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Senior Editor Fleur Star
Senior Art Editor Sheila Collins
Editorial Team Tom Booth, Jessica Cawthra,
Anna Fischel, Niki Foreman, Victoria Pyke
Design Assistant Kit Lane
Creative Technical Support Tommy Callan
Illustrators Gus Scott, Edwood Burn
Senior Jacket Designer Mark Cavanagh
Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT
Managing Editor Francesca Baines
Managing Art Editor Phil Letsu
Pre-production Jacqueline Street
Producer Gary Batchelor
Publisher Andrew Macintyre
Art Director Karen Self
Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf

DK India
Senior Editor Anita Kakar
Project Art Editor Shreya Anand
Project Editor Antara Moitra
Art Editors Revati Anand, Heena Sharma
Assistant Art Editor Neetika Malik Jhingan
Jacket Art Editor Dhirendra Singh
Jackets Editorial Coordinator Priyanka Sharma
DTP Designers Vijay Kandwal, Dheeraj Singh
Picture Researcher Jayati Sood
Managing Jackets Editor Sreshtha Bhattacharya
Picture Research Manager Taiyaba Khatoon
Pre-production Manager Balwant Singh
Production Manager Pankaj Sharma
Senior Managing Editor Rohan Sinha
Managing Art Editor Govind Mittal

First published in Great Britain in 2017 by

Dorling Kindersley Limited
80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL

Based on an original text published by

HarperCollins Publishers.
Copyright 2017 Dorling Kindersley Limited
Original text copyright HarperCollins Publishers 2009
Revised text copyright Dorling Kindersley Ltd 2017
A Penguin Random House Company
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

A CIP catalogue record for this book is

available from the British Library

ISBN: 9780241286975

Printed in China


How to use this book Related words Entry
B The Childrens Illustrated Thesaurus is easy to use Words that relate
to the entry to expand your
This is the word
you want to find

C when you want to find a synonym to improve your writing. vocabulary even further
come at the end.
a synonym for.

Synonyms are words that can have the same meaning

D as other words see page 6 for more information.

E Guideword abandon
The word on the
top left shows
you the first entry A about 1
preposition relating to or
abrupt 1
adjective sudden or unexpected

on the page. concerning Laura was happy They were surprised at the
B about her excellent exam results. teachers abrupt departure.
concerning, on, regarding, sudden, unexpected,

H C relating to unforeseen, precipitate,


D about 2
abrupt 2
adverb not exactly
I think the film lasts about
one hour.
adjective unfriendly and
impolite He was taken

almost, approximately, aback by her abrupt manner.
F abandon 1 ability
around, nearly, roughly curt, rude, short, terse,
brusque, unceremonious

verb to leave someone noun the skill needed to do antonym: polite
above 1
K Synonym
or something The
child abandoned its toy.
something Sheila has the
ability to get on with others.
preposition over or higher than
something The bird flew absent
H desert, jilt, leave, capability, competence,
above the clouds. adjective not present

L Alternative words
you can use
leave behind, forsake,
leave in the lurch
expertise, skill, talent,
aptitude, dexterity,
higher than, over
antonym: below
Hugo was absent from
school yesterday so
instead of the related words: prefixes super-, missed the mock test.

antonym: inability
entry word are
shown in bold. J supra-, sur- away, elsewhere,
gone, missing
able antonym: present

N K adjective good at doing

something Luca proved
L The child abandoned its toy.
himself to be an able
adjective forgetful or not

teacher when all his pupils
paying attention Noras
passed the exam.

Definition M abandon 2
noun lack of restraint
accomplished, capable,
efficient, expert, first-rate,
absent-minded father left
the camera under the seat.

distracted, forgetful,
Raj began to laugh
What the
word means.
N with abandon.
skilled, talented,
competent, proficient
The bird flew above the clouds. random (New Zealand),
recklessness, wildness

Q O antonym: control
abolish above 2
preposition greater than absolute 1
verb to do away with something
P abate The children wanted a certain level or amount
The number of visitors
adjective total and complete
I cant understand him,
R Example
sentence Q
verb to become less
The four-day flood abated
and the road became visible.
to abolish the schools
homework policy.
annul, do away with,
will rise above the 100 mark.
beyond, exceeding
he is talking absolute nonsense.
complete, downright, pure,
sheer, thorough, total, utter,

S Helping you find

the right word R
decrease, diminish, ebb,
lessen, subside, wane
overturn, put an end to,
quash, rescind, revoke
unmitigated, unqualified

by putting it
T in context.
accommodation digs penthouse
T noun a house or room for living in
(Britain; informal) I live in the

What kind of accommodation are you staying in? The actors stayed in digs
as they toured the country.
penthouse on
the top-floor.

V V house mobile home

bungalow Each house has A static caravan or a
W its own garden.
W A bungalow has only mobile home is more
one floor. affordable than a house.

Z 8

noun or adjective
Entry Part of speech More Shades of Shades of yellow:
If there is more
For example, noun,
verb, or adjective.
Shown in grey,
Instead of a definition,
colour entries have
amber, canary yellow, b
citrus yellow, daffodil, gold,
than one sense See page 7 for these are slightly a list of shades.
lemon, mustard, primrose,
of the word, more about parts more complicated
each one has a of speech. or advanced saffron, sand, straw, topaz
separate entry. synonyms.
The word on the top right shows
you the last entry on the page.
absolute 2 abusive acceptable a Alphabet
adjective having total power adjective rude and unkind adjective good enough
Louis XIV of France was Dont use abusive language to be accepted
an absolute monarch and when speaking to people, it will His messy handwriting b The highlighted
letter shows you
had complete authority offend them. was not acceptable.
which section
on all state matters. disparaging, insulting, adequate, all right, fair,
dictatorial, supreme, offensive, rude, scathing, good enough, passable, youre in.
tyrannical censorious, vituperative satisfactory, tolerable
verb to soak up or take
There was an abundant supply
of cakes at the party. abyss
noun a very deep hole
adjective happening by chance e i
in something A sponge He peered over the edge The fire was accidental.
can absorb a lot of water.
digest, soak up, take in
adjective present in large
of the abyss.
chasm, fissure, gorge,
casual, chance,
inadvertent, random
f j
quantities There was Antonym
pit, void antonym: deliberate
an abundant supply of
abstain cakes at the party. A word that
accommodate means the
verb to choose not to do ample, copious,
something Vegetarians full, plentiful verb to provide someone with opposite to
abstain from eating meat.
avoid, deny yourself, forgo,
antonym: scarce a place to stay A hotel was
built to accommodate guests i
the entry.
give up, refrain, desist, for weddings.
abuse 1
forbear, renounce
noun cruel treatment
of someone Animal
house, put up, shelter
j m
absurd accommodating
k n
abuse is rightly illegal. He peered over the edge
adjective ridiculous exploitation, harm, hurt, of the abyss. adjective willing to help The
or nonsensical The ill-treatment, oppression waiter was very accommodating
films plot was absurd,
accelerate and found us a new table. l
I couldn't make sense of it.
crazy (informal), illogical,
abuse 2
noun unkind remarks directed
verb to go faster The car
accelerated to reach the
considerate, helpful,
hospitable, kind, obliging
m o
ludicrous, nonsensical,
towards someone The
higher speed limit.
ridiculous, incongruous,
cyclist shouted abuse at hurry, quicken, speed up accommodation n
the man driving dangerously. antonym: decelerate noun a house or room
censure, derision, for living in
noun a great amount
insults, invective
accept SEE BELOW o , , ,
See below/above/
of something
There is an abundance abuse 3
verb to receive or agree
to something Lucas accompany 1 p left/right: Look at
of wildlife in the rainforest.
affluence, bounty, plenty,
verb to speak insultingly to
someone The fans verbally
accepted the party invitation.
verb to go somewhere with
someone Children must q
the big illustration
for this entry. r
abused the rival football team. agree to, concur with, be accompanied by an adult.

cornucopia, plethora
curse, insult, scold, consent to, take conduct (formal), escort,
antonym: shortage
slate (Britain; informal) antonym: refuse go with, usher r Usage
flats housing lodgings mansion
Shows when
and how some t
How many flats are t synonyms are used.

This housing The student lodgings The mansion has
in the block? needed decorating. seven bedrooms.
is perfect
for families. u
My apartment has v Example v
a concierge service. sentence
w These show
maisonette each synonym
studio x in a sentence.
He lives in a
one-room studio.
A maisonette is a flat
with its own front door
to the street. y x
z y
A Why use a thesaurus?
B The main reason for using a thesaurus is to (part of speech) it is and provide helpful
find synonyms, or alternative words, to help definitions and examples. It will also give
C you with your writing. In addition, this antonyms, or words that mean the opposite
D thesaurus will identify what kind of word to the one you look up, wherever possible.

What is a synonym?
F A synonym is a word that means the same or almost depending on how you use it. Usually, however,
the same as another word, for example little and synonyms have little differences in meaning that
G small. Most of the time, there is no such thing as make one word more suitable to use than another.

H athing,
true synonym. If two words mean exactly the same For example, little girl usually means a young girl,
then why bother having both? Rather, a synonym but a small girl suggests she is not big in size.

I can or could mean the same thing as another word

M The little girl is the young girl The small girl is the short girl

N This puppy could be described as little or small. on the right. on the left.

O Improve your vocabulary What is an antonym?

P Synonyms can help you improve your writing by using
more interesting words. For example, instead of
An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another
word, for example big is an antonym of small.
Q putting she said in a story, using she shouted can
tell the reader that she might be angry or in a noisy A small frog

R room. It is also much more interesting to use and read

a variety of words than writing she said all the time!
A big elephant
U He said
She shouted

Parts of speech Verb a
An action (or doing word). These include any sort
To help you find the right entry in the thesaurus,
it can help to know the type of word (or part of
of action such as run, breathe, and sleep and also
helping verbs, which may be used with other verbs
speech) youre looking up. Some words can be used
in different ways, such as bend this can be a verb
to show how possible or necessary an action is. c
These include: have, will, be, must, may, and do.
(to bend over) or a noun (a bend in the river). Here are
the main parts of speech and how they fit together.
For example, he must run to catch the bus; she will d
come to the party.
John ran to catch the bus. h
Grace bent over to pick a flower. The river has many bends. Adverb i
A word that gives more information about a verb,
adjective, or another adverb. These often end in ly,
An object, person, or place. A noun doesnt have to be such as quietly and helpfully, but dont have to
today, very, and forwards are all adverbs.
a visible thing fact and history are also nouns.
Things with a name (such as a country or a person) l
are known as proper nouns.
Adjective n
A describing word, such
as green, big, or old. Adjectives
are used to describe nouns.
Pat arrived at exactly 5 o'clock. The dog leapt high in the air.
Preposition Interjection q
A word that shows how A word that can be used
one noun (person or
thing) relates to another,
on its own without a full
sentence, such as ouch
The fairground has bright Lei wrinkled her nose when
such as in, with, and hello. s
lights and fun rides. she tasted the bitter lemon. and in spite of.
Sentence formation
This is how the parts of speech fit together in a sentence. u
interjection (proper)
noun adjective
verb verb
Oh! whispered Chloe, spotting a small
owl sitting quietly on the hedge.
verb adverb
noun z
A about 1
preposition relating to or
abrupt 1
adjective sudden or unexpected
concerning Laura was happy They were surprised at the
B about her excellent exam results. teachers abrupt departure.
concerning, on, regarding, sudden, unexpected,
C relating to unforeseen, precipitate,

D about 2
adverb not exactly abrupt 2
I think the film lasts about adjective unfriendly and
E one hour. impolite He was taken
almost, approximately, aback by her abrupt manner.
F abandon 1 ability
around, nearly, roughly curt, rude, short, terse,
brusque, unceremonious

verb to leave someone noun the skill needed to do antonym: polite
or something The something Sheila has the
above 1
preposition over or higher than
child abandoned its toy. ability to get on with others.
something The bird flew absent
H desert, jilt, leave,
leave behind, forsake,
capability, competence,
expertise, skill, talent,
above the clouds. adjective not present
higher than, over Hugo was absent from
I leave in the lurch aptitude, dexterity,
antonym: below
related words: prefixes super-,
school yesterday so
missed the mock test.
antonym: inability
J supra-, sur- away, elsewhere,
gone, missing
able antonym: present
K adjective good at doing
something Luca proved
L The child abandoned its toy.
himself to be an able
teacher when all his pupils
adjective forgetful or not
paying attention Noras
passed the exam.
M abandon 2
noun lack of restraint
accomplished, capable,
efficient, expert, first-rate,
absentminded father left
the camera under the seat.
distracted, forgetful,
Raj began to laugh
N with abandon.
skilled, talented,
competent, proficient
The bird flew above the clouds. random (New Zealand),
recklessness, wildness
O antonym: control
abolish above 2
preposition greater than absolute 1
verb to do away with something
P abate
verb to become less
The children wanted
to abolish the schools
a certain level or amount
The number of visitors
adjective total and complete
I cant understand him,
will rise above the 100 mark. he is talking absolute nonsense.
Q The four-day flood abated
and the road became visible.
homework policy.
annul, do away with,
beyond, exceeding complete, downright, pure,
sheer, thorough, total, utter,
decrease, diminish, ebb, overturn, put an end to,
R lessen, subside, wane quash, rescind, revoke
unmitigated, unqualified

accommodation digs penthouse
T noun a house or room for living in
(Britain; informal) I live in the
What kind of accommodation are you staying in? The actors stayed in digs penthouse on
U as they toured the country. the top floor.

V house mobile home

bungalow Each house has A static caravan or a
W A bungalow has only
one floor.
its own garden. mobile home is more
affordable than a house.

absolute 2
adjective having total power
adjective rude and unkind
adjective good enough
Louis XIV of France was Dont use abusive language to be accepted
an absolute monarch and when speaking to people, it will His messy handwriting b
had complete authority offend them. was not acceptable.
on all state matters.
dictatorial, supreme,
disparaging, insulting,
offensive, rude, scathing,
adequate, all right, fair,
good enough, passable,
tyrannical censorious, vituperative satisfactory, tolerable
There was an abundant supply
absorb abyss accidental
of cakes at the party.
verb to soak up or take noun a very deep hole adjective happening by chance
in something A sponge He peered over the edge The fire was accidental.
can absorb a lot of water.
digest, soak up, take in
adjective present in large
of the abyss.
chasm, fissure, gorge,
casual, chance,
inadvertent, random
quantities There was
an abundant supply of
pit, void antonym: deliberate
abstain cakes at the party.
verb to choose not to do ample, copious,
something Vegetarians full, plentiful verb to provide someone with
abstain from eating meat. antonym: scarce a place to stay A hotel was
avoid, deny yourself, forgo,
give up, refrain, desist,
built to accommodate guests
for weddings.
abuse 1
forbear, renounce
noun cruel treatment
of someone Animal
house, put up, shelter
absurd accommodating
abuse is rightly illegal. He peered over the edge
adjective ridiculous exploitation, harm, hurt, of the abyss. adjective willing to help The
or nonsensical The ill-treatment, oppression waiter was very accommodating
films plot was absurd,
I couldn't make sense of it.
accelerate and found us a new table.
considerate, helpful,
abuse 2 verb to go faster The car
crazy (informal), illogical,
ludicrous, nonsensical,
noun unkind remarks directed accelerated to reach the
hospitable, kind, obliging
towards someone The higher speed limit.
ridiculous, incongruous,
cyclist shouted abuse at hurry, quicken, speed up accommodation n
the man driving dangerously. antonym: decelerate noun a house or room
censure, derision, for living in
abundance insults, invective
accept SEE BELOW o
noun a great amount
of something
There is an abundance abuse 3
verb to receive or agree
to something Lucas accompany 1 p
verb to speak insultingly to accepted the party invitation. verb to go somewhere with
of wildlife in the rainforest.
affluence, bounty, plenty,
someone The fans verbally
abused the rival football team.
agree to, concur with,
someone Children must
be accompanied by an adult.
cornucopia, plethora
curse, insult, scold, consent to, take conduct (formal), escort,
antonym: shortage
slate (Britain; informal) antonym: refuse go with, usher r
flats housing lodgings mansion
How many flats are
in the block?
This housing The student lodgings
needed decorating.
The mansion has t
is perfect seven bedrooms.
for families. u
My apartment has v
a concierge service.
maisonette x
studio A maisonette is a flat
He lives in a
one-room studio.
with its own front door
to the street. y
B act But I want to perform that role!
2 verb to perform in a play or film

D Get ready to start acting!

F I shallact out
the part of the king!

H accompany 2 accustomed act 1 active 2
I verb to occur with something
A cold is often accompanied
adjective used to something
Pupils become accustomed
verb to do something
referee acted correctly in giving
adjective busy and hardworking
Parents were very active
by a cough. to early morning starts a penalty on the bad tackle. in the school community.
J come with,
go together with
for school.
adapted, familiar, used
function, operate,
perform, work
busy, engaged,
enthusiastic, hardworking,

antonym: unaccustomed industrious, involved,
accomplish act 2
L verb to manage to do
something The whole team verb to gain by hard work
verb to perform in a play
or film activity 1
worked together to accomplish or ability She achieved SEE ABOVE noun a situation in which
M their goal.
achieve, bring about,
the highest marks in the
lots of things are happening
There is an extraordinary
act 3
N complete, do, fulfil,
manage, effect,
accomplish, carry out,
complete, do, fulfil, perform
noun a single thing someone
does Adopting the stray
level of activity in the school.
action, bustle,
execute, realize energy, liveliness
O dog was an act of kindness.
accurate achievement, deed, activity 2
P adjective correct to a detailed
level Use a ruler to make
feat, undertaking noun something you do
for pleasure The gym
Q the drawing more accurate.
correct, exact, faithful,
action 1
noun the process of doing
offers sporting activities such
as running on the treadmill.
precise, right, strict, true hobby, interest,
something This letter
R antonym: inaccurate
requires immediate action
pastime, pursuit
please do not ignore it.
S accuse
verb to charge someone She achieved the highest marks
activity, operation,

T with doing something wrong

Jack was accused of losing
in the competition.

action 2
the office keys again.
U blame, censure, charge,
achievement noun something that is done
cite, denounce, impeach,
noun something which He did not like his actions
someone has succeeded in questioned.
V incriminate, indict
doing Finishing a marathon accomplishment,
is a huge achievement. achievement, deed, The gym offers sporting activities

W accomplishment, deed,
exploit, feat
exploit, feat such as running on the treadmill.

X active 1 actual
acquire adjective full of energy adjective real, rather than
verb to get something Andrea was always so imaginary or guessed at
Y I have recently acquired active and fun to be around. That is the estimate: the
a digital camera. energetic, lively, restless, actual figure is much higher.
Z Jack was accused of losing
the office keys again.
attain, gain, get, obtain,
pick up, procure, secure
sprightly, vivacious,
dynamic, indefatigable
authentic, genuine,
realistic, true, verified

I don't like the way you play him.
You're too young to
I'm perfect to b
her well.
the lady. c
play the
I'd like to You're old enough to
part of the queen. personify
her grandmother.
acute 1 add 2 administer 1 admit 2 h
adjective severe or intense
He suddenly had an acute
verb to combine numbers
or quantities Add all the
verb to be responsible
for managing something
verb to allow to enter
Pablo was admitted i
pain in his back. items together to find out how It must be hard work to to the university.
critical, extreme,
grave, great, intense,
much you have bought.
add up, count up, total
administer a large company.
be in charge of, command,
accept, let in,
receive, take in
serious, severe antonym: subtract control, direct, manage, antonym: exclude
run, supervise
administer 2 noun a grown-up person l
verb to inflict or impose A family ticket covers two
2 something on someone adults and three children. m
He administered strict grown-up, man, woman

curfews on the boys.
carry out, deal, dispense,
antonym: child
execute, impose, inflict,
perform, mete out
He suddenly had an acute pain
in his back.
admiration p
acute 2
adjective very intelligent
11 noun a feeling of great liking
and respect I have q
always had the greatest
She has an acute mind admiration for her.
Add all the items together to find
and was always the best
out how much you have bought. appreciation, approval,
at problem-solving.
esteem, regard, respect
alert, astute, bright, keen,
perceptive, quick, sharp, addition A family ticket covers two adults
shrewd, discriminating, noun something that has been admire and three children.
discerning, perspicacious added to something else
The showroom revealed
verb to like and respect
someone or something
They admired him advance 1
verb to alter for a new use
recent additions to their
range of cars. for his work.
verb to move forward
or develop The forces
increase, supplement, appreciate, look up to,
The offices were adapted
advanced on the battlefield.
addendum, adjunct, respect, value,
for use as a library. make inroads, press on,
appendage esteem, venerate
adjust, alter, change, proceed, progress
convert, modify
antonym: scorn
admit 1 advance 2
add 1
verb to put something with
adjective enough in amount
or quality for a purpose verb to agree that something
noun progress in something
Scientific advances help
something else She added Adequate protein is part of a is true The driver admitted
more pages to the book.
balanced diet.
acceptable, ample, enough,
that he was lost.
accept, acknowledge,
us explore the Solar System
in ever greater detail. y
attach, augment, breakthrough,
supplement, adjoin,
affix, append
satisfactory, sufficient
antonym: insufficient
antonym: deny
development, gain,
progress, step
A advantage
noun a more favourable
noun a person whose job
adjective scared of something
adjective full of hostility
position or state Sara is to give advice My mother unpleasant happening and violence Hungry
B had the advantage of knowing spent the day in meetings with SEE RIGHT sharks can be very aggressive.
his favourite hiding place. her advisers. hostile, quarrelsome,
C ascendancy, benefit,
dominance, superiority
aide, consultant, guru,
mentor, tutor
after belligerent, pugnacious
antonym: peaceful
adverb at a later time
antonym: disadvantage
D advocate
After the main course,
you can choose a dessert. agile
advertise verb to publicly support afterwards, following, adjective able to move quickly
E verb to present something a plan or course of action later, subsequently and easily He is as agile
to the public in order to sell Tom advocates Mr Johnson antonym: before as a cat.
F it Printed bags are a good
way to advertise a shop.
to be the new governor.
back, champion,
related word: prefix post- lithe, nimble, sprightly,
supple, limber,

plug (informal), promote, endorse, favour, lissom, lissome
publicize, push, blazon, promote, recommend,
again antonym: clumsy
adverb happening one more
promulgate support, uphold
time When he didn't get
H a reply, Carlos texted his best agitate 1
advertisement affair friend again. verb to campaign energetically
I noun a public announcement
to sell or publicize something
noun an event or series
of events The wedding
afresh, anew, once more for something The workers
had begun to agitate for better
Mia placed an advertisement
J in the local newspaper.
was a large affair.
business, event, issue,
against 1
preposition in opposition
conditions in the office.
campaign, demonstrate,
ad (informal), advert (Britain; matter, question, protest, push
to We are against
K informal), banner ad,
commercial, notice,
situation, subject
the new building works.
averse to, hostile to, agitate 2
L plug (informal)
verb to influence something
in opposition to, versus
related words: prefixes anti-,
verb to worry or distress
someone Everything
or someone More than
M 7 million people have been
contra-, counter- she said agitated me.
bother, distress, disturb,
affected by the drought. trouble, upset, worry,
N act on, alter, change,
impinge on NO NO discompose, faze, perturb

O affection
agree 1
verb to have the same opinion
as someone They all agreed
P Mia placed an advertisement
in the local newspaper.
noun a feeling of fondness for
someone or something She to go bowling.
thought of him with affection. assent, be of the same
Q advice
attachment, fondness,
liking, love, warmth
opinion, concur,
see eye to eye

R noun a suggestion as to what

to do Take my advice and
antonym: dislike antonym: disagree

don't order the fish pie.

S counsel (formal), drum
affectionate agree 2
adjective full of fondness verb to match or be the same
(Australia; informal),
for someone Elsa gave as something His statement
T guidance, opinion,
her dog an affectionate stroke.
caring, fond, loving, tender
We are against the new
building works.
agrees with the facts given
by other witnesses.
U advise 1
antonym: cold
against 2
accord, conform, match,
square, tally
verb to offer advice to someone preposition in preparation
V His friend advised him for or in case of something
agreeable 1
to leave as soon as possible. When you go out, dress adjective pleasant or enjoyable
W caution, counsel,
recommend, suggest, urge,
well to protect yourselves
against the cold. Ive just had the most
agreeable holiday, I want
commend, prescribe in anticipation of,
X in expectation of,
to go back!
delightful, enjoyable, lovely,
in preparation for
advise 2 nice, pleasant, pleasurable
Y verb to notify someone antonym: disagreeable
I would like to advise you of Elsa gave her dog

Z my decision to change courses.

inform, make known, notify
an affectionate stroke.


adjective scared of something unpleasant
happening The children felt afraid of the
house on top of the hill.
He felt apprehensive approaching the house
there was something very strange about it. f
Anyone would be fearful h
near a haunted house,
it gives you goosebumps.
She was so frightened, she stood k
rooted to the spot.

Being nervous made her tremble
like a leaf. n
He told her not to be scared,
although he was also shaking
in his boots. q
Walking towards the gloomy house,
she was surprised that she felt
completely unafraid. v
spooked w
They felt spooked the haunted
house gave them the shivers. x

A agreeable 2
adjective willing to allow
or do something Pooja said
B she was agreeable to this plan.
game, happy, prepared,
C 1 adjective similar in some way
ready, willing,
amenable, compliant
The snakes look so alike.
D close agreement
A king snake is
appearance to ose in noun a decision reached
E rp
rns. a cora
l sna
by two or more people
il a The two countries have
F ar ha
ve signed agreements on fishing
and oil rights.
e s il


arrangement, contract,

deal (informal), pact,


settlement, treaty,

H compact, covenant

I aim 1
verb to plan to do something
The school aims to recruit
J three new teachers next year.
aspire, attempt, intend,
K plan, propose, strive

amaveethe same body shape

L s
e es h . aim 2
th snak noun what someone intends
to achieve My main
M ll

aim is to be captain of
t icras are identica the hockey team.
N e n ulo
co different order.
l, ambition, goal, intention,
objective, plan, target

jus eir

alarm 1
P noun a feeling of fear
The cat sprang back
in alarm.
Q anxiety, apprehension,
fright, nervousness,

R panic, scare,

consternation, trepidation
a b antonym: calm
S g u isht
indistin are almos other.
T The two s
a b l e from
ea c

i n d is t i n gu i
V antonym:
W different
The butterflies are different

in colour and shape.

The cat sprang back in alarm.

alarm 2
noun a device used
alive 1
adjective having life
all right
adjective acceptable It was
to warn people of something Doctors worked around the all right but nothing special.
The burglar alarm clock to keep the patient alive. acceptable, adequate, b
woke up the whole street. animate, breathing, living average, fair,
distress signal, siren,
antonym: dead okay or OK (informal) c
alarm 3
alive 2
adjective lively and active
adverb very nearly
After jogging up the hill, The number of children in
verb to fill with fear
We could not see Liam felt alive with energy. a class has almost doubled e
what had alarmed him. active, alert, animated, in less than a decade. Kirsten surfed the most
distress, frighten, panic,
scare, startle, unnerve
energetic, full of life,
lively, vivacious
about, approximately,
close to, nearly, not quite,
amazing wave.
antonym: calm antonym: dull practically
amazing g
adjective very surprising or
alert 1 alone remarkable Kirsten surfed
adjective paying full attention adjective not with other people the most amazing wave. h
The alert guard caught or things He was all alone astonishing, astounding,
the shoplifter red-handed.
attentive, observant,
in the middle of the hall.
detached, isolated,
staggering, startling,
stunning, surprising
on guard, vigilant, wary
antonym: unaware
separate, single
among 1
preposition surrounded by
alert 2 adverb out loud The broken bike lay among
verb to warn of danger Our father read aloud to us. piles of chains and pedals.
The swimmers alerted
the passer-by that they
audibly, out loud amid, amidst, in the
middle of, in the thick of,
needed help.
forewarn, inform, notify,
After jogging up the hill, Liam felt
alive with energy.
also surrounded by
adverb in addition
Carlos is also an
excellent basketball player.
all as well, besides,
pronoun the whole
of something
furthermore, into the o
bargain, moreover, too
Did you eat all the biscuits?
each, every one, p
everything, the whole always
amount, the (whole) lot
related words:
adverb all the time or forever
Zoes always singing,
prefixes pan-, panto- she never stops!
The broken bike lay among piles
continually, every time, of chains and pedals.
forever, invariably,
allow 1
The swimmers alerted the
passer-by that they needed help. verb to permit someone among 2
to do something preposition between more
alike 1 Janes mother allowed amaze than two The donations
her to go to the party. verb to surprise greatly will be divided among
adjective similar in some way
Noah amazed us with his
approve, authorize, let,
permit, stand for, tolerate, knowledge of local history.
seven charities.
between, to each of u
brook, give leave, sanction astonish, astound, shock,
alike 2
adverb in a similar way
antonym: forbid stagger, stun, surprise,
dumbfound, flabbergast,
amount v
noun how much there
All the children taking part
in the parade were dressed
allow 2
verb to set aside for
is of something
I get a huge amount of
alike it was hard to tell
them apart.
equally, in the same way,
a particular purpose
Allow four hours noun complete surprise
homework every weekend.
expanse, quantity, x
for the paint to dry. Much to my amazement, volume
similarly, uniformly
allocate, allot, assign,
grant, set aside
Yasmin arrived on time.
astonishment, shock,
surprise, wonder,
perplexity, stupefaction z
A animosity
noun a feeling of strong dislike
answer 1
verb to reply to someone
towards someone There is I waited all day for him
B no animosity between the two to answer my question.
players they get on well. reply, respond, retort
C antagonism, antipathy,
dislike, hatred, hostility,
antonym: ask

ill will, malice, resentment

D answer 2
noun a reply given to someone
announce He walked away without Lily appealed for people to sign

E verb to make something known waiting for an answer.

her petition.

publicly He announced reply, response, retort,

F There was ample space in the tent
the winner of the competition
live on the radio.
rejoinder, riposte
antonym: question
appeal 1
verb to make an urgent request
for both children and the dog.
for something Lily appealed
advertise, make known,
proclaim, reveal, tell, tweet, for people to sign her petition.
ample promulgate, propound
anxiety beg, call upon, plead,
noun nervousness or worry
adjective of an amount: more request, entreat,
than enough There was Its natural to have implore, pray
some anxiety before
I ample space in the tent for
both children and the dog.
starting a new school.
apprehension, concern, appeal 2
abundant, enough,
J plenty of, sufficient
fear, misgiving,
nervousness, unease,
verb to attract or interest
The idea of getting a
He announced the winner of the worry, perturbation, sports car appealed to him.
K ancestor
noun a person from whom
competition live on the radio. trepidation attract, fascinate,
interest, please

L someone is descended
Leon could trace his announcement
noun a statement giving
adjective nervous or worried appeal 3
ancestors back 100 years.
Nicole was very anxious
M forebear, forefather,
precursor, progenitor
information about something
There has been no formal before starting the exam.
noun a formal request for
something The speaker
announcement about the apprehensive, bothered, made an appeal for quiet.
N anger 1
school trip.
advertisement, broadcast,
concerned, fearful,
nervous, troubled,
petition, plea, request,
entreaty, supplication

O noun extreme annoyance

She vented her anger
bulletin, declaration,
report, statement
uneasy, worried
appear 1
at the umpire.
P fury, outrage, rage, wrath,
choler, ire, pique, spleen,
verb to become visible or
present A woman appeared
verb to irritate or displease at the far end of the street.
Q vexation
someone Try making a note
of the things that annoy you.
come into view, crop up
(informal), emerge, show up
anger 2
R verb to make someone angry
bother, displease, get on
someones nerves (informal),
(informal), surface, turn up
antonym: disappear
The politicians remarks hack off (Britain and New
S angered his critics.
enrage, infuriate, outrage
Zealand; slang), hassle
(informal), irritate, Nicole was very anxious before
appear 2
verb to begin to exist
T antonym: calm plague, vex starting the exam.
Small white flowers
appear in the spring.
U angry annoyance 1 apathetic become available,
adjective very annoyed noun a feeling of irritation adjective not interested be invented, come into
Isaac made no secret of his in anything He was being, come into existence,
annoyance at bad grammar. apathetic about politics. come out
displeasure, irritation cool, indifferent, passive,
W noun a living creature
annoyance 2
antonym: enthusiastic
appearance 1
Dogs and cats are the noun the time when
X nations favourite animals.
beast, creature
noun something that causes
irritation Snoring can apologize
something begins to exist
We were surprised but
related word: prefix zoo- be more than an annoyance. verb to say sorry for something pleased at the new girls
Y bore, drag (informal), I apologize for being late. appearance in our class.
nuisance, pain (informal), ask forgiveness, beg advent, arrival, coming,
Z pain in the neck (informal),
someones pardon,
express regret, say sorry
debut, emergence,


adjective very annoyed The angry bull charged across the field.
Sofia really cares about
her appearance.
appearance 2
o y ed cross
noun the way that a person
looks Sofia really cares
about her appearance.
a n n f
bearing, image, look, looks, g
demeanour, mien

f u m i n furiou h
noun a computer program
designed for a particular
s i
purpose This application
runs on all tablets.
app, software

g n a n t
appointment 1 in di k
noun an arrangement to meet
someone Valeria has an l
appointment with the dentist.
d raging
date, interview, meeting,
appointment 2
noun the choosing of a person
to do a job Roy was
pleased with his appointment
as the new class president. p
election, naming,
nomination, selection q
appointment 3 r
noun a job He applied

for an appointment in Russia.
assignment, job, place,
position, post
appreciate 1
verb to value something highly
Joe appreciates good films.
admire, prize, rate highly,
respect, treasure, value
antonym: scorn
appreciate 2
verb to understand a situation
or problem I didnt
appreciate the seriousness
of it at the time. y
be aware of, perceive,
realize, recognize,
A approximate
adjective close but not exact
argument 1
noun an angry disagreement
article 1
noun a piece of writing in
The approximate time He got into an argument a newspaper or magazine
B the concert ends is 10pm. with one of the protesters. Theres an article about
estimated, inexact, barney (Britain, Australia, and the new park in todays paper.
C loose, rough
antonym: exact
New Zealand; informal), blue
(Australia; slang), clash,
feature, item, piece, story

dispute, feud, fight, row,

D squabble
article 2
ardent noun a particular item
adjective full of enthusiasm How many articles
Jeans are not appropriate clothes
for a smart occasion. and passion Stefan was argument 2 are on the table?
an ardent performer. noun a set of reasons item, object, thing
F appropriate avid, devoted, enthusiastic,
fervent, intense, keen,
presented for something
Theres a strong argument
adjective suitable or acceptable ashamed
passionate, zealous for going home now.
for a given situation adjective feeling embarrassed
antonym: apathetic case, grounds,
Jeans are not appropriate logic, reasoning
or guilty He was not

clothes for a smart occasion. ashamed of what he had done.
apt, correct, fitting, proper, embarrassed, guilty,
suitable, apposite, arrange 1 humiliated, sheepish, sorry,
I congruous, germane
antonym: inappropriate
verb to make plans to do
something Why dont you
chagrined, mortified
antonym: proud

J approval 1
arrange to meet him later?
fix up, organize, plan,
ask 1
noun agreement given verb to put a question
to something The idea to someone Erin asked
will require approval from Stefan was an ardent performer. arrange 2 me if Id enjoyed my dinner.
L teachers and parents.
agreement, authorization,
verb to set things out
in a particular order
inquire, interrogate, query,
question, quiz
area 1
Lucy's sister arranged
M blessing, endorsement,
permission, sanction,
noun a particular part
of a place Elena lived in
the books on the shelves.
antonym: answer

assent, imprimatur, classify, group, order,

ask 2
N mandate, ratification
an exclusive area of the city.
district, locality,
organize, sort, array,
verb to make a request
neighbourhood, to someone We had to
O approval 2
noun liking and admiration
region, zone ask him to leave.
appeal, beg, demand,

P of a person or thing
He wanted to gain area 2
noun the size of a two-
implore, plead, seek,
beseech, entreat
his fathers approval.
Q admiration, esteem, favour,
praise, respect
dimensional surface
The islands cover ask 3
a total area of 625 sq km. verb to invite someone
R antonym: disapproval
expanse, extent, range, size Everybody in the class
had been asked to the party.
S approve 1 argue 1 Lucy's sister arranged the books bid (literary), invite
verb to think something on the shelves.
verb to disagree with someone
or someone is good
in an angry way They argued aspect
T Not everyone approved
of the choice of players.
over the cost of the taxi fare. arrest 1 noun a feature of something
bicker, disagree, fall out verb to take someone into Exam results are only one
U admire, favour, praise,
respect, think highly of
(informal), feud, fight, custody Police arrested aspect of a schools success.
quarrel, row, squabble, five men. consideration, element,
antonym: disapprove
V wrangle apprehend, capture, nick
(Britain; slang), seize, take
factor, feature, part,
point, side
approve 2 argue 2 prisoner
W verb to agree formally
to something They approved
verb to try to prove assemble 1
Lena argued that the dog arrest 2 verb to fit the parts
X the plan for a new playground.
authorize, consent to,
could not have scratched noun the act of arresting of something together
the table. someone The police The children were
endorse, permit, sanction
Y antonym: veto
assert, claim, debate,
maintain, reason,
made two arrests.
apprehension, capture,
assembling model planes.
build, construct, erect,
controvert, expostulate, seizure make, put together
Z remonstrate

associate 1
verb to connect one thing
association 2
noun a connection or
verb to join or fasten things
with another Dark clouds involvement with a person together The gadget can
are associated with rain. or group Did you know be attached to any surface. b
connect, couple, about his association affix, connect, couple,
identify, link with the band?
affiliation, attachment,
fasten, join, link, tie
antonym: separate
bond, connection,
associate 2
verb to spend time with a
relationship, tie,
attachment 1 d
The tourists assembled in a line affinity, liaison
person I began associating
next to the bus.
with different groups of people.
noun a feeling of love and
affection A mother and e
hang out (informal), mingle, assume 1 child form a close attachment.
assemble 2
verb to gather together
mix, run around (informal),
socialize, consort,
verb to accept that something
is true Lewis assumed that
affection, bond, fondness,
liking, love
in a group The tourists
assembled in a line next
fraternize Jon knew what he was doing.
believe, guess (informal),
to the bus. imagine, suppose, think
attachment 2
associate 3
noun a part that connects
collect, come together,
noun a person known through to something else
congregate, convene,
work After arriving late, assume 2 The drill comes with
gather, mass
she joined her business
associates at the meeting.
verb to take responsibility
for something I will assume
a wide range of attachments.
accessory, component,
noun a person who helps
colleague, co-worker,
the role of team leader.
accept, shoulder, take on,
fitting, fixture, part, unit
someone The assistant undertake
attack 1
took notes as his boss listed
what meetings he needed.
association 1 verb to use violence against k
noun an organization astute someone or something
aide, ally, colleague,
helper, right-hand man Many schools have
a parents association.
adjective very intelligent
or perceptive Amys an
body, club, company,
confederation, group,
astute judge of character.
alert, clever, keen,
institution, league, society, perceptive, quick, sharp,
syndicate, fraternity shrewd, smart, discerning n
attack Forward, men, and r
1 verb to use violence against
someone or something Williams set upon
I really didnt
want to be involved army attacked King Harolds knights. the cavalry. Charge! s
in this raid .
What if they decide
assault t
will go down
in history. u
Ive always
wanted to
A attack 2
verb to criticize someone
automatic 1
adjective operating
avoid 1
verb to keep away from
strongly She attacked the mechanically by itself someone or something
B ministers views on education. Modern trains have She thought he was
blast, censure, criticize, automatic doors. trying to avoid her.
C have a go at (Britain;
informal), put down
automated, mechanical,
robot, self-propelled
dodge, elude, eschew
(formal), evade, shun,
(informal), vilify (formal), sidestep, steer clear of
D berate, dress down,
automatic 2
lambaste, revile
adjective without conscious avoid 2
E thought Breathing is an verb to make an effort
attack 3 automatic physical function. not to do something
F noun violent physical action
against someone or something
instinctive, involuntary,
natural, reflex
Liam avoided going out
by pretending to be ill.
It was an unprovoked attack
dodge, duck out of
on the surprised man. (informal), fight shy of,
assault, charge, invasion,
automobile refrain from, shirk,
The leading star is very attractive. noun (US) a vehicle for
offensive, onslaught, raid circumvent,
carrying a few people
give a wide berth to
attractive After thinking about
I attempt 1
verb to try to do something
adjective pleasant, especially
it, Ali decided to buy
an expensive automobile. aware 1 : aware of
to look at The leading star
They attempted to escape.
J endeavour, seek, strive,
is very attractive.
appealing, charming,
car, motor, vehicle adjective conscious of
something Ava was acutely
try, try your hand at aware of the noise of the city.
fetching, handsome,
acquainted with,
lovely, pretty, comely,
conscious of,
attempt 2 prepossessing, winsome
L noun an act of trying
to do something
antonym: unattractive
familiar with, mindful of
antonym: unaware

It was Ryans third

M attempt at the pole vault.
noun a quality or feature
aware 2
bid, crack (informal), adjective knowing about
Annas main attribute
N go (informal), shot (informal),
stab (informal), try
is her unfailing generosity.
After thinking about it, Ali decided
to buy an expensive automobile.
something Keep me
aware of any developments.
characteristic, feature,
O property, quality, trait,
idiosyncrasy, peculiarity
informed, in the picture,
knowledgeable, in the loop
adjective ready for use
P augment
There are three small
boats available for hire.
adjective very unpleasant
Q verb to add something
to something else
accessible, at hand,
at someones disposal,
or very bad The weather
this morning is awful.
Sally augmented her pocket free, handy, to hand
R money by dogsitting for the
neighbours when they went
antonym: unavailable
appalling, dreadful,
frightful, ghastly,
horrendous, terrible,
S It was Ryans third attempt
at the pole vault.
out for the day.
add to, boost, complement,
average 1
adjective standard or normal
abysmal, deplorable
increase, reinforce,
T supplement, top up I get up at 7am on an
average weekday, but
attitude tomorrow is a holiday
U noun someones way
of thinking and behaving
authentic so I'll sleep longer.
adjective real and genuine normal, regular, standard,
Having a positive attitude
V helps you achieve your dreams. The cake was made
to an authentic French recipe.
typical, usual
outlook, perspective, point
bona fide, dinkum (Australia
average 2 :
W of view, position, stance
and New Zealand; informal),
genuine, real, true
on average
adverb for the most part
X attract antonym: fake
Men are, on average,
verb to appeal to or interest
taller than women.
The trial races have
Y attracted many leading riders.
as a rule, generally,
normally, typically,
appeal to, draw, entice,
Z lure, pull (informal), tempt
antonym: repel The weather this morning is awful.

badly 1
adverb in an inferior way
This essay is badly written,
with poor grammar. b
inadequately, ineptly,
poorly, shoddily,
antonym: well
badly 2
adverb seriously
The dog loved playing with the ball.
Ben was badly hurt in a fall. ball
babble back 2
deeply, desperately,
gravely, seriously
noun a round object f
The dog loved playing
verb to talk in an excited way
Tim babbled on and on
verb to support a person
or organization
antonym: slightly
with the ball. g
drop, globe, pellet, sphere,
about how much fun hed Minas friends backed her badly 3
globule, orb, spheroid
had at the party. campaign for student president.
adverb in a cruel manner
burble, chatter, gabble, advocate, encourage,
Jim would never treat his ban 1
prattle endorse, favour, promote,
support, champion, second
dog badly he adores it.
brutally, callously, cruelly,
verb to disallow something i
baby antonym: oppose Adults are banned from
noun a very young child
savagely, viciously
antonym: well
taking part in the kids race.
bar, disqualify, exclude,
Jia enjoyed playing background
forbid, outlaw, prohibit,
with her baby brother. noun where you come from;
ankle-biter (Australia and your class, education, training,
bait banish, proscribe,
noun something used to tempt suppress
or experience Marianne
New Zealand; slang), bairn
(Scotland), child, infant came from a rich background.
someone Charles used
worms as bait to catch fish.
antonym: permit l
culture, environment,
history, upbringing
bribe, decoy, inducement,
lure, temptation
ban 2 m
noun a rule disallowing
bad 1 balance 1
something There is a ban
on chewing gum in school.
adjective harmful, unpleasant,
verb to make or remain steady disqualification, embargo,
or upsetting I have bad
news the holiday is cancelled. The gymnast balanced prohibition, suppression o
gracefully on one leg. antonym: permit
damaging, destructive,
detrimental, distressing,
level, stabilize, steady p
disturbing, grim, harmful, band 1
painful, traumatic,
unhealthy, unpleasant,
noun a group of musicians
who play together
unsettling, upsetting Luiz was a singer in
Jia enjoyed playing with
antonym: good a rock-and-roll band. r
group, orchestra, combo,
her baby brother.
bad 2
adjective of poor quality
back 1 band 2
noun the part that is behind
The roads were bad, full
of potholes. noun a group of people who
the front Write a message
on the back of a postcard.
end, rear, reverse, stern
defective, deficient, faulty,
imperfect, inadequate,
share a common purpose
The protest was led by u
inferior, pathetic, poor, a band of angry students.
antonym: front
sorry, unsatisfactory bunch, company, crowd,
antonym: good gang, party, troupe
The gymnast balanced gracefully

bad 3
on one leg.
adjective evil in character
Superheroes always win balance 2
noun a stable relationship
over the bad guys.
between things There
corrupt, criminal, depraved,
evil, immoral, sinful,
must be a balance between y
study and play time.
Write a message on the back
of a postcard.
villainous, wicked, wrong
antonym: good
equilibrium, equity,
equivalence, parity
The protest was led by a band
of angry students.

ar w,

he do

nt win
M o or

ike to


did he
h a be

ey on t
F m
mm le
er t in

t th d
er d

bu ocke
ed .





H do

I ou

J The ball
hit the p
m p
K ost.

th u and
red esks.
L d
e e
ch ir d
ren n the
ch d o
M The umpe
t h

N e a t
b a ci
O e g
sat ums
roup all dr
Th ing s I s la m
P bea the p down

1 verb to hit or put something down
U hard, with a loud noise
Charlie banged the drums
V so loudly, my ears hurt.

bang 1
verb to hit or put something
bank 2
noun a store of something
base 1
noun the lowest part of
Supplies are running low something They played
down hard, with a loud noise
SEE LEFT at the blood bank. at the base of the cliffs.
fund, hoard, reserve, stock, bed, bottom, foot,
bang 2 store, reservoir, stockpile foundation, pedestal, stand
antonym: top
noun a sudden, short, loud
noise The microwave
exploded with a bang.
bar 1
noun a piece of metal base 2 d
The prison cell had
blast, boom, crack,
detonation, explosion, bars across the window.
noun the place you work from
He lived at the military base. e
thump pole, rail, rod, shaft camp, centre, headquarters,
post, station
bang 3 bar 2
noun a hard or painful bump verb to stop someone base 3 g
against something I got Bryans bodyguards barred verb to use as a foundation
The Sahara is a barren desert.
The film is based on
a nasty bang on the elbow. the way as his fans rushed
blow, clout (informal), towards him. a true story.
knock, thump, whack obstruct, prevent barren build, derive, found,
adjective with nothing growing
on it The Sahara is
ground, hinge i
banish 1
verb to exile someone
a barren desert.
arid, desert, desolate, dry,
basic j
Aliyah banished Doug empty, waste, unfruitful,
adjective most necessary
A basic first aid kit
from the house until he
took off his muddy shoes. includes bandages.
antonym: fertile
deport, eject, evict, exile, elementary, essential,
expel, transport
barrier 1
fundamental, key,
necessary, vital, central,
banish 2 noun something preventing
entry There were barriers
indispensable, primary
verb to get rid of something
to prevent the audience from
or someone The kids finally
getting onto the stage.
basis n
banished their boredom with noun the main principle
barricade, fence,
a game of hide and seek. of something An old
discard, dismiss, dispel,
Bryans bodyguards barred the way
as his fans rushed towards him.
obstruction, wall,
fortification, obstacle,
fairy tale forms the basis o
eliminate, eradicate, of the new fantasy film.
bare 1
core, fundamental, heart,
premise, principle
barrier 2
bank 1
noun the edge of a river
adjective not covered
Stella wore shorts to the noun something that
bay 1
beach, and she burnt her prevents progress
or lake Ed stood for ages noun a curve in a coastline
fishing on the river bank.
bare legs in the sun.
exposed, uncovered
A lack of funds is the
biggest barrier preventing The Bay of Naples is on r
brink, edge, shore, side the west coast of Italy.
antonym: covered me from travelling to South
cove, gulf, inlet, sound
Africa in the summer.
handicap, hindrance,
bare 2 bay 2
adjective with nothing
hurdle, impediment,
obstacle verb to make a howling noise
on top or inside
The wolf bayed in the
Len forgot to buy groceries,
so the cupboard was bare. barter moonlight. u
bark, cry, howl, yelp
empty, open, spartan, verb to exchange goods
vacant or services without money
I bartered my comic book
barely for Waynes baseball.
exchange, give in exchange,
adverb only just
Its too early in the morning
for Lisa to join us for a walk;
swap, trade, trade off,
bargain x
shell be barely awake.
almost, hardly, just, y
Ed stood for ages fishing on scarcely
the river bank.
The wolf bayed in the moonlight.
A beach
noun an area by the sea
bear 3
verb to accept something
conjunction for the reason that
Jim cant bear the sound I didnt go to the restaurant
of cutlery scraping on a plate. because I was tired.
abide, endure, stomach, as, since, in that,
bear 1
C verb to carry something
suffer, tolerate on account of, owing to
The ice wasnt thick
D enough to bear their weight, beat 1 before
and it began to crack. verb to hit someone adverb at a previous time
carry, convey, shoulder, or something hard Have you ever been
E support, take Sheila beat the drum. to Greece before?
batter, buffet, hit, pound, earlier, formerly, in
F bear 2 strike, thrash
The coast is an area of
advance, previously, sooner
antonym: after
verb to have or show something
outstanding natural beauty. related words: prefixes ante-,
The room bore the signs beat 2 fore-, pre-
of a lively party. verb to defeat
Ethan is a slow runner and beauty 1
exhibit, harbour, have
was easily beaten in the race. noun the quality of being beg
defeat, outdo, outstrip, beautiful The coast is verb to ask anxiously
I overcome, overwhelm,
vanquish, conquer, master,
an area of outstanding
natural beauty.
for something
The girl begged her dad
J surpass attractiveness, charm,
elegance, loveliness
for another ice cream.
beseech, implore, petition,
antonym: ugliness plead, entreat, importune
beat 3
K noun a rhythm Rock music
has a thumping beat. beauty 2
L cadence, metre, rhythm,
stress, time
noun a good-looking person
She was a dark-eyed beauty.
M beautiful
hunk (male; informal),
looker, stunner (informal)

N adjective attractive or pleasing

A beautiful picture can beauty 3
brighten up a room. noun an attractive feature
O attractive, delightful, fine,
gorgeous, lovely, pleasing,
The beauty of the plan
is its simplicity.

P The room bore the signs

of a lively party.
exquisite, fair
antonym: ugly
advantage, asset,
attraction, benefit
The girl begged her dad
for another ice cream.

T I love to holiday at
the seaside.
He enjoys walks
U along the seashore. shore
He swam out from

V the shore.

W coast
X Lets go for a day
trip to the coast.
sands beach
Y The sands of
noun an area by the sea
I dug a sandcastle on
are golden. the beach.
verb to start or cause to start
verb to accept something
bend 2
verb to move the body
best 1
adjective of the highest
When did the show begin? is true Dont believe downwards I bent standard That was the
commence (formal), initiate, everything you read in and kissed her cheek. best film I have seen in a b
originate, set about, start, the papers. arch, bow, crouch, long time.
inaugurate, instigate,
accept, assume, presume,
swallow (informal), trust
incline, lean, stoop finest, first-rate, foremost,
greatest, leading,
antonym: end antonym: disbelieve outstanding, pre-eminent,
bend 3
noun a curve in something
principal, superlative, d
supreme, top
beginner belittle Watch out for the sharp
noun someone learning verb to make someone or bend in the road.
antonym: worst e
to do something something seem less important arc, corner, curve, loop,
Ali joined the French
for beginners class.
Ted always belittles me in
front of my friends it really
turn, angle, arch, twist best 2
adjective most desirable
apprentice, learner, novice,
starter, trainee
shakes my confidence.
deride, detract from,
beneficial Offering to pay for the
broken window was the best
adjective giving some benefit
antonym: expert downgrade, scorn, thing to do.
Eating fruit is beneficial
undervalue, denigrate,
disparage, minimize
to your health.
correct, most fitting, right
antonym: worst
beginning advantageous, good for
noun where something starts
The signpost marked the
antonym: praise
you, healthy, helpful,
useful, wholesome best 3 i
beginning of the city.
birth, commencement adjective dearly loved
benefit 1
noun the preferred thing
Of all my presents, this j
(formal), opening, origin, Anthony proposed to Meeting looks the best may I open
noun an advantage
outset, start, inauguration, his beloved girlfriend. it first?
interesting people is one of the
initiation, onset adored, cherished, darling, cream, elite, finest, pick
benefits of joining a club.
antonym: end dearest, precious,
advantage, asset, boon,
gain, good, help, profit, use
antonym: worst
antonym: despised
behave antonym: disadvantage
verb to act in a certain way
If you dont behave nicely, benefit 2
well have to leave the party.
verb to help in something
act, function, operate, work
The experience will benefit
you when you take the test. o
belief 1 aid, assist, enhance,
noun the certainty something
is true Miriams belief that
further, help, profit
antonym: harm
it was going to be a fine
summer turned out to be right.
confidence, conviction,
adjective kind and helpful
judgment, opinion,
trust, view Arthur was a benevolent king r
who cared about his people. Of all my presents, this looks the

belief 2
benign, charitable,
compassionate, humane,
best may I open it first?
Anthony proposed to his
noun a principle of a religion kind, altruistic, beneficent,
or system His religion gave
beloved girlfriend.
betray 1 t
verb to break someones trust
him a strong set of beliefs.
I was betrayed by
creed, doctrine, dogma,
faith, ideology, principle,
preposition or adverb lower
beside someone I thought u
preposition next to We sat was a friend.
down The basement
beside each other watching TV. break your promise,
is below the ground floor.
adjacent to, alongside, double-cross (informal),
beneath, down, lower,
adjective possible or likely
under, underneath
antonym: above
close to, near, next to inform on
to be the case The book
betray 2
is full of believable characters
I can relate to. bend 1 verb to show feelings x
Jeremys voice betrayed
credible, imaginable, likely,
plausible, possible,
verb to make or become
curved Bend the bar
little emotion over
the phone.
probable into a horseshoe.
antonym: unbelievable buckle, curve, turn,
twist, warp
We sat beside each other
watching TV.
expose, manifest,
reveal, show z
m en se
D at significa g e im
g re n t h u
la rge enormous

1 adjective of a large size
J The diplodocus was a big dinosaur...

better 1 bias big 3
L adjective of more worth than noun prejudice for or against adjective an important issue or
another The weather today a person or group problem Moving to a new
M was better than yesterday.
finer, grander, greater,
The caf had a bias for
hiring staff who speak French.
town was a big decision.
critical, grave, momentous,

N higher-quality, nicer,
preferable, superior,
bigotry, favouritism,
serious, urgent, weighty
antonym: minor
surpassing, worthier
O antonym: inferior
biased bill
adjective showing prejudice noun a statement of how much
P better 2
adjective well after being ill
The basketball team were
biased against short players.
is owed The party of 20 ran
up a huge bill in the restaurant.
Matt and Joe had a bitter
Q I hope you feel better soon.
cured, fitter, fully
one-eyed (Australia and New
Zealand), one-sided, partial,
account, charges, invoice,
argument over the accident.

recovered, healthier, prejudiced, slanted,

R improving, on the mend
(informal), recovering,
antonym: neutral
bit bitter 1
adjective angry and resentful
noun a small amount
S stonger, well
A bit of biscuit fell on Matt and Joe had a bitter
antonym: worse argument over the accident.
big 1 the floor while Stan was
acrimonious, begrudging,
T beware
adjective of a large size
eating it.
crumb, fragment, grain,
embittered, rancorous,
resentful, sour
verb to be cautious The sign part, piece, scrap, iota,
U warned us to beware of the dog.
big 2 jot, speck
be careful, be cautious,
adjective someone of great
bitter 2
V be wary, guard against,
look out, watch out
importance My cousin met bite adjective tasting or smelling
sharp Something in the
some big Hollywood stars at verb to cut into something
pie had a bitter taste.
W the film festival.
eminent, important,
with your teeth
Rachels cat bit me. acid, acrid, astringent,
sharp, sour, tart
influential, leading, major, chew, gnaw, nibble, nip
X powerful, principal,
antonym: sweet
prominent, significant
Y antonym: unimportant

Z The sign warned us to

beware of the dog.

gigantic m
a ssive colossal vast c
little i
... But compsognathus
was a little beast! j
bizarre blank 1 blend 2 blessing 2
adjective very strange or adjective with nothing on it verb to combine in a pleasing noun approval or permission l
eccentric Chang has some Use a blank sheet of paper. way The colours blend in to do something
bizarre ideas about what bare, clean, clear, empty, with the rest of the decor. Fiona got married with m
to do on holiday. plain, unmarked complement, coordinate, her parents blessing.
curious, eccentric,
extraordinary, odd,
go well, harmonize,
match, suit
approval, backing, consent,
leave, permission, support,
outlandish, peculiar,
blank 2 approbation, sanction
queer, strange, weird
adjective showing no feeling
John just looked blank blend 3 antonym: disapproval o
antonym: ordinary
upon hearing the news.
deadpan, dull, empty,
noun a mixture or combination
of things The menu blob p
black impassive, vacant was a blend of French noun a small amount of
noun or adjective
Shades of black:
and Chinese flavours.
alloy, amalgamation,
a thick or sticky substance
The artist squeezed out
coal-black, ebony, inky, jet,
blend 1
combination, compound, a blob of pink paint.
jet-black, pitch-black,
verb to mix things so as to
form a single item or substance
fusion, mix, mixture bead, dab, drop, droplet r
raven, sable, sooty
Jill used a mixer to blend
the ingredients. bless s
blame 1 combine, merge, verb to ask Gods protection
verb to believe someone
caused something
mingle, mix
antonym: separate
The bishop blessed
the congregation.
Dont blame me for losing
the present.
anoint, consecrate,
dedicate, hallow u
accuse, charge, antonym: curse
hold responsible
blessing 1
blame 2
noun the responsibility
noun something good
Good health is a blessing. The artist squeezed out
for something bad benefit, boon, gift, a blob of pink paint.
Im not going to take the godsend, help
blame for forgetting the tickets! antonym: disadvantage
block 1
accountability, fault, guilt,
liability, rap (slang),
noun a large piece A block y
of wood fell near his foot.
responsibility, culpability,
Jill used a mixer to blend
the ingredients.
bar, brick, chunk, ingot,
lump, piece
A block 2
verb to close by putting
noun or adjective
bold 2
adjective unafraid of risk or
something across Shades of blue: danger The crew made
B Rubble blocked the river. aqua, aquamarine, azure, a bold attempt at rescuing
choke, clog, obstruct, plug baby blue, cerulean, cobalt, the boat.
C antonym: unblock cyan, duck-egg, electric
blue, gentian, indigo, lapis
adventurous, brave,
courageous, daring,
lazuli, midnight blue, navy, fearless, intrepid,
D block 3 Nile blue, peacock blue, audacious, heroic, valiant
verb to prevent something
periwinkle, petrol blue, antonym: cowardly
happening The neighbours
E blocked his plan to build
powder blue, royal blue,
sapphire, sky blue, teal,
a high fence.
turquoise, ultramarine
Exercise is good for your body
and mind.
bold 3
F bar, check, halt, obstruct,
stop, thwart
adjective clear and noticeable
Emily and Caths outfits
blunt 1 body 1
were a riot of bold colours.
adjective having rounded edges noun all your physical parts bright, flashy, loud,
blockage Blunt scissors cant cut Exercise is good for your striking, strong, vivid,
noun a thing that clogs
through cardboard. body and mind. conspicuous, prominent,
something There was
dull, rounded, unsharpened build, figure, form, pronounced
a blockage in the pipe.
I block, obstruction,
antonym: sharp frame, physique, shape
related words: adjectives
antonym: dull

corporal, physical
blunt 2
J blog adjective saying what you think
Steves speech was blunt body 2
noun a journal written on the
and to the point. noun a dead body
internet Have you seen
Mindy's new fashion blog?
bluff, brusque, forthright, The body of the former
L microblog, vlog, weblog
frank, outspoken,
straightforward, explicit,
president lay in state.
carcass, corpse, dead
tactless, trenchant body, remains Emily and Caths outfits
M blow 1
verb to move or cause to move
antonym: tactful were a riot of bold colours.

in the wind The wind blew

body 3
N Garys papers away.
blush 1
verb to go red in the face
noun an organized group of
people Local bodies worked
verb to escape or run
buffet, drive, flutter, sweep,
Fatima blushed when her away The horse bolted
O waft, whirl
name was called out to
together to put on a successful
summer fair. from the stable after Claude
receive an award. association, band, left the door open.
P blow 2
noun a hit from something
colour, go crimson,
flush, go red, turn red,
company, confederation,
organization, society, bloc,
dash, escape, flee, fly,
run away, run off, rush
Q Danny gave the punchbag
a mighty blow.
turn scarlet collection, corporation
bomb 1
bang, clout (informal), knock,
blush 2 boil 1
R smack, thump, whack
noun a red colour verb to bubble She peered
noun an explosive device
Luckily, the bomb failed to
Ann took the gift over the cliff at the stormy sea detonate, so no one was hurt.
S with a blush.
colour, flush, glow
boiling below.
bubble, fizz, foam, froth,
device, explosive, missile,
rocket, shell, torpedo,

T boast
effervesce, seethe grenade, mine, projectile

U verb to talk proudly boil 2 bomb 2

Carol boasted about her noun a swelling on the skin verb to attack with bombs
expensive costume. Ted had a boil on his neck. The old factory was bombed
V Danny gave the punchbag a
mighty blow.
brag, crow, skite (Australia blister, swelling, tumour, during the war.
and New Zealand; informal) blain, carbuncle, pustule attack, blow up, bombard,

W blow 3 boastful bold 1

destroy, shell, torpedo

X noun something disappointing adjective tending to brag adjective confident and not shy bond 1
or upsetting Losing the about things The boastful It was a bold move to invite noun a close relationship
match was a terrible blow. liar told us he was a millionaire. the entire school to her party. There is a special bond
Y bombshell, disappointment, bragging, cocky, conceited, brash, brazen, cheeky, between parent and child.
misfortune, setback, shock, crowing, egotistical, confident, forward, attachment, connection,
Z upset, calamity,
catastrophe, jolt
antonym: modest
impudent, barefaced
antonym: shy
link, relation, tie, union,
affiliation, affinity

bond 2
noun a pledge or promise made
border 2
noun an edge of something
adjective dull and uninteresting
bother 2
noun trouble and difficulty
between people Marriage is Draw a border around Garth couldnt wait for the Getting dried after swimming
a solemn bond between two your picture. boring film to end. is such a bother. b
people who love one another. bounds, edge, limits, dull, flat, humdrum, annoyance, difficulty,
agreement, contract,
obligation, pledge, promise,
margin, rim monotonous, tedious,
tiresome, insipid,
inconvenience, irritation,
trouble, worry, nuisance,
word, compact, covenant, repetitious, stale strain
border 3
verb to form an edge
antonym: interesting d
Tall trees bordered the fields. bottom 1
bond 3 edge, fringe, hem, rim, trim boss noun the lowest part of e
verb to attach separate things noun a person in charge of something The dog sat
The strips of wood are
bonded together to form
bored something Kaito got on
well with his boss.
at the bottom of the stairs.
base, bed, depths,
adjective impatient and not
a stronger, solid block.
bind, fasten, fuse,
interested in something
chief, director, employer,
head, leader, manager
floor, foot
antonym: top
glue, paste I am bored with this subject.
fed up, tired, uninterested,
wearied bossy
book 1 antonym: interested adjective telling people what
noun a number of pages
in a cover Im reading
to do Sophia is a rather
bossy little girl.
a great book just now.
eBook, publication,
arrogant, authoritarian,
dictatorial, domineering, j
textbook, volume, work imperious, overbearing
botch The dog sat at the bottom
book 2
verb to arrange to have or use
verb to do something badly
Dad botched the
of the stairs.
The theatre tickets are
booked for Tuesday evening.
decorating so we had to
call in the professionals.
bottom 2 m
adjective in the lowest place
charter, engage, organize, bungle, mar, mess up
reserve, schedule
I am bored with this subject.
or position I keep my socks
in the bottom drawer.
bother 1 base, basement, ground,
border 1 boredom verb to cause worry or concern lowest o
noun a dividing line between Stop bothering your mother antonym: highest
things or places There were
long queues of traffic waiting
noun a lack of interest
Boredom can set in when shes busy working!
annoy, concern, disturb,
on long car journeys. bounce 1
to cross the border between
the two countries.
apathy, dullness, flatness,
monotony, tedium,
get on someones nerves
(informal), trouble, worry,
verb to spring backThe
ball bounced against the wall.
borderline, boundary, harass, inconvenience
weariness bump, ricochet,
frontier, line
antonym: interest rebound, recoil r
1 types of books








A brave 1
adjective willing to do
break 2
verb to fail to keep a rule or
brief 2
verb to give necessary
dangerous things Rescuing promise Sal broke his information The teacher
B the girl from the water was promise to attend the party. briefed the class on the project.
a brave act. breach, contravene, advise, fill in (informal),
C bold, courageous, fearless,
heroic, plucky, valiant,
infringe, violate inform, instruct,
prepare, prime
daring, intrepid, valorous
D antonym: cowardly
break 3
noun a short period of rest or bright 1
change I took a five-minute adjective strong and startling
E brave 2 break from writing. Lighthouses emit a
verb to face something without interlude, interval, pause, bright light that is visible
F fear Fans braved the rain
to hear the star sing.
recess, respite, rest from a distance.
brilliant, dazzling, glowing,

face, stand up to luminous, radiant, vivid,
Sue bounced across the field. breed 1 blazing, illuminated,
noun a type of animal
bravery The farm specialized
H bounce 2
verb to move up and down
noun the quality of being in rare breeds of cattle.
antonym: dull
courageous The knight kind, species, stock, strain,
Sue bounced across the field.
I bob, bound, jump
was rewarded for his bravery.
boldness, courage,
type, variety

J box
fortitude, heroism, pluck,
valour, fearlessness,
breed 2
verb to produce and look after
noun a container with a firm gallantry, mettle
Daniel breeds dogs for
K base and sides
Saras things were packed
antonym: cowardice
the police.
cultivate, develop, keep,
L in boxes, ready to move.
carton, case, chest,
breach 1
noun a breaking of a law or
nurture, raise, rear
container, trunk
agreement Coming into work
M late is a breach of contract.
breed 3
verb to produce offspring
boy infringement, offence,
Chickens can breed
N noun a male child I knew
Adam when he was a boy.
trespass, violation,
throughout the year.
Lighthouses emit a bright light
multiply, produce,
O fellow, lad, schoolboy,
youngster, youth
propagate, reproduce,
engender, procreate
that is visible from a distance.

breach 2 bright 2
P boycott noun a gap in something adjective clever and alert
verb to refuse to have anything The dog stuck his head You are a bright student,
Q to do with Some parties
are boycotting the elections.
through a breach in the fence.
crack, gap, hole, opening,
you always get good grades.
brainy (informal), brilliant,

R blacklist, embargo,
exclude, reject, spurn,
rift, split, chasm, fissure,
clever, ingenious,
intelligent, smart,
proscribe, refrain from acute, astute, sharp
S antonym: dim
T verb to boast about something bright 3
People who brag about adjective cheerful and lively

U their achievements are

really annoying.
Lily always has a bright
smile on her face.
boast, crow, skite (Australia cheerful, happy, jolly,
V and New Zealand; informal) Chickens can breed throughout
the year.
light-hearted, lively, merry

W braggart
noun a person who boasts brief 1
brilliant 1
adjective very bright
X David was a braggart,
telling everyone about his
The dog stuck his head through
adjective lasting for a short
time Ethan made a brief
The diamond reflected
a brilliant light.
a breach in the fence.
new sports car. appearance on television. bright, dazzling, gleaming,
Y bigmouth (slang), boaster, fleeting, momentary, quick, glowing, luminous, radiant,
bragger, show-off, skite or break 1 short, swift, ephemeral, sparkling, vivid
Z skiter (Australia and New
Zealand; informal)
verb to separate into pieces
temporary, transitory
antonym: long
antonym: dull


disintegrate b
crac Tissue paper disintegrates

in water.
from wall cra
top ck
to b ed
1 verb to separate into pieces otto
He broke the ice with a hammer.

l e e
c r u m b
stock demolis f
le the
Crumb to the water.
cube in
The dere
needed d t house
h g

t fracture tured her
She frac
The pictu
re fragm
into tiny ented
a t t e r l
sh roppe
The d shattered
sp sm p
lin as q
Th eb
ew all
o od the sma
win shed
as plint
he ere
cu d
w. r
t it

ap sp ec w
ed Th

il in
pp .
na half Sp
li t th lit
shi e ice
ps ber
hu g w
ll. re
k x
e pe ea cke
Th pp dt
le he
A brilliant 2
adjective very clever
broad 2
adjective including or affecting
broken 2
adjective not kept
noun a structure with walls
Ed is a brilliant pupil, and many different things or people Frank had heard so many The office building had
B grasps complex ideas easily. We discussed a broad range broken promises, he no longer 14 floors.
acute, brainy (informal), of issues. believed what Sally said. edifice, structure
C bright, clever, intelligent,
perceptive, sharp, smart
comprehensive, extensive,
general, sweeping,
infringed, violated,
disobeyed, transgressed
antonym: stupid universal, wide,
bulge 1
D wide-ranging
verb to swell out The
frogs vocal sac bulges as
brilliant 3 it sings to attract a mate.
noun or adjective
adjective wonderful or superb broad 3 Shades of brown: expand, protrude,
Its a brilliant film. adjective general rather than auburn, bay, beige, stick out, swell
F first-class, great,
magnificent, marvellous,
detailed The documents
provided a broad outline
bronze, brunette, buff,
burnt sienna, burnt umber,

outstanding, superb, of the plan. caf au lait, camel,
tremendous, wonderful approximate, general, chestnut, chocolate,
antonym: terrible non-specific, rough, cinnamon, coffee, dun,
H sweeping, vague fawn, ginger, hazel, khaki,
mahogany, mocha,
bring 1
I verb to take somewhere
Can you please bring
broadcast 1
noun a programme on radio
oatmeal, ochre, putty,
russet, rust, sandy, sepia,
tan, taupe, tawny,
or television The news
J the laundry downstairs?
bear, carry, convey, broadcast starts at 6pm.
terracotta, umber
lead, take, transport podcast, programme,
K build 1 The frogs vocal sac bulges
show, transmission,
as it sings to attract a mate.
webcast verb to make something
Simon used brick and
L broadcast 2 mortar to build the new bulge 2
garden wall. noun a lump in something
M verb to send out so that it can
be seen or heard You can
assemble, construct, erect,
fabricate, form, make
My wallet made a bulge
in my pocket.
hear the concert broadcast
N live on the radio.
air, show, stream, transmit
antonym: dismantle bump, hump, lump,
protrusion, swelling

O Can you please bring the

laundry downstairs?
broadcast 3 bully 1
noun someone who deliberately
P bring 2
verb to make known publicly
You dont need to frightens or hurts others
No one likes the class bully.
verb to cause to happen broadcast your feelings
Q The new factory will bring
more jobs to the city.
to the entire world.
advertise, announce, make
oppressor, persecutor

bully 2
R cause, create, inflict,
produce, result in, wreak,
public, proclaim, tweet
verb to frighten or hurt
effect, occasion someone deliberately and
S broken 1 repeatedly I wasnt going
adjective in pieces
to let him bully me.
bring about Jo rang the police when
T verb to cause something
to happen It was Donald's
she saw the broken window.
burst, demolished,
Simon used brick and mortar
to build the new garden wall.
intimidate, oppress,
persecute, pick on,
tease, torment
U arrogance that brought
about his downfall.
fractured, fragmented,
shattered, smashed build 2
cause, create, generate, verb to develop gradually bully 3
V make happen, produce, I want to build a relationship verb to make someone do
provoke with the new neighbours. something by using force

W develop, extend, increase, Chloe used to bully me

intensify, strengthen, into doing her homework.
broad 1 augment, enlarge, escalate force, intimidate,
X adjective large, especially from
side to side The bodybuilder
pressurize, coerce,
had broad shoulders. build 3
Y expansive, extensive, large, noun the size of a body
thick, vast, wide, ample, Pedro is of medium build.
Z spacious
antonym: narrow
Jo rang the police when she saw
the broken window.
body, figure, form, frame,
physique, shape

bump 1
verb to hit something Ted
burden 2
noun something that worries
burst 3
noun a short period of
busy 1
adjective doing something
you Betty had the added something After a burst I cant go out tonight,
bumped his elbow on the wall.
bang, collide, hit, jolt, burden of looking after of energy, the dog fell asleep. Im busy.
knock, strike a sick pet. fit, outbreak, rush, spate, active, employed, engaged,
anxiety, care, strain, stress,
trouble, worry, affliction,
surge, torrent engrossed, occupied,
bump 2 millstone, trial antonym: idle
noun a dull noise
Layla heard a bump outside.
related word: adjective
business 1
noun the buying and selling
of goods Leah made busy 2
bang, knock, thud, thump
a career in business. adjective full of activity e
bump 3 bureaucracy commerce, dealings, The station was busy
noun a raised part of
noun complex rules and
procedures Is there
industry, trade, trading,
with commuters.
active, full, hectic,
something Mind the
bump in the road.
too much bureaucracy
in government?
lively, restless
bulge, hump, knob, lump,
administration, officialdom,
business 2
swelling, contusion, node, noun an organization
red tape, regulations
protuberance selling goods or services
Monica wanted to work for
bunch 1 burn 1
verb to be on fire A fire
the family business.
company, corporation,
noun a group of people
The players were a
great bunch.
burned in the fireplace.
be ablaze, be on fire, blaze,
enterprise, establishment,
firm, organization, concern, j
flame, flare, flicker conglomerate, venture
band, crowd, gaggle, gang,
group, lot, multitude
business 3
bunch 2 noun any event or situation
This business has upset me.
noun several cut flowers held
together Wyatt had left
affair, issue, matter,
problem, question, subject The station was busy
a bunch of flowers in her with commuters.
hotel room.
bouquet, posy, spray bustle 1 n
verb to move hurriedly busy 3
My mother bustled about the verb to occupy or keep busy o
room putting things in place. Kathryn busied herself
dash, fuss, hurry, rush,
scurry, scuttle
in the kitchen.
absorb, employ, engage,
bustle 2
immerse, occupy
noun busy and noisy activity but 1
A fire burned in the fireplace.
The city is full of the bustle conjunction although r
of modern life. Heat the water until
burn 2
verb to destroy with fire The
activity, commotion,
excitement, flurry,
it is very hot but not boiling.
although, though,
rioters burned the house down. fuss, hurry while, yet
Wyatt had left a bunch of flowers
in her hotel room.
char, incinerate, scorch, antonym: peace t
but 2
bunch 3 preposition with the u
burst 1 exception of I packed
noun a group of things
George took out a bunch verb to split apart Bella everything but my hairdryer
blew too much air into the for the trip.
of keys and found the right
one for the lock.
batch, bundle, cluster,
balloon and it burst.
break, crack, explode,
except, except for,
other than, save w
puncture, rupture, split
heap, load, pile, set
buy x
burden 1 burst 2 verb to obtain with money
noun a load that is carried
verb to happen or appear
suddenly Marco burst into The city is full of the bustle of
Id like to buy that bag.
acquire, invest in, obtain,
My bags of shopping turned
out to be a real burden.
load, weight
the room with important news.
barge, break, erupt, rush
modern life. pay for, procure, purchase
antonym: sell z
A calm 3
noun the state of being
noun a person being
peaceful In the calm considered for a position
B of the night, the bats Hugh was the best
emerged from the cave. candidate for the job.
C calmness, peace,
peacefulness, quiet,
applicant, competitor,
contender, nominee,
serenity, stillness possibility, runner
calm 4 capable
E verb to make less upset adjective able to do something
or excited He tried to calm well Miguel was a capable
F calculate call 4
the baby when it cried.
quieten, relax, soothe,
leader and brought out
the best in his team.

verb to work out a number noun an instance of someone mollify, placate able, accomplished, adept,
or amount Cathy wanted shouting out There was competent, efficient,
to calculate the cost of the trip. a call for volunteers. proficient, skilful
H count, determine, reckon,
work out
cry, shout, yell
noun actions planned to get
antonym: incompetent
a certain result She went
I callous
adjective not concerned
on a campaign, seeking votes
to be elected president.
capacity 1
noun the maximum amount
about other people He
J was mean and had a callous
crusade, movement,
operation, push
that something holds
or produces What is
disregard for other people. the capacity of the glass?
K cold, heartless, indifferent,
insensitive, hard-bitten,
dimensions, room, size,
space, volume

L hardhearted, unsympathetic
antonym: caring
capacity 2
M calm 1
noun a persons power or
ability to do something
adjective not worried or excited Her capacity to help was
N Cathy wanted to calculate the cost
of the trip. Mia found that practising
yoga helped her to keep calm.
limited by being so far away.
ability, capability, facility,

O calculated
collected, composed, cool,
impassive, relaxed,
She went on a campaign, seeking
votes to be elected president.
gift, potential, power

adjective deliberately planned imperturbable,

capture 1
P Although it was winter,
Anthony took a calculated risk
unemotional, unruffled
antonym: worried
cancel 1 verb to take prisoner
verb to stop something from Sharons knight captured
Q and took the road through
the mountains.
happening Were going
to have to cancel our picnic
Ians king on the chessboard.
apprehend, arrest, catch,
aimed, designed, intended,
R planned
antonym: unplanned
as its raining.
abandon, call off
seize, take
antonym: release

S call 1 cancel 2 capture 2

verb to stop something from noun the act of capturing
T verb to give a name
He was called Jeff. being valid Peter needed
to cancel his lost bus pass.
The fish couldnt evade its
capture by the bear.
christen, designate,
U dub, name
annul, quash, repeal,
revoke, abrogate,
arrest, seizure,
taking, trapping
countermand, rescind
V call 2 Mia found that practising yoga
helped her to keep calm.
verb to telephone
Ruby called my phone. candid
W contact, phone,
calm 2
adjective honest and frank
ring, telephone She gave a candid interview
X adjective still because there is
no wind Tuesday was a fine,
and revealed many secrets.
blunt, frank, honest, open,
call 3 clear, and calm day. straightforward, truthful
Y I heard
verb to say loudly balmy, mild, still, tranquil
someone calling my name. antonym: rough
Z announce, cry, cry out,
shout, yell
The fish couldnt evade its
capture by the bear.

noun a vehicle for carrying
careful 1
adjective acting with care
case 1
noun a particular situation
a few people Dad drove the Be careful with that vase. or example There have
car to the station to pick us up. cautious, prudent, chary, been six cases of chickenpox b
automobile (US; formal), circumspect, punctilious in my class this year.
motor, vehicle antonym: careless example, illustration,
instance, occasion,
care 1
verb to be concerned about
careful 2
adjective complete and
something I care about well done The experiment
He carried the heavy box.
case 2
the environment. needs careful planning. noun a container for holding e
be bothered, be concerned, meticulous, painstaking, carry something Kay kept her
be interested, mind precise, thorough
antonym: careless
verb to hold and take
something somewhere
glasses in a red case.
box, container, holder,
care 2 He carried the heavy box.
bear, convey (formal), lug,
noun something that causes careless 1 take, transport
you to worry Luke didnt
adjective not taking enough
have a care in the world. care Heather had careless
anxiety, concern, stress, and messy handwriting. carry out
trouble, woe, worry,
tribulation, vexation
irresponsible, neglectful,
sloppy (informal), cavalier,
verb to do and complete
something The surgeon
care 3
lackadaisical, slapdash,
carried out the operation.
accomplish, achieve, Kay kept her glasses in a red case. j
antonym: careful fulfil, perform, execute,
noun close attention when
doing something We took case 3
great care to make him feel careless 2 noun a trial or inquiry
at home.
attention, caution, pains,
adjective relaxed and
unconcerned Sal shrugged
verb to make something
The court case was heard
behind closed doors.
and gave a careless laugh.
casual, nonchalant, offhand
by cutting
action, lawsuit,
proceedings, trial
hew e
original m. o


he w n fro
He had on was carved
ge e

lar t tim

that the
g a rs
tin is fi

ulp h

sc was

He intended to engrave r
the title into the block.
He finished by inscribing chis u
his name on the sculpture. He
into hiselle
the d
el v
lion the de
s fa t
ce. ails

cu whitt
sto e cu
ne t th
t He p
re le x
fro e e wood ferred to
m xc than w
to ca hittle
verb to make something by cutting
He carved the lion out of a block of stone.
the ess
rve st
one. y
b rati
D e

F ce noun an event in honour
of a special occasion
The family dinner was a birthday
G celebration.

H Would you like to come
to my party?

J They went to church for
the religious festival.

M festivity
The wedding festivities went revelry
on for a week.
N She joined in the revelry
with lots of enthusiasm.
The sporting contest
O finished with a gala.

casual 1 cat catch 1 catch 4
R adjective happening by chance noun a small animal kept as verb to capture an animal noun a hidden difficulty
The casual meeting led to a pet Fiona had three cats. or fish Mum went fishing to The catch is that it will
S a great friendship.
accidental, chance,
feline, kitty, moggy (Britain
and New Zealand; slang),
catch some trout for dinner.
capture, snare, trap
take a month to arrive.
disadvantage, drawback,

T incidental, fortuitous,
puss or pussy or pussycat
catch 2
snag, fly in the ointment,
stumbling block
unintentional, related words:
U unpremeditated adjective feline; male tom;
female queen; young kitten
verb to capture a person
The police planned a way category
antonym: deliberate
to catch the suspects. noun a set of things with
V apprehend, arrest something in common
casual 2 The items were organized
W adjective showing no concern
or interest Mick gave a
catch 3
noun a device that fastens
into six different categories.
class, classification, group,
casual glance over his shoulder. set, sort, type
X careless, cursory,
something The windows
were fitted with safety catches.
nonchalant, offhand,
bolt, clasp, clip, latch cause 1
Y relaxed, blas, insouciant,
lackadaisical, perfunctory
Fiona had three cats. noun what makes something
happen The cause of
antonym: concerned
Z the fire was unknown.
origin, root, source

cause 2
noun an aim supported by
cease 1
verb to stop happening
censure 2
verb to criticize severely
certain 2
adjective having no doubt
a group Sarah took up the The noise ceased and The school censured in your mind Lilys certain
cause to save the old cinema. peace was restored. Mike for his graffiti. that she will succeed. b
aim, ideal, movement be over, come to an end, condemn, criticize, clear, confident, convinced,
die away, end, finish, stop
antonym: begin
denounce, reproach,
berate, castigate
definite, positive, satisfied,
cause 3 antonym: uncertain
noun the reason for something
The boys gave us cause to cease 2 centre 1 d
believe the story was true.
basis, grounds,
verb to stop doing something
He ceased talking when
noun the mid-point of a circle
or activity We headed for adverb without any doubt e
justification, motivation, the teacher called for quiet. the city centre. Ill certainly do all
motive, reason desist from, discontinue,
finish, give up, stop,
core, focus, heart, hub,
I can to help.
definitely, undeniably,
cause 4 suspend
antonym: start
antonym: edge undoubtedly,
verb to make something
without doubt
happen The broken-down centre 2
train caused delays. celebrate verb to have as the main h
bring about, create, verb to do something special subject The argument challenge 1
generate, produce,
provoke, effect, engender,
to mark an event Its my
birthday lets celebrate!
centred on the schools
uniform policy.
noun a suggestion to try
something The coach set
give rise to, lead to,
result in
commemorate, party,
concentrate, focus, revolve the team a series of challenges.
dare, face-off (informal) j
antonym: mourn
ceremony 1
caution 1 noun formal actions done for challenge 2 k
noun great care taken in order celebration a special occasion They had verb to give someone
to avoid danger Use caution
when skating.
noun an event in honour
of a special occasion
a traditional wedding ceremony.
observance, pomp, rite,
a challenge Sue challenged
me to a game of tennis.
care, prudence,
SEE LEFT ritual, service, tradition dare, defy
celebrity challenge 3 n
noun a famous person verb to question the truth
The presenter interviewed or value of something
the celebrity on the red carpet. I challenged Jeffs story o
big name, name, about where he had been.
personality, star,
superstar, VIP
dispute, question p
champion 1
noun a person who wins
a competition She won
the contest to become the r
regional judo champion.
Use caution when skating.
hero, title holder, victor,
caution 2 They had a traditional

verb to scold or warn someone

wedding ceremony.
against doing something
The policeman cautioned
that riding a bike without a
ceremony 2
noun formal and polite
behaviour We stood on
helmet is dangerous.
reprimand, tick off ceremony to greet the mayor.
(informal), warn The presenter interviewed the decorum, etiquette,
celebrity on the red carpet. formality, niceties, protocol w
adjective acting very
carefully to avoid danger
censure 1
noun strong disapproval
certain 1
adjective definite or reliable
The zookeeper was cautious His bad behaviour led to It is certain to rain. y
in the crocodile enclosure. censure from his parents. definite, established,
careful, guarded, tentative, blame, condemnation, guaranteed, inevitable,
wary, prudent
antonym: daring
criticism, disapproval,
known, sure, undeniable
antonym: uncertain
She won the contest to become
the regional judo champion.
A champion 2
noun someone who supports
change 1
noun an alteration in something
adjective likely to change
charge 1
verb to ask someone for money
a group, cause, or principle There was a change in her all the time The weather as a payment The shop
B Judith became a champion attitude from sulky to helpful. was changeable hot one charged me a fair price.
for animal rights. alteration, difference, minute and cold the next. ask (for), bill, levy
C advocate, defender,
guardian, protector
erratic, fickle, irregular,
unpredictable, unstable,
metamorphosis, mutation, variable, volatile, mercurial,
charge 2
D champion 3 transition, transmutation mutable, protean
noun the price you have to pay
for something There was
antonym: constant
verb to support a group, cause, an additional charge for a bag.
E or principle We championed change 2 cost, fee, payment, price
his request for new sports verb to make or become character 1
F equipment.
defend, fight for, promote,
different We changed
the garage into a TV room.
noun the qualities of a person
She has a sunny character. charge 3
verb to rush forward, often
stick up for (informal), alter, convert, moderate, nature, personality,
to attack someone The
support, uphold, modify, reform, transform, temperament, disposition,
rhino charged towards us.
advocate, espouse metamorphose, mutate, make-up, quality, temper
dash, rush, stampede,
chance 1 character 2
I noun a possibility of something
happening Lucy had a good
change 3
verb to exchange one thing
noun an honourable nature
Mark showed great character
for another Can I change
J chance of success.
likelihood, odds, possibility, the red T-shirt for a black one?
in handling a tricky situation.
honour, integrity, strength
probability, prospect barter, exchange,
K interchange, replace,
substitute, swap, trade
characteristic 1
chance 2 noun a typical quality
L noun an opportunity to do
something Please give me a
Marks chief characteristic
is honesty.
The rhino charged towards us.

M chance to explain why Im late.

occasion, opening,
attribute, feature, property,
quality, trait, idiosyncrasy,
charm 1
noun an attractive quality
opportunity, time peculiarity, quirk
The house has real charm.
N allure, appeal, attraction,
chance 3 characteristic 2 magnetism, fascination
O noun the way things happen
without being planned
adjective typical of a person
or thing Jack responded
We met up by chance. charm 2
P accident, coincidence,
with characteristic generosity.
distinctive, distinguishing,
verb to use charm to please
someone He charmed
fortune, luck typical, idiosyncratic,
Q related word:
adjective fortuitous
Can I change the red T-shirt for
peculiar, singular,
the audience with his smile.
bewitch, captivate, delight,
a black one? entrance, beguile, enchant,
R antonym: uncharacteristic

noun a young person She was their fourth child. kid juvenile
W tot
X infant
baby bairn
chase 1
verb to try to catch someone
noun speech or behaviour that
adjective happy and cheerful
or something My sister is rude or disrespectful Jill sounded very cheery
chased me until I gave up. Im amazed they had the on the phone. b
hunt, pursue cheek to ask in the first place. cheerful, chirpy,
audacity, gall, impudence,
insolence, nerve, rudeness,
good-humoured, happy,
jolly, sunny, upbeat,
chase 2 effrontery, temerity genial, jovial
verb to force to go somewhere
The dog chased the postman
He cheated in the exam.
antonym: gloomy d
out of the gate.
drive, hound, expel,
verb to get something
adjective rude and disrespectful chew e
put to flight
from someone dishonestly The children were cheeky verb to break food up with the

He cheated in the exam. to their mum.

impertinent, impudent,
teeth My mum always told
me to eat slowly and chew my
chat 1 con (informal), deceive,
noun a friendly talk defraud, dupe, fleece,
insolent, rude
antonym: polite
food well.
crunch, gnaw, munch,
Eloise came over and joined rip off (slang), swindle,
champ, chomp, masticate
us for a chat. hoodwink
conversation, gossip, cheerful
natter (informal), talk
check 1 adjective in a happy mood chief 1
verb to examine something
Eliza was feeling cheerful
despite the rain.
noun the leader of a group
or organization He was
chat 2 Please check all the details
verb to talk in a friendly way before signing.
bright, buoyant, cheery,
happy, jaunty, jolly,
the new chief of police.
boss, chieftain, director, j
Dan chatted to his father. check out (informal),
lighthearted, merry governor, head, leader,
gossip, natter (informal), talk examine, inspect, test,
antonym: miserable manager
inquire into, look over,
cheap 1
adjective costing very little
chief 2
adjective most important
Cheap flights are available. check 2
bargain, economical, verb to reduce or stop
The job went to one
of his chief rivals.
inexpensive, reasonable, something Hand washing
foremost, key, main,
cut-price, low-cost,
will check the spread of germs.
control, curb, halt, inhibit,
prevailing, primary, prime, n
principal, pre-eminent,
antonym: expensive restrain, stop
cheap 2 check 3
adjective inexpensive but noun an examination Eliza was feeling cheerful
noun a young person
of poor quality His cheap The technician performed despite the rain.
trousers ripped when he
sat down.
a thorough check of the
inferior, second-rate, examination,
tawdry inspection, test r
teenager youth
youngster t
adult z
A childish
adjective immature and foolish
clash 3
noun a fight or argument
clean 1
adjective free from dirt
Sulking and stamping The latest clash between or marks Patricks clothes
B your feet when you dont the two teams ended in players are always very clean.
get your own way is being sent off. immaculate, impeccable,
C childish behaviour.
immature, infantile,
battle, conflict,
confrontation, fight,
laundered, spotless,
juvenile, puerile skirmish (informal), antonym: dirty
D antonym: mature squabble, struggle
clean 2
E choice 1 clasp 1 adjective free from germs
noun a range of things verb to hold something tightly or infection There was a
The city was built on the banks
to choose from The hat is of a river. Helena clasped her locket source of clean drinking water.
available in a choice of colours in her hands. antiseptic, hygienic,

and sizes. clutch, embrace, grip, hold, purified, sterilized,
range, selection, variety city hug, press, squeeze uncontaminated,
noun a large town unpolluted
H choice 2 The city was built
on the banks of a river.
clasp 2 antonym: contaminated
noun the power to choose noun a fastening such as a
I Paul was given a choice
about what to eat.
metropolis, town,
conurbation, municipality
hook or catch Miriam undid
the clasp on her coat.
clean 3
verb to remove dirt from
related word: adjective civic
J alternative, option, say buckle, catch, clip,
fastener, fastening

choose civilized clear 1

K verb to decide to have or do
adjective having an advanced
society We live in
class 1 adjective easy to see
something There were so noun a group of a particular or understand It was clear
L many flavours of ice cream
to choose from.
a civilized country.
cultured, enlightened
type Animals are grouped
into classes including
from her tearful voice that
she was upset.

M opt for, pick, select, take,

elect, fix on, settle on claim 1
mammals, birds, fish,
reptiles, and amphibians.
apparent, blatant,
conspicuous, definite,
verb to say something is the category, genre, grade, evident, explicit, obvious,
N chop case Mr Brown claims to
have lived here all his life.
group, kind, set, sort, type plain, incontrovertible,
manifest, palpable, patent,
verb to cut down or into pieces
O I saw him chopping wood
with an axe.
allege, assert, hold, insist,
maintain, profess
class 2
verb to regard as being

clear 2
P cut, fell, hack, lop,
cleave, hew claim 2
in a particular group
The children were classed adjective easy to see through
noun a statement that into different team colours. The liquid inside the
Q something is the case categorize, classify, glass beaker was clear.
Emma admitted that the designate, grade, rank, rate crystalline, glassy,

R claims about her were true.

allegation, assertion,
translucent, transparent,
limpid, pellucid,
pretension, protestation see-through
S antonym: cloudy
clash 1
T verb to fight or argue with
another person My brother
U and sister constantly clash,
but they always make up.
I saw him chopping wood battle, fight, quarrel, The children were classed into
V with an axe. wrangle different team colours.

W circulate
verb to pass around
clash 2
verb of two things: to be so
verb to arrange similar things
X Grandpas birthday card
was circulated around the
different that they do not go
together Davids plan to stay
in groups We can classify
the books into fiction and
The liquid inside the glass beaker
was clear.
family for everyone to sign. in the playground clashed non-fiction.
Y distribute, propagate, with the teachers demand that arrange, categorize, grade,
spread, disseminate, he come into the classroom. rank, sort, pigeonhole,
Z promulgate conflict, contradict, differ,
disagree, go against, jar
systematize, tabulate

clear 3
verb to prove someone is not
guilty Bea was cleared of
having any part in the incident. b
absolve, acquit
antonym: convict

adjective very intelligent
There are lotions
to cleanse the skin.
Luis was clever and always
scored high marks in exams. e
brainy (informal), bright,

dust f
intelligent, shrewd, smart,
astute, quick-witted,
d, and
antonym: stupid I va cuum ed, duste room.
the livin
g g

climb h
verb to move upwards over
something We climbed
the mountain in a day.
He scoured the sink.
ascend, clamber,
mount, scale

o n g e
close 1 s p e dow
n the surf
scrub k
verb to shut something Spong
Clare closed the gate
behind her when she left.
I started to scrub
off the dirt.
secure, shut
antonym: open swab m
The sail
the dec r swabbed
k. s
ip ed the
She w .
ry cloth
with a d

wash ed dishe
He wash urant.
in a resta q
Clare closed the gate behind her
when she left.

close 2
verb to block so that nothing
can pass All the roads out
of town are closed.
bar, block, obstruct, seal
3 verb to remove dirt from
She cleaned the house
from top to bottom.
close 3
adjective near to something v
We went to a restaurant
close to our home.
adjacent, adjoining,
at hand, handy, near,
nearby, neighbouring x
antonym: distant
antonym: soil y
Using a dirty mop
can soil the floor. z
C wear
apparel She didnt have
She often chose attire much winter wear.
D bright apparel in
the summer. clothing
We are collecting
E food and clothing
for the homeless. The T-shirt was dress
not suitable attire
F for work.
She liked
to wear her
party dress.
outfit gear
K The red She had some wardrobe garments
shirt was an sports gear She planned to buy There were too
L essential part
of her outfit.
including a
tennis dress.
herself a whole new
wardrobe in the spring.
many garments
in her cupboard.
O garb
She preferred
P costume colourful garb.
Her favourite
Q costume came
from her sister.

plural noun the things people wear
Alicia spends all her money on clothes.
U close 4 clothes cloud 2 cloudy 2
adjective friendly and loving plural noun the things verb to make something adjective difficult to see
We became close friends. people wear confusing Anger through The liquid
V attached, dear, devoted, SEE ABOVE has clouded his judgment. in the glass was cloudy.
familiar, friendly, confuse, distort, muddle muddy, murky, opaque

W intimate, loving
antonym: distant
cloud 1
noun a mass of vapour cloudy 1
antonym: clear

X or smoke The sky adjective full of clouds club 1

cloth was dark with clouds. Its a very cloudy sky today. noun an organization for people
noun woven or knitted fabric billow, fog, haze, dull, gloomy, leaden, with a special interest
Y The sofa was covered in mist, vapour overcast We joined the swimming
bright red cloth. antonym: clear club today.
Z fabric, material, textile association, circle, group,
guild, society, union

club 2
noun a heavy stick
coat 2
noun a warm piece of
collapse 1
verb to fall down Stand
Andy dressed up as a outerwear clothing Youll well clear the old building
caveman and carried a club need a coat; its cold outside. looks like it could collapse b
to the fancy-dress party. jacket, overcoat, raincoat, at any minute.
bat, stick, truncheon cagoule, mac fall down, give way c
noun something that helps
noun a layer of something
collapse 2
verb to fail The business
The lake had a thin
to solve a problem or mystery
The police looked for clues coating of ice.
collapsed due to a lack
of money. e
to solve the crime. coat, covering, layer fail, fold, founder We visited the collection of
hint, indication, lead paintings in the gallery.
collapse 3
clumsiness noun the failure of something collection g
noun awkwardness The collapse of the project noun a group of things
of movement Megs usual
was caused by a disagreement collected together
clumsiness was made worse in the team. We visited the collection
by her high-heeled shoes. downfall, failure of paintings in the gallery.
assortment, group, store i
The lake had a thin coating of ice.
noun a person someone works
with My colleagues all
adjective used in everyday
coax conversation Clare used
worked extremely hard on
verb to persuade gently the latest project. colloquial expressions like:
We coaxed her into coming associate, fellow worker, Hes gone nuts.
to the shops with us.
cajole, persuade, talk into,
partner, workmate conversational, everyday,
informal, demotic,
inveigle, prevail upon,
collect idiomatic, vernacular
verb to gather together
My brother Sebastian colony 1 n
coil collects stamps that come noun a country controlled
verb to wind in loops from all over the world. by another country
Megs usual clumsiness was made
The snake coiled its body accumulate, assemble, Many European countries o
around the tree. gather, raise, aggregate, used to have colonies around
worse by her high-heeled shoes.
curl, loop, spiral, twine,
twist, wind
antonym: scatter
the world.
dependency, dominion,
adjective moving awkwardly
cold 1
Rob is big and clumsy adjective having a low colony 2
in his movements.
awkward, gauche,
temperature The spring noun a group of settlers r
weather felt so cold that it in a place A colony of
lumbering, uncoordinated,
felt more like midwinter. Scots settled in Australia.
ungainly, accident-prone,
arctic, biting, bitter, community, outpost,
bumbling, gawky, maladroit
bleak, chilly, freezing, settlement
antonym: graceful
icy, raw, wintry t
antonym: hot
noun the land next to the sea
adjective very large indeed u
We holidayed on the coast cold 2 The statue was colossal.
this year.
adjective not showing affection
Aunt Maud was a cold,
enormous, gigantic, huge,
immense, mammoth,
beach, border, coastline,
seaside, shore, strand
unfeeling person who loved
her cats more than people.
My brother Sebastian collects
stamps that come from all over
massive, vast
antonym: tiny w
aloof, distant, frigid,
the world.
coat 1 lukewarm, reserved,
colour 1
noun an animals fur or hair stony, standoffish,
verb to give something a colour
Anna gave the dogs coat undemonstrative
Jules used hair dye to colour y
a brush. antonym: warm
his hair.
fleece, fur, hair, hide, pelt,
skin, wool
dye, paint, stain, tint
A colour 2
verb to affect the way you think
verb to join or mix together
command 4
noun knowledge and ability
The rainy weather coloured The performer combined Ned had a good command
B her opinion of the trip. magic and dance in his act. of several languages.
bias, distort, prejudice, amalgamate, blend, fuse, grasp, knowledge,
C slant integrate, merge, mix,
unite, meld, synthesize

antonym: separate
D colour 3 commemorate
noun a shade or hue verb to do something
Annettes favourite colour come 1 in memory of A concert
E is blue. verb to move or arrive was held to commemorate
hue, pigmentation, somewhere The teacher the anniversary of the victory.
F shade, tint
came into the room.
appear, arrive, enter,
Trish made herself comfortable
celebrate, honour,
memorialize, pay tribute to
and read a book.

materialize, show up
(informal), turn up (informal)
colour 4 comfortable 1 comment 1
noun a substance used to give verb to make a remark
adjective physically relaxing
colour She added a few come 2 Trish made herself She was asked to comment
drops of red food colour verb to happen or take place on the situation.
I to the icing.
dye, paint, pigment
The opportunity to audition
comes only twice a year.
comfortable and read a book.
cosy, easy, homely,
mention, note, observe,
point out, remark, say,
relaxing, restful
J colourful 1
happen, occur, take place
antonym: uncomfortable
interpose, opine

comfort 1
adjective full of colour
The lorikeets have such noun a state of ease
comfortable 2
feeling at ease
colourful feathers. The seating in the airy sitting adjective

L bright, brilliant, intense,
jazzy (informal), rich, vibrant,
room was designed for comfort.
ease, luxury, wellbeing
The couple sat together
in comfortable silence.
at ease, at home,
M vivid, kaleidoscopic,
multicoloured, psychedelic
contented, happy, relaxed
antonym: uneasy
antonym: dull
N command 1
colourful 2
O adjective interesting or exciting
The girl gave a colourful
verb to order someone to do
something The sports coach
commanded the team to run
P account of her journey
to the farm.
around the field.
bid, demand, direct, order,
She was asked to comment
on the situation.
graphic, interesting,
Q lively, rich, vivid
antonym: dull
comment 2
command 2
R combination verb to be in charge of
noun something you say
Mary made a nice comment
The politician asked about my new hairstyle.
S noun a mixture of things
Green is a combination of The seating in the airy sitting room
was designed for comfort.
to meet the general
who had commanded
observation, remark,
yellow and blue.
T amalgamation, blend,
mix, mixture, amalgam, comfort 2
the rescue mission.
control, head, lead,
manage, supervise
U composite, meld noun relief from worry
or unhappiness Jans words
verb to do something
It appears that a crime
gave him some comfort. command 3 has been committed.
V consolation, help, relief, noun an order to do something carry out, do, perform,
satisfaction, support Everyone in the class perpetrate

W comfort 3
jumped up and down at
the teachers command.
common 1
bidding, decree, directive,
X verb to give someone comfort
The woman tried to comfort injunction, instruction,
adjective of many people
The statue was a common
order, behest, edict
her screaming baby. stop for tourists.
Y cheer, console, general, popular, prevailing,
Green is a combination of yellow reassure, soothe prevalent, universal,
Z and blue. widespread
antonym: rare


3 shades of different colours
charco e
rald kh a k


platinu m

ve ilio
grey re g


red i
scar l e

r uby

di navy j
t crimson in
gold k

bro l

ro n

brown m

s a ff



s ep o
m u s t a rd
chia t an g
er p
ch i ebony



pink orange y


ch b
am s




arl so ra t
la vender pe ma g n ot y
vio white u

purple v



mauve ivor y w
B competitor noun a person who competes for something
He was one of seven competitors in the quiz.

C competition oppon riva

ary l
advers ent
D challenger ant
E opposi
common 2 communicate 2 company 3
M adjective not special verb to pass on information noun the act of spending time
Sparrows are common birds. The results will be with someone I really enjoy
N average, commonplace,
everyday, ordinary, plain,
communicated by post.
convey, impart, inform,
your company.
companionship, presence

O standard, usual,
run-of-the-mill, workaday
pass on, retweet, spread,
transmit, tweet,
antonym: special disseminate, make known
P verb to look at things for
similarities or differences
common 3 companion Compare the two pictures
Q adjective having bad taste
or manners Harry was
noun someone you travel with
or spend time with Matt has
and spot the differences.
contrast, juxtapose, weigh
The passengers in the compartment
R common and rude.
coarse, rude, vulgar
been her constant companion
for the last six years.
compartment 1
waited for the train to move.

antonym: refined comrade, crony

S (old-fashioned), friend, mate,
pal (informal), partner
noun one of the separate
parts of an object
compartment 2
noun a section of a railway
common sense The fridge has a freezer carriage The passengers
T noun good judgment in
practical matters Use your company 1
compartment at the top.
bay, chamber, division,
in the compartment waited
for the train to move.
U common sense to find the clue.
good sense, judgment,
noun a business The shop
was run by a large company.
level-headedness, business, corporation,
V prudence, wit establishment, firm, house compassionate
adjective feeling or showing

W communicate 1
verb to be in touch with
company 2
noun a group of people
sympathy and pity for others
The compassionate man
adopted the stray dog.
X someone We communicate
mainly by text message.
A company of actors
performed a play.
caring, humane, kind,
kind-hearted, merciful,
be in contact, be in touch, assembly, band, circle,
Y correspond community, crowd,
sympathetic, tender,
benevolent, humanitarian
ensemble, group, party,
The fridge has a freezer
troupe, concourse, coterie
compartment at the top.

compensate 1
verb to repay someone for loss
competition 2
noun a contest to find
verb to understand or
or damage The company the winner in something appreciate something
offered to compensate the Jemima won the surfing It took me a moment b
customer for the broken laptop competition. to comprehend what
plus the inconvenience.
atone, refund, repay,
championship, contest,
event, tournament
Lewis was saying.
appreciate, fathom, grasp,
reward, make amends, see, take in, understand,
make restitution,
competitor Lesley owned a complete
work out d
recompense, reimburse,
noun a person who competes set of tools with all the
for something attachments. compulsory
SEE LEFT adjective required by law
compensate 2
verb to cancel out
complete 2 School attendance
is compulsory.
complain adjective with nothing missing
Theos enthusiasm
compensated for his lack
verb to express dissatisfaction Lesley owned a complete mandatory, obligatory,
required, requisite
of skill at knitting. Poppy complained to the set of tools with all
antonym: voluntary
teacher that John had taken the attachments.
balance, cancel out,
her pencil. entire, full, intact,
counteract, make up for,
carp, find fault, grouse, undivided, whole computer
offset, counterbalance,
grumble, kick up a fuss
(informal), moan, whine,
antonym: incomplete noun an electronic machine
that stores and processes data
whinge (informal), bemoan,
complete Ana used a computer to j
compensation bewail
verb to finish Tim has just
work out the companys profits.
noun something that makes up laptop, PC, tablet
completed his first fun run.
for loss or damage She
conclude, end, finish
received compensation for
the damage to her property.
amends, atonement, complex 1 l
damages, payment, adjective having many different
recompense, parts The complex puzzle m
reimbursement, took a long time to solve.
reparation, restitution
complicated, difficult,
intricate, involved, tangled,
Ana used a computer to work out
convoluted, tortuous
compete antonym: simple
the companys profits.
verb to try to win The teams
competed for the title in
Poppy complained to the teacher
that John had taken her pencil.
complex 2 con 1
verb to trick someone into
the final game of the season. noun an emotional problem
contend, contest, fight, vie
Vincent has a complex about
being accident prone.
doing or believing something
Joshua conned me into q
buying his broken bike.
noun an instance of fixation, obsession,
complaining about something phobia, preoccupation,
cheat, deceive,
mislead, swindle,
There have been a number problem, thing
trick, defraud, dupe
of complaints about the noise
from the roadworks.
criticism, grievance,
complicated con 2
grumble, objection, protest
adjective complex and difficult
The questions in the test noun a trick intended to t
mislead or disadvantage
complete 1
were so complicated that he
couldnt understand them.
someone The packaging is
a con it makes the contents
adjective to the greatest degree complex, convoluted,
look twice as big as they are.
possible The garden had elaborate, intricate,
The teams competed for the title bluff, deception, fraud,
undergone a complete involved, labyrinthine,
in the final game of the season. swindle, trick
absolute, consummate,
antonym: simple w
competition 1 outright, perfect, thorough, conceit
noun an attempt to win
Theres a lot of competition
total, utter
compose noun excessive pride The
singer made so many demands;
verb to create or write
for places.
contention, contest, Stephen has composed
a song.
his conceit was insufferable.
egotism, pride, y
opposition, rivalry, struggle self-importance, vanity,
create, devise, invent,
produce, write
narcissism, vainglory z
A conceited
adjective too proud She was
concern 4
verb to affect or involve
condemn 1
verb to say that something
conduct yourself
verb to behave in a particular
conceited so full of herself. This concerns both of you. is bad or unacceptable way The way you conduct
B bigheaded (informal), cocky, affect, apply to, The scheme was condemned yourself reflects on the school.
egotistical, self-important, be relevant to, involve, for being a waste of money. act, behave, acquit yourself
C vain, narcissistic,
bear on, pertain to, touch blame, censure, criticize,
damn, denounce
D antonym: modest
concise noun a meeting for discussion
adjective using no unnecessary condemn 2 The team held a conference
words The report was short verb to give a punishment to discuss the new project.
E concentrate 1 and concise. The thief was condemned congress, convention,
verb to give something all your brief, short, succinct, terse, to five years in prison. discussion, forum, meeting,
F attention Hannah was trying
hard to concentrate on
laconic, pithy
antonym: long
damn, doom, sentence colloquium, convocation,

her studies.
be engrossed in,
condition 1
focus your attention on,
conclude 1 noun the state of something
The house is in good
verb to decide something
give your attention to,
put your mind to Dad concluded that I had condition and needs no repairs.
been right after all. form, shape, state
I decide, deduce, infer,
judge, reckon (informal),
condition 2
J suppose, surmise
noun something required for
something else to be possible
conclude 2 Emily was allowed to go
K verb to finish something to the party on the condition
The team held a conference
She concluded the letter that she first cleaned her room.
to discuss the new project.
by signing her name. prerequisite, provision,
close, end, finish, proviso, qualification,
Hannah was trying hard to
M concentrate on her studies.
round off, wind up
antonym: begin
requirement, requisite,
stipulation, terms verb to admit to something
The boy confessed to eating
N concentrate 2
verb to be found in one place
conduct 1 the entire packet of biscuits.
acknowledge, admit,
verb to carry out an activity
The guitar shops are
O concentrated in one street.
or task We conducted
an experiment in science class.
own up
antonym: deny
accumulate, collect, gather
P carry out, direct, do,
manage, organize, perform, confession
concern 1 run, execute, implement, noun the act of confessing
Q noun a feeling of worry orchestrate I have to make a
Martins timing was a confession I borrowed your

R concern he was always late.

anxiety, apprehension,
dress without asking first.
disquiet, worry admission
S She concluded the letter
by signing her name.
concern 2 confidence 1
T noun someones duty or
responsibility The childs conclusion 1
noun a feeling of trust
I have complete confidence
U health is the parents concern.
affair, business,
noun a decision made after
thinking carefully about
that you will do well.
belief, faith, reliance, trust
responsibility something Ive come to the antonym: distrust
V conclusion that she was lying.
deduction, inference,
concern 3 We conducted an experiment
confidence 2
W verb to make someone worried
judgment, verdict in science class.
noun sureness of yourself
It concerns me that Leo Ive never had much
X doesnt want to talk to the conclusion 2 conduct 2 confidence about speaking
teacher about the problem. noun the finish or ending of noun the way someone behaves in class.
bother, distress, disturb, something A full stop marks Marys conduct was a good aplomb, assurance,
Y trouble, worry, disquiet, the conclusion of a sentence. example to others. self-assurance,
perturb close, end, ending, finish, attitude, behaviour, self-possession
Z termination
antonym: beginning
manners, ways,
comportment, demeanour
antonym: shyness

confident 1
adjective sure about something
confused 2
adjective in an untidy mess
Angela had worked hard The papers lay
and was confident of success. in a confused heap. b
certain, convinced, chaotic, disordered,
positive, satisfied,
secure, sure
disorganized, untidy
antonym: tidy
antonym: uncertain
confusing He fixed the loose connection
confident 2
adjective bewildering or in the circuit board.
adjective sure of yourself Will resolved the conflict between puzzling Trying to find our
Hari was a confident actor. the friends. way in the city was confusing.
connection 2
assured, self-assured,
baffling, bewildering,
complicated, puzzling
noun a point where things f
conflict 1 are joined He fixed the
antonym: shy
noun disagreement loose connection in g
and argument Will resolved confusion the circuit board.

the conflict between the friends. noun an untidy mess coupling, fastening,
antagonism, disagreement, The room was in a state junction, link
discord, friction, hostility, of confusion with furniture
opposition, strife all over the place.
chaos, disarray, disorder,
conscience i
noun a sense of right
conflict 2
noun a war or battle
disorganization, mess
antonym: order
and wrong Phils conscience
told him the right thing to do.
The man reported on the
principles, scruples,
Hari was a confident actor.
conflict in the Middle East. connect 1 sense of right and wrong
battle, combat, fighting, verb to join together

confine 1
strife, war The firefighter connected
the hose to the tap.
conservative l
adjective unwilling to change
verb to limit to something
specified We confined our
conflict 3 affix, attach, couple,
fasten, join, link People often get more m
verb to differ or disagree conservative as they grow older.
discussion to tennis rather than antonym: separate
sport in general. The team leaders conflicted
over who should go first.
conventional, traditional,
hidebound, reactionary
limit, restrict
be at variance, antonym: radical
be incompatible, clash, o
confine 2 differ, disagree
consider 1
verb to prevent from leaving
His flu confined him to bed verb to judge someone p
confuse 1 or something We consider
for two days.
hem in, imprison, restrict,
verb to mix two things up
It is possible to confuse
him the perfect candidate.
believe, judge, rate,
shut up, immure,
fact with fiction. regard as, think,
incarcerate, intern
mistake, mix up,
The firefighter connected the hose
deem, hold to be r
muddle up
to the tap.
confirm 1 consider 2
verb to say or show that
something is true Kate was
confuse 2 connect 2 verb to think carefully
given a certificate to confirm
verb to puzzle or bewilder
The complicated instructions verb to associate one thing
I will consider your offer.
contemplate, deliberate,
that she had passed the test. with another Laughter
bear out, endorse, prove,
substantiate, validate,
confused me.
baffle, bewilder, mystify,
is connected to happiness.
ally, associate, link, relate
meditate, muse, ponder,
reflect, think about, u
puzzle, bemuse, faze, cogitate, mull over,
verify, authenticate,
nonplus, perplex ruminate
connection 1
confirm 2 confused 1
adjective puzzled or bewildered
noun a link or relationship
Bridget had connections consider 3
verb to take into account
verb to make something to a large number of people.
Hattie was confused the You should consider
definite The date of the
election was confirmed.
information didn't make sense.
affiliation, association,
bond, correlation,
Ruths feelings. x
baffled, bewildered, bear in mind,
fix, settle
muddled, perplexed,
puzzled, at a loss, at sea,
correspondence, link,
relation, relationship
make allowances for,
respect, take into account,
flummoxed, nonplussed think about
A consideration 1
noun careful thought about
constant 1
adjective going on all the time
contact 1
noun the state of being in
noun something that holds
something Ramons decision There was constant barking touch with someone things Gail used a plastic
B required careful consideration. from the dog next door. We must keep in contact. container for her food.
attention, contemplation, continual, continuous, communication, in touch holder, vessel, receptacle,
C deliberation, study, thought eternal, nonstop, perpetual,
relentless, incessant,

interminable, sustained,
contact 2
D consideration 2
noun someone you know contemplate 1
noun concern for someone
antonym: periodic
He had a contact in the verb to think carefully about
Please show consideration music business. something Maria paused
E for others and work quietly. acquaintance, connection to contemplate her options.
concern, kindness, constant 2 consider, examine,
F respect, tact adjective staying the same
The thermometer showed contact 3 muse on, ponder,
reflect on, think about
verb to get in touch with
the temperature was constant.
consideration 3 even, fixed, regular, stable, Abbey contacted the
noun something to be taken
steady, uniform, immutable,
company to complain. contemplate 2
into account Safety is
approach, communicate verb to consider doing
a major consideration. with, get hold of, something He contemplated
antonym: changeable
factor, issue, point get in touch with, reach becoming a vet.
I construct
consider, envisage, plan,
think of
consist: consist of
J verb to be made up of
The brain consists
verb to build or make
something Hes constructing
a compost bin.
of millions of nerve cells. noun complete lack of respect
assemble, build, create,
be composed of,
erect, make, put together, Ricks contempt for the
be made up of, comprise clubs rules was foolish they
L put up
asked him to leave.
derision, disdain, disregard,
M adjective easy to see or notice
Sarah wore her bright red
Abbey contacted the company
to complain.
disrespect, scorn
antonym: respect

N coat to be conspicuous.
apparent, blatant, evident,
contain 1 contest 1
noticeable, obvious, noun a competition or game
O perceptible, patent,
verb to include as a part of
The glass contains the juice It was a thrilling contest
between two strong teams.
from 10 oranges.
P Hes constructing a compost bin. comprise, include
competition, game, match,

Q consult
verb to go to for advice
contain 2
verb to keep under control
contest 2
noun a struggle for power
R Consult your doctor Hans was finding it difficult There was a bitter contest
before training for the race. to contain his excitement.
over who should control
ask for advice, confer with, control, curb, repress,
S Sarah wore her bright red coat
to be conspicuous.
refer to restrain, stifle
the nations future.
battle, fight, struggle

T grill
boil fry
cook verb to prepare food for eating
by heating it in some way
I enjoy cooking for friends. bake

contest 3
verb to object formally
continue 2
verb to go on existing
adjective helpful or easy to use
conventional 2
adjective familiar, or generally
to a statement or decision Their friendship continued Cycling was a convenient used The coach taught us
You have 14 days to contest even when one of them way to get around. all a conventional tennis serve. b
the plans for the extension. moved abroad. handy, helpful, useful, customary, ordinary,
challenge, dispute, oppose,
carry on, endure, last,
persist, remain, survive
labour-saving, serviceable
orthodox, regular,
standard, traditional
antonym: accept antonym: inconvenient
continue 3 convey d
continual 1 convention 1
adjective happening all
verb to start doing again
When he returned from noun an accepted way of
verb to cause information or
ideas to be known She e
the time without stopping holiday, Reg continued to work behaving or doing something conveyed her thoughts on
There was continual rain
the afternoon of the fair.
on his model aeroplanes.
carry on, recommence,
The convention is to shake
hands when you strike a deal.
global warming to the class.
communicate, express,
constant, continuous,
endless, eternal, nagging,
resume code, custom, etiquette,
practice, tradition,
get across, impart
perpetual, uninterrupted, propriety, protocol
continuous convince
incessant, interminable,
adjective going on without verb to persuade that h
stopping The continuous something is true

continual 2
building work went on
for weeks.
I convinced him
of my innocence.
adjective happening again and
again Paolo received
constant, continued,
extended, prolonged,
assure, persuade, satisfy
continual reminders to renew uninterrupted
his membership of the club.
frequent, recurrent, regular,
antonym: periodic
adjective persuasiveJackie k
had a convincing argument.
antonym: occasional
control 1
noun power over something
The convention is to shake hands
when you strike a deal.
conclusive, effective,
persuasive, plausible,
continue 1
The children learning to ski
were under the control of an convention 2
powerful, telling,
cogent, incontrovertible
verb to keep doing something experienced instructor. noun a large meeting of an antonym: unconvincing
She continued talking even authority, command, organization or group The n
though no one was listening. direction, government, society hosted a convention
carry on, go on, keep on,
management, power, rule,
supremacy, jurisdiction,
of childrens authors every year.
assembly, conference,
verb to prepare food for eating o
by heating it in some way
mastery, superintendence congress, meeting
control 2 conventional 1
verb to be in charge of adjective relating to what
cool 1
adjective having a low
Camilla controlled the rota is normally done or believed
temperature There was
for cleaning the hamster cage.
administer, be in charge of,
His uniform was
conventional school wear.
a gust of cool air. r
chilled, chilly, cold,
command, direct, govern, conformist, conservative,
She continued talking even though have power over, unadventurous, bourgeois,
antonym: warm
no one was listening. manage, rule staid
poach steam barbecue
microwave toast v
roast stew
A cool 2
adjective staying calm
copy 3
verb to make a copy of
verb to be similar or connected
cosy 1
adjective warm and comfortable
Jos kept cool through The teacher copied the to something else The two Guests can relax in the
B the whole incident. handout and gave a sheet maps correspond they both cosy lounge.
calm, collected, composed, of it to each pupil. show the old tower at the top comfortable, snug, warm
C level-headed, relaxed,
serene, dispassionate,
counterfeit, duplicate,
of the hill.
agree, be related, coincide,
imperturbable, correlate, fit, match, tally
cosy 2
D unemotional,
adjective pleasant and
friendly She enjoyed
unexcited, unruffled
adjective unoriginal or corrupt 1 the cosy chat with her friends.
E antonym: nervous
sentimental Dad always adjective acting dishonestly friendly, informal,
listens to corny music. or illegally Her scheme intimate, relaxed
F cool 3
verb to make or become cool
banal, hackneyed, maudlin,
sentimental, stale,
was unfair and showed her
to be corrupt.
Elsa put the cupcakes on council
stereotyped, trite, crooked, dishonest,
noun a governing group
a rack to cool. mawkish, old hat, fraudulent, shady (informal),
of people The city
chill, cool off, freeze, unoriginal unscrupulous, unethical,
council had ordered
refrigerate unprincipled, venal
the road closure.
antonym: heat antonym: honest
correct 1 assembly, board,
I adjective without mistakes
Jonathans calculations corrupt 2
committee, panel,
conclave, convocation

J were correct.
accurate, exact, faultless,
verb to change a computer file
by introducing errors
count 1
flawless, precise, right, true I should take a backup
verb to add up
copy in case the original is
corrupted. I counted the money.
correct 2 add up, calculate,
L adjective socially acceptable
Our teacher said the correct
alter, contaminate, falsify,
manipulate, doctor
tally, compute,
enumerate, tot up

M way to greet the head was

Good morning, Mr Brown. corruption
acceptable, appropriate, noun dishonest and illegal
N fitting, okay or OK (informal),
proper, seemly
behaviour The police
arrested him on charges
Elsa put the cupcakes on a rack
O to cool.
antonym: wrong of corruption.
bribery, dishonesty, fraud,
extortion, profiteering,
correct 3
P cooperate
verb to work together Laura verb to make right Jimmy venality
corrected the errors in his work.
Q cooperated with the rest of the
team to finish the task.
amend, cure, improve,
rectify, reform, remedy,
cost 1
noun the amount of money
collaborate, join forces,
needed The cost of
R pull together, work together
right, emend, redress
chocolate has gone up.
I counted the money.
charge, expense, outlay,
S copy 1
correction payment, price, rate
noun the act of making
noun something made to
something right We made a
count 2
T look like something else
Tony made a copy of correction to our design project.
adjustment, amendment,
cost 2
noun loss or damage
verb to be important
Your opinions count.
his favourite painting. carry weight, matter,
U counterfeit, duplicate, fake,
righting, rectification They extended the house but
at the cost of the garden.
rate, signify, weigh
forgery, imitation, replica,
detriment, expense, penalty
V reproduction, facsimile,
likeness, replication
count 3
noun a counting or number
cost 3 counted The count
W copy 2 verb to involve a cost of
revealed that our group
verb to do the same thing
The airfares were going had the most votes.
X as someone else My little
to cost a lot of money.
come to, sell at,
calculation, reckoning,
brother copies everything sum, tally, computation,
set someone back (informal)
Y that I do.
ape, emulate, follow,

imitate, mimic, follow suit,

Z parrot, simulate
We made a correction to our
design project.


verb to reduce the effect of
something Water the plants
to counteract the drying effect b
of the sun.
act against, offset,
noun lack of fear
The knight showed great courage fighting the dragon. c
countervail, negate,
neutralize d
countless bra e
adjective too many to count
She taught a course on algebra.
She was the star of
countless films.
course 2 g
infinite, innumerable,

myriad, untold, noun a series of lessons
incalculable, limitless, She taught a course
e s rin
measureless, multitudinous on algebra.
ss n g h
classes, curriculum
a r l e
country 1
noun a political area course 3
fe ne i
He drove over the border noun a way taken to get
o i s m rve j
between the two countries. somewhere The sailor
kingdom, land, state changed the yachts course
to avoid the rocks.
country 2 direction, line, path, route,
s va
noun land away from towns
trajectory, way
gut lou l
and cities My friend lives
right out in the country. court 1 r m
bush (New Zealand and noun a place where legal
South Africa), countryside, matters are decided
plu n
outback (Australia and New He ended up in court
Zealand), outdoors for theft. ck
related words:
adjectives pastoral, rural
bench, law court, tribunal
court 2
verb (old-fashioned) to hope
to marry Grandpa said
he courted Grandma for years q
before she agreed to marry him.
go steady, woo
noun polite and considerate
behaviour He showed
courtesy to other drivers, giving antonym: t
My friend lives right out
way to them on the busy road.
civility, courteousness, fear u
in the country. gallantry, good manners, The dragon flew
away in fear.
grace, graciousness,
noun lack of fear
SEE RIGHT cover 1 w
verb to protect or hide
course 1 He covered his face.
cloak, conceal, cover up,
noun a policy of action
Jed took the only course
left open to him.
hide, mask, obscure,
screen, shade y
antonym: reveal
plan, policy, procedure
A cover 2
verb to form a layer over
crack 1
verb to become damaged,
crash 3
noun the failure of a business
create 1
verb to make something
The fish was covered with with lines on the surface There was a stock market happen The band coming
B breadcrumbs. The road surface cracked crash overnight. on stage created a buzz of
coat, overlay in the heat. bankruptcy, collapse, excitement around the room.
C break, fracture, snap depression, failure, ruin bring about, cause, lead to,
cover 3
D noun something which protects crack 2 crash 4
or hides They snuggled verb to find the answer to verb to have an accident create 2
down under the covers. something Weve managed His car crashed into verb to invent something
E case, coating, covering, to crack the problem. the back of a van. He created a new type
jacket, mask, screen, decipher, solve, work out bump, collide, drive into, of kite.
F wrapper have an accident,
hurtle into, plough into,
coin, compose, devise,
formulate, invent, originate
crack 3
noun a line or gap caused by
damage There was a large creative
crawl 1
crack in the wall. adjective able to invent
break, cleft, crevice, verb to move slowly on hands Sheila is so creative
fracture, fissure, interstice and knees or near the ground shes writing and illustrating a
I The ladybird crawled through
the grass.
graphic novel in her spare time.
fertile, imaginative,
J They snuggled down
under the covers.
adjective clever and rather
dishonest The crafty kid
creep, drag, edge, inch,
slither, on hands and knees
inspired, inventive

managed to get both his
cow parents to give him his pocket crawl 2 noun praise for something
money that week. verb to be full of The branch Luca took all the credit
L noun a farm animal kept for
milk or meat A herd of dairy
artful, cunning, devious,
scheming, slippery, sly, wily
was crawling with red ants.
be alive with, be full of,
for my idea.
commendation, glory,
cows stood in the field.
M bovine, cattle
be overrun (slang),
swarm, teem
praise, recognition, thanks,
acclaim, Brownie points,
N coward
noun someone who is easily
verb to stuff something into
a container or place Minnie
antonym: disgrace
crammed chips into her mouth.
scared Im a coward when
O it comes to the dark so Dad
jam, pack, squeeze, stuff creepy
adjective (informal) strange and
leaves the landing light on.
frightening The old house
P chicken (slang),
wimp (informal)
crash 1
noun an accident involving a The branch was crawling with
is really creepy at night.
disturbing, eerie, macabre,
Q cowardly
moving vehicle No one was
hurt in the car crash.
red ants.
scary (informal), sinister,
spooky, unnatural
accident, bump, collision,
R adjective easily scared
She was too cowardly to get pile-up (informal), smash
noun a brief enthusiasm for
the spider out of the bath. something Yoga is Jasmines
S chicken (slang), faint-
hearted, gutless (informal),
latest fitness craze.
fad, fashion, trend, vogue
noun an act that breaks the law
Shoplifting is a crime.
misdemeanour, offence,
T sookie (New Zealand),
craven, lily-livered,
crazy 1
violation, wrong, felony,
malfeasance, misdeed,
pusillanimous, spineless,
U timorous
adjective (informal) very strange
or foolish People thought
antonym: brave
our plans were crazy.
V foolish, insane, mad,
criminal 1
noun someone who has
cower ridiculous, wild, zany
committed a crime
W verb to bend down with fear
The dog cowered before No one was hurt in the car crash.
antonym: sensible
The criminal spent 10 years
in prison.
the cat.
X cringe, quail, shrink
crazy 2 crook (informal), culprit,
adjective (informal) very keen delinquent, offender,
crash 2 on something Gavins crazy villain, evildoer, felon,
Y noun a loud noise I heard
a crash coming from outside.
about football. lawbreaker, malefactor
fanatical, mad, obsessed,
bang, clash, din, smash
Z passionate, smitten, wild,
enamoured, zealous

criminal 2
adjective involving crime
verb to find fault The bus
cross 3
noun a mixture of two things
Stealing is a criminal driver was criticized for not The dog was a cross
offence. being on time. between a collie and a retriever. b
corrupt, crooked, illegal, censure, condemn, blend, combination,
illicit, unlawful, culpable,
felonious, indictable,
find fault with,
knock (informal),
mixture c
iniquitous, nefarious pan (informal), put down,
antonym: legal disparage, excoriate,
cross 4
adjective angry Im very d
lambast, lambaste
cripple 1 antonym: praise
cross with him.
angry, annoyed, fractious, e
verb to injure severely fretful, grumpy, in a bad
He was crippled for months
after the accident.
noun (informal) a criminal
mood, irritable, irascible,
peevish, testy, tetchy
disable, lame,
maim, paralyse
The man is a crook
and a liar.
cheat, rogue, scoundrel
crouch The monkey used the stone as

verb to squat down a crude tool to open the nuts.
(old-fashioned), shark,
cripple 2 swindler, thief, villain We all crouched
verb to prevent from working in the grass.
crude 1
Snow crippled the bus
network and we got the day off. crooked 1
bend down, squat
adjective rough and simple i
The monkey used the
bring to a standstill, impair,
put out of action
adjective bent or twisted
The nails were crooked after stone as a crude tool to
open the nuts.
Dads attempts to hammer
primitive, rough,
them into the hard wall.
critical 1 bent, deformed, distorted,
rudimentary, simple
adjective very important
It is critical to add the
ingredients in the right order.
irregular, out of shape,
twisted, warped crude 2 l
antonym: straight adjective rude and offensive
crucial, deciding, decisive,
momentous, pivotal, vital
We all crouched in the grass. He had a crude and m
embarrassing sense of humour.
antonym: unimportant crooked 2
adjective dishonest or illegal crowd 1 coarse, tasteless, vulgar,
boorish, crass
critical 2 My parents hoped the noun a large group of people
antonym: refined
adjective very serious
salesman wasnt crooked.
corrupt, criminal,
A huge crowd gathered
in the square.
Her car was in critical need cruel
of a new battery.
grave, precarious, serious
dishonest, fraudulent,
illegal, shady (informal),
horde, host, mass, mob,
multitude, swarm, throng adjective deliberately causing p
dishonourable, nefarious, hurt Her words were cruel.

critical 3
antonym: honest
crowd 2 barbarous, brutal, callous,
cold-blooded, heartless,
verb to gather close together
adjective finding fault with inhumane, sadistic, savage,
something or someone
cross 1
Hundreds of fans crowded
into the hall.
vicious r
The boy thought his teacher antonyms: compassionate,
verb to go across congregate, gather,
was too critical and had marked kind
his essay down. The bridge crosses the river. swarm, throng
ford, go across,
carping, derogatory,
disapproving, disparaging,
span, traverse
crowded cruelty t
noun cruel behaviour
scathing, captious, adjective full of people
Leaving Maz out of the final
cavilling, censorious,
It was a crowded room.
congested, full,
match was an act of cruelty. u
barbarity, brutality,
antonym: complimentary overflowing, packed
callousness, inhumanity,
savagery, viciousness
criticism crucial
noun expression of disapproval
The bridge crosses the river.
adjective very important
antonyms: compassion,
kindness w
His criticism of the play He held his nerve at the
was harsh.
censure, disapproval, cross 2
crucial moment and won
the game.
crumple x
verb to squash and wrinkle
fault-finding, flak (informal),
verb to meet and go across
The bus stop is near
central, critical, decisive,
momentous, pivotal, vital She crumpled the paper
in her hand.
panning (informal), the traffic lights where the
denigration, stricture
antonym: praise
roads cross.
crisscross, intersect
crease, crush,
screw up, wrinkle z
A curb 1
verb to keep something within
curious 2
adjective strange and unusual
limits Owen must learn to The shop was full of
B curb his temper. curious trinkets.
check, contain, control, bizarre, extraordinary,
C limit, restrain, suppress odd, peculiar, singular,
strange, unusual
antonym: ordinary
D curb 2 The tailor cut the cloth with
noun an attempt to keep
a sharp pair of scissors.
something within limits current 1
E My little brother loves to crush Parents called for stricter noun a strong continuous
the garlic. curbs on who could be invited movement of water cut 1
F to the school party.
brake, control, limit,
She was almost swept away
by the current of water.
verb to mark, injure, or remove
part of (something or someone)
crush 1
limitation, restraint flow, tide, undertow with something sharp
verb to destroy the shape
of by squeezing The tailor cut the cloth
with a sharp pair of scissors.
My little brother loves cure 1 current 2
H to crush the garlic. verb to make well The adjective happening, being
chop, clip, nick, score,
slice, slit, trim
crumble, crumple, ointment cured the rash. done, or being used now
I mash, squash heal, remedy His current car goes much
faster than his last one. cut 2
J crush 2
verb to defeat completely
cure 2
noun something that makes an
contemporary, fashionable,
ongoing, present,
verb to reduce something
Dad cut the amount of TV
present-day, todays, we watched.
His football team was illness better The medicine
K crushed with a 60 defeat. was a cure.
antonym: past
cut back, decrease, lower,
reduce, slash, abridge,
overcome, put down, quell, medicine, remedy,
L stamp out, vanquish treatment
curve 1
downsize, rationalize
antonym: increase
noun a bending line There
M cry 1
verb to have tears coming from
curiosity 1
noun the desire to know
was a curve in the road. cut 3
arc, bend, trajectory, turn noun a mark or injury made
your eyes The film made The man showed curiosity
N her cry. in his family tree.
related word: adjective sinuous by cutting Sofia had a cut
on her finger.
bawl, blubber, howl, sob, inquisitiveness, interest
O weep, whimper, wail curve 2
verb to move in a curve
gash, incision, slash, slit

curiosity 2 The road curved sharply cut 4

P cry 2
verb to call out loudly
noun something unusual
The museum was full to the left. noun a reduction in something
arc, arch, bend, swerve There was a cut in the
Q See you soon! they cried.
call, exclaim, shout, yell
of relics and curiosities.
freak, marvel, novelty,
number of books in the library.
cutback, decrease,
oddity, rarity custom 1
R cry 3 noun a traditional activity
The tea-drinking ceremony
lowering, reduction, saving
antonym: increase
noun a loud or high shout
S The fans in the stadium gave
a cry of disappointment when
is an ancient Chinese custom.
convention, practice, cute
ritual, tradition adjective pretty or attractive
T the striker missed the goal.
call, exclamation, You were such a cute baby!
appealing, attractive,
shout, yell custom 2
U noun something a person
charming, dear,
always does It was her
cunning 1 gorgeous, pretty
V adjective clever and deceitful
custom to get up at 7 oclock
every morning.
antonym: ugly
The boy had a cunning plan. The museum was full of relics
habit, practice,
W artful, crafty, devious, sly,
wily, foxy, Machiavellian
and curiosities.
routine, wont cynical
adjective always thinking
antonym: open
X curious 1 customer the worst of people
adjective wanting to know
noun someone who buys
Alistair had a cynical
cunning 2 He was curious about attitude that made him
Y noun cleverness and deceit the new neighbours.
something The shop was
filled with customers.
seem world-weary.
The goats showed cunning inquiring, inquisitive,
buyer, client, consumer,
distrustful, sceptical
Z in finding food.
deviousness, guile
interested, nosy (informal)
antonym: incurious
patron, purchaser, shopper

daring 2
noun the courage to take risks
Ben showed his daring when
he spoke in assembly for five b
minutes without notes.
audacity, boldness,
bravery, courage, guts
(informal), nerve (informal),
fearlessness, intrepidity,
The ocean can be dangerous
antonym: caution e
during a storm.

daft damage 2
dark 1
adjective lacking light
adjective extremely silly
Wearing shorts in snowy
noun harm that is done
to something The storm
adjective likely to cause harm
It was too dark to see what
was happening.
weather is a daft idea. caused damage to the town, The ocean can be dangerous black, cloudy, dim, dingy,
during a storm.
crazy, foolish, ludicrous, flattening several houses. murky, overcast, shadowy,
hazardous, perilous, risky,
preposterous, ridiculous, harm, injury swarthy
silly, stupid
antonym: sensible
damp 1
antonym: safe
antonym: light
dark 2
damage 1
adjective slightly wet
The towel was damp once dare 1
verb to challenge someone to
noun lack of light j
verb to cause harm to he had used it after swimming. SEE BELOW
do something I dare you to
something Hail damaged
the corn crop.
clammy, dank, humid,
moist, sodden, soggy, wet
jump off the top diving board. k
challenge, defy, throw dash 1
harm, hurt, injure
damp 2
down the gauntlet verb to rush somewhere
Madison dashed towards
noun slight wetness
The damp all over the walls dare 2 the finish line.
bolt, fly, race, run,
verb to have the courage to do
left a dark stain. rush, sprint, tear,
dampness, humidity,
something Nobody dared
to complain to the angry man.
make haste, hasten n
moisture, clamminess,
risk, venture
dash 2 o
verb to throw or be thrown
daring 1
noun the possibility of harm
adjective willing to take risks
violently against something
The huge waves dashed
A stampeding hippo is They made a daring escape
a great danger in Africa.
by helicopter.
adventurous, audacious,
against the rocks.
break, crash, hurl, q
hazard, jeopardy, menace, slam, smash
bold, brave, fearless,
Hail damaged the corn crop.
peril, risk, threat
antonym: safety
intrepid, valiant r
antonym: cautious
2 noun lack of light It is
difficult to see in the dark. t
dusk v
Im squinting to
adjust to the dimness. gloom
Its only 6 oclock.
Its dusk its not w
pitch dark yet.
Can you see
in the gloom? x
darkness murk antonym:
The room was plunged I cant make much light y
into darkness. out in this murk. The light helps
me see.
A dash 3
verb to ruin or frustrate
dead 1
adjective no longer alive
verb to choose to do something
someones hopes or ambitions He found a dead jellyfish She decided to sign up for
B The childrens hopes of a washed up on the beach. swimming lessons.
picnic were dashed by the rain. deceased, departed, choose, come to a decision,

C crush, destroy, disappoint, extinct, late determine (formal),

foil, frustrate, shatter, antonym: alive elect (formal), make up your
thwart, confound, quash mind, reach a decision,
D dead 2 resolve (formal)
dash 4 adjective no longer functioning
E noun a sudden movement The radio is dead. decision
or rush Harper made a defunct, not working noun a judgment about
F dash for the door.
bolt, race, run, rush,
something The judges came
to a decision about who the
sprint, stampede winner was.
adjective causing death She didnt buy the handbag
conclusion, finding,
The Brazilian wandering because it was too dear.
judgment, resolution,
dash 5
spider is the worlds most
ruling, verdict
noun a small quantity of deadly arachnid.
something He added destructive, fatal,
dear 3
I a dash of salt to his meal.
drop, pinch, splash,
lethal, mortal
adjective costing a lot
She didn't buy the handbag declaration
noun a forceful or official
because it was too dear.
announcement She made
J sprinkling
verb to cope successfully with
costly, expensive,
pricey (informal)
her declaration in public for
all to hear.
daydream 1 something Ethan deals
K noun a series of pleasant with stress by doing yoga.
affirmation, protestation
(formal), statement,
thoughts His mind often attend to, cope with,
L drifted into a daydream.
dream, fantasy, pipe
handle, manage, see to,
take care of
verb to make someone believe
something that is untrue
testimony, assertion,
The advert deceived the
M dream, reverie
dear 1
public by claiming the product
would make them look younger.

N noun a person for whom

you have affection
con (informal), double-cross,
dupe, fool, mislead, take in,
Happy Valentines Day, dear. trick, bamboozle, beguile,
O angel, beloved
(old-fashioned), darling,

P love, sweetheart,
treasure (informal)
decent 1
adjective of an acceptable

Q standard The pay was

decent although not generous.
She made her declaration in public
adequate, passable,
R His mind often drifted into
a daydream.
reasonable, respectable,
satisfactory, tolerable
for all to hear.

S declare
daydream 2 decent 2 verb to state something
verb to think about pleasant forcefully or officially
T things Noah daydreams of
being famous.
adjective correct and
respectable She was a Rohan declared that he was
going to sail round the world.
decent person who always
U dream, fantasize
tried to do the right thing.
affirm, announce,
assert, certify, proclaim,
proper, respectable
profess (formal), pronounce,
V dazed antonym: improper
state, attest, aver, avow
adjective unable to think clearly
At the end of the interview deceptive
W I felt dazed and exhausted.
bewildered, confused,
Happy Valentines Day, dear.
adjective likely to make people
decline 1
verb to become smaller
believe something untrue
X dizzy, light-headed, dear 2 The deceptive honey badger or weaker The plants in the
numbed, stunned, adjective much loved garden declined during winter.
looks cute, but it can give
disorientated, He was a dear friend decrease, diminish, drop,
Y punch-drunk, stupefied of mine and I miss him.
a painful scratch.
false, fraudulent, illusory,
fall, go down, plummet,
beloved, cherished, darling, reduce, dwindle, wane
misleading, unreliable,
Z esteemed, precious, prized,
delusive, specious
antonym: increase

decline 2
verb to refuse politely to
defeat 1
verb to win a victory over
noun a person who argues
accept or do something someone I defeated last in support of something
He declined their invitation years arm-wrestling champion. The man was a committed b
as he didn't want to go out. beat, conquer, crush, rout, defender of human rights.
abstain, excuse yourself,
refuse, turn down
trounce, vanquish (formal) advocate, champion,
antonym: accept
defeat 2
noun a failure to win deficiency
decline 3 His basketball team suffered
noun a gradual weakening a crushing defeat.
noun a lack of something
The disease scurvy is e
or decrease There was conquest, debacle (formal), caused by a deficiency
The sudden decrease in sales
a decline in the number of rout, trouncing of vitamin C.
was a shock.
bees visiting the hive this year. antonym: victory deficit, deprivation,
decrease, downturn,
drop, fall, recession, decrease 2
inadequacy, lack,
want (formal)
shrinkage, slump noun a lessening in the amount
defect antonym: abundance
noun a fault or flaw
antonym: increase of something The sudden
decrease in sales was a shock. A software defect made
the phone unusable. deficient
decorate 1
verb to make more attractive
decline, drop, lessening,
reduction, abatement,
deficiency, failing, fault,
flaw, imperfection,
adjective lacking in something
The bald, muddy lawn was
curtailment, cutback,
She decorated her room diminution
shortcoming, weakness deficient in grass.
with posters and pictures. inadequate, lacking, poor,
antonym: increase
adorn, deck, ornament, short, wanting
defence 1
beautify, bedeck,
embellish, festoon deep 1 noun action to protect k
something Many definite 1
adjective having a long way
to the bottom The rabbit
plant-eating dinosaurs had
spikes and weapons on their
adjective unlikely to be
changed Dad set a
dug a deep hole.
bottomless, yawning
tails as a form of defence.
cover, protection,
definite limit to my
holiday money.
antonym: shallow
resistance, safeguard, assured, certain, decided,
security fixed, guaranteed, settled n
defence 2 definite 2 o
noun an argument in support adjective certainly true
of something Jason's only
defence for taking the
Hot cocoa was a definite
help in getting to sleep.
She decorated her room with
chocolate without asking
was that he was hungry.
clear, positive,
black-and-white, clear-cut, q
argument, excuse, cut-and-dried
posters and pictures.
justification, plea
decorate 2 deformed
verb to put paint or wallpaper
defend 1
adjective abnormally shaped
The deformed carrot looked
on They decided to decorate The rabbit dug a deep hole.
verb to protect from harm as if it had two legs.
the house and paint her
bedroom walls yellow. The cat defended her kittens disfigured, distorted t
deep 2 from the dog next door.
do up (informal),
adjective great or intense
Joe had a deep love of sport
cover, guard, protect,
safeguard, shelter, shield
and played in many teams.
decrease 1 extreme, grave, great,
defend 2
verb to become or make less intense, profound, serious
The dentist said we should
decrease the amount of sugar
verb to argue in support of
I defended his silence, w
deep 3 explaining he was shy not rude.
we eat.
cut down, decline,
adjective low in sound
The man had a deep voice
endorse, justify,
stick up for (informal),
diminish, drop, dwindle,
lessen, lower, reduce,
shrink, abate, curtail,
and sang bass in choir.
bass, low, resonant,
support, uphold
subside, wane
antonym: increase
antonym: high The deformed carrot looked as if
it had two legs.
A degrade
verb to humiliate someone
deny 2
verb to refuse to believe
Ava was sorry that her something She denied
B mean remark had degraded the existence of ghosts.
her friend. reject, renounce
C demean, humiliate
deny 3
D delay No one knew who owned the derelict
1 verb to refuse to give
building with the broken window.
verb to put something off something Pamelas mum
until later Lunch was denied her any more snacks
E delayed by an hour as our before dinner. derelict
guests were late. refuse, withhold adjective abandoned and in
F defer, postpone, put off,
shelve, suspend
poor condition No one knew
who owned the derelict building
The girl deliberated over department
with the broken window.
what to eat. noun a section of an
abandoned, dilapidated,
delay 2 organization The shops
neglected, ruined
verb to slow or hinder sock department was always
something Fallen trees on
deliberate 3 busier than swimwear in winter.
verb to think carefully
the road delayed her journey. division, office, section, descend
I hinder, impede, obstruct,
set back, hold up, retard
about a choice
The girl deliberated unit verb to move downwards
We descended the stairs.
over what to eat.
J delay 3
debate, meditate, mull over,
ponder, reflect
depend on
verb to rely on
dip, dive, fall, go down,
plummet, sink
antonym: ascend
You can depend on me to
noun a time when something
is delayed The fog grounded help you in an emergency.
planes, causing flight delays.
delicious bank on, count on, describe
L interruption, obstruction,
adjective tasting very nice
rely on, trust verb to give an account of
something The teacher

M delete delight 1 depend on 2

verb to be affected by
asked Amy to describe what
she did in her spare time.
noun great pleasure or joy define, depict, portray,
The taste depends on the
N verb to remove something
written She deleted the It gives me great delight to
welcome you to our new home.
quality of the ingredients.
characterize, detail
final paragraph because it be determined by, hinge on,
O repeated an earlier one.
cross out, erase, rub out,
glee, happiness, joy,
pleasure, rapture,
be subject to, hang on,
rest on
verb to have a right to
something Mum works hard,
P blue-pencil, edit out,
strike out
deposit so she deserves a rest.
delight 2 be entitled to, be worthy of,
Q deliberate 1 verb to give someone great
pleasure The squeaky toy
verb to put down or leave
somewhere She deposited
earn, justify, merit, warrant
adjective done on purpose the coin in the piggy bank.
R When I found the textbook
under Dougs desk, I realized
delighted the baby.
amuse, captivate, charm,
drop, lay, leave, place,
put down
design 1
verb to make a plan of
enchant, please, thrill
something She couldnt
S it was part of a deliberate
attempt to cheat in the exam. wait to design her new
calculated, conscious, demand bedroom herself.
T intentional, premeditated,
verb to need or require
something Running the
draft, draw up, plan

U antonym: accidental obstacle course demanded

strength and coordination.
design 2
noun a plan or drawing
involve, need, require,
V deliberate 2 take, want, call for, entail, Brad showed us his design
adjective careful and not for a vegetable patch.
hurried The vets model, plan, blueprint,
W movements were gentle and
deliberate as he felt the cats deny 1

X leg for bruising.

careful, cautious,
verb to say that something is
untrue He denied he broke
design 3
noun the shape or style of
measured, methodical the ornament on purpose.
Y antonym: casual contradict, refute, abjure,
something Mel had a funky
new design for a clock.
disavow, disclaim, gainsay,
form, pattern, shape,
Z rebut, repudiate
antonym: admit
She deposited the coin in
the piggy bank.

Cakes are a tasty
teatime treat.

luscious yummy e
I fnd
lemon drizzle cake
particularly luscious.
Marzipan is yummy, f
I prefer it to icing.
delectable scrumptious h
She said t
hat the cupcakes fro
the local caf were delectabl .
m Anythin
g with icing is scrumptious!
bakery kes.
mouth-watering l
had an array of appetizing ca
The mo
uth-watering smell of cakes
baking was so tempting.

adjective tasting very nice The cake was delicious.
A desire 1
verb to want something
determine 3
verb to find out the facts about
adjective very loving and loyal
We can stay longer at something The X-ray will He was a devoted father.
B the fair if you desire. determine if there are any constant, dedicated,
crave, fancy, long for, broken bones. doting, faithful, loving,
C want, wish, yearn,
ache for, covet
ascertain (formal), confirm,
discover, establish,
loyal, true

find out, verify

D desire 2
die 1
verb to stop living The
noun a feeling of wanting determined flowers had drooped and died.
E something I have a strong adjective firmly decided Mia cark it (Australia and
desire to help people. was determined to finish the New Zealand; informal),
F appetite, craving,
hankering, longing, wish,
race, however long it took her.
bent on, dogged, intent on,
expire (formal), pass away,
pass on, perish (formal)

yearning, yen (informal) persistent, purposeful,
resolute (formal),
single-minded, tenacious,
die 2
despair 1 The destruction of the rainforest
verb to fade away
left many animals homeless. steadfast, unflinching,
noun a loss of hope reassured her that the worry
Emma felt despair at the she felt would soon die.
I thought of yet another long
car journey.
noun the act of destroying develop 1
fade away, fade out,
peter out
something The destruction
J dejection, despondency,
gloom, hopelessness of the rainforest left many
verb to grow or become more
advanced The seedling
die out
animals homeless. developed new leaves.
verb to cease to exist Many
K despair 2 annihilation, demolition,
devastation, obliteration
advance, evolve, grow,
mature, progress, result,
ancient customs have died out.
verb to lose hope I despair disappear, fade, vanish
L at this rain will it ever stop?
feel dejected, detail

difference 1
M feel despondent,
lose heart, lose hope
noun an individual feature of
something We discussed
noun a lack of similarity
between things There is
every detail of the play.
N despite aspect, element, particular,
point, respect, fine point,
a huge difference between the
size of a Yorkshire Terrier and
preposition in spite of a Great Dane.
O He gave a great talk despite
his fear of public speaking.
contrast, discrepancy,
disparity, distinction,
P in spite of, notwithstanding
(formal), regardless of noun a firm decision to do
divergence, variation
antonym: similarity
something Adam showed
Q destroy determination in his training
for the Olympics.
verb to ruin something
R completely The fire
destroyed the building.
perseverance, persistence,
resolution, resolve (formal),
tenacity, doggedness,
S annihilate, demolish,
devastate, obliterate,
steadfastness, willpower
The seedling developed
new leaves.
raze, ruin, wreck
T determine 1 develop 2
U verb to cause or control a
situation or result The size
verb to become affected by
an illness or fault He
of the chicken determines the developed pneumonia.
V cooking time. catch, contract (formal),
control, decide, dictate, fall ill, get, go down with, There is a huge difference between

W govern, shape pick up, succumb the size of a Yorkshire Terrier and
a Great Dane.

X determine 2 devious
verb to decide or settle adjective achieving your goal by difference 2
something firmly sly methods He got another noun the amount by which
Y The fire destroyed the building.
The date of the match had turn by being devious, claiming two quantities differ
not yet been determined. he'd missed out last time. The difference between
Z arrange, choose, decide,
fix, resolve, settle
calculating, scheming,
underhand, wily
17 and 19 is two.
balance, remainder

difficult 1 adjective not easy to do or solve
The puzzle was difficult to finish. b
arduous c
It was a long, arduous
journey from one end of
the country to the other. d
challenging e
He found it challenging to finish
all his homework before football
practice started.
hard g
It was hard to find
She had a demanding
a subject she enjoyed
more than art. h
Would the detective ever
solve the knotty problem? i
laborious j
The company had an

intractable problem. Checking the entire database
was a laborious task.
It was a thorny issue problematic l
to work out who should It could be problematic
sit where. trying to fit everyone
into one car. m
tough n
She found the practical
exam really tough.
It was an uphill
battle getting her
son to tidy his room. q
antonym: easy r
This jigsaw is so easy!

different 1 different 3 difficult 2 difficulty 2
adjective unlike something else adjective distinct and adjective not easy to deal with noun the quality of being t
His shiny green shoes were separate The school He was difficult to deal with difficult Getting on and off
different to everyone elses.
supports a different charity
every year.
because of his mood swings.
demanding, troublesome,
the bus on crutches was a
difficulty she had to overcome.
disparate (formal), another, discrete (formal), trying, obstreperous, hardship, strain,
dissimilar, opposed, unlike, distinct, individual, refractory, unmanageable tribulation (formal),
at odds, at variance, separate arduousness,
divergent (formal)
antonym: similar
difficulty 1 laboriousness w
difficult 1 noun a problem The main

different 2
adjective not easy to do
or solve
difficulty was that her car
wouldnt start.
dig 1
verb to break up soil or sand
adjective unusual and out of SEE ABOVE complication, hassle The dog used its front paws y
the ordinary Jane's hairstyle (informal), hurdle, obstacle, to dig a hole in the ground.
was different, shaved at the pitfall, problem, snag, burrow, excavate, gouge,
front and long at the back.
special, unique
trouble, impediment,
stumbling block
hollow out, quarry, till,
A dig 2
verb to push something in
dim 2
adjective vague or unclear
direct 2
adjective clear and honest
direction 2
noun control and guidance
She could feel the tight She had a dim memory He gave a direct answer to of something He chopped
B bracelet digging into of seeing the girl her rambling question: No. vegetables under the
her arm. somewhere before. blunt, candid, forthright, chefs direction.
C jab, poke, thrust faint, hazy, indistinct,
obscure, shadowy, vague,
frank, straight,
charge, command, control,
guidance, leadership,
fuzzy, ill-defined, antonym: devious management
D dig 3
noun a push or poke
antonym: clear
Daisy silenced Matt with direct 3 dirt 1
E a dig in the arm. verb to control and guide noun dust or mud
jab, poke, prod, thrust dim 3 something Christopher The bike was covered in dirt.
F adjective (informal) slow to
understand He is rather
is captain and directs the
team on the field.
dust, filth, grime,
muck, mud

dim, but dont offend him control, guide, lead,
by saying so! manage, oversee, run,
dumb (informal), obtuse, supervise
dirt 2
noun earth or soil He drew
H slow, stupid, thick (informal)
antonym: bright
a circle in the dirt with a stick.
direction 1 earth, soil
I diminish
noun the line in which
something is moving
He walked for an hour dirty 1
J verb to reduce or become
reduced The biscuit stash in the wrong direction.
adjective marked with dirt
Daisy silenced Matt with a dig diminished throughout the day. course, path, route, way
K in the arm. contract, decrease, lessen,
lower, reduce, shrink, dirty 2
L dim 1
adjective not bright or well-lit
weaken adjective unfair or dishonest
It was a dirty deal that
tricked Joe into doing his
The light from the lamp was direct 1
M dim, and he couldn't see well adjective in a straight line or
brother's chores as well as
his own.
enough to read his book. with nothing in between
N dark, dull, grey, murky,
poorly lit, shadowy
Dad took the most direct
route to the airport.
corrupt, crooked
antonym: honest

O immediate, personal,
straight, uninterrupted He walked for an hour in the
antonym: indirect wrong direction.
1 adjective marked with dirt
He was always getting his
U clothes dirty.
filtha fiylthy T-shirt!
grimtsywere grimy
W Her boo
from the g
rass and m
mucutkyoyur mucky
Dont p et.
n the carp
X clothes o

grubb y
Y were told
to wash th
The team s before eating.
grubby ha
verb to stop something
disagree 2
verb to think that something
disappear 1
verb to go out of sight
noun a very bad accident
working You need to is wrong I disagree with your The aircraft disappeared The flood was a disaster.
disable the alarm before statement that cats are boring off the radar. calamity (formal), b
you enter. because they sleep all the time. be lost to view, drop out of catastrophe, misfortune,
deactivate, defuse,
object, oppose,
take issue with
sight, fade, recede, vanish
antonym: appear
tragedy c
disadvantage disagreeable disappear 2
verb to get rid of something
She discarded the piece of
noun an unfavourable
circumstance They
adjective unpleasant in some
way The smell of old
verb to stop existing
The snow disappeared when paper with her old notes on. e
considered the advantages cabbage was disagreeable. the sun came out. cast aside, dispose of,
and disadvantages of
moving house.
horrible, horrid, nasty,
objectionable, obnoxious,
cease (formal), die out,
go away, melt away,
dump (informal), jettison,
shed, throw away,
drawback, handicap,
minus, weakness,
unfriendly, unpleasant
antonym: agreeable
pass, vanish throw out
downside, hindrance
antonym: advantage
disagreement 1 adjective sad because hopes h
noun a dispute about have not been fulfilled
disagree 1
verb to have a different opinion
something My friend and
I had a disagreement about
I was disappointed that we
didnt go swimming.
She disagreed with which pop group was the best. dejected, despondent,
everything he said. altercation (formal), disenchanted, disillusioned,
differ, dispute, dissent argument, difference, downcast, saddened,
antonym: agree dispute, quarrel, row,
squabble, tiff
disheartened, let down
antonym: satisfied
antonym: agreement
disappointment 1 She discarded the piece of paper l
with her old notes on.
disagreement 2 noun sadness because hopes
noun an objection to something have not been fulfilled Book
There was disagreement over early to avoid disappointment. discern
the head insisting we wore our dejection, despondency, verb (formal) to notice or n
school tie on the bus home. regret, disenchantment, understand something with

She disagreed with everything

dissent, objection,
disillusionment difficulty Abigail discerned
someone walking towards her
he said.
disappointment 2
noun something that does not
through the mist.
detect, make out, p
notice, observe, perceive,
meet your expectations The
film was a disappointment;
see, spot q
it was really boring.
blow, setback discharge 1 r
verb to send something out
The cleaned water will be
noun the belief that something
discharged into the sea. s
emit, empty, expel, flush,
is wrong Johns mum
expressed disapproval when
give off, release
staine he wore ripped jeans to school.
His sh
d censure, condemnation,
discharge 2 u
from th rts were stain verb to allow someone to leave
e grass ed hospital or prison He has a
. antonym: approval
broken arm but was discharged
from the hospital yesterday.
unclean disapprove
verb to think that something
free, let go, liberate, w
The unc release, set free
into the an kit will go s is wrong Everyone
washing tra
machine ight
disapproved of the stickers
all over Marias precious violin. discharge 3
antonym: clean condemn, deplore (formal), verb to dismiss someone from
The substitute didnt play and dislike, find unacceptable, a job He was discharged for
so his kit remained clean. take a dim view of, shouting at his boss.
frown on, take exception to
antonym: approve
dismiss, eject, fire (informal),
sack (informal)
B discover
verb to find something or find out about something
C She discovered a shell in the rock pool.
G come across
The children came across the
H pool when exploring the beach. unearth
He unearthed a shell
I hidden in the mud.

J find
She didnt know what she
K would find in the water.

find out
M He wanted to find out
more about hermit crabs.

O learn stumble on or
He went to the library to stumble across
P learn about rock pools.
realize Stumbling across the rock pool was
the highlight of their day at the beach.

Q They realized that the

tide was coming in.

discharge 4
noun a sending away from
disgrace 2
verb to bring shame upon
noun dishonest behaviour
a job or institution The dog disgraced itself Her lies and dishonesty
A broken leg led to her by ripping the cushions. had annoyed people. b
discharge from the team discredit, shame cheating, corruption,
for the rest of the season.
dismissal, ejection,
deceit, trickery, duplicity,
fraudulence, mendacity
expulsion, antonym: honesty
adjective deserving of shame
the sack (informal)
Grace had wasted a
disgraceful amount of paper
while trying to write the letter. verb to break into many e
verb to make someone lose scandalous, shameful, pieces The sandcastle Her drawer was in disorder, and it
enthusiasm Dont let these
problems discourage you.
shocking, discreditable,
disintegrated when the tide
came in.
was impossible to find an eraser.
daunt, deter, dissuade,
put off, demoralize,
break up, crumble,
fall apart, fall to pieces,
disorder 1 g
disgust 1 fragment
noun a state of untidiness
Her drawer was in disorder,
noun a strong feeling of dislike
antonym: encourage
Leah felt disgust at the and it was impossible to find
thought of eating a worm. an eraser.
verb to find something or
nausea, repulsion,
clutter, disarray, muddle
antonym: order
find out about something
disorder 2
noun a lack of organization
discuss The play ended in disorder
verb to talk about something when they all forgot their lines
We discussed what we
should do tomorrow.
and shuffled off the stage.
chaos, confusion,
The sandcastle disintegrated
debate, exchange views on,
go into, talk about
when the tide came in.
disarray, turmoil
dislike 1 disorder 3 n
discussion verb to consider something
noun a disease or illness
noun a talk about something It was a rare nerve disorder.
The teachers sat in another Leah felt disgust at the thought
of eating a worm.
unpleasant We dont always
have liver on the menu because
affliction, complaint, o
room to have a discussion. condition, disease, illness
consultation, conversation,
debate, dialogue, disgust 2
lots of people dislike it.
abhor (formal), be averse to, p
detest, hate, loathe, not be dispose of
discourse, talk verb to cause someone to feel
disgust The foul smell
able to abide, not be able to
bear, not be able to stand
verb to get rid of something
Tie the bag and dispose of it.
disgusted him.
antonym: like discard, dispense with,
repel, revolt,
sicken, nauseate,
dump, get rid of, r
throw away
dislike 2
turn your stomach
noun a feeling of not liking
disgusting something Mum looked disprove
adjective very unpleasant or
at the weeds in the garden
with dislike.
verb to show that something
is not true The science
unacceptable That rubbish
dump is one of the most
disgusting things Ive ever seen.
animosity, antipathy,
aversion, distaste, hatred,
experiment will either prove
or disprove the theory. u
hostility, loathing discredit, give the lie to,
The teachers sat in another room foul, gross, obnoxious,
antonym: liking invalidate, prove false,
to have a discussion. repellent, revolting,
sickening, vile, nauseating,
disgrace 1 repugnant disobey
verb to deliberately refuse to
antonym: prove
noun loss of respect because
follow instructions He was dispute 1
of a dishonourable action
By refusing to shake hands
adjective not truthful It is forever disobeying rules. noun an argument x
break, defy, flout, The dispute between
after the match, he has brought
disgrace upon the whole team.
dishonest to mislead people.
corrupt, crooked, deceitful,
infringe, violate,
contravene (formal),
them is now settled.
argument, clash, conflict,
scandal, shame, fraudulent, lying,
discredit, dishonour
antonym: credit
mendacious, untruthful
antonym: honest
antonym: obey
disagreement, feud,
row, wrangle z
B drag verb to pull something along the ground
He dragged the sled across the snow.

C draw
lug Draw up your sled and join us!
D Nobody else wanted to lug
the sled up the hill.
E It was a heavy load to haul.

trail tow
I His scarf trailed on the His arm ached from
ground behind him. towing his friends.
K dispute 2
verb to question somethings
distinguish 1
verb to see the difference
distress 3
verb to cause someone
distribute 3
verb to divide and share
between things A pet cant unhappiness It distressed something Chores were
L truth or wisdom
Tim disputed the claim that distinguish right from wrong. Gran that the cousins left evenly distributed among all
he hadn't even tried to win. differentiate, without saying goodbye. family members.
M challenge, contest,
contradict, deny,
discriminate, tell, tell apart,
tell the difference
bother, disturb, grieve,
pain, sadden, trouble,
allocate, allot,
dispense (formal), divide,

N query, question
antonym: accept
distinguish 2
upset, worry dole out, share out,
apportion, mete out
distribute 1
O distant 1
verb to just recognize
something I heard shouting verb to hand something out disturb 1
adjective far away in space but was unable to distinguish The head teacher distributed verb to intrude on someones
P or time A distant ship
appeared on the horizon.
the words.
discern, make out,
the prizes to the winners.
circulate, hand out,
peace She crept past her
sleeping father so as not to
Q far, outlying,
out-of-the-way, remote,
pick out, recognize pass around, pass round disturb him.
bother, disrupt, intrude on
faraway, far-flung, far-off
distract distribute 2
R antonym: close
verb to stop someone from verb to spread something disturb 2
concentrating Playing through an area verb to upset or worry someone
S computer games distracted
John from his homework.
Distribute the sprinkles
evenly over the cupcake.
The scenes on the news
disturbed him.

T divert, draw away,

sidetrack, turn aside
diffuse, disperse,
scatter, spread
agitate, distress, shake,
trouble, unsettle, upset,
U distress 1
noun great suffering The dive
V pain from her broken arm was verb to go head first into water
A distant ship appeared on causing her distress. Sharon dived into the pool.
W the horizon. heartache, pain, sorrow,
jump, leap, submerge

X distant 2 divide 1
adjective cold and unfriendly distress 2 verb to split something up
He is polite but distant. noun the state of needing help He divided the tin of food
Y aloof, detached, reserved, The ship sent out a signal between the two cats.
withdrawn, standoffish, that it was in distress. cut up, partition, segregate,
Z unapproachable
antonym: friendly
difficulty, need,
straits, trouble
Distribute the sprinkles evenly
over the cupcake.
separate, split, split up
antonym: join

do 2
verb to be sufficient It is
double 2
adjective consisting of two
noun the failure of a person
best to send a birthday card, parts A double pram was or thing The kings greed
but an email will do. needed for the twin babies. had been his downfall. b
be adequate, be sufficient, dual, twin, twofold collapse, fall, ruin
suffice (formal) c
doubt 1 drab
do 3
verb to perform at a certain
noun a feeling of uncertainty
She had doubts about
adjective dull and lacking
brightness The army truck
level Connie did well at tap.
A fence divides the field between fare, get on, manage
travelling in rainy weather.
misgiving, qualm,
was painted in drab colours.
dingy, dismal, dreary, dull, e
the sheep and the cows. scepticism, uncertainty gloomy, grey, sombre,
dodge 1 antonym: certainty cheerless, lacklustre
antonym: bright
divide 2 verb to move out of the way
verb to form a barrier between The player in white doubt 2 g
things A fence divides the dodged the tackle. verb to feel uncertain about
something Sam doubted his
field between the sheep and duck, swerve
the cows. ability to play a concerto.
bisect, separate be dubious, be sceptical,
query, question
antonym: believe
divide 3
verb to cause people to
disagree My parents were doubtful
divided over which colour to adjective unlikely or uncertain
The army truck was painted
paint the walls. Its doubtful hell do another in drab colours.
come between, set against tour as he wants a change.
one another, split debatable, dubious,
questionable, uncertain drag
The player in white dodged
division 1 the tackle.
antonym: certain verb to pull something along
the ground
noun separation into parts
The citys division into two dodge 2 down 1 SEE LEFT
parts was caused by the railway adverb towards the ground,
verb to avoid doing something
line that ran through its centre. or in a lower place drain 1
partition, separation He dodged the question by
talking about something else. He walked down the stairs. verb to cause a liquid to flow o
downwards, downstairs somewhere Kevin pulled
division 2
avoid, elude, evade,
get out of, shirk, sidestep
antonym: up out the plug to drain water
from the bath.
noun a disagreement
There were divisions in the
community over where the
draw off, pump
noun an animal often kept as
carnival should be held. drain 2
breach, difference of
a pet The dog is a loyal pet.
canine, mongrel,
verb to flow somewhere r
opinion, rupture, split Some rivers drain into lakes.
mutt (slang), pooch (slang)
discharge, empty, flow,
related words:
division 3 adjective canine; female bitch;
noun a section of something
The costume division was
young pup, puppy
drain 3 t
easier to find than the props.
department, section, sector
adjective certain to fail
verb to use something up
The long day of travelling u
drained her of energy.
It was a doomed attempt
dizzy to retrieve the ball they would He walked down the stairs.
consume, exhaust,
sap, tax, use up
adjective about to lose your never be able to reach it up in
balance Manuel had a dizzy
spell and almost fell over.
the tree.
condemned, hopeless,
down 2 drastic w
adjective depressed He felt
giddy, light-headed ill-fated
down when his team lost.
dejected, depressed,
adjective severe and urgent
Now is the time for drastic x
action if we are going to save
do 1 double 1
verb to carry out a task He adjective twice the usual size
dispirited, fed up (informal),
glum, melancholy,
the day.
extreme, harsh,
just didnt want to do any work. Bad traffic meant it took miserable, sad,
carry out, execute (formal),
perform, undertake
double the time to get home.
twice, twofold
despondent, morose,
radical, severe
A draw 1
verb to make a picture
adjective dull or boring
drip 2
noun a small amount of a
Lucas decided to draw It was a dreary, rainy day. liquid There were drips of
B the view through the window. boring, drab, dull, paint on the carpet when Dad
paint, sketch, trace humdrum, monotonous, finished painting the wall.
C tedious, uneventful
antonym: exciting
bead, drop, droplet,
dribble, globule
draw 2
D verb to move somewhere
The car drew away from dress 1 drive 1
The ball dropped and bounced
on the ground.
the kerb. noun a piece of clothing verb to operate or power a
E move, pull It was a hot day so she machine or vehicle He liked
drop 1
wore a summer dress. to drive the car on empty roads.
verb to fall downwards
F draw 3 frock, gown, robe operate, pilot, power,
propel, run, steer, work The ball dropped and
verb to pull something Max bounced on the ground.
G drew his chair nearer to the fire.
drag, haul, pull drive 2
descend, fall, plummet,
sink, tumble

verb to force someone to do
something Ambition drove
drawback Jim to work harder.
drop 2
I noun a problem that makes
something less than perfect
compel, force, lead,
motivate, prompt, push,
verb to become less
Temperatures can drop
The only drawback was that to freezing at night.
J the apartment was too small.
difficulty, hitch, problem,
decline, decrease, fall,
plummet, sink, slump,
drive 3
snag, trouble tumble
verb to force something pointed antonym: rise
into a surface Rick used
L adjective extremely bad She
a sledgehammer to drive
the pegs into the ground.
drop 3
thought the play was dreadful: noun a small amount of
M poor acting and no plot.
appalling, atrocious, It was a hot day so she wore
hammer, knock, ram,
sink, thrust
a liquid A drop of ink
splashed from the end

N awful, frightful, ghastly,

horrendous, terrible
a summer dress. of the pen.
bead, drip, droplet,
antonym: wonderful dribble, globule
dress 2
O noun clothing in general The
dream 1 invitation said casual dress. drowsy
P noun mental pictures while
sleeping Ahmed had a
attire (formal), clothes,
clothing, costume,
adjective tired and sleepy
It had been an exhausting
Q dream that his rabbit could fly.
hallucination, trance,
garb (formal), apparel,
day and he felt drowsy.
lethargic, sluggish
vision, delusion, reverie
R dress 3 drug 1
dream 2 verb to put on clothes noun a treatment for disease
S noun something that
you want very much
The little boy had dressed
himself and put his trousers Rick used a sledgehammer to drive
The drug was a type
of antibiotic.

T His fathers dream was to be on back to front. the pegs into the ground. medication, medicine
promoted in the next year. attire (formal), clothe,
ambition, aspiration, garb (formal)
U daydream, fantasy, antonym: undress
drive 4 dry 1
noun a journey in a vehicle adjective without any liquid
Holy Grail, pipe dream
We decided to go for a drive The path was dry after
V drink in the car. several days of sunshine.
verb to swallow liquid excursion, jaunt, journey, arid, dried-up, parched

W SEE RIGHT ride, run, spin, trip antonym: wet

X drip 1 drive 5 dry 2

verb to fall in small drops noun energy and determination verb to remove liquid from
Rain dripped from the Justin had the drive to something You wash up
Y brim of his cap. succeed against all odds. and Ill dry the pots.
dribble, splash, trickle ambition, determination, drain, dehumidify,
Z His fathers dream was to be
promoted in the next year.
energy, enterprise,
initiative, motivation, vigour
dehydrate, desiccate
antonym: moisten

dubious 1
adjective not entirely honest or
dull 2
adjective not bright or clear
duty 1
noun something that
reliable Rachel didnt Brown is a dull colour, you ought to do
believe his dubious answer that unlike bright, cheerful yellow. We have a duty to look b
his bus had broken down. drab, gloomy, muted, after the environment.
crooked, dishonest,
questionable, suspect,
sombre, subdued
antonym: bright
obligation, responsibility c
suspicious, unreliable
duty 2
dull 3 noun a task associated
dubious 2 They dumped the extra sand
with a job My main duty
adjective doubtful about
adjective covered with clouds
The weather is always dull
back at the quarry.
as a chauffeur is to drive e
something My parents and foggy. people from one place
were dubious about the
number of friends Id invited
cloudy, leaden, murky,
dump 1
verb to get rid of something
to another.
assignment, job,
for a sleepover.
doubtful, nervous,
antonym: bright They dumped the extra sand
back at the quarry.
responsibility, role
sceptical, suspicious, discharge, dispose of,
dumb 1 duty 3
unconvinced, undecided,
adjective unable to speak
get rid of, jettison,
throw away, throw out
noun tax paid to the h
We were all struck dumb government Theres no

dull 1
with surprise.
mute, silent, speechless dump 2
duty to pay on perfume at
the airport.
adjective not interesting
I found the chess game dumb 2
verb (informal) to put
something down We
excise, levy (formal),
tariff, tax j
dull as Millie took so long dumped our coats and ran off.
adjective (informal) slow to
between moves. deposit, drop
boring, drab, humdrum,
understand She called him dying: be dying for
dumb for not understanding verb to want something very
monotonous, tedious,
what the teacher said, and
the teacher scolded her for
verb to trick someone She
much Im dying for a pizza.
ache for, hunger for,
antonym: interesting
being rude.
dim, obtuse (formal), stupid,
realized hed duped her when
he pulled a rabbit from her hat.
long for, pine for,
yearn for
thick (informal) cheat, con (informal),
antonym: smart deceive, delude, fool, n
play a trick on, trick
gulp p
Gulping the water gave him hiccups.
sip q
She sipped tea
imbibe from a china cup.
The brides father imbibed rather r
too much alcohol at the wedding.

He quaffed huge cups
of water after the race.
Dont guzzle all the juice!
She supped her soup
straight from the mug.
verb to swallow liquid
hot chocolate
He drank our
from his fav ite mug.
He swigged the lemonade y
straight from the bottle.
A earn 1
verb to get money in return
for doing work
B John earns a good wage.
bring in, draw, get, make,
C obtain, net, procure, reap

D earn 2 Lynn planted the flower and

verb to receive something that
filled the pot with earth.
you deserve Tina earned her
E scholarship through hard work
and determination. earth 2
F eager early 2
acquire, attain (formal), win noun soil from the ground
Lynn planted the flower
adjective wanting very much adjective near the beginning and filled the pot with earth.
to do or have something of a period of time
Earth 1 clay, dirt, ground, soil,
noun the planet on which
Robert was eager to earn The Battle of Waterloo took we live Most of Earths
loam, topsoil, turf
H some extra money and took
on a paper round.
place in the early 19th century.
primeval, primitive
surface is covered with water.
globe, planet, world ease 1
I anxious, ardent, avid,
enthusiastic, keen,
early 3
related word:
adjective terrestrial
noun lack of difficulty or worry
After weeks of practice, Len
raring to go (informal),
J fervent, hungry, zealous
adverb before the arranged
or expected time
passed his test with ease.
leisure, relaxation,
We arrived early at the simplicity
K early 1
adjective before the arranged
cinema so that we wouldnt
have to queue.
ease 2
L or expected time
Kate was early; none of
ahead of time, beforehand,
in advance, in good time,
verb to make or become
less severe or intense
her friends had arrived yet. prematurely
The doctor gave him some
M advance, premature,
medicines to ease the pain.
abate, calm, relax,
N antonym: late
Most of Earths surface is covered
with water.
relieve, slacken, allay,
alleviate, assuage

1 verb to chew and swallow food
Theres never any food left
when the dogs have finished eating.
S chew
X snack
Y chomp guzzle
ease 3
verb to move slowly or carefully
economic 1
adjective concerning the way
noun the careful use of things
He eased open the heavy money is managed It is hard to save money Ben always
door and peered outside. to start a business when the spent too much; he needed to b
creep, edge, guide, inch, economic situation is bad. start shopping with economy.
lower, manoeuvre, squeeze budgetary, commercial,
financial, fiscal, monetary
frugality (formal), prudence,
restraint, thrift
easy 1
adjective able to be done economic 2 ecstasy d
without difficulty This is an
easy puzzle with lots of clues.
The body of the van had been
eaten away by rust.
adjective making a profit
Bananas are an economic
noun extreme happiness
Winning the gold medal e
light, painless, simple, crop to grow. was total ecstasy!
smooth, straightforward
antonym: hard
eat away productive, profitable,
viable, money-making,
bliss, delight, elation,
euphoria, exaltation,
verb to destroy something
slowly The body of the van
profit-making, remunerative joy, rapture
easy 2 had been eaten away by rust.
economical 1
adjective comfortable and corrode, destroy, dissolve,
without worries We had an erode, rot, wear away adjective cheap to use and
easy, relaxed day at the beach. saving you money Our car
carefree, comfortable,
leisurely, quiet, relaxed
eccentric 1 may not be fast, but its very
economical to run.
adjective regarded as odd or

eat 1
peculiar My friend wears
eccentric hats with bells on.
cheap, cost-effective,
economic, inexpensive j
verb to chew and swallow food bizarre, outlandish, quirky,
SEE BELOW strange, weird, whimsical economical 2
adjective careful and sensible
eat 2 eccentric 2 with money or materials
It is more economical
verb to have a meal noun someone who is
We like to eat dinner early. regarded as odd or peculiar
for us to make hot chocolate
at home than to buy it from Winning the gold medal was
breakfast (formal), dine, Gran is a bit of an eccentric the caf. total ecstasy!
feed, have a meal,
lunch (formal), picnic
with her strange views on life.
character, crank
careful, frugal, prudent, n
(on) r
devour swallow s
scof f u
wolf down
consume y
A efficient
adjective able to work well
eliminate 1
verb to get rid of someone
noun special or extra
without wasting time or energy or something My lactose- importance The book
B Kits an efficient worker intolerant friend has to placed more emphasis on
who helps us get things eliminate dairy foods the characters than the plot.
C done quickly.
businesslike, competent,
from her diet.
cut out, do away with,
accent, importance,
prominence, weight
economic, effective, eradicate, get rid of,
D organized, productive remove, stamp out
antonym: inefficient
verb to make something seem
eliminate 2 especially important or obvious
effort 1 verb to beat someone in a He emphasized the need for
F Dont go near the edge of the cliff! noun physical or mental energy
It took a lot of effort
competition Dans team was
eliminated in the first round.
everyone to stay quiet while
they visited the reptile house.

to move the heavy box. knock out, put out accent, accentuate,
edge 1 application, energy, highlight, play up, stress,
noun the place where
exertion, trouble, work underline, foreground,
something ends or meets
prioritize, underscore
something else Dont go verb to make someone
near the edge of the cliff! effort 2 feel ashamed or awkward
I border, boundary, brim,
fringe, lip, margin, rim,
noun an attempt or struggle
Mums cake-making efforts
My dad likes to embarrass
me in front of my friends!
employ 1
verb to pay someone to work
for you The family next
J perimeter, periphery
antonym: centre
are greatly appreciated by her
hungry family.
disconcert, fluster,
humiliate, shame, door employs me to babysit.
attempt, bid, stab (informal), discomfit, faze, mortify appoint, commission,
K edge 2 struggle engage (formal), hire,
take on
verb to move somewhere slowly embarrassed
L The cat edged towards the
mouse, but it saw him and
elaborate 1
adjective having many different
adjective ashamed and
awkward She was easily employ 2
parts She threw an
M scampered away.
creep, inch, sidle elaborate party with lots of
embarrassed and turned red
when anyone looked at her.
verb to use something
When his parents said no,
entertainment and music, ashamed, awkward, Kieran employed a new strategy
N educated and huge amounts of food.
complex, complicated,
humiliated, red-faced,
self-conscious, sheepish,
to get what he wanted.
bring to bear, make use of,
adjective having a high
O standard of learning
Our head teacher is
detailed, intricate, involved
antonym: simple
abashed, bashful,
discomfited, mortified
use, utilize

P an educated and wise lady.
cultivated, cultured, elaborate 2 embarrassment noun someone who is paid
intellectual, learned, adjective highly decorated noun shame and awkwardness to work for someone else
Q erudite, well-educated The wooden box had
elaborate carvings.
I laughed loudly to cover my
embarrassment at falling over.
Hannah was one of eight
employees on the farm.

R education
noun the process of
fancy, fussy, ornate awkwardness,
bashfulness, humiliation,
hand, worker, workman

self-consciousness, shame,
S learning or teaching
chagrin, discomfiture,
A good education is mortification
noun someone that other
essential for success in life. people work for The new
T coaching, e-learning,
instruction, schooling, emergency
office assistant thanked her
employer for giving her the job.
U training, tuition noun an unexpected and
difficult situation It was an
boss, gaffer (informal)

emergency: she was lost and

V effect The wooden box had couldnt find her way home.
noun a direct result of noun giving someone paid work
elaborate carvings. crisis, pinch
something Regular piano or having paid work
W practice had a real effect on
my playing. elaborate 3 emit
Will you stay in education
or seek employment?
X consequence, end result,
fruit, result, upshot
verb to add more information
about something
verb to give out or release
something The alarm
engagement, enlistment,
hiring, recruitment
He promised to elaborate on emitted a loud, shrill ring.
the plan by giving more details. exude, give off, give out,
develop, enlarge, expand release, send out, utter,
Z produce, radiate, send forth


arts and media science, technology, a

and engineering b

health and sport

IT worker
dentist vet
musician astronaut
engineer ecologist
nurse veterinary nurse
doctor actor scientist
personal trainer biologist

employment m
therapist zookeeper

security and emergency services

sales, finance, and public life

kinds of employment

librarian p
firefighter q
politician r
air force police
engineer airline cabin crew
truck driver charity
architect pilot
estate agent hairdresser air-traffic
controller y
construction and housing travel and leisure z
A empty 1
adjective having no people
encourage 2
verb to support a person or
or things in it There was activity Her familys cheers
B no food in the house; the encouraged Zoe to run faster.
cupboards were empty. aid, boost, favour, help,
C bare, blank, clear,
deserted, unfurnished,
incite, support, foster,
further, promote,
uninhabited, vacant strengthen
D antonym: full
empty 2 noun the last part of a period
adjective boring or without or event
F close value or meaning The offer
to go on holiday together was

G x an empty promise.
inane, meaningless,
noun the furthest point of
something I was staying in a
n d i n g room at the end of the corridor.

I e empty 3
verb to remove people or things
boundary, bounds, edge,
extremity, limits, margin

J fi n i s h Danny sat down and emptied

the water that had got into
end 3
his boots.

i o
noun the purpose for

clear, drain, evacuate,
K l u
which something is done


By studying for our exams,
antonym: fill

were all working towards the
i n a t i o same end, which is to pass!
aim, goal, intention, object,

l m
objective, purpose, reason

N c u end 4
verb to come or bring to a

finish Jim waited for the
O film to end before going home.
bring to an end, cease,

P conclude, finish, stop,

antonym: begin
Q Danny sat down and emptied the
water that had got into his boots.
1 noun the last part of a period
R or event The curtains closed
at the end of the play. enclose verb to put someone or
something in danger
verb to surround a thing or
S place completely The book The lack of rain has
endangered the plants
arrived enclosed in a protective
in my garden.
T plastic bag.
encircle, fence off, hem in,
compromise, jeopardize,
put at risk, risk, threaten
surround, wrap
U antonym:
beginning encourage 1 endure 1
V The curtains will open
at the beginning of
verb to give someone
verb to experience something
difficult The students
confidence She was
tomorrows performance. endured a three-hour exam.
W encouraged by the teachers
praise for her essay.
cope with, experience,
go through, stand, suffer
cheer, hearten, reassure
X antonym: discourage
endure 2
Y verb to continue to exist
Phils jeans endured despite
years of wear and tear.
Z last, live on, remain, survive

noun someone who is against
verb to make sure about
entry 2
noun the way into a particular
you The knight fought something Fran tried the place The main entry to
a duel against his enemy. door again to ensure it was the house is around the side. b
adversary, antagonist, securely locked. door, doorway, entrance,
foe, opponent
antonym: friend
guarantee, make certain,
make sure
gate, way in c
energetic enterprise 1
entry 3
noun something that has been
Some of the volunteers were more
written down Writing about
adjective full of energy
The energetic kitten
noun a business or company
The grocery store was
enthusiastic than others.
the flight home was Lizs final e
climbed the curtains. a small family enterprise. entry in her travel journal.
animated, dynamic,
indefatigable, spirited,
business, company,
concern, establishment,
adjective showing great
item, note, record
tireless, vigorous firm, operation excitement and eagerness
for something Some of
envy 1 g
noun a feeling of resentment
the volunteers were more
energy enterprise 2
about what someone else has
enthusiastic than others.
noun the ability and strength noun a project or task
ardent, avid, devoted, He felt envy at the sight
to do things Ive not got Laras latest enterprise of his friends large garden.
the energy to go swimming.
drive, life, spirit, strength,
was to learn how to drive.
effort, endeavour,
eager, excited, keen,
passionate, fervent,
jealousy, resentment i
wholehearted, zealous
vigour, vitality, lan, verve,
zeal, zest
operation, project,
undertaking, venture
antonym: apathetic envy 2
verb to want something that
someone else has James
enjoy entrance 1
noun the way into a particular
envied Peters new bike. k
verb to find pleasure in be envious, begrudge,
place I met Barry at the
something I havent enjoyed
a film as much as that in ages!
entrance to the station.
be jealous, covet, resent l
door, doorway, entry,
appreciate, delight in,
like, love, relish, revel in,
gate, way in m
take pleasure from,
take pleasure in entrance 2 n
noun a persons arrival
enlarge somewhere The celebrity
made a dramatic entrance.
verb to make something larger
The team became so
successful that they had
Laras latest enterprise was
to learn how to drive.
appearance, arrival, entry
entrance 3
to enlarge the stadium.
add to, expand, extend, entertain noun the right to enter q
increase, magnify, verb to keep someone amused somewhere If you buy a
augment, broaden, distend,
elongate, lengthen, widen
or interested The puppy
entertained the whole family.
special pass, you can gain early
entrance to the theme park. James envied Peters new bike.
amuse, charm, delight, access, admission, entry
enthral, please
enlarge on equal 1
verb to give more information entrance 4 adjective the same in size,
about something entertainment verb to amaze and delight amount, or value Everyone t
The teacher told Paul to noun enjoyable activities someone The audience was at the party had an equal
enlarge on his answers to get
more marks in the test.
The television provided the
entertainment for the evening.
entranced by the singers voice.
bewitch, captivate, charm,
number of jelly beans.
equivalent, identical,
develop, elaborate on, amusement, enjoyment, delight, enthral, fascinate, the same
expand on fun, pleasure, recreation enchant, enrapture,
equal 2 : equal to
enormous enthusiasm adjective having the necessary w
adjective very large in size noun eagerness and enjoyment entry 1 ability for something
or amount The enormous
monument dominated
in something Alice showed
great enthusiasm for the piano
noun a persons arrival
somewhere The audience
Rhett was equal to the task
and could do it with ease.
the skyline.
colossal, gigantic, huge,
and practised daily.
eagerness, excitement,
fell silent when the hero made
his entry onto the stage.
capable of, up to
immense, massive, interest, keenness, warmth, appearance, arrival,
tremendous, vast
antonym: tiny
ardour, fervour, relish, zeal entrance z
A equal 3
verb to be as good as
escape 2
verb to manage to avoid
plural noun the things that
even 3
adjective the same
something else Mikes swim something Sid was lucky to are most important At half-time, the scores
B time equalled his previous best. escape injury when he fell over. We had enough money were even.
be equal to, match avoid, dodge, duck, to buy only the essentials. equal, identical, level,
C elude, evade basics, fundamentals,
necessities, prerequisites,
neck and neck
equip rudiments
D verb to supply someone with escape 3 event 1
something The orienteering noun something that distracts noun something that happens
esteem He