. Change pressure plate or
flywheel
Loose of the binding bolt of flywheel or loose of Screw down
binding bolt of pressure plate assembly.
Abrasion or mutilation for segregation bearing. Change segregation bearing
Abrasion for front bearing of input axle. Change input shaft bearing
Abnormal noise for clutch friction disk. Change friction disk
Clutch noise
Crack for clutch friction disk. Change friction disk
Abnormal noise for pressure plate and diaphragm Change pressure plate
spring.
Clutch friction disk has fat liquor. Change friction disk
Non-separation of Serious wear of clutch friction disk. Change friction disk
clutch Rivet head is displayed in surface of disk. Change friction disk
Torsion springs become weaker Change friction disk

H-8
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MANUAL TRANSMISSION
SPECIFICATION J-3
DISASSEMBLY OF THE DRIVE SHAFT J-4
DISASSEMBLY OF THE TRANSMISSION J-6
TRANSMISSION GEARSHIFT MECHANISM DIAGRAMATIC SKETCH J-9
RESOLUTION GRAPH OF THE GEARSHIFT CONTROL MECHANISM J-10
SHIFT ADJUSTMENT J-11
NEUTRAL POSITIONING J-11
FINE ADJUSTMENT J-11
TRANSMISSION RESOLUTION J-12
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE TRANSMISSION J-15
DISASSEMBLY J-15
ASSEMBLY J-21
MAIN POINTS J-24
ADJUSTMENT OF 5TH FORK J-25
ADJUSTMENT J-25
MAIN POINTS J-25
DISASSEMBLY, RESOLUTION GRAPH AND ASSEMBLY OF THE REAR
HOUSING J-26
DISASSEMBLY J-26
RESOLUTION GRAPH J-27
ASSEMBLY J-27
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF CLUTCH CONTROL ARM, CLUTCH
RELEASE SHAFT OIL SEAL, AND CLUTCH RELEASE BEARING J-28
DISASSEMBLY J-28
ASSEMBLY J-28
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE GEARSHIFT SHAFT OIL SEALJ-29
DISASSEMBLY J-29
ASSEMBLY J-29

J-1

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE GEARSHIFT SHAFT BEARINGJ-30
DISASSEMBLY J-30
ASSEMBLY J-30
RESOLUTION GRAPH OF THE INPUT SHAFT J-35
RESOLUTION GRAPH J-35
RESOLUTION GRAPH OF OUTPUT SHAFT J-36
RESOLUTION GRAPH J-36
ADJUSTMENT TABLE J-37
ADJUSTMENT ITEMS J-37
ADJUSTMENT OF OUTPUT SHAFT J-38
ADJUSTMENT J-38
MAIN POINTS J-38
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF DIFFERENTIAL, AND CALCULATION AND
ADJUSTMENT OF THE ADJUSTMENT SHIM J-39
DISASSEMBLY J-39
ASSEMBLY J-40
ADJUSTMENT J-40
RESOLUTION GRAPH OF THE DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY J-41
RESOLUTION GRAPH J-41
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF OIL SEAL AND OUTPUT FLANGE J-42
DISASSEMBLY J-42
ASSEMBLY J-43

J-2

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Clutch Assembly Schematic
1. Clutch Housing 2. Differential 3. Input Shaft 4. Output Shaft
5. 1 Shift 6. Reverse 7. 2 Shift 8. 3 Shift 9. 4 Shift 10. 5th Shift
st nd rd th

11. Transmission Housing 12. Rear Housing

SPECIFICATION
Transmission AQ015 AA type AQ015 AB type
Main driving 4.133 3.813
1shift 3.455 3.455
2shift 2.056 2.056
3shift 1.370 1.370
Ratio
4shift 1.032 1.032
5shift 0.850 0.850
Reverse gear 3.167 3.167
Speedometer 2.286 2.286
Lubricating oil quantity 2.0L 2.0L
Type of lubricating oil Transmission oil GL-4 SAE75 Transmission oil GL-4 SAE75
Manipulation type of clutch Mechanical Mechanical
Diameter of clutch driven plate 210mm 210mm
Diameter of drive shaft flange 100mm 100mm
General gear ratio of top gear 3.513 3.240

J-3

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DISASSEMBLY OF THE DRIVE SHAFT

Tyre disassembly.

Disassemble two bolts of the brake cylinder and


brake shoe assembly. And hang the assembly on
the shock absorber by the hook.

Disassemble the connecting bolt of brake disc


and front axle, and make front axle ball joint off
by pressing it downward.

Loosen the two fixing bolts under the brake disc


and shock absorber.

J-4

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Disassemble the round head bolt of steering
knuckle and steering rod, prize up the round
head bolt upward.

Turn the brake disc and disassemble the 6 torx


head bolts of driving shaft and differential output
shaft, and take off the shim and bolt.

Take off the 2 fixing bolts under the brake disc


and shock absorber, pull off the driving shaft and
brake disc assembly.

J-5

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DISASSEMBLY OF THE TRANSMISSION
Discharge the transmission oil.
Disassemble the driving shaft.
Disassemble those 3 fixing bolt of the
transmission lower shim.

Disassemble the crankshaft position sensor.

Disassemble the backup lamp switch plug.


Disassemble the speed sensor plug.
Prize up the round head clamp by screw
driver, take off the selector rod.
Disassemble cotter pin, and take off shift lever
and shift mechanism linkage.
Disassemble the gear shift arms subassembly.

J-6

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Disassemble cathode cable of the accumulator;
disassemble the anode cable and plug of the
starter.
Disassemble the fixing bolt between engine
front overhang bracket and front cross
member.
Sling the engine.
Disassemble the fixing bolt of the starter.
Take off front overhang bracket of the starter
and the engine.

Loosen connecting bolt between left / right


suspension and sub frame.

Disassemble the connecting bolt ( altogether 3


pieces)between left/right suspension and
transmission.

J-7

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Loosen those 5 bolts between transmission
housing and engine.

Rise engine to the ceiling, turning around it


clockwise 90.
Lay down transmission end slowly, and sway
outside off the transmission and engine.

Take off the transmission assembly.

J-8

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TRANSMISSION GEARSHIFT MECHANISM DIAGRAMMATIC SKETCH

ABOVE IS GEARSHIFT MECHANISM CONTROL CONFIGURATION

The transmission control mechanism must meet the requirement that only one
shift can be chosen when the shift is changing and prevent from choosing reverse gear.
The gear should be full length meshed after the gear shifted and prevent the gear out
of position automatically. The transmission of Q/SQR7160 A15RHD car is composing
of internal and external parts because it is positioning on the front driving axle far
away from the driver and can not control directly.

J-9

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RESOLUTION GRAPH OF THE GEARSHIFT CONTROL MECHANISM

1. Shift Housing, Fasten The Fixing Bolt By 20Nm 2. Tubular RivetTo Fix Reverse Gear Guide Rail
3. Reverse Gear Guide Rail 4. Self-Tapping ScrewTo Fix The Dashboard 5. Seal 6. Gasket
7. Ball Holder 8. Spacer 9. Ball 10. Spring 11. Spring Plunger 12. Bracket Plate
13. Locknut, 10Nm 14. Plastic Ring 15. Shift Lever With Positioning Eccentric RingBefore
Installation, Installation FinishedAssemble Bracket Plate, Spring And Ball, Fixed By Spring Plunger
16. BushingShift LeverInstallation, Make Sure That Do Not Press The Housing Open 17. Shield Plate
18. Selector Arm Assembly 19. Lock Washer 20. Gear Shift Arm 21. Selector RodBefore
Disassembly Press The Plastic Ball Clamp By Screw Driver 22. Shift Lever (Different End Angle:
Mark (Groove) Towards Selector Rod/ Gearshift Lever) 23. Gearshift Shaft 24. Gear Shift Arm
SubassemblyOnly One Position Can Assemble This Rod 25. Locknut 25Nm 26. Selector Lever
Press The Plastic Ball Clamp By Screw Driver Before Disassembly 27. Selector Rod Arm Subassembly
28. O Ring 29. Left Back Bracket 30. Gear Shift Shaft Subassembly 31. Hexagon Bolt With
Flange 35Nm 32. Gear Shift Shaft Bracket Sub-Assembly 33. Support Bushing 34. Shift Rod

J-10
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SHIFT ADJUSTMENT
Neutral positioning
Disassemble gearshift knob and protective
cover and fix the gearshift knob according to
the positioning requirement, see the chart (the
black one is positioning assist)

Leave the pipe clamp at its natural position.


Clamp nut, fasten by 25Nm.
Try all the shifts, gear shifting should be
smooth and without stop, secure the validity of
the reverse gear lockup.

Fine adjustment:
After a long time using of the vehicle, there will
be wear and tear between gearshift mechanism
parts which makes the space between shifts
Eccentric Ring
too much bigger and difficult for gear shifting
then you need fine adjustment. Bolt
st
Check the 1 shift position, loosen nut B, do as
the chart show: Put transmission on 1st shift
position, fasten bolt B by adjusting the
eccentric ring position to a=1.5mm.
Fasten clamp bolt (the transmission on the
neutral position), try all the shifts, which should
be smooth and easy.
Try all the shifts gear shifting should be smooth
and without stop, secure the validity of the
reverse gear lockup.

J-11

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TRANSMISSION RESOLUTION

1. Fastening Screw (4 Pieces, Fasten Moment Is25n.M) 2. Fixing Screw (2 Pieces, Fasten
Moment Is 25N.M) 3. Bleed Bolt 4. Transmission Rear Housing 5. 5th Synchronizer
Assembly 6. 5th Driven Gear Snap Ring 7. 5th Driven Gear 8. 5th Fork Pad
th th
9. 5 Fork Assembly 10. 5 Gear Holder Fixing Turnbuckle 11. Dish Washer 12. Shim

J-12

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1. Input Shaft Rear Bearing Plate Screw (4 Pieces, Fasten Moment Is 15N.M) 2. Transmission
Housing Assembly 3. Fixing Screw (12 Pieces, Fasten Moment Is 25N.M) 4. O-Ring 5. Gearshift
Shaft Plug Cover 6. Gearshift Shaft Pressing Spring 7. Gearshift Assembly 8. Gearshift Positioning
Holder Assembly 9. Pressing Spring-Damper Ring 10. Output Flange 11. Output Flange Dish Washer
12. Output Flange Snap Ring 13. Flange Cover 14. Idler Shaft Fixing Screw 15. Fixing Bolt (2
Pieces, Fasten Moment Is 25N.M)

J-13

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1. 4th Driven Gear Snap Ring 2. 4th Driven Gear 3. 3rd Driven Snap Ring 4. 3rd Driven Gear 5.
2nd Driven Gear 6. 2nd Synchronizer Ring 7. 2nd Roller Bearing 8. 2nd Roller Bearing Lining 9.
1st -2nd Synchronizer Assembly 10. 1st Synchronizer Ring 11. 1st Driven Gear 12. 1st Roller
Bearing 13. Bearing Holder Fixing Bolt 14. 1st Roller Bearing Snap Ring 15. Output Shaft
Intermediate Bearing Holder 16. Differential Assembly 17. Damper Ring 18. Pressing
Spring-Damper Ring 19. Output Flange 20. Output Flange Dish Washer 21. Output Flange Snap
Ring 22. Output Flange Cover 23. Fork 24. 5th Fork Sleeve 25. 3rd-4th Fork 26. 5th Fork Guide
Plate 27. Reverse Fork Guide Plate 28. 1st-2nd Fork 29. Input Shaft Assembly 30. Idler Shaft
31. Idler Assembly 32. Clutch Housing assembly

J-14

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE TRANSMISSION

Disassembly
Raise up the transmission, take off the drain
plug on the transmission differential side, and
at the same time take off the drain plug on the
rear cover( see the arrowhead pointed stud).
Discharge all the oil.

Pull off the clutch separating tappet.

Take off the connecting bolt between rear


housing and transmission housing and
disassemble the rear housing assembly. Take
off the clutch release bearing and rear
housing gasket.

Take off the black gearshift shaft dustproof


cover (A),take off gearshift positioning sear
assembly (1) and reverse lamp switch (2).

J-15

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Disassemble the gearshift shaft bolt by special
tools and take off compression spring and
gearshift shaft assembly.

Special Tool

Disassemble the reverse gear lockup screw


(see as the arrowhead pointed).

Disassemble left and right output flange


cover.

Take out the internal snap ring and dish ring,


and disassemble the output flange.

J-16

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Shift to 5th and reverse gear.
Glide the synchronizer downward according
to arrowhead 1 direction and shift to 5th.
Move the first fork downward according to
the arrowhead 2 direction and shift to reverse
gear.

Take off fixing bolt and washer of the 5th


synchronizer by a special tool.
Special Tool

Prize up the 5th fork pad and turn left the 5th
fork bushing, take off the 5th fork assembly.
Special Tool

Disassemble 5th driving gear and its


synchronizer assembly.by special tools
Special Tool

J-17

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Take off 5th driven gear snap ring and 5th
driven gear.

Special Tool
Take off the bearing shift slice clamping bolt
behind of input shaft by a special tool.

Disassemble the fixing bolt of transmission


front and rear housing, take off the
transmission housing and front/rear housing
gasket.

J-18
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Take off the fork shaft and its upper and lower
spring, take off 5th fork guide assembly,
reverse gear fork guide, 3rd-4th shift fork and
1st-2nd fork.

Take off 4th driven gear snap ring and 4th


driven gear (by a special tool).

Special Tool

Take off input shaft A assembly, pay attention


that the reverse gear B are not the shift.

J-19

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Take off 3rd driven gear snap ring B from
output shaft, and take off 3rd driven gear. And
take off 2nd driven gear, needle bearing, and Special Tool
synchronizer ring from output shaft. (by
special tool)

Prize up reverse shaft by reverse gear idler


until both of them are off clutch housing.

Take off output shaft 1st and 2nd synchronizer


assembly and 1st synchronizer ring, 1st driven
gear and needle bearing, take off shift slice by
a special tool. Special Tool

Screw off output shaft front bearing plate


fixing screw, take out output shaft front
bearing plate and output shaft.
Take off differential assembly.
Disassemble reverse gear fork and bracket,
returning spring and knob holder.

J-20

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Assembly:
The assembly of the transmission is in reverse
of its disassembly, pay attention to the below
items:
1. Assemble differential assembly on clutch
housing, at first do not assemble output flange.
2. Assemble output shaft and output shaft front
bearing plate, plug into fixing bolt and fasten
by 40Nm moment.
3. Assemble thrust shim needle bearing. Pay
attention to the direction of the thrust shim, the
inside diameter of thrust shim A should be
integrate closely with the bearing holder. Pay
attention that dont mix up the 1st and 2nd
synchronizer ring, 1st synchronizer ring is not
sprayed molybdenum and has three gears
missing.

The side with gears A towards 1st driven gear


B when you assemble the 1st and 2nd
synchronizer.

Assemble reverse gear idler and idler shaft


onto clutch housing.

J-21

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Assemble the needle bearing, synchronizer
ring, and gear of 2nd and 3rd driven gear.
When you assemble the 3rd driven gear, make
sure that the side with bulge towards 2nd
driven gear.

Use snap ring to adjust the axial size after the


assembly of 3rd driven gear. Choose the
thickest snap ring from the permitted size and
assemble it into the snap ring groove. Make
sure that the snap ring can not too big and can
be assembled into the groove.

Part No. thicknessmm


015-1700381AA 2.8
015-170038AB 2.9
015-1700381AC 3.0
015-1700381AD 3.1
015-1700381AE 3.2

Make sure put the balance spring of fork shaft


into the clutch housing fork shaft hole.

J-22
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Assemble the fork assembly into its right
position, and then assemble the idler shaft.
11st and 2nd fork
23rd and 4th fork
35th fork guide and bushing
4reverse gear fork guide

Assemble input shaft rear axle pump plate A,


pay attention that the position of A should be
the same as in the picture. Put new front and
rear housing seal shim and assemble
transmission housing.

Put M17 bolt 1 into the threaded hole(see the


picture), grasp the fork shaft and fillip the
transmission housing with plastic hammer
until the bearing out of position to the right
place. Put in bolt 2 with 15Nm moment. Put in
reverse gear shaft bolt and fasten by 20Nm
moment, put in front/rear housing fixing bolt
and fasten by 25Nm moment; fasten the rear
bearing plate of input shaft by 15Nm moment.

J-23

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Main points
1. Please do not take off the fork shaft from
5th fork bushing otherwise the fork and
guide plate will deviate its right position
and fallout.
2. Before assemble the gearshift shaft please
put the transmission at it neutral position.
Inset gearshift shaft and big compression
spring, fasten the bolt cover by 50Nm
moment.
Screw in gearshift positioning holder
assembly and fasten it by 40Nm moment.

J-24

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ADJUSTMENT OF 5TH FORK
Adjustment:
Adjust the 5th fork as below:
Turn fork bushing right until the fork bushing
out X=5mm.
Pull off selector shaft and turn left shift to
5th.
Lift 5th coupling housing sleeve slightly by
the fork to eliminate the space between the
driving elements.

Inspect the space between 5th coupling sleeve


and 5th driving gear. Nominal value a=1mm.
turn 5th fork bushing and adjust the value to
1mm if it is necessary.

Main points:
Move the slip cap and fork slightly to eliminate the
free space when measuring the space a.

Fasten the 5th shift fork pad using a special


tool to support the gearshift fork. At last put
on the rear housing gasket and rear housing
assembly. Special Tool

Lubricate the top of clutch separating rod and


insert. Shift to the gears and check the meshing
conditions.

J-25

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DISASSEMBLY, RESOLUTION GRAPH AND ASSEMBLY OF THE REAR
HOUSING
Disassembly:
The disassembly of the rear housing can be finish even if the transmission is not
disassembled from the car. The disassembly as below:
1Drive the car to the platform.
2Disassemble clutch control
cable assembly.
3Disassemble the engine bracket on the transmission
side.
4Lift the vehicle by a lifter.
5Screw off the drain bolt under the differential, discharge all the
transmission oil
6 Take off the fixing bolt of rear housing and dismantle the rear
housing.

J-26

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Resolution graph:

1. Clamprelease arm 2. Release arm assembly 3. Clutch release shaft oil seal 4. Rear
housing 5. Fixing bolt 6. Rear housing fixing bolt 7. Clutch release bearing 8. Return
spring 9. Clutch release finger 10. Back cover 11. Fixing clip 12. Drain bolt 13. Flat
spacer 14. Spring washer
Assembly
The assemble process of rear housing is opposite to its disassemble process.

J-27

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF CLUTCH CONTROL ARM, CLUTCH
RELEASE SHAFT OIL SEAL, AND CLUTCH RELEASE BEARING

Disassembly:
Drive car to the platform.
Disassemble the clutch control cable
assembly.
Disassemble engine bracket on the
transmission side.
Lift the vehicle by lifter.
Discharge all the transmission oil by screw
off the drain bolt under the differential.
Get off the back cover by punch, do not hurt
the contact surface. Disassemble the fixing
clip of the separated finger; pull off clutch
release shaft, separated finger and spring.
Take off clutch release bearing, and punch off
clutch release shaft oil seal assembly. Do not
hurt the contact surface.

Assembly:
Assembly is opposite to the disassembly process,
pay attention to the following items:
Lubricate the oil seal surface and put it in by a
special tool.
Assemble clutch separated finger to the
position shows in the picture, and then
assemble release bearing, spring and clip. The
spring position shows in the picture.
Press the new back cover to its right position
by special tool. If it is assembled on the
vehicle, extra work as below: fill transmission
oil to the specified level.
Lower the vehicle on the platform and
connect to clutch control cable.

J-28

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE GEARSHIFT SHAFT OIL SEAL

The disassembly and assembly of the


gearshift shaft oil seal can be done when the
transmission is not broke down.
Disassembly:
See the picture, remove the oil seal by a flat
spade or punch.

Assembly:

Lubricate the lip of oil seal and press oil seal Special Tool
into transmission housing completely by a
special tool.

J-29

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE GEARSHIFT SHAFT BEARING

Disassembly:
It needs to take off the gearshift shaft and oil Special Tool
seal as changing the gearshift shaft bearing.
Penetrate the special tool into gearshift shaft Special Tool
housing, see the picture, and tap it slightly
until the gearshift shaft out from the other
side.

Assembly:
Special Tool
Assemble the bearing inside of the position
which can contain the gearshift shaft.
Press the bearing to its right position by
special tool and then assemble the gearshift
shaft. Special Tool

J-30

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE OUTPUT SHAFT NEEDLE BEARING

Disassembly:
Remove the needle bearing by special tool,
see the picture.
Special Tool
Special Tool

Assembly:
Press the needle bearing to its right position
by special tool.

J-31

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE GEARSHIFT SHAFT

It need not to break down the transmission


assembly.
Disassembly:
Put transmission assembly on the shelf or
workbench.
Leave it on the neutral position. (The
gearshift shaft move smoothly on arrowhead
direction)
Screw off the gearshift positioning holder
assembly.

Unscrew the bolt cover by special tool and


take off gearshift shaft.

Special Tool

See the picture, press the spring holder to the


arrowhead direction to compress the internal
spring. Keep at this position until disassemble
the snap ring No.2.
Assembly:
The assemble process is opposite to above
process.
Main point:
Make sure the fork system on neutral gear.
Moment to fasten bolt cover is 50Nm.
Moment of fastening the gearshift shaft
positioning holder is 40Nm.

J-32

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF INPUT SHAFT NEEDLE BEARING

Disassembly:
See the picture, dismantle the needle bearing
by special tool.

Special Tool
Special Tool

Assembly:
See the picture, assemble the input shaft Special Tool Special Tool
needle bearing by special tool, and make sure
press it to the right position.

J-33

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF THE INPUT SHAFT OIL SEAL

Disassembly:
It need not to break down the transmission
when disassemble the input shaft oil seal.
Special Tool
See the picture, disassemble the input oil seal
according to the arrowhead direction by special
tool

Assembly:
See the picture, lubricate the lip of the oil seal
and press the oil seal to its right position by
special tool.
Special Tool

J-34

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RESOLUTION GRAPH OF INPUT SHAFT

1. 5th Synchronizer fixing bolt 2.


Fixing bolt shim 3. 5th Synchronizer
assembly 4. 5th Synchronizer gate
bracket 5. 19 Steel spring 6. 5th Hub
sleeve 7. 5th Clutch hub 8. 18 Gate
9. Fixing screw of rear bearing plate
10. Input shaft rear bearing 11.
Rear bearing plate 12. 4th Driving
gear 13. 4th Synchronizer ring 14.
Snap ring 15. 3rd-4th Synchronizer
assembly 16. 3rd-4th Hub sleeve
17. 3rd-4th Clutch hub 20. Input
shaft 21. Clutch housing 22.
Needle bearing 23. Oil seal of
clutch tappet 24. Bushing of clutch
tappet 25. 3rd Driving gear 26. 3rd
Synchronizer 27. Transmission
housing 28. Adjustment shim (may
not use) 29. 5th Driving gear plate
30. 5th Driving gear 31. 5th
Synchronizer ring

Resolution Of Input Shaft

J-35

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RESOLUTION GRAPH OF OUTPUT SHAFT

1. Rear housing 2. 5th Driven gear snap ring 3. 5th Driven gear 4. Transmission housing
5. Needle bearing 6. 4th Driven gear snap ring 7. 4th Driven gear 8. 3rd Driven gear
snap ring 9.3rd Driven gear 10. 2nd Driven gear 11. 2nd Driven gear and bushing 12. 2nd
Synchronizer ring 13. 1st-2nd Synchronizer assembly 14. Steel spring 15. 1st-2nd Gear
sleeve 16. 1st-2nd Hub 17. Gate 18. 1st Synchronizer ring 19. 1st Driven gear 20. 1st
Needle bearing snap ring 21. Adjustment shim 22. Front bearing external ring 23.
Clutch housing 24. Output shaft front bearing 25. Output shaft 26. Output shaft
intermediate shaft 27. Intermediate bearing pedestal 28. Bearing fixing bolt Output
shaft break down

J-36

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ADJUSTMENT TABLE
Adjustment items:
During the repair of Adjusted items
transmission assembly, you Changed parts Output
should think about to adjust Differential
shaft
the output shaft or differential Transmission housing No Adjust
assembly installing dimension Clutch housing Adjust Adjust
when you change any of the Differential cone bearing No Adjust
below element. Output shaft Adjust No
In order to avoid the Output shaft intermediate
Adjust No
ungrateful work we provide bearing pedestal
the right table to you. Differential housing No Adjust
Output shaft intermediate
Adjust No
bearing
Output shaft front bearing Adjust No

J-37

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ADJUSTMENT OF OUTPUT SHAFT

Adjustment:
You need adjust the thickness of the output
Special Tool
shaft shim after you replaced any part of
clutch housing,output shaft,output shaft
Special Tool
intermediate bearing pedestal, output shaft
intermediate bearing or output shaft front
bearing.
See the picture, insert adjustment shim with
0.65mm thickness, and press front bearing
external ring of output shaft to bearing
pedestal.
Insert the output shaft assembly, put on
bearing pedestal and fasten with 40Nm
moment. See the picture.

J-38

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CALCULATE THE THICKNESS OF THE ADJUSTMENT SHIM

Put a platform benchmark on the clutch


housing, and put a dial indicator with
magnetic base on the benchmark. Set to
zero when the pre fasten force is 1mm.
Move the input shaft up and down
according to the arrowhead direction, read
and record the indication of the indicator.
Main points:
During measuring, do not roll the output
shaft otherwise the bearing will fall down
and get wrong measuring value.

Disassembly:
For bearing pre fasten it needs thickness of
the adjustment shim 0.20m; if the reading of
the dial indicator is 0.30mm, and the
thickness of the shim put in advance is
0.65mm, then the thickness of the adjustment
shim should be 0.20mm+0.30mm+0.65mm
=1.15mm.
See the picture, screw off bearing plate bolt
and take out output shaft.
Take out front bearing external ring of output
shaft.
Take out the original adjustment shim.

J-39

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Assembly:
Put the propriety adjustment shim to it right
position and press output shaft front bearing
external ring. Lubricate the bearing by gear
oil and insert output shaft. Put on bearing
Special Tool
plate and bolt fasten by 40Nm moment.
After changing one of below parts: Clutch
housing, transmission housing, differential
bearing and differential housing, you need
readjust the adjustment shim thickness for
differential bearing pre fasten.

Adjustment:
Press differential bearing external ring
completely by special tool.
Special Tool
Press differential bearing external ring to the
Special Tool
right position on transmission housing
without any adjustment shim, and put
differential assembly. Assemble transmission
housing on to clutch housing and fasten the
connecting bolt by 25Nm moment.

Put a special tool on small axle shaft and put a dial indicator with magnetic base on the
benchmark. Set the dial indicator to zero when the pre fasten force is 1mm. Move the
differential assembly up and down from one side and record the indication of the indicator.
Notice: during measuring, do not roll the differential assembly otherwise it will influence the
accuracy.
Calculate the adjustment shim thickness:
For bearing pre fasten it needs thickness of the adjustment shim 0.40m; if the reading of the
dial indicator is 0.90mm, then the thickness of the adjustment shim should be
0.40mm+0.90mm=1.30mm.
Disassemble the connecting bolt of differential housing and clutch housing, take out
differential bearing external ring, and buildup the needed adjustment shim thickness by the
least shim, put it to its right position on clutch and press differential bearing external ring
completely. Assemble gasket and transmission housing, and fasten the fixing bolt by 25Nm
moment.

J-40

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RESOLUTION GRAPH OF THE DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY
RESOLUTION GRAPH

1, Final drive driven gear 2, Rivet 3, 11, Needle bearing 4,12, Needle bearing
external ring 5,13, Adjustment shim 6, Clutch housing 7, Rivet (may not use) 8,
Oil seal holder 9, Oil seal 10, Small axle shaft 14, Transmission housing 15,
Output flange snap ring 16, Output flange dish washer 17, Output flange 18,
Compression spring 19, Spring seat ring 20, Damper ring 21, Differential
housing 22, Knob gasket 23, Snap ring 24, Planet gear shaft 25, Planet gear snap
ring 26, Axle shaft gear and planet gear 27, Output flange cover
Break down of differential assembly

J-41

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DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF OIL SEAL AND OUTPUT FLANGE

The disassembly of this part can be carried


out at the condition not break down the
transmission assembly.
Disassembly:
Disassemble the connecting bolt between
propeller s haft and flange, disassemble drive
shaft and fix it on somewhere.

Remove flange cover by a special tool.

Take out snap ring and dish washer.

J-42

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See the picture, fix the special tool on flange
Special Tool
by M8 bolt, rotate the shaft of special tool by
wrench to disassemble the output flange.
Take off spring seat and compression spring.

Fasten the special tool on oil seal, rotate the Special Tool
special tool threaded shaft by wrench until
screw off the oil seal.

Assembly:
Use the right size oil seal and lubricate its lip. Special Tool
Put it to its right position by special tool and
rotate the screw of the special tool make oil
seal to its true position.

For the assembly of output flange, you can


use press or special tool press it into its
position, see the picture.
Special Tool
Assemble dish washer and check if it is at its
right position
Assemble snap ring and make sure it is inside
of snap ring groove.
Assemble a new flange cover.
Connect drive shaft and output flange
together, if it is necessary put lubricant to the
stipulated position.

J-43

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AXLE AND SUSPENSION SYSTEM

ALIGNMENT OF THE WHEEL M-2

BASIC INSPECTION BEFORE THE ALIGNMENT M-2

USUAL TROUBLE OF THE TIRE M-5

ALIGNMENT OF THE REAR WHEEL M-9

ALIGNMENT OF THE FRONT WHEEL M-10

FRONT SUSPENSION M-13

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT SUSPENSION M-13

OVERHAUL OF THE FRONT SUSPENSION M-15

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT WHEEL BEARING M-19

REAR SUSPENSION AND REAR AXLE M-22

REMOVAL / INSTALLATION OF THE REAR AXLE ASSY M-22

REMOVAL / INSTALLATION OF THE REAR SHOCK ABSORBER ASSY M-25

OVERHAUL OF THE FRONT AND REAR AXLE M-28

M-1

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AXLE AND SUSPENSION SYSTEM
ALIGNMENT OF THE WHEEL
It is easy to understand that the theory of the four wheels alignment related to the definitions
and the functions of various angles. However, the corresponding theory can hardly be applied
to the four wheels alignment tester and chassis maintenance due to the chassis structure of the
vehicle body, which all the angles of the four wheels alignment bear on the mechanical
structure of the chassis. For examples:
The camber will be changed as the toe-in varied. The wheels will be turned while
adjusting the toe-in, which results the camber changing. The larger the caster is, the
more the camber changed.
The wheel setback will be changed as the caster adjusted. When the caster increases or
decreases, the upper fulcrum of the steering shaft can move forwards or backwards and
the lowest fulcrum of the steering shaft (tire) is also movable. The front wheel moves
forwards or backwards along with the caster increasing or decreasing so that the axle
setback will be altered. The turn plate must have the function of sliding forwards and
backwards in order to make the front wheel move forwards and backwards freely.
The toe-in will be changed as the camber varied and vice versa. Various suspension
structures have different ways to adjust the camber. If the upper or lower fulcrum is
moved left or right, not only the camber but also the toe-in will be changed. As a result,
even if the camber is properly adjusted, the stable driving status cannot be achieved
because of the toe-in changing. Therefore, after eliminating of malfunction, another one
will appear.
Changing the toe-in of the rear wheel influences that of each front wheels. The toe-in of
the rear wheel determines the thrust angle of the rear wheel. The method of thrust line
positioning is adopted to determine the toe-in of the front wheel in all the advanced four
wheels alignment testers.
Precaution: The front wheel must be adjusted first and then the rear wheel when
processing the four wheels alignment. The sequence of the rear wheel adjustment is the
camber first, the toe-in second and so on. And the sequence of the front wheel
adjustment is the caster first, the camber second, the toe-in third and so on.

BASIC INSPECTION BEFORE THE ALIGNMENT


Check the tire pressure, tire No. and rim No.
----Check the tire pressure and adjust it to the specified pressure
Tire inflation pressure kPa

Item Front wheel Rear wheel Spare wheel Mini spare wheel

No-load/half-load 200 220 350 420

Full-load 210 260 420 420

M-2

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----Rim and Tire
A15LHD wheel No.

Tire No. Rim No.


185/60 R1482H 6J14

Note:
The above tire-rim combination is suitable for the steel or aluminum alloy rim. Please
do not use rims and tires of other models which may lead to improper consequence.

Preaution: Be sure to consult the relevant instruction if non-standard tires or rims (such
as light weight alloy rims or wheels of winter tire)should be installed.

Positioning of the tire


Different working conditions between the front wheel and the rear wheel lead to the different
wear status, which depends mainly on the road condition, the driving custom and so on. The
front wheel wears faster than the rear one does. In order to prevent the tires from wearing in
different degrees and to prolong the service life of the tires, it is necessary to check and rotate
the tires, adjust the tire pressure, and examine the tightening degree of the wheel bolt at
interval of 5000km.

------ Utilization of the cold-resistant tire


If using the cold-resistant tire, all the four tires must be replaced at same time. Please do not
excess the top speed and must accord to the tire pressure limited by the tire manufacturer.
Precaution: Using the cold-resistant tire may affect the safety and the maneuverability
of the vehicle. Standard tires in same size and No. should be utilized. Do not use the
cold-resistant tire as long as the road condition is available.
------Snow chain

M-3

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Adjusting the snow chain of the tire should accord to the type of the road condition.
Inspection must be applied before install the snow chain. Please refer to the instruction of the
snow chain manufacturer when install the snow chain on the tire. Please remove the wheel
house before install the snow chain which may score the wheel house. Install the snow chain
firmly on the front tire. It is not recommended to fix the snow chain on the rear wheel. The
snow chain should be retightened after 0.5~1.0km driving with it.

Precaution: Using the snow chain may affect the vehicle maneuverability, so the vehicle
speed should not excess 50km/h (30mph) or the speed limited by the snow chain
manufacturer(less than 50km/h). Please stop the car and tighten the snow chain
immediately when hearing collision between the snow chain and the vehicle body or the
chassis when using the snow chain. Abrupt turning, concussion and passing the
chuckhole, the vehicle locking and braking should be avoided. The instruction of the
snow chain manufacturer should be also complied. Improper utilization of the snow
chain will cause interference between the snow chain and the vehicle body.

Installation of the tire


----Make sure that the opening of the valve is slippery and no burrs before installing the tire
valve. Then apply glycerol onto the rubber surface of the tire valve or dip it briefly in the
glycerol. Pull or press the locating ring of the tire valve with special purpose tool at the
force of 200-400N in order to make it through the hole on the wheel, which means the
installation is finished. (Suds are permitted to replace the glycerol.)
----Wipe glycerol or suds round the bead before installing the tire, and please note at the
same time:
When there is a light point mark on the rim, please aim the uniformity test mark at the point.
When there is no light point mark on the rim, please aim the dynamic balance test mark at
the position of the tire valve.
When there is no light point mark on the rim and no dynamic balance test mark but the static
balance test mark on the tire, please aim the tire valve at the static balance test mark.
The instructions for the uniformity, dynamic balance and static balance test mark of the tire
should be offered by the production department or the supplier in written form.
----Inflate the tires according to the specified pressure strictly. Please do not excess 10% of
the rated pressure during inflating. The spare tire assy is assembled at the rated pressure
of 3.5atm and is separately stored with the four tires installed on the vehicle. Please check
and adjust the tire pressure before the four wheel alignment: front wheel 2.00.2atm,
rear wheel 2.10.2atm.
----Screw the valve cap after inflating the tire and undergo the dynamic balance test. Set the
proper weight balance block onto the inside and outside brims of the rim as required. The

M-4

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final assy imbalance is expected to be less than 100gcm, approximately equal to a 5g
balance block on the inside and outside brims of the rim.
Precaution: No more than one balance block with 70g weight at most is allowed to
set on each side of a wheel. Avoid over hitting on the balance block. If that happened,
replace it immediately. Do not reuse the replaced balance block.

----During installing the wheel and the tire assy, pre-screw the wheel bolt on the rim by hand
first, and then tighten the screws with the special purpose tools under the way of diagonal
method, (the tightening torque is 10010Nm). No impact wrench is allowed in order to
avoid screwing too tight or loose. Do not use lubricating grease while installing the wheel
bolt. (The wheel bolt should be tightened to maintain the tightening torque after the initial
100km driving since the new installation of the wheel and tire assy. The check of the
tightening torque of the wheel bolt is one of the daily service items.)
----Decussating method is adopted to tighten the set nut. The tightening degrees should be
similar so that the wheels can turn freely. The wheel should stand on the ground during
the last tightening.
----Install the trim cover or place it as required. Clip trim cover should be installed into
through beating by hand or prying by rubber tools.

USUAL TROUBLES OF THE TIRE


Proper utilization of the tire
The tire is an important part of the wheel assy. Please pay attention to the following items
while using:
------The tire of the same manufacturer and the same No. should be used on the same vehicle.
------Do not install tires out of the specified types
------Make all the tires wear evenly. In order to remedy and lighten the uneven wear, besides
periodic checking and correcting the parameters of the wheel alignment, the rotation
should be also applied. The specific rotation way depends on the practical wearing status.
It is recommended to adopt the tire rotation at interval of 5000~8000km

Usual troubles of tires and trouble diagnosis


------Wear on shoulder of tire
The wear on shoulder of tire means the brim with burrs forming of the tire wears are more
badly than other parts. The theoretical reason for the wear on shoulder of tire is that the tire
rolls at the limit lateral runout angle.
Main reason: Frequently steering at high speed, improper adjusting the toe-in and the camber,
or often driving on the vaulted or zigzag road.

M-5

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Maintenance: Adjusting the positioning angle of the front wheel
------Wear on center of tire
The wear on center of tire means the abnormal wear on the center surface of the tire. The
theoretical reason for this kind of wear is that the diameter elongation at the center of the tire
surface is larger than that on the shoulder of the tire.
Main reason: Overhigh tire pressure
Maintenance: Readjusting the tire pressure to make it within the range of the specified value.
------Serrated wear
The serrated wear means the wear on the surface of the tire strip in ladder shape. The
theoretical reason for this kind of wear is the uneven deformation of the tread pattern of the
tire contact patch.
Main reason: The toe-in and the camber are not conformed to the specified value
Maintenance: Adjusting the toe-in and the camber to make it within the specified value.
Checking the tire pressure is within the specified range.
------Initial severe wear somewhere on the tire
The initial severe wear is the severe wear on the tread pattern of tire contact patch due to the
wheel locking while emergent braking.
Main reason: Vehicle speed while emergent braking, road conditions, wheel load and the
braking intensity
Maintenance: Avoiding emergent braking and taking precautionary measure as early as
possible
------Nick and crack on the sidewall of tire
The main reason is the sharp things on the road or the little stones, nails and metal flakes
embedded into the tread slot.
------Initial wear on half round of the tire or wear in different places of the shoulders on
both sides
The main reason is the gyration part is in unbalanced state, or the tire and wheel are eccentric,
or the bearing is worn or loose and so on. The eccentricity or bend of the rim or the steering
knuckle may also cause the wear.
Troubleshooting Guide

Trouble Possible causes Solutions


Serious wear of tire Improper tire pressure Adjust
Tire noise Improper tire pressure Adjust

M-6
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Degradation of tire Replace
Adjust
Insufficient tire pressure
Adjust
Road noise or Unbalance of tire
vehicle vibration Repair or
Deformation of rim or tire
Replace
Uneven wear of tire
--
Overbeating of tire and rim
Replace
Looseness of wheel nut
Lock
Up-and-down Unbalance of tire
shaking of steering Adjust
Breach or wear of engine bearing
wheel
pad Replace
Breach or wear of transmission Replace
bracket rubber
Overbeating of tire and rim
Replace
Looseness of wheel bolt
Lock
Unbalance of tire
Adjust
Uneven wear of tire
Circular vibration of --
steering wheel Insufficient tire pressure
Adjust
Damage or wear of front wheel
Replace
bearing
--
Malfunction of steering system
--
Malfunction of suspension system
Improper tire pressure Adjust
Serious or uneven wear of tire --
One side deflection
Malfunction of steering system --
of steering wheel
Malfunction of braking system --
Malfunction of suspension system --
Uneven tire pressure of both sides Adjust
Deformation of rim or tire Repair or
Unstable running
Looseness of wheel bolt Replace

Malfunction of steering system Lock

M-7
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Malfunction of suspension system --
--

One side deflection Uneven tire pressure of both sides Adjust


of braking Malfunction of braking system --
Insufficient tire pressure Adjust
Heavily steering of
Malfunction of steering system --
steering wheel
Malfunction of suspension system --
Insufficient tire pressure Adjust
Improper
returnability of Malfunction of steering system --
steering wheel
Malfunction of suspension system --

Check whether the connection of the transmission rod of steering system is loose,
deformed, etc.
Check the status of the ball joint and the rubber bush of front and rear suspension
Check whether the shock absorber works normally
------Check whether the shock absorber leaks grease
------Check whether the bush wears out
------Check whether the shock absorber is improper through shaking the vehicle body up and
down by pressing the foreside and the tail of the vehicle
Pre-check before wheel alignment
------Check the status of the tire inflation. Adjust to the recommended pressure if necessary.
------Check the clearance of the front wheel bearing. Adjust it if necessary.
------Check the flop of the vehicle and the tire.
------Check whether the ball joint and the steering linkage are too loose.
------Check the shock absorber by shaking the vehicle.
Note:
The vehicle must be on the level ground with no-load.
No-load: Full gasoline in the oil reservoir, engine coolant and the oil filled at the specified
level; the spare tire, jack and tools in the pointed position.

M-8

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------Measure the height from the wheel center to the mudguard edge. The measured
difference from left and right should be not more than 10mm.

ALIGNMENT OF THE REAR WHEEL

It is recommended to utilize the four-wheel alignment tester with thrust line positioning
method on this type of chassis.
Note: thrust line positioning is defined as adjusting the front wheel toe-in based on the
rear wheel thrust line.
With the thrust line positioning, the adjustment of the rear wheel toe-in will influence the
single front wheel toe-in, so during four-wheel alignment, the rear wheel should be adjusted
before the front wheel alignment.
Measure the vehicle height
------Rear measure point
From ground to the center of the joint bolt of
the rear axle and the body (as the arrow
shows)
Precaution: Check whether the height from
left and right are same before processing
the wheel alignment
------If there is a difference of the heights from
left and right, that means there are
damaged or deformed components of the
front and rear suspension.
Install the wheel alignment tester on wheel
------Please refer to the specific instruction of
manufacturer for the wheel alignment
tester.

M-9

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Check the caster
Inspection angle Value
Rear wheel caster -13010

Note: The rear wheel caster cannot be adjusted. If there is abnormal wear on the tire of
the rear wheel, so check whether there are worn or deformed parts on the rear
suspension
Check the rear wheel toe-in

Car No. Chery A15LHD


Rear wheel toe-in 2010

Note: The rear wheel toe-in out of standard range may lead to wear on shoulder of
tire on both sides. If the differences of the rear wheel toe-in both rear wheel are too
much, the vehicle running direction may be affected. Therefore the rear wheel toe-in
is a vital parameter of the alignment angles.

ALIGNMENT OF THE FRONT WHEEL


------Install the wheel alignment tester on the wheel
Please refer to the specific instruction of manufacturer.
------Check and adjust the wheel camber and the kingpin caster of the front wheel
according to the standard

Angle Value
Front wheel camber -3020
Kingpin caster 13030
Note: Adjust the caster before the camber

Kingpin caster
There is no need to adjust the kingpin caster for it is assured by the structure of design

M-10

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Influence of caster
The main function of the caster is to keep the vehicle running straight forward. If the caster is
positive, the inside of the vehicle descends and the chassis ascends which increase the
steering knuckle load when the front wheel turns. If the casters of two wheels are same, the
vehicle will return forward after turning. Increasing the positive caster angle will enhance
stability of the steering wheel while the steering force will be increased at the same time.
Decreasing the positive caster may reduce stability of the steering wheel but lightens the
steering force.
The angle of the caster could not make the wear on tire. It is used to stabilize the steering
direction and to return automatically after steering. If the vehicle is equipped with a
traditional manual steering wheel, the caster is small or even tends to negative, which makes
the steering easy. If the vehicle is equipped with a power steering wheel, the caster is usually
set to be large positive in order to offer the driver a better feeling. Increasing the positive
caster will increase the steering force but enhances the stability of straight running.

Adjust the camber

Under normal condition, there is no need to


adjust the camber after assembling the
independent suspension and the wheel
steering knuckle. Use the joint bolt of the
independent suspension and the steering
knuckle to calibrate the wheel camber if the
camber is out of the tolerance range for other
reasons.
----Check (visual inspection) whether there
are damaged parts in the steering system
and replace the damaged ones before the
calibration.
----If the front wheel camber is out of the
tolerance, loosen the joint bolt of the
front shock absorber and the steering
knuckle and move the wheel to calibrate.

----For the further calibration, use the


substitute bolt to adjust the wheel
camber. Replace the M12 bolt with the
M11 bolt. The camber is allowed to be
adjusted within about 1 shown as the
illustration

M-11

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----The connection between the lower
control arm of the suspension and the
steering knuckle is clearance fit.
Loosen the joint bolt, move the wheel
and adjust the camber.

Check the front wheel toe-in


Toe-in (general)

Car No. Chery A15LHD


Front wheel toe-in 010

Tightening torque of toe-in: 555Nm.


Adjust the toe-in
Optical tester or mechanical toe-in adjuster can be used to adjust the toe-in.
----According to the testers requirement, make the wheel alignment well before the
adjustment;
----Loosen the lock nut and the elastic cover snap ring of the right steering tie rod, and
then screw the toe-in adjusting rod till the length of the rod reaches the specified
value.
----Tighten the lock nut and reinstall the elastic cover snap ring. Check whether the lock
nut is tightened enough and cover is in the correct position.
----After adjusting the front wheel toe-in, check whether the steering wheel is level. If not,
loosen the lock nut of steering wheel, and then adjust to the level position. The
tightening torque of the steering wheel lock nut is 555Nm as required.

M-12

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FRONT SUSPENSION

The functions of axle and suspension system include receiving the torque generated by
engine and passed via transmission system; producing the traction force between the road
surface and the vehicle body through the adhesive force between the driving wheel and the
ground in order to keep the whole vehicle steering normally; passing and bearing the
counterforce on the wheel from different directions and relieving the impact and shake from
the road to the vehicle body in order to ensure the stability and maneuverability of the whole
vehicle. The front suspension is composed of the sub-frame, lateral stabilizer bar, control arm
and etc.

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT SUSPENSION

----Loosen the opening of the joint bracket of


the front shock absorber assy and clip it
to the bolt of the steering knuckle
arm(tightening the lock nut to 80Nm),
(shown as the picture)

----Remove the joint bolt of the control arm


assy and the front steering knuckle with
braker, and then release the front control
arm assy.
Inspection of the control arm: check the
situations of the damage crack and bend.

----Loosen the four bolts amounted on the


sub-frame of the steering gear with tie rod
assy (the specified tightening torque is
30Nm). (shown as the picture)

M-13

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----Suspend the engine and transmission assy,
loosen the bolts at the two supporting
points from the engine and transmission
to the sub-frame.

Caution: The removal process is extremely


dangerous which could cause serious
damage or even death. Please make sure the
power assy is well fixed.

----Loosen the lock nut of the left-right


steering tie rod and the steering knuckle
arm, knock from one side to pry the ball
joint out of the steering knuckle arm (The
tightening torque is specified as 353
Nm).

----Stand the front sub-frame by jack and


loosen the four long-short bolts of the left
-right sub-frame with the cross beam.
(The tightening torque is specified as
13010 Nm).

Caution: The removal of the cross beam is


extremely dangerous. The drop of cross
beam components could cause serious
damage or even death. Please make sure
that the jack has supported fully the cross
beam components before the removal.

M-14

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OVERHAUL OF THE FRONT SUSPENSION
Installation of the front axle

Cherry adopts the divided steering drive axle as


the front axle. The suspension is the model of
shock absorber (also called MacPherson)
independent suspension. The front suspension
of A15RHD model has the functions of both
driving and steering. The top of the suspension
is connected with the vehicle body while the
bottom with the steering knuckle. The wheel
camber is adjusted through the joint bolt of the
suspension the steering knuckle. The sub-frame
enhances the stability and comfortability of the
vehicle through the connection of the control
arm ball pin and the hinge by adopting the
elastic components. Illustration. The installation of the
front strut assy
1-front shock absorber assy
Overhaul of the front suspension 2-front dust cover
----When overhaul the front suspension, please 3-front bumper block4-slotted nut
do not weld or remodel the support and 40Nm
guide devices of the front suspension. 5-bearing and vibration isolator assy
----Use the special purpose tools to remove the 6-front spring top tray
joint bolts or nuts. Make sure the 7-washer 8-front coil spring
tightening torque fits the specified value.
----When install the sub-frame to the vehicle
body, the sequence of tightening the joint
bolts is the rear left bolt, the rear right
bolt, the front left bolt and the front right
bolt last.
----Check the position of steering wheel and
measure the data of front wheel
alignment after installation.
Overhaul of front shock absorber assy
----Structure of the front shock absorber
(shown as the illustration)

M-15

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Removal of the front shock absorber assy
Precaution: Before the procedure below, the
careless pull may lead the disconnection of
the harness if the ABS vehicle speed sensor is
not removed first. Therefore, before the
following procedure, remove the ABS vehicle
speed sensor (the axle side) first and fix it in
a proper position in order to keep the sensor
untouched during the vehicle maintaining.
----Remove the wheel. Then loosen the joint
bolt of the propeller shaft and the brake
disc.
----Use the special socket wrench to remove the
joint bolt of the shock absorber strut and
the steering knuckle arm. (shown as the
illustration)
----Use special purpose tools to remove and
install the shock absorber coil spring.
(shown as the illustration) During the
removal, push down the vibration isolator
assy of the coil spring by puller first,
compress the coil spring, and then loosen
the piston rod nut to release the tension of
the coil spring.
Caution: The removal of the piston rod nut is Illustration. The installation of front
extremely dangerous, because the shock strut assy
absorber and the spring will burst out under 1-Front shock absorber assy
tremendous pressure which could cause 2-Front dust cover
injury or even death. Please make sure the 3-Front bumper block
shock absorber is fixed properly before the 4-Slotted nut 40Nm
removal of the piston rod nut. 5-Bearing and vibration isolator assy
6-Front spring top tray
7-Washer 8-Front coil spring
Installation of the front shock absorber
(refer to the installation illustration of the
front strut assy)
----Assemble the front cover dust 2 with the
front bumper block 3, and then cover them
onto the piston rod of the front shock
absorber 1.

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----Set on the front coil spring 8 and compress it
less than 200~220mm.

----Amount the washer 7, the front spring top


tray 6, the bearing and vibration isolator
assy 5 in sequence, and tighten the slotted
nut 4 to the specified torque (40Nm), then
loosen the compressing tools on the coil
spring.
Precaution: Please note that the two ends of the
front coil spring should reach the corresponding
locating positions of the spring trays.
Inspection of the shock absorber: The
methods for checking the shock absorber are
as following:
----Method of hand pressing the vehicle body.
Shake the vehicle body for times on the
side of the shock absorber which required
to be checked and feel whether it is
available. After the pressing, the vehicle
will shake 2-3 times and then stop, which
means the shock absorber works well.
----Method of observation. The shock absorber
should not leak oil at outside appearance.
A little oil stain is normal. If there is
serious leakage, the shock absorber should
be replaced.
----Method of touch. After long time running,
touch the exterior of the shock absorber to
check whether it is hot. If not hot, the
shock absorber is in trouble.
----Method of pulling and pressing. Place the
piston rod of the shock absorber upwards,
then pull and press it by hand for times and
check:
a whether there is a force during pulling and
pressing which means the force is large
while pulling up and small while pressing
down.
b whether there is idle stoke during pulling and

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pressing which means there is a force in
lower part and not abruptly in upper part
while pulling; there is a force in lower part
and not in upper part while pressing.
c whether the shock absorber is locked and
unable to pull.
d whether the piston rod of shock absorber is
severely loose.
Note: The above phenomenons indicate the
failures of the shock absorber.
Deal with the front shock absorber
Caution:
Whenever drilling on the shock absorber,
please wear the goggles. The air pressure
in the shock absorber could probably blow
the metal flakes into eyes or face.
----Clamp the shock absorber on flat ground or
point the piston downwards to the clamped
absorber.
----Drill a hole of 2-3mm diameter at a distance
of 20-30mm to the bottom of the tube in
order to emit the air of the tube.
----Turn the shock absorber to make the hole
downwards.
----Move the piston rod up and down for times
to concentrate the oil, then cut the tube at
the end.
----Process the waste oil according to the waste
disposal method.
Note:
The shock absorber air is nitrogen.
The shock absorber oil is mineral oil.

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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE FRONT WHEEL BEARING
Removal:
----Remove the front brake disc and the dust
plate, and then extrude the hub.
----Remove the spring retainer of both sides and
extrude the wheel bearing. (shown as the
illustration)
----Pull out the bearing inner race. Use the puller
with hoop to pull the wheel bearing inner
race out of the wheel hub. (shown as the
illustration)
Inspection:
----After all the components are disassembled,
please clean and check them, and replace
them with new ones if necessary.
----If the working surface of the brake disc wears
severely beyond the specified value (wearing
limit: 10.0mm), please replace it with a new
one.
Caution: Do not exceed the wearing limit.
----If the dust plate is severely deformed, please
replace it with a new one.
----If the hub spline wears severely and looses,
please replace it with a new one.
----If the spring retainer is not available, please
replace it with a new one.
----If the wheel bearing is damaged, please
replace it with a new one.
Installation and adjustment
----Set the outer spring retainer first, apply the
lubricating grease onto the wheel bearing
holder and then press the bearing down to the
limit position, as shown in the illustration,
and fix the inner spring retainer last.
----Adjust the split positions of the inner and
outer spring retainer so as to make their
difference 180. Then rotate the bearing inner

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race and observe whether it runs normally.
----Apply the lubricating grease on the hub spline
and the bearing neck, and then press the hub
into the bearing.

----Tighten three M6 bolts to fix the dust plate


with the tightening torque of 10Nm.
----Use the fuzz-free cloth to clean the working
surface of the brake disc. If there is oil stain
on the surface, clean it with ethanol. And
then install the brake disc.
----Rotate the brake disc and observe whether
there is lock or abnormal noise.

OVERHAUL OF THE LOWER CONTROL


ARM
Check the status of damage, crack and bend of
the control arm.
Replace the ball joint and the rubber cover of the
lower control arm if they loose or wear.

Replace the front housing of the lower control


arm
----Press out the front housing of the lower
control arm. (shown as the illustration)
----Apply the lubricating grease before installing
the front housing of the lower control arm.
----Press in the front housing of the control arm.
(shown as the illustration)

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Replace the rear housing of the lower control
arm
----When pressing out the rear housing of the
lower control arm, if the elastic housing
locks due to rust, please cut away the rubber
on outer circle, saw off the steel cover, and
then press out the elastic housing. (shown as
illustration)
----The installing position of the elastic housing
of control arm is shown as the illustration.
The arrow B or C points at the upper pit on
the lower control arm, and the kidney-shaped
interspace on the housing (arrow A) points to
the vehicle center.
----Use the special purpose tools to press in the
rear housing of the control arm.

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REAR AXLE AND REAR SUSPENSION
Longitudinal bracket rear axle and rigid axle suspension are employed in Chery. The wheels
on both sides are connected with the vehicle body by an integrated rear axle. The metal
rubber holder for the rear axle is a type of holder which the trace is adjustable. It is almost
the rigid connection in longitude and can only deform in lateral which ensures that the rear
axle cannot turn in axial direction. Therefore, the rear axle processes the function of
preferable control of the vehicle stability at high speed.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE REAR AXLE ASSY

Illustration. Rear axle assy


1. Rear axle welding assy 2. Metal rubber holder 3.Rear brake hose
4. Hand brake cable clip 5. Left brake pipe assy of rear axle 6.Hand brake cable
7. Braker 8. Brake drum 9. Tire set bolt (110 Nm)
10. Rear axle bracket 11. Nut (60 Nm) 12. Bolt (70 Nm)

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Installation of the rear axle assy:
----Installation of the metal rubber holder:
press the metal rubber bush 2 into the
axle body, and apply pressure till the
edge of metal rubber bush reaches the
solid axle.
----Use the bolt for hole 13 of the metal
rubber holder to connect the two rear axle
brackets. The standard tightening torque
of the nut is 60 Nm; (shown as the
picture)

----Install the braker, the brake drum and the


axle shaft well;

----Connect the left and the right brake pipe


assy of the rear axle with the left and the
right braker assy respectively, and then
use the pipeline clip to fix them on the
rear axle. Meanwhile, maintain the
connection between the reed and the rear
brake hose by the rear axle bracket. The
tightening torque is 13-19 Nm; (shown
as the picture)

----Use the clip and the brake cable clip set on


the rear axle to fix the hand brake cable.
(shown as the picture)

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Precaution: Before the procedure below, the
careless pull may lead the disconnection of the
harness if the ABS vehicle speed sensor is not
removed first. Therefore, before the following
procedure, remove the ABS vehicle speed
sensor (the axle side) first and fix it in a
proper position in order to keep the sensor
untouched during the vehicle maintaining.

Caution: The removal of the rear axle is


extremely dangerous. The drop of the rear
axle could cause severe damage or even death.
Please make sure that the jack has supported
fully the rear axle before the removal.

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REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE REAR SHOCK ABSORBER ASSY

The structure of rear shock absorber assy is shown as the illustration:

Illustration. Rear shock absorber assy


1 Hexagon thin nut 15Nm 2 Rear strut upper cover 3 Belleville washer
4 Hexagon thin nut 15Nm 5 Rubber bearing block II 6 Bearing sleeve
7 Rear spring upper holder 8 Locating ring 9 Rear spring upper soft pad
10 Rear bumper block 11 Dust cover 12 Valve cap 13 Rear shock absorber assy
14 Rear coil spring 15 Rear spring bottom tray 16 Bottom tray bearing pad
17 Bowl washer 18 Rubber bearing block I 19 Support disc 20 Hexagon thin nut
25Nm 21 Bolt 22 Nut 70 Nm

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Precaution: Before the procedure below, the
careless pull may lead the disconnection of
the harness if the ABS vehicle speed sensor
is not removed first. Therefore, before the
following procedure, remove the ABS
vehicle speed sensor (the axle side) first and
fix it in a proper position in order to keep the
sensor untouched during the vehicle
maintaining.
Assemblage of the rear shock absorber
(refer to the illustration of the rear shock
absorber assy)
----Cover the rear spring bottom tray 15 onto Installation position of the spring holder
the rear shock absorber assy 13, fix it on
the rear shock absorber with the pressure
of 9.5~10kN, and then set the bottom
tray bearing pad with the pressure of
2~3kN.
----Cover the rear coil spring 14 and the valve
cap 12 onto the piston rod of the rear
shock absorber in sequence, and then set
into the rear bumper block 10 and the dust
cover 11 which have been assembled
together;
----Press the rear coil spring 14 to
280~300mm, and then fix the locating
ring 8, the rear spring upper soft pad 9,
the rear spring upper holder 7, the
bearing sleeve 6, and the rubber bearing
block II 5. Tighten the hexagon thin nut 4
to the specified torque (15Nm);
Installation of the shock absorber spring
----As the illustration shows, aperture a must
aim at the bush of the connecting sleeve
2 when install the rear spring bottom tray,
otherwise the spring tray 1 would hit the
tire under extreme steering condition.
----As the illustration shows, please pay
attention to the installation position of
the rear spring upper soft pad.
Installation of the rear shock absorber Installation position of the spring bottom
assy (refer to the illustration of the rear tray
shock absorber assy)

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----Install upward the rear shock absorber assy
from the vehicle body bottom and extend
the piston rod into the carriage through the
rear shock absorber holder;
----Inside the carriage, cover bowl washer 17,
rubber bearing block 18 and support disc
19 onto the piston rod in sequence, and
then tighten the hexagon nut 20 with
tightening torque of 20Nm. (shown as
the assy picture above)

----Lift the vehicle, and then put the


connecting sleeve of the rear shock
absorber into the corresponding
installation position on the rear axle assy
and then tighten the bolt 21 and the nut
22 with the specified torque (707Nm)
----Fix the tire, ground the vehicle and
tighten the hexagon thin nut 20 with the
specified torque (25 Nm)
----Fix the belleville washer 3 and tighten the
hexagon thin nut 1 with the specified
torque (15 Nm)

----Fix the rear shock absorber upper cover 2,


in order to keep away from the dust and
dirt which could lead to abnormal wear on
the piston rod. (shown as the picture)

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OVERHAUL OF THE FRONT AND REAR AXLE

Trouble Causes Solutions


1. Different tire pressure of both
sides
2. Half way releasing of front
1. Adjust
braker
2. Overhaul, adjust
3. Invalidation of front spring or
3. Replace
housing
Deflecting of 4. Check, adjust
4. Inaccurate alignment of front
vehicle running 5. Replace
wheel
6. Check and replace the
5. Invalidation of shock absorber
damaged bushes
6. Invalidation of metal rubber
7. Replace or align
bushes of suspension
7. Deformation of vehicle chassis,
frame or control arm
1. Inaccurate alignment of wheel
2. Serious wear or loose of metal
1. Check, adjust
bushes of suspension system
Abnormal wear 2. Replace
3. Looseness of steering link ball
on tire 3. Replace
joint
4. Replace
4. Looseness of front wheel
bearing
1. Low or different tire pressure
2. Inaccurate alignment of front
1. Adjust tire pressure
wheel
2. Check, adjust
3. Invalidation of stabilizer bar
Oscillation of 3. Replace
4. Unbalance of wheels
vehicle 4. Balance
5. Looseness of hub bearing
5. Adjust
6. Improper adjustment of steering
6. Adjust
gear or serious wear of
components
1. Too small tightening torque of
chassis sub-frame bolt 1. Tighten according to the
2. Looseness of rear axle bracket specified torque
Abnormal noise
3. Abnormal noise of front and 2. Tighten
of chassis
rear shock absorber 3. Check, replace
4. Looseness of rear axle rubber 4. Check, tighten
hinge bolt looses

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STEERING SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION OF STEERING SYSTEM N-2

INTRODUCTION OF STRUCTURE N-2

WORKING PRINCIPLE N-3

INTRODUCTION OF PERFORMANCE N-4

REMOVAL/INSTALLATION OF STEERING COLUMN N-5

REMOVAL/INSTALLATION AND CHECK OF STEERING GEAR N-6

REMOVAL/INSTALLATION AND REPAIR OF MAIN BODY OF STEERING


GEAR N-7

CHECK OF STEERING SYSTEM N-18

REGULAR INSPECTION N-18

CHECK OF THE SEAL OF POWER STEERING SYSTEM N-19

CHECK AND REPLACEMENT OF THE HYDRAULIC POWER OIL N-20

EXHUAST OF THE STEERING HYDRALIC SYSTEM N-20

CHECK OF THE OUTPUT PRESSURE OF POWER STEERING PUMP N-21

CHECK OF THE TENSION OF THE BELT N-21

DIAGNOSIS AND TROUBLESHOOTING OF POWER STEERING SYSTEM N-22

PRECAUTION OF STEERING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE N-26

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INTRODUCTION OF STEERING SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION OF STRUCTURE
The structure of the Power Steering System is shown as Figure 1:

Steering Oil Reservoir


Steering Oil Pump
Steering Hose

Power Steering Gear

Figure 1

The rack & pinion power steering gear is composed of three sections: control valve,
mechanical steering gear and servo cylinder. The control valve is widely utilized overseas due
to its advanced structure and high sensitivity. The mechanical steering gear is rack & pinion
pattern.
Contr ol Valve
The control valve is a normally open rotary valve and consisted of: torsion bar1, input shaft
2, valve bush 3 and other components. The hydraulic oil flows into the left and right oil
chambers through the pre-opened clearance of the input shaft 2 and the valve bush 3. The
structure is shown as Figure 2.
Mechanical Steering Mechanism
The mechanical steering mechanism is rack & pinion pattern and composed of three
sections: pinion shaft, steering rack piston assy and steering link.
Servo Cylinder
The servo cylinder has metallic hull, which is divided into right and left oil chambers by the
inner rack piston and connected with the two oil inlets of control valve.

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1. Torsion Bar
2. Input Shaft
3. Valve Bush
Figure 2

To Left Chamber

Oil Inlet Return oil inlet


To Right Chamber

WORKING PRINCIPLE
Middle Position
When the vehicle moves straight (the steering wheel does not turn), the hydraulic oil
which is supplied by the oil pump enters the oil inlet through the pre-opened
clearance of the rotary valve. As the rotary valve keeps immovable, the hydraulic oil
flows back to the oil reservoir from the return oil inlet. No power is produced
because the oil pressures of the two chambers of the steering gear are same.
Steering Process
When the steering wheel turns, the clearance of the valve spool between the valve
bush and the input shaft will be changed, so the hydraulic oil which flows to the two
oil chambers forms the oil pressure difference. This difference acts on the piston and
pushes it to overcome the steering resistance and make movements. Therefore, the
steering link assy is moved to realize power steering.
Return Process
Once the steering is completed, the force on the steering wheel will disappear. As the
effect of the torsion bar elasticity, the input shaft returns to the relative balance
position of the valve bush and the oil pressure difference between the two oil
chambers of the steering gear follows to disappear. And then the vehicle will convert
to straight-line motion by the effect of the vehicle self aligning torque of the front
wheels until it enters the straight-line position.
Road Sense Effect
The road sense effect is also called the ability of feeling steering. The driver applies
the force on the steering wheel, which also act on the torsion bar of the steering gear
and makes it deform. The amount of deformation which increases as the steering
resistance grows, depends on the wheel steering resistance. Therefore, the driver can
judge the variation of the steering resistance by the force applied on the steering
wheel to obtain the road sense effect.

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INTRODUCTION OF PERFORMANCE
The steering force of the steering wheel can be decreased. Power can be felt obviously,
especially when the vehicle turns on spot or turns with great corner at low-speed.
The steering sensitivity is enhanced.
The impact of kickback from ground on the steering wheel is reduced.
In the case of tire burst, the sudden turning of the wheels can be effectively avoided. So the
security of driving can be improved.
The load on the steering wheel is permitted to increase, which can improve the freedom
motion of the general arrangement.

The power steering gear of the steering system of A15LHD is a standard feature, and the
mechanical steering gear is optional.
In fact, the power steering gear of A15LHD is based on the mechanical rack & pinion
steering gear and enhanced with a set of power mechanism which is composed of the engine
used as energy sources, the steering oil pump, the steering control valve, the power oil
cylinder and other components. Under the working condition, the power of the engine drives
the steering oil pump through the ribbed belt. The power steering fluid (ATF oil) is suck out
from the oil reservoir by the steering oil pump and formed pressure oil to get into the control
valve. After distributed by the control valve, the pressure oil enters the power cylinder to
push the working piston which is connected with one end of the steering rack. So the steering
power can be formed by the pressure oil through the working piston.
If the power steering system is in failure, the steering of the vehicle can be also completed by
the driver.
The optional mechanical steering gear is a rack & pinion steering gear which the power
source is the physical force (strength of the hand) of the driver. All the dynamic components
are mechanical.

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REMOVAL/INSTALLATION OF STEERING COLUMN
Removal and Installation of the Steering
Column
The inner spline of the steering gear is
Remove the nuts on the steering wheel
shown as the picture below:
Remove the upper and lower protector of the
instrument cluster and the switch
Remove the instrument panel assy. (Please refer
to the removal of the instrument panel)
Remove the joint bolt of the upper steering
column bracket and the car body upper bracket.
Grind away the safety screw and replace with a
new one when installing.
Remove the joint bolt between the steering gear
and the steering column (tightening torque:
30Nm)
Install the steering column inversely according
to the removal steps.
Removal and Installation of Steering Shaft and Steering Tube
Remove the clip.
Take off the serrated set bush and the steering gear lock housing from the steering column
Draw out the steering shaft and press the lower bearing of the steering column out with a
presser.
Disassemble the lock housing spring of the bracket ring steering shaft with a presser.
Assemble the steering column inversely according to the removal steps.
Precaution
Apply a little grease around the lower bearing and the inner wall of the steering hose
column lower end, press the lower bearing into the steering hose column using a
presser.(Do not move the upper and lower universal joint of the guard column)
Adjust the relative height of the lock housing and the hose column according to the height
of the pre-installed ignition lock cylinder and the combined switch cover.
Apply lithium base grease evenly around the contact ring.

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Disassembling Illustration of the Steering Column

20

1- Horn Button Cap 2-Nut40Nm 3- Spring Washer; 4-Steering Wheel


5- Serrated Set Bush; 6-Spring 7-Lower Trim Cover 8- Upper Trim Cover
9- Steering Gear Lock Housing and Steering Column Switch 10- Support ring
11-Steering Shaft 12-Nut30Nm 13- Steering Universal Joint
14- Hex Bolt 15-Spring 16- Steering Column Lower Bearing
17-Safty Screw 18-Washer 19-Steering Tube 20- Clip

REMOVAL/INSTALLATION AND CHECK OF STEERING GEAR


Lift the whole vehicle at a designated safe Two bolts on one side of the steering gear are
place with a lifter shown as the picture below. Tightening
torque: 303Nm.
Remove the high and low pressure oil tube
of the steering gear with torques of 453Nm
and 303Nm respectively.
Remove the joint piece of the steering link
Remove the shift shaft bracket
Remove the front tube and the three way
catalytic converter with torques of 603Nm

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and 253Nm respectively.
Remove the four bolts of the steering gear.
Remove the fixing bracket of the steering
gear and the rubber hose.
Install the steering column in the reverse
order of the removal.

Note: The right picture shows the status of


the power steering oil tube of the steering
gear removed.
The tightening torque for the hollow bolt
which connects the high pressure oil tube
and the power steering pump is 453Nm.

REMOVAL/INSTALLATION AND REPAIR OF MAIN BODY OF

STEERING GEAR
Exploded view of the rack & pinion power steering gear
Code Description Quantity
1. Left pull rod outboard joint assy 1
2. Right pull rod outboard joint assy 1
3. Hexagon nut 2
4. Clamp 2
5. Rack shield 2
6. Single ear no-level clamp 2
7. Inner ball joint 2
8. Seal ring 4
9. Dust cover 1
10. Snap ring for hole 1
11. Oil seal 1
12. Bearing 1
13. Valve core assy 1
14. Bearing 1
15. Oil seal 1
16. Conical connector 2
17. Hull oil cylinder assy 1

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18. Conical connector 2
19. Left oil tube assy 1
20. Lock nut 1
21. Adjusting plug 1
22. Spring 1
23. Rack holder 1
24. Hexagon flange bolt 1
25. Bearing 1
26. Plug cap 1
27. Right oil tube assy 1
28. O rubber ring 2
29. Washer 2
30. Oil seal 2
31. Steering rack piston assy 1
32. Piston ring 1
33. O rubber ring 1
34. Housing 1
35. Stop collar 1
36. Wire stopper 1

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Removal and Dismantling of Steering Gear
Repair and adjust after the removal of the steering gear
Tightening Torque for the Fastener Set Components Shown as the table below

Tightening Torque
Description Specification Quantity
N.m
Hexagon flange bolt Q1840812 1 20~30
Plug cap M30X1.5 1 35~45
Lock nut M32X1.5 1 40~50
Oil tube connector bolt M12X1 2 15~25
Inner ball joint-rack M12X1 2 70~90
Hexagon nut - outboard joint M14X1.5 2 4.9~9.8

Fix the steering GearRefer to Illustration 5


Fix the steering gear on the vises and keep the
input shaft flatly. Take off plug cap of the oil
inlet and the outlet to discharge the oil. Rotate
the input shaft for several times to discharge the
oil from the steering gear.

Illustration 5

Remove the left and right steering link assy


(Refer to Illustration 6)
Loosen the lock nut 3 of the left and right
steering link assy, and then remove the
outboard joint assy 1 and 2
Illustration 6

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Remove the left and right protector (Refer to
Illustration 7)
Remove the single ear no-level clip 6, then
the clamp 4 and take off the protector 5.

Illustration 7

Remove the left and right oil tube assyRefer


to Illustration 8
Loosen the joint nuts of the left oil tube assy
19 and right oil tube assy 27, and then remove
the left and the right oil tube assy.

Illustration 8

Remove the inner ball joint Refer to


Illustration 9
Lock the rack with an open-end assistant, and
screw up the inner ball joint assy 7 with another
assistant.

Illustration 9

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Remove the support device of the rack
Refer to Illustration 10
Screw down the lock nut 20 with an special
purpose spanner first, then the adjusting plug 21,
and remove the spring 22 and the rack holder 23
in sequence..

Illustration 10

Remove the valve core assy Refer to


Illustration 11
Clamp the hull oil cylinder assy 17 which is
used to fix the valve core assy on the bench
vises and the upper limiting plug of the rack
end. Remove the hexagon flange bolt 23 and
the plug cap 26 of the valve core tail with a
special purpose tool. Then remove the valve
core assy 13. Cover the protector on the pinion
shaft spline, and take off the oil seal 11 and the
Illustration 11 bearing 12(Do not damage the lip of the oil
seal)

Remove the stop collar assy Refer to


Illustration 12
Remove the round wire snap ring 36 with a
wire caliper, then the stop collar 35 and the O
rubber ring 28

Illustration 12

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Remove the rack assy Refer to Illustration
13
Press the rack assy 31out with a special
purpose tool.

Illustration 13

Check and Replacement of the Components of the Steering Mechanism


Check the steering rack piston assyRefer to
Illustration 14
Check(1)Inspect the stagger of the rack 31 of
the rack piston assy, which the maximum value
is 0.15mm. Examine if there is flake or
indention on the rack surface and crack or
damage on the working surface. Check if there
is wear or damage on the back surface. Replace
the rack piston assy, if necessary. Check the
damage of the piston ring 32 and the O rubber
ring 33 of the piston. Replace both, if necessary.
Illustration 14 Remove the piston ring 32 and O rubber ring 33
with a screwdriver.
PrecautionDo not damage the rack 31. Apply the power steering oil on the new O
rubber ring 33, and then install it. Enlarge the piston 30 with finger.
PrecautionDo not enlarge the piston ring excessively. Install the new piston ring 32 on
the piston of the rack piston, apply power steering oil on it, press it tightly with finger.
Check the bearing of the rack hull assy
Refer to Illustration 15
Check (2) Examine if there is indention or
damage on the lower bearing 25 of the hull oil
reservoir assy 17 and if it can rotate freely.
Replace it, if necessary. Apply the white special
grease on the installation position of the bearing
when install a new one.
Illustration 15

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Check the oil seal of the stop collar assy.
Refer to Illustration 16
Check (3): Inspect if there is flake or indention
on the working surface of the oil seal 30 of the
stop collar assy and damage on the lip. Examine
if there is scratch on the inner surface of the
housing 34 and damage on the O rubber ring 28.
Illustration 16
Replace the oil seal, housing or O rubber ring, if
necessary. Apply the white special grease on the
inner and outer surface when install a new one.

Check (4): Inspect if there is crack, damage,


flake or deformation on the rack surface of the
pinion shaft of the valve core assy 13. Replace
the valve core, if necessary. Examine if there is
damage on the seal ring 8 of the valve core assy.
Replace with a new one, if necessary. Remove the
seal ring with a screwdriver when replace.
Precaution: Do not damage the valve bush.
Enlarge the new seal ring with a special
purpose tool and install the enlarged one on
the valve bush of the valve core assy and then
Illustration 17 shape it with a set sleeve.
Valve core assy

Check the conical connectors which are


connected with the hull assy (Refer to
Illustration 18)
Check (5): Inspect if there is scratch or damage
on the surface of the conical connectors 16 and 18
which are connected with the hull and the oil
Illustration 18 reservoir connectors. Replace with a new one, if
necessary. When replace, remove the conical
connector with a special purpose tool and beat
lightly a new one with a plastic hammer.

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Assemblage of the Steering Mechanism
Preparation:
Clean all components in clean organic solvents before assemblage, then dry them with a
blower
Precaution: Be careful during operation. The organic solvent is flammable and
explosive, keep it away from any tiny sparks. Otherwise, it may lead hurt
or even death.
Precaution: Make sure to wear the goggles while using the compressed air.
Lay the clean components separately and avoid the collision or scratch.
Replace all the oil seal, seal loop and seal ring. Apply the white special grease on the
O-ring and oil seal of the seal sections.
Get the replacing components ready every component must be qualified before
assemblage.
Precaution: When replace, all the set bolt, adjusting screw, seal component, lock nut
and the other components must be conformed to the technical specification
of Chery and can not be substituted arbitrarily.
Get the clean MoS2Lithium lubricating grease or the same performance grease ready
during assembling.
Precaution: If the unclean grease is used, the seal components would be damaged or
scratched, which will impact the steering power and result in accidents.
Assemblage
Precaution: Do not twist any seal components during assembling.

Install the rackRefer to Illustration 19


Apply MoS2Lithium lubricating grease on the
rack of the rack assy 31
Protect the rack with the vinyl tape. Fix the
rack piston assy in the oil cylinder hull, then pull
out the vinyl tape and check if it is complete.

Illustration 19

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Install the valve core assyRefer to
Illustration 20
Install the valve core assy 31 as the direction
of the skew gear tooth into the hull oil reservoir

Illustration 20

Install the stop collar assyRefer to


Illustration 21
Coat the cylinder side rack 31 with vinyl tape.
Apply the white special grease on the inner
surface of the oil seal 30
Press the stop collar assy into the oil reservoir
body 17
Illustration 21 Install the wire stopper 36 with a wire caliper
and position the stop collar assy.
Install the bearing 12, the upper oil seal 11 and the snap ring for hole 10.

Install the support device of the rack Refer


to Illustration 22
Apply the MoS2Lithium lubricating grease on
the slot area of the rack holder 23
Install the rack holder 23 into the hull oil
reservoir assy 17.
Install the spring 22.
Screw the adjusting plug 21 into the hull oil
Illustration 22 cylinder assy with a special purpose tool and
screw back 30-40 .
Screw the lock nut 20 on the adjusting plug.
Install the limiting plug of the rack end.
Apply the 5242 sealant on 1/4 circle thread of the hexagon flange bolt 24 and screw it to the
specified position of the pinion shaft. The tightening torque is 20~30N.m
Screw the plug cap 26 1-2 threads, then apply proper quantities 5242 sealant onto the thread
of the plug cap and fix it into the hull. The torque is 35~45N.m.

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Install the left and right oil tube assyRefer
to Illustration 23
Install the new conical connectors 18 and 16
on the ends of the left oil tube assy 19 and
right oil tube assy 27.
Tighten the left and right oil tube assy with the
tightening torque of 15~25N.m

Illustration 23

Assembling and adjustmentRefer to


Illustration 24
Adjust the adjusting plug 21 with a special
purpose tool.
Cover the input shaft with the crank handle
and rotate it to feel if it turns smoothly.
Illustration 24
Apply the 5242 sealant on the 1/4 circle thread
of the adjusting plug 21 which is close to the
hull, fix the adjusting plug and screw the lock
nut 20 with the tightening torque of 40~50N.m

If it is easy to adjust the lock nut of the rack holder, it is not required to remove the
steering gear from the vehicle. Therefore the adjustment can be completed on vehicle.

aCheck the clearance


Pull the steering tie rod to make it swing back and forth by hand to ensure that there is no
clearance between the rack and the pinion shaft.
Hint: It is not needed to adjust it if it is normal during the check.
b) Adjust the lock nut of the rack holder to eliminate the clearance
If there is the clearance, loosen the lock nut 18 and screw the adjusting plug 19 clockwise
until the clearance can not be felt between the rack 29 and the pinion shaft. Screw the
adjusting plug 19 back about 30~40 , and then apply the 5242 sealant on the lock nut 18 and
screw it with the tightening torque of 40~50N .m.

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Install the rack lock-plate and the inner ball
joint assyRefer to Illustration 25
Apply Kerui 5242 sealant on the thread of the
inner ball pin.
Install and screw the inner ball joint assy with
a special purpose tool. The tightening torque is
70~90N.m.
Illustration 25

Install the protector, outboard joint assy and


single ear no-level clipRefer to Illustration
26
Apply the grease on the lip of the protector 5,
and then install the hull oil cylinder assy and the
inner ball joint assy 7 in it.
Clip the big end of the protector with the single
Illustration 26 ear no-level clip 6.
Clip the small end of the protector with the
clamp 4.
Install the rod lock nut 3.
Screw the outboard joint assy into the inner ball joint assy.

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CHECK OF STEERING SYSTEM

REGULAR INSPECTION
Initial Check
The maintaining staff should pay attention to the steering system troubles reflected by the
user first. In this way, it could save a lot of repairing time. For example, as the user
complains that the steering is heavy, it is necessary to clear that it is heavy on left or right;
or on spot; or discontinuous heaviness or even no steering power at all.
If possible, try to drive the vehicle under the available condition in order to get the direct
sense about the troubles complained by the user. After the trouble confirmation, do not
hurry to remove the steering gear or the fuel pump as the other components of the steering
system may cause the troubles in fact. Please check these components first and then the
steering gear.
First, check if there are proper, equal and conform to the standard.
Second, check the front wheel alignment (caster, king pin inclination, camber and toe-in)
and the tightness of the steering tie rod, joint and king pin.
If the oil tubes have been replaced by consumers, the following cases must be taken into
consideration: installation in a wrong way; too small diameter of the tube; clogging;
twisting or overbending which would cause the unsmooth flowing or insufficient flux. The
unqualified oil tubes must be replaced.
Next, check the power steering oil reservoir and make sure that the oil level reaches the
specified point.
Check if there is bending on the steering column; Wear or damage on the safety coupling;
invalidation of the spring elasticity. Repair or replace, if necessary.
Basic Check
---- Check if the set bolt of the steering system is loose.
---- Check if the free play of the steering wheel is appropriate. If necessary, check, adjust or
replace the components of the steering system.
Overhaul of the steering tie rod
---- Check if the steering tie rod ball joint is loose inside. Replace it, if necessary.
---- Check if the steering tie rod dust cover is damaged. Repair or replace it, if necessary.
Overhaul of the steering gear
---- Check if the dust cover of the steering gear is broken. Replace it, if necessary. Otherwise
the water and dust will enter the cover easily which would result the initial damage of
the components. Check if the clamp of the dust cover is fixed firmly.
---- Check if the clearance of the steering gear is appropriate. Adjust it, if necessary.

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Overhaul of the hydraulic power pump
---- Check if the hydraulic power pump is clogged. Replace it, if necessary.
---- Check if there is abnormal noise in the hydraulic power pump Replace it, if necessary.
---- Check if there is leakage in the hydraulic system. Replace it, if necessary.

CHECK OF THE SEAL OF POWER STEERING SYSTEM


Please follow the below steps:
Turn the steering wheel quickly to the left and right limit position and keep it immovable,
which can make the internal system pressure reach the maximum. Please pay attention to
the stay time.
Visual inspect if the steering flux control valve, rack seal, vane pump(power steering pump)
or oil tube connectors leakage. Replace the seal components, if necessary.
Check if the ATF oil of the oil reservoir is enough. If it is shortage, inspect if the seal of the
power steering system is available.
If all the rack & pinion in seal components of the power steering gear housing are not
available, the ATF oil may flows into the bellow housing. Therefore, disassemble the
steering gear and replace all the seal rings.
Check if there is leakage in the oil tube connector. If necessary, find out the cause and
reconnect it.
Oil pump flow test
During inspection, turn the steering wheel to the limit position and apply enough force on
the wheel to ensure that the control valve of the steering gear can function normally.
When the engine is idling and the oil temperature range is 505, measure the flux of
the fuel pump and compare the reading of the flow meter with the specified value.
Next, adjust the rotating speed of the engine to three times as much as the idling speed and
repeat the test mentioned above. If the flux of the fuel pump can not return to the original
position immediately, it also shows that the oil pump works abnormally which could lead
to the instant failure or the discontinuity of the power. If the value of the internal leakage is
larger than 1.2L/min, the steering gear should be repaired.
Precaution: All the tests should be carried out when the engine is hot.

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CHECK AND REPLACEMENT OF THE HYDRAULIC POWER OIL
Check the hydraulic power oil
----Repeat turning the steering wheel from one
limit position to another when the engine
is idling in order to increase the
temperature of the power steering oil to
40~80
----Check the oil volume left in the oil
reservoir, the oil surface should reach
max mark of the reservoir. When the oil
is not enough, please check there is no
leakage of all the parts, otherwise fill with
the oil to the max.
Precaution: It is recommended to use the special machine for vacuumizing the injection
when filling with the power steering oil. Otherwise (for example, when the vehicle is
repaired). The specifications for filling the power steering oil and exhausting are shown
below: fill the oil reservoir with the power steering oil to the maximal position first, and
then start the engine at low speed (idling) to drive the steering pump so as the steering
system is full of the hydraulic oil. The engine must be kept in idling status to drive the
vane pump during refueling and meanwhile refueling continuously to avoid inhaling the
air of by the vane due to the fall of the oil level.
Replace the hydraulic power oil
---- Lift the vehicle to discharge the oil left in the oil reservoir and backflow hose.
---- Keep the engine idling, discharge the oil and meanwhile turn the steering wheel to the
end position until there is no hydraulic oil left.
Precaution: All these steps should be finished as soon as possible to avoid damaging the
hydraulic power pump.
---- Add the power steering oil.
---- Discharge the air completely in the hydraulic system.

EXHUAST OF THE STEERING HYDRALIC SYSTEM


---- Check the oil level. Fill with the oil, if necessary.
It should be exhausted as the hydraulic oil in the oil reservoir is emulsionized or the noise
of the pump is extremely loud (generally the maximal is 80 dbs) .The steps are shown
below:
Lift the vehicle, start the engine and turn the steering wheel left and right to the limit
position (Precaution: Do not keep stay on the limit position. If necessary, keep it less than

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10 seconds). Repeat this step for several times to discharge all the air of the system from
the oil reservoir. Add the hydraulic oil as the oil level descends.
---- Keep the engine idling, repeat turning the steering wheel from the left limit position to
the right until there is no air bubble and foam in the oil reservoir. If the oil level
descends, fill with the oil to the specified value (max).
---- The exhaust of this type of vehicle is not easy. Please completely discharge the air bubble
left in the system. Otherwise, it would make the abnormal noise in the hydraulic power
pump.

CHECK OF THE OUTPUT PRESSURE OF POWER STEERING PUMP


The main purpose of checking the output pressure of the power steering pump is to determine
whether there is malfunction in the power steering pump or the steering pinion mechanism.
Before checking, in order to measure the output oil pressure of the power steering pump
accurately, the oil level of the oil reservoir should reach the normal position and the tension
of the drive belt of the power steering pump should conform to the standard.
Measure the output oil pressure of the power steering pump with the pressure gauge which is
connected in series with a manual valve in the system. When the engine stopped, remove the
pressure pipeline from the power steering pump, connect an end of the pressure gauge with
the connector of the pump outlet, join another end of the manual valve with the inlet nozzle
of the steering control valve, so the pressure gauge and the manual valve are connected in
series in the pressure pipeline of the power steering pump and steering control valve.
Steps for measuring the output oil pressure of the power steering pump are shown below:
---- Open the manual valve completely.
---- Start the engine and keep it idling.
---- Repeat turning the steering wheel from the left limit position to the right for several times
until the steering oil temperature reaches 80 and ensure that the oil level normal.
---- Measure the static oil pressure at the rotating speed is 800r/min. The reading of the
pressure gauge is at least 300kPa if the power steering pump functions properly.
---- Close the manual valve gradually until the pointer of the pressure gauge keeps stable and
get the reading. At that time, the output standard pressure of the power steering pump
should be at least 6.2~6.9MPa; The small reading of the pressure gauge shows that
pressure of the steering pump is too low which can not effectively complete the steering.
That means there are malfunctions in the steering power pump and therefore it should be
repaired or replaced.

CHECK OF THE TENSION OF THE BELT


If there is wear, crack or flake on the belt, please replace it in time. For checking the tension,
moderate pressure should be applied in the middle of the pulley by thumb and the
displacement of the belt should be about 10mm. If the belt is too slack, please go to the
nearby service station of Chery to adjust and repair it.

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DIAGNOSIS AND TROUBLESHOOTING OF POWER STEERING

SYSTEM

The frequent malfunctions of the hydraulic power steering system are the oil leakage,
infiltration of air, failure of the power steering pump, and damage of the steering control
valve and mechanical transmission mechanism of the hydraulic transmission mechanism. All
these malfunctions show in different forms, such as steering heavily, noise, unsmoothness,
vibration and so on. When the power steering system is in trouble, please diagnose the failure
and eliminate it at once.

Steering heavily
Malfunction symptom
In general, the steering should be easy for a vehicle with power steering system. If it fails, the
steering would be heavy and the steering wheel would be hard to turn.
Malfunction reason
Generally, it is caused by the invalidation or the insufficient power of the hydraulic power
steering system; Damage or improper adjustment of the mechanical transmission mechanism.
The specific reasons are shown below:
The oil reservoir leakage or oil level is lower than the specified value.

The oil tube connectors is not well sealed, leakage always happens.

The air enters the steering hydraulic loop.

The oil tube is deformed; Oil pipeline is blocked; oil pressure or flux of the oil pump is
insufficient.
The tension of the power steering pump driving-belt is insufficient and the belt slides.

The wear and leakage in the steering pump are serious, which makes the output pressure of
the oil pump lower than the standard.
The pressure regulator oil pump fails, and the output pressure is too low.
There is internal leakage in the steering control valve and power hydraulic cylinder

The steering pinion mechanism is damaged or adjusted improperly, steering link system
components are bended, and friction force on every ball pin is too large.
The tire pressure is too low.

Front wheel alignment is not accurate.

The vehicle is overloaded seriously.

Diagnosis and Troubleshooting

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Measure if the tire pressure is normal. If necessary, inflate it according to the specified
pressure.
Check if there is leakage in the oil tube connectors of the steering hydraulic steering system.
If there is leakage, screw them tightly. Inspect if there is damage, deformation or crack on
the oil tube. If one of the above-mentioned failures is detected, the oil tube should be
replaced.
Check the rotation movement of the steering rack & pinion mechanism at the wheel return
position and the other position, if the rotating torque is too large, check the bending of the
rack and the adjustment of the rack jacking block. If necessary, adjust the pressure of the
rack jacking block or replace the steering rack & pinion mechanism.
Check if the steering control valve is blocked or returned improperly. Replace it, if
necessary.
Remove and inspect the hydraulic cylinder and replace the damaged components.

Adjust the ball pins which locate in the connection of the steering transmission mechanism
to ensure them run smoothly.

Vibration of the steering wheel as turning


Malfunction symptom
As the engine works, turn the steering wheel. It vibrates, especially at the limit position.
Malfunction reason
The steering oil pump driving-belt slides.

The oil level is too low in the oil reservoir.

The air enters the steering hydraulic loop

The output pressure of the steering oil pump is insufficient.

The piston of the pressure regulator in the steering oil pump is blocked.

Diagnosis and Troubleshooting


Check if the steering oil pump driving-belt is sliding or damaged. If necessary, tighten the
tension of the belt or replace it.
Check if the oil level of the oil reservoir reaches the specified value. If necessary, fill with
steering oil.
Check all the connectors of the steering hydraulic system to see if there is leakage of the
steering oil, and discharge the air penetrated into the oil tube.
Check the output pressure of the steering oil pump. Disassemble the pump when the
pressure is insufficient to determine if there is wear or serious internal leakage of the oil
pump; the badly leakage or clog of the pressurelimited valve and pressure regulator

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piston; Weakening of the pressure regulator spring, damage on the seal components. Find
out the malfunctions and eliminate them. If necessary, replace the oil pump.

Steering wheel floating or deflecting when the Vehicle runs straight


Malfunction symptom
It is difficult to keep the vehicle running straight.
Malfunction reason
The steering control valve torque rod is damaged or too gentle to overcome the transmission
resistance of the steering gear, which does not enable the valve bush return in time.
The movement of the valve bush and valve core is clogged due to the unclean oil.

The steering core of the steering control valve is deviated from the center position.

The relief piston of the steering pump pressure regulator is clamped which makes the flux of
the pump and the pressure difference between the left and right power cylinders too large.
Clearance of the steering transmission mechanism connectors are too large, the connectors
are loose or overworn.
Diagnosis and Troubleshooting
First, check if the connectors of the steering transmission mechanism are loose, the
clearances of the components are too large, the transmission is slack, in order to eliminate
the trouble in the steering transmission mechanism.
Check if the oil is polluted. If the vehicle is new or repaired or the maintenance and
oil-change regulars are not carried out, the oil may be polluted. The polluted oil should be
replaced.
Check the steering control valve. Turn the steering wheel without starting the engine to
judge that whether the control valve can open and close smoothly. If there is abnormal,
disassemble and check it.
Finally, check if the pressure regulator of the steering pump works normally and the relief
piston is clogged. If necessary, measure the output pressure of the steering pump and then
judge it.

Steering noise
Malfunction symptoms
There is abnormal noise when the vehicle turns.
Malfunction reason
The noise in the steering system when the vehicle turns is normal; the noise in the early

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2~3min, which appears in the steering pump is normal when the engine is started in cold
weather (20 or even colder). But when the noise is abnormal and the turning performance
is affected, the noise can be considered as malfunction. The reasons are shown below
The looseness of the steering transmission mechanism causes the abnormal turning noise.

The power steering pump is damaged or overworn or air is mixed into the liquid which
causes the loud noise.
The power steering pump driving belt pulley is loose or the belt sliding which causes the
loud noise.
The performance of the steering control valve is poor.

The oil tube connector is loose or the oil tube is broken.

The oil-filter strainer is blocked or there are too much sediments in the hydraulic circuit.

Diagnosis and Troubleshooting


If there is sound of click when the vehicle turns, maybe the steering column connector, tie
rod or ball joint loose. These components should be checked. If necessary, tighten them or
replace the damaged one; if the vibration of the steering column shaft is obvious, replace
the steering column assy; if the steering gear is installed too loose, tighten it; lubricate the
connecting sections where are necessary. In addition, if the steering pump driving belt is
loose it will also make a sound of click. Therefore, the steering pump belt wheel should
be checked if it is loose. If necessary, screw tightly or replace it to clear up the noise
failure.
If there is sound of quack-quack when the vehicle turns, especially when the steering
wheel is turned from one limit position to another which may be caused by the sliding of
the power steering pump. Check the tension and the wear status of the driving belt, then
tighten or replace it depending on practical situation.
If there is sound of cluck from the steering pump when the vehicle turns, the reason
maybe the air bubbles in the oil which cause the pneumatic noise as the oil flows. First,
check the oil level. If it is too low, fill the oil reservoir with oil to the proper position to
check and eliminate the leakage failure. Then, check if the hose is broken, or the clamp is
loose which the air would enter the system. Replace the broken hose or the clamp, if
necessary. After confirming that the air entered the liquid of the power steering system,
discharge the air from the power steering system to eliminate the pneumatic noise. If there
is sound of hiss or scream from the steering pump, and there is no air leakage in the
hydraulic system, the tension of the driving belt is normal, it shows there is block in the oil
pipeline or the oil pump is overworn and damaged. Repair or replace it.
There is sound of hiss when the steering wheel is in limit position or turning slow in spot.
If the noise is extremely abnormal, the performance of the steering control valve may be
incompetent. The control valve should be replaced and compared to eliminate the failure.

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PRECAUTION OF STEERING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE

Caution: The steering gear is an important danger-proof component which can affect
the driving security. If failure appears during use, the vehicle should be sent to
the service station designated by Chery; the company is not responsible for the
accidents due to self-disassembling, self-maintenance and improper operation.
The peak rate of flow in the system could not exceed 10L/min, maximal working oil
pressure could not exceed 8Mpa at any time.
After the new steering gear has run for about 2500km, it is required to change the hydraulic
oil and clean the strainer in the oil reservoir. Thereforth, change the oil and do the clean of
every year or 50000km.
Check the tire regularly and keep the tire pressure meets the specification.

If the improper clearance block or yawing appears, find out and analyze where the failure
locates in the steering transmission system, power steering system or steering link system
and then resolve it.
Check regularly if the components of the steering system bear the improper impact. Replace
the damaged ones in time.
Do not weld the components of the steering gear and system rod in any means.

Be sure not to touch, knock or wear the tube during use. Each segment should be smooth,
and no knots.
Check the hydraulic oil every month to determine whether it is decreasing, deteriorating or
polluted. The oil should be changed at once when the problem is detected. The No. of the
new added hydraulic oil should be as same as the origin. Mixture is forbidden.
Adding oil of the steering system
Hydraulic oil for the steering system

Working oil: ATF DEXRON


Substitute oil: No.8 hydraulic transmission oil.
Caution: One steering gear can be refueled with only one kind of oil mentioned above.
It will lead to oil seal damage and leakage if unauthorized oil is used.
Consequently, the steering power will fail.
Adding oil of the steering system

Fill the steering oil reservoir with the specified hydraulic oil. Keep the engine idling, turn
the steering wheel to the left and right limit position (Do not keep the steering wheel stay at
the limit position more than 5 seconds), and continue to refuel the oil reservoir with the
hydraulic oil until the oil level do not decline and no air bubbles appear. The oil level
should reach the half height of the filter core.

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After refueling, check if there is leakage in every component.

Precaution: Keep the impurities away from the system when refueling.
Caution: Dead steering (i.e. turning the steering wheel to the limit position) is forbidden
during use. Even if necessary, do not keep the steering wheel stay at the limit
position more than 10 seconds. If the minimum turning radius tests in the
general assy test drive ground to detect the interference, it is also forbidden to
do so. When the steering wheel is turned to the limit position and the louder
noise comes from the power steering pump, you can turn the steering wheel
back a little until the noise disappears. It is forbidden to run the power steering
pump without oil. If the steering is suddenly heavy during use, park the vehicle
to check and repair.

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BRAKE SYSTEM

INDUCTION TO BRAKE SYSTEM P-2

REGULAR BRAKE SYSTEM P-3

AIR BLEEDING P-3

INSPECTION OF THE CHECK VALVE OF VACUUM HOSE P-3

ADJUSTMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF BRAKE PEDAL P-4

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY AND INSPECTION OF FRONT WHEEL DISC


BRAKE P-5

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY AND INSPECTION OF REAR WHEEL DRUM


BRAKE P-11

RELATED PARAMETERS OF VACUUM BOOSTER AND MASTER BRAKE


CYLINDER P-16

PARKING BRAKE SYSTEM P-17

ABS (ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM) CONTROL SYSTEM P-19

INTRODUCTION TO ABS CONTROL SYSTEM P-19

DISASSEMBLY/ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION OF ABS CONTROLLERP-20

MSABS CONTROL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTIC P-22

OPERATION METHOD AND FUNCTION INTRODUCTION OF DIAGNOSTIC


TESTER P-24

TROUBLESHOOTING QUICK INDEXING TABLE P-26

CAUTION WHEN FAILURE DIAGNOSING P-27

DTC FAILURE CHECK SHEET INDEX P-29

ABS SYSTEM CHECK P-41

APPENDIX I P-42

APPENDIX II P-43

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INDUCTION TO BRAKE SYSTEM

A15LHD is equipped with a diagonally split dual-circuit vacuum-assisted hydraulic brake


system, which consists of service brake and parking brake. A disc brake is used for the front
wheels, while a drum brake is for the rear wheels. And the servo system adopts the
high-performance vacuum booster and dual-circuit hydraulic master brake cylinder.
A15LHD is also equipped with an Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) which considerably
improves the direction control and brake performance of the whole vehicle when braking.
The ABS system is available to prevent the wheels from being locked up; whats more, it can
maximize the longitudinal adhesion of tires. That is how the ABS system doesnt only ensure
the steer ability of front wheels, but also avoids the sideslip of rear wheels, and therefore can
ensure the vehicle to be braked under the condition of maximum adhesion coefficient of road
surface.
And the parking brake control mechanism, which applies a cable featuring with the
protective cover and low frictional resistance to directly control the drum brake lever of the
two rear wheels, is located between the two front seats. The rear wheel brake also serves as a
parking brake, which features with the simple structure and high efficiency.

DIAGONALLY-SPLIT DUAL-CIRCUIT BRAKE


A15LHD adopts the diagonally-split dual-circuit brake system, the front chamber of master
brake cylinder of which is connected to the left front wheel brake and the rear right brake;
and the rear chamber of master cylinder to the front right and rear left wheel brakes. This
simple structure ensures 50% of normal brake force maintained in case of the failure of any
one of the two circuits, that is, no matter which any circuit fails, the basic brake requirements
are still met by the other circuit.