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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LATERAL DISTORTIONAL BUCKLING

OF CONTINOUSELY WELDED RECTANGULAR HOLLOW FLANGE CHANNEL


BEAMS (RHFCB) WITH WEB OPENINGS

Undergraduate research proposal report submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of


Bachelor of Science in Engineering

Hulangamuwa R.R.V.G.B.C.R.B : (EG/2013/2207 )

Principal Supervisor:
Dr. K.S. Wanniarachchi

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering


Faculty of Engineering
University of Ruhuna

07th August 2017


EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LATERAL DISTORTIONAL BUCKLING OF
CONTINOUSLEY WELDED RECTANGULAR HOLLOW FLANGE CHANNEL BEAMS
(RHFCB) WITH WEB OPENINGS

Principal Supervisor:
Dr. K.S. Wanniarachchi

Examination Committee:
Dr. Champika Ellawala (Chair)
Dr. G.H.A.C. Silva
Dr. H.P. Sooriyarachchi
Dr. W.K.C.N. Dayanthi
Dr. G.H.M.J. Subashi De Silva
Dr. J.M.R.S. Appuhamy
Mr. M.K.K.D. Wimalasena

Undergraduate Research Proposal Report -2017 i


PREFACE

This report consists with four chapters regarding BSc. Engineering final year research of the title
Experimental Investigation of Lateral Distortional Buckling of Continuously Welded Rectangular
Hollow Flange Channel Beams (RHFCB) with Web Openings. Brief outline of the content of each
chapter is presented underneath.

Chapter 1: Presents a brief introduction about cold forms steel sections especially hollow flange
sections and how their mechanical properties change because of cold working process. Significance
and the objectives of the research are also mentioned in this chapter

Chapter 2: Presents a summary of researches that have conducted so far regarding cold formed steel
sections and their conclusions

Chapter 3: Research methodology and steps to be followed logically in conducting research and
sequential order of achieving research objectives are presented in this chapter.

Chapter 4: Results and theoretical calculation of member moment capacities are discussed in this
chapter.

Chapter 5: Presents activity plan of the research with time allocations.

Hulangamuwa R.R.V.G.B.C.R.B (EG/2013/2207)


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna.

Undergraduate Research Proposal Report -2017 ii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr K.S Wanniarachchi for providing continues
guidance throughout this research as the principle supervisor and his commitment to conduct this
research in a successful manner.
I would also like to thank Dr Champika Ellawala for the assistance provided as the undergraduate
research coordinator. I wish to thank Dr Tushara Chaminda for conducting the module Introduction
to Research Methodology and delivering good understanding about how to conduct a research. I
would like to thank my parents and family members for their tremendous support to accomplish my
goals.
Last but not least, though it is difficult to mention in names, I would like to thank all individuals
who helped so far regarding the undergraduate research project.

Hulangamuwa .R.RV.G.B.C.R.B (EG/2013/2207)


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna.

Undergraduate Research Proposal Report -2017 iii


CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1.......................................................................................................................................1
1.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH ............................................................................... 1
1.3 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 2
1.3.1 Overall Objective ........................................................................................................... 2
1.3.2 Specific Objectives ........................................................................................................ 3
CHAPTER 2.......................................................................................................................................4
2.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................. 4
2.2 MANUFACTURING OF COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS AND ITS PROPERTIES
2.3 COLD FORMED STEEL DESIGN STANDARDS ............................................................. 5
2.4 RESEARCH STUDIES- DIFFERENT COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS AND
FAILURE MODES ............................................................................................................................ 6
2.4.1 Lateral Torsional Buckling ............................................................................................ 7
2.4.2 Lateral Distortional buckling ......................................................................................... 7
2.4.3 Local buckling ............................................................................................................... 8
2.5 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR COLD FORMED HOLLOW FLANGE BEAMS ................ 9
2.5.1 According to Design Specification (AS 4100, 1998) .................................................... 9
2.5.2 According to Design Specification (AS/NZS 4600, 2005) .......................................... 12
2.5.3 Member moment capacities with web openings .......................................................... 14
2.6 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS ..................................................... 15
CHAPTER 3.....................................................................................................................................16
3.1 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................... 16
3.1.1 Literature review .......................................................................................................... 16
3.1.2 Preparation of test plan and validating the selected trial sections ............................... 16
3.1.3 Buying and preparation of test specimens according to required structural details .... 17
3.1.4 Conducting tensile coupon test to identify mechanical properties such as ultimate
yield stress of built up sections .................................................................................... 17
3.1.5 Measuring initial geometric imperfections of HFBs and residual stress ..................... 18
3.1.6 Preparation of test set up and familiarising with universal bending machine to
conduct experiments .................................................................................................... 18
3.1.7 Conducting lateral distortional buckling experiment ................................................... 19
3.1.8 Obtaining results and comparison with current design rules ....................................... 20
CHAPTER 4 ....................................................................................................................................31
4.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........22
CHAPTER 5 ....................................................................................................................................31
5.1 ACTIVITY PLAN31
REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................32
APPENDICES .................................................................................................................................33

Undergraduate Research Proposal Report -2017 iv


LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Theoretical member moment capacities and slenderness values............................. 30

Undergraduate Research Proposal Report -2017 v


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Different hollow flange sections......................................................................................1


Figure 1.2: Rivert fastened hollow flange sections (Wanniarachchi 2005)....................................... 1
Figure 1.3: New hollow flange section.............................................................................................. 2
Figure 2.1: Cold-roll forming machine (Wanniarachchi 2005). 4
Figure 2.2: 900 forming punches and dies.......................................................................................... 5
Figure 2.3: Typical modification of chicago standard type press brake dies (Orville 1988).............5
Figure 2.4: Hollow flange beams (Anapayan et al. 2011)..................................................................6
Figure 2.5: LiteSteel beams (Anapayan et al. 2011)...........................................................................6
Figure 2.6: Buckling deflection of a rhs after lateral torsional buckling (Hancock et al. 2005).......7
Figure 2.7: Lateral distortional buckling of lsbs (Anapayan et al. 2011)...........................................8
Figure 2.8: Local buckling (Biswa 2016)...........................................................................................8
Figure 3.1: Modelling and obtaining section properties by thinwall program.................................17
Figure 3.2: Quarter point loading method........................................................................................19
Figure 3.3: Proposed experimental set-up........................................................................................19
Figure 3.4: Proposed end supports...................................................................................................19

Undergraduate Research Proposal Report -2017 vi


ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

RHFCB Rectangular Hollow Flange Channel Beam


HFS Hollow Flange Sections
HFB Hollow Flange Beams
LSB LiteSteel Beam
OATM OneSteel Australian Tube Mills
AS Australian Standard
NZS New Zealand Standard
FEM Finite Element Modelling
COV Coefficient of Variance

Undergraduate Research Proposal Report -2017 vii


1 CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The usage of high strength cold formed steel sections in civil engineering field has transformed
conventional hot rolled structural steel designs to be more light weight and cost efficient. High
strength to weight ratio and ease of fabricating variety of section profiles have made cold
formed steel more popular in building industry. Although cold formed steel sections are more
cost efficient than conventional hot-rolled steel members, they are more prone to complex
buckling modes because most of the cold formed steel sections are open slender which are either
unsymmetric or singly symmetric. In order to address this issue commonly used cold formed C
and Z sections have replaced by new hollow flange sections (HFS). Hollow flange sections
(HFS) are new group of cold formed steel sections made of two torsionally rigid closed flanges
and a slender web. Because of its unique geometry, many experimental studies have been
conducted so far to understand its structural behaviour and to formulate design specifications.

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH

Many researches have conducted so far to understand lateral distortional buckling of different
hollow flange sections (HFS). But these HFS are either screw fastened or bend with same metal
strip and welded at the ends by using electric arc welding method as shown in the Figure 1.1.
As the same strip is bend and welded in above mentioned sections web and flange thickness are
usually same.

Figure 1.1: Different hollow flange sections


1.1.1.1.1 Figure 1.2 Rivert fastened hollow flange
1.1.1.1.2 sections (Wanniarachchi 2005)

1
Because of the usage of HFBs for different purposes, keeping web openings to provide access
for inspection and other services have become vital. However, there is no design method
available for accurate predictions of the moment capacities of HFBs with web openings so far.
Therefore this research study mainly focus on experimental investigation of lateral distortional
buckling of a new continuously welded hollow flange beam which will have different flange
and web thickness consisting with web openings as shown in Figure 1.3
No any research study has conducted so far to investigate lateral distortional buckling behaviour
of HFBs having different web and flange thicknesses provided with web openings. Different
flange and web thickness will be obtained by revert fastening two rectangular hollow beams
into mono symmetric section using a steel plate as web having openings as shown in the
following figure 1.3

Figure 1.3: New hollow flange section

1.3 OBJECTIVES

1.3.1 Overall Objective

The overall objective of this research study is to investigate lateral distortional buckling of
continuously welded rectangular hollow flange beams (RHFCB) with web openings by using
experimental procedure and look into applicability of current design rules for predicting
member moment capacities. Inspecting the degree of conservativeness of different design rules
and come up with an optimum method for calculating member moment capacities will be the
ultimate target of this research.

2
1.3.2 Specific Objectives

Experimental investigation of lateral distortional buckling of above stated HFBs and


comparison of ultimate moment capacities with current design specifications.
Investigation of current design rules available for predicting moment capacities which
have web openings and providing conclusions about their degree of conservativeness.
If required, develop or modify member moment capacity calculating equations to
optimum degree of conservativeness by finite element modelling (FEM) using software
ABAQUS.

3
2 CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL

Due to high demand for cold formed steel sections in civil engineering field many researches
have investigated different types of HFBs on their structural performance. This chapter will
mainly discuss about conclusions of these researches with a special attention regarding hollow
flange beams.

2.2 MANUFACTURING OF COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS AND


ITS PROPERTIES

Cold roll forming process and press brake operations are two main manufacturing methods used
in the industry. The cold roll forming process include passing of steel strips through a series of
rolls which will deform the strips plastically to produce requied shape (Yu 2000).
Adjustable rolls are commonly used to accomadate sections having different width and depth.
As a limitation of this method (Wanniarachchi 2005) states that roll forming may produce a
different set of residual stresses in the section and hence the section strength may be different
in case where buckling and yielding interact.

Figure 2.1: Cold-Roll Forming Machine (Wanniarachchi 2005)

4
Different shapes of adjustable dies are used in press braking operation where full length of the
section is bend by keeping it under a stationary bottom bed. Top beam consisting the required
shape of dies will lowered and section is folded (Orville 1988) as shown in figure 2.2

Figure 2.2: 900 forming punches and dies Figure 2.3: Typical modification of Chicago
standard type press brake dies (Orville 1988)

Because of above mentioned two methods cold formed steel undergoes change of its
mechanical properties compared to original steel. (Macdonald, Taylor & Rhodes 1997) stated
that yield strength, and to a lesser extent of ultimate strength will increase whereas ductility of
steel will reduce particularly in bend sections. Strain hardening and strain ageing can be stated
as the main cause for such change in mechanical properties of steel (Chajes, Brtvec & Winter
1963).

2.3 COLD FORMED STEEL DESIGN STANDARDS

Many countries have formulated specifications and standards for the design of cold formed steel
structural members. In 1990 Standards Australia published a new code for cold formed steel
designs under limit state design philosophy called AS 4100 which is similar to Resistance
Factor Design Specification (LFRD) used in USA. In 1993 Standards Australia and Standards
New Zealand jointly worked on a limit states design standard for cold formed steel structures
to suit both countries (Wanniarachchi 2005). The new standard is called (AS/NZS 4600 2005).

5
2.4 RESEARCH STUDIES- DIFFERENT COLD FORMED STEEL
SECTIONS AND FAILURE MODES

Hollow flange sections or hollow flange beams which are made up of cold formed steel are
usually used as flexural members, for example in floor decks, rafters, roof beams in residential
and commercial buildings. When hollow flange beams are used as flexural members they have
shown some new lateral distortional buckling mode and researches have focused about this
significant problem and have conducted many researches for different types of hollow flange
sections.
As mentioned earlier HFSs have introduced to overcome problems inherited with conventional
cold formed steel sections such as C and Z. First HFS produced by OneSteel Australian Tube
Mills (OATM) is shown in Figure 2.4

Figure 2.4: Hollow flange beams (Anapayan, et al., 2011)

Production of these type of sections consisting triangular flanges discontinued by late 1990s by
using dual electric resistance welding they have produced range of improved LiteSteel beams
(LSB) as shown in Figure 2.5

6 (Anapayan, et al., 2011)


Figure 2.5: LiteSteel beams
(Anapayan & Mahendran 2011) has conducted more than 50 lateral distortional buckling tests
of LSBs to identify ultimate strength behaviour and it has seen that most of the beam failures
are due to lateral distortional buckling. (Anapayan et al. 2011) has also mentioned that it is
conservative to use (AS/NZS 4600 2005) for predicting member moment capacities of LSBs
where it is unconservative to follow (AS/NZS 4600 1996).

2.4.1 Lateral Torsional Buckling

When a beam is being bend about its major axis lateral torsional buckling may occur. Due to
increase of a transverse load on a flexural beam buckling may occur over the length of the
member, where cross section moves laterally (out of the plane of bending) and twists as shown
in the Figure 2.6 (Hancock, Wilkinson & Zhao 2005)

Figure 2.6: Buckling deflection of a RHS after lateral torsional buckling


(Hancock et al. 2005)

2.4.2 Lateral Distortional buckling

Past investigations have revealed that there are two different types of distortional buckling
modes commonly observe in HFBs namely lateral distortional buckling and flange distortional
buckling. Flange distortional buckling involves rotation of a flange and lip about the flange or
web junction of a C section or Z section accompanied by transverse bending of vertical web.
Open thin walled sections such as C and Z are more prone to flange distortional buckling while
hollow flange beams which are having tubular flange sections are more vulnerable for lateral
distortional buckling

7
As mentioned earlier understanding and experimenting lateral distortional buckling behaviour
of new hollow flange section is one of the objective in this research. Therefore it is important
to investigate lateral distortional buckling failures. Unlike lateral torsional buckling, lateral
distortional buckling is characterised by simultaneous lateral deflection of the cross section with
twist along with web distortion as shown in Figure 2.7. Therefore it can be seen that web
distortion is the extra deformation that occur compared with lateral torsional buckling.

Figure 2.7: Lateral distortional buckling of LSBs (Anapayan et al. 2011)

2.4.3 Local buckling

Cold formed flexural members will not sustain infinite transverse load so that at some cross
section instability of flange and/or web may occur and it is called as local buckling mode failure.

Figure 2.8: Local buckling (Biswa 2016)

8
2.5 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR COLD FORMED HOLLOW FLANGE
BEAMS
2.5.1 According to Design Specification (AS 4100 1998)

Design procedures for local buckling and lateral torsional buckling failure modes are stated in
AS 4100.It is important to note that no any provision has made in this specification for lateral
distortional buckling. For design purposes local buckling failure is assumed to be governed by
section moment capacity formula and lateral torsional buckling failure is governed by member
moment capacity formula.

2.5.1.1 Section Moment Capacity

The nominal section moment capacity (Ms) shall be calculated by the equation specified in
Clause 5.2.1
= 1

Where Ze is the effective section modulus and fy is nominal yield stress. Section moment
capacity is governed by compactness of the sections individual plate equations given below.

For e ep : Compact sections Ze = Zc 2

( )
For ep < e ey : Non-Compact sections = + [( ] ( ) 3
)

ey 2
For e >ey : Slender sections web elements = ( ) 4
e

ey 5
For e >ey : Slender sections flange elements = ( )
e

Where e = Plate element slenderness


ey = Plate element yield limit (Table 5.2 of (AS 4100, 1998))
ep = Plate element plasticity limit (Table 5.2 of (AS 4100, 1998))

9
Zc = effective section modulus of the compact element
Z = full elastic section modulus

The element with greatest e / ey is to be used for calculating the effective section modulus
(Ze). The plate element slenderness (e) is calculated as in clause 5.5.2.

6
= ( )
250

Where b is the clear width of the element outstand from or between the faces of supporting
plate element and t is the element thickness. Effective section of the compact element is given
by the equation.

7
Zc = min [S, 1.5Z]

Where S is the plastic section modulus.

2.5.1.2 Member Moment Capacity

The nominal member moment capacity (Mb) without full lateral restraint is given in clause
5.6.1. As mentioned earlier (AS 4100 1998) only consider about lateral torsional buckling.
Therefore (Pi & Trahair 1997) modified the equation given in (AS 4100 1998) allowing for
lateral distortional buckling.

= Given in (AS 4100 1998) 8


= (Pi et al. 1997) 9

Where Ms = Section moment capacity


= Moment distribution factor (= 1 for constant moment)
= Slenderness reduction factor
= As above for distortional buckling

10
The elastic lateral torsional buckling moment (M0) of section with equal flanges for simply
supported beam under uniform bending is given in clause 5.6.1.1

2 2 10
0 = 2 ( + )
2

(Pi et al. 1997) modified the above equation by introducing an effective torsional rigidity (GJe)
for replacement of nominal torsional rigidity (GJ) so that lateral distortional buckling moment
(Mod) is calculated by using the equation

2 2 11
0 = 2 ( + )
2

Where = Minor axis flexural rigidity


= Wrapping rigidity
= Effective torsional rigidity
L = Span

The effective rigidity is given by the equation

3 2
2 (0.912 ) 12
1
= 3 2
2 + (0.912 )
1

Where = Flange torsional rigidity


d1 = Clear web depth

11
2.5.2 According to Design Specification (AS/NZS 4600, 2005)

2.5.2.1 Section Moment Capacity

The section moment capacity (Ms) shall be calculated on the basis of initiation of yielding in
the effective section specified in Clause 3.3.2.
Ms = Ze *fy 13

Where Ze is the effective section modulus calculated with the extreme compression or tension
fibre at fy.

1.052 14
= ( )

Where = plate slenderness


K = plate buckling coefficient
= design stress in compression element
t = plate thickness
b = flat width of element excluding radii
The procedure to find out effective widths of uniformly compressed stiffened elements is given
in clause 2.2.1.2 of (AS/NZS 4600 2005)

For 0.63 : be = b 15

16
For > 0.63: be = b

0.22
1( ) 17

= 1.0

The procedure to find out the effective widths of stiffened elements with stress gradient is given
in clause 2.2.3.2 of (AS/NZS 4600 2005)
18
1 =
3
For -0.236: be2 = be/2
For > -0.236: be2 = be be1

12
Where be = effective width
K = 4 + 2(1-)3 + 2(1-)

= 2
1

2
= web stress calculated on the basis of the effective section
1

2.5.2.2 Member Moment Capacity

The nominal member moment capacity (Mb) shall be the lesser of Ms and the values calculated
in accordance with clause 3.3.3.3 (members subject to lateral distortional buckling). Clause
3.3.3.3 outlines the design rules for members subject to bending under distortional buckling
that involves transverse bending of a vertical web with lateral displacements of the compression
flange. In this case, the nominal member moment capacity Mb is given by

Mb = Ze*(Mc/Z) 19
Where Z is the full section modulus, Mc is the critical moment and Ze is the effective section
modulus. The critical moment Mc calculated as in the following equations

For d 1.414: Mc = My 20

1 21
For d 1.414: Mc = My (d2 )

Where d = member slenderness


My = first yield moment

22
d = ()

Mod = elastic buckling moment in the distortional mode


= Zf *fod 23

fod = elastic distortional buckling stress and it can be calculated by using appropriate equations
or by rational elastic buckling analysis

13
2.5.3 According to Eurocode (ENC 3 1993-1-3)

The effect of local buckling and lateral distortional buckling is considered in this specification
and effective width is calculated as the basis for calculating sectional properties. Effective
widths of unstiffened elements are obtained using notional flat width bp for b by determining
the reduction factors for plate buckling based on the plate slenderness (Clause 5.5.2). Lateral
torsional buckling of members subject to bending will be calculated by using lateral buckling
curve b as specified in clause 6.2.4

2.5.4 Member moment capacities with web openings

When considering practical scenario, web openings are mandatory to keep in flexural members
for inspection and to provide other service facilities for buildings. However there is no any
design method so far available for accurate prediction of member moment capacities of HFBs
with web openings. (Seo & Mahendran 2012) investigated a method for calculating section
moment capacities using effective thickness and equations are shown below


= ( ) 24

2
= (1 4 ) 25
1

Where = web thickness


= Ld1 = web area
= area of web holes
d1 = the centreline dimension of web height
S = web spacing
D = web opening diameter
L = span

Equations derived by (Pi et al. 1997) for calculating elastic distortional buckling moment (Mod)
were modified using the following equivalent thickness (tequ) approach.

14
2 2 26
0 = ( + )
2 2

Where
3
2
2 (0.91 2
)
1 27
= 3 2

2 + (0.912 )
1

2.6 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS

An extensive literature review has conducted to obtain thorough understanding about


background, past research studies about HFBs and design guidelines and it will definitely be
useful in conducting this research further. Summary of the literature review is presented below

Production techniques of cold formed steel sections such as C and Z are discussed
literature review.
Change of mechanical properties such as ultimate yield stress and ductility due to cold
working is also discussed
Different cold formed steel design specifications and how these specifications have
developed over the time.
Past research studies that have conducted by using hollow flange beams and their
conclusions over failure modes and comparison with design rules are presented.
Common failure modes of HFBs such as lateral torsional buckling, lateral distortional
buckling and local buckling have discussed
Design guidelines for HFBs according to Australian hot rolled standard (AS 4100
1998), (AS/NZS 4600 1996) and (AS/NZS 4600 2005) have discussed
Design equations which have developed so far to calculate member moment capacities
of HFBs with web openings have discussed at last in literature review

15
3 CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

The research methodology which will adapt to achieve objectives in this research study is
described in this chapter. This research mainly focus on experimental investigation of lateral
distortional buckling of innovative welded cold formed hollow flange section which have web
openings. Main steps to be followed in research methodology is given below.

Literature review
Preparation of test plan and validating the selected trial sections
Buying and preparation of test specimens according to required structural details
Conducting tensile coupon test to identify mechanical properties such as ultimate yield
stress of built up sections
Measuring initial geometric imperfections of HFBs and residual stress measurements
Preparation of test set up and such as support systems and familiarising with universal
bending machine to conduct experiments
Conducting lateral distortional buckling experiment for approximately 35 sections
Obtaining results and comparison with current design rules
Presenting conclusions of the research study

3.1.1 Literature review

Extensive literature review will conduct to gather information and knowledge about research
study and it will help to investigate best way of conducting research study and how to work out
calculations etc. Conclusions of past research findings will incorporate in this study and it will
be continued until the end.

3.1.2 Preparation of test plan and validating the selected trial sections

Test plan will be prepared by changing flange and web thickness (tf and tw) as well as flange
width (bf) and flange depth (df). Span of test specimens will vary from 1.2 m to 4.5 m. Section
properties of selected built up sections will be calculated through elastic buckling analysis Thin-
Wall program and required changes will be carried out to have distributed slenderness values
for sections.
16
Figure 3:1: Modelling and obtaining section
properties by Thin-Wall program

3.1.3 Buying and preparation of test specimens according to required structural details

Rectangular flanges and web strips will purchase separately and welded using electric arc
welding as shown earlier. Sections which are having minimum geometric imperfections will be
selected. Before welding web openings will cut as per the requirement. Accurate thickness of
each plate element will measure because small change in thickness of web and flange will lead
to a large change in buckling capacities. The corners of these sections will not be measured and
nominal corner dimensions provided by manufacturers will be used i.e. outer radius r0 is equal
to twice the thickness (2t) and the inner radius riw is equal to 3 mm.

3.1.4 Conducting tensile coupon test to identify mechanical properties such as ultimate
yield stress of built up sections

Tensile coupon test will be conducted to investigate ultimate yield stress and trial specimens
will be taken from same sections that are used for casting. First coupons will be cut in
longitudinal direction from specimens and coating will remove by immersing the coupons in
diluted hydrochloric acid basin before testing. Test specimen thickness and widths will measure
using a micrometer and a vernier calliper respectively. Two strain gauges and an extensometer
will use in the middle of the specimen to measure the strains. Tensile coupons will be loaded in
a universal testing machine until fracture. Ultimate tensile stress (fu) will obtain from stess-
strain curves while yield stress will calculate based on the 0.2% proof stress.

17
3.1.5 Measuring initial geometric imperfections of HFBs and residual stress

It is obvious that there will be some kind of initial imperfections in sections and it will be
recorded and considered in calculating theoretical moment capacities. Accurate stress-strain
curves (mentioned above) as well as residual stresses and initial geometric imperfections are
essential to predict the member moment capacities. Residual stress that will develop due to
combined cold-forming and electric resistance welding process can have a significant effect on
the flexural behaviour and strength of these sections. Unlike other cold forms steel sections
these sections will have both flexural and membrane residual stresses due to cold forming and
welding processes. Residual stresses will be measures by commonly used sectioning method.
Strain gauges will attach to inner and outer surfaces of the web, inside and outside flange
elements to determine both membrane and flexural residual stresses in the longitudinal
direction. Strain gauge readings will record each cut, and also after 24 hours of the final cut to
allow for temperature effects. The measured strains will be the released residual strains due to
sectioning. Final released strains will calculate from the difference between the strain gauge
readings which will take before the test and after 24 hours of the final cut. These released strains
will convert to stresses using the modulus of elasticity. It will assume that all the residual
stresses will release during the sectioning process. Therefore, the residual stresses are equal to
the calculated released stresses in magnitude, but with an opposite sign, i.e., released tensile
stresses are equal to compressive residual stresses and vice versa. The residual stresses on the
inside and outside surfaces will used to calculate the membrane and flexural residual stresses.
Due to the difficulties of attaching the strain gauges at the inside corners, the measured residual
stresses will extrapolated to the corners and further simplifications will also made to determine
the idealised membrane and flexural residual stress distributions.

3.1.6 Preparation of test set up and familiarising with universal bending machine to
conduct experiments

In the lateral buckling tests a uniform bending moment can be simulated using two different
testing arrangements, the overhang loading method and the quarter point loading method. In
the overhang loading method, loads are applied on either side of the supports that will produce
a uniform bending moment within the entire span. In the quarter point loading method, loads
are applied at quarter points within the span and a uniform moment is produced between the
loading points. But according to research conducted by (Anapayan et al. 2011) it is stated that
overhang loading system caused some undesirable warping effects due to the overhang

18
component of the test beam. Therefore quarter point loading method will be followed and
schematic diagram of the proposed quarter point loading system is shown in Figure 3.2. Support
system which allows for rotation in major and minor axis is shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.2: Quarter point loading method

3.1.7 Conducting lateral distortional buckling experiment

Actual ultimate strength will be recorded and test beam failure modes will be identified for
further study. Vertical deflections will measure at mid- span and the bottom flange of two
loading points using three wire displacement transducers. The lateral deflections of top and
bottom flanges at mid-span will also measure using two wire displacement transducers. All the
load and displacement measurement units will connect to a data acquisition system. Vertically
upward load will then applied gradually using an automated hydraulic pump while the test data
will record continuously at 1 s intervals. The applied load will start to drop off when the test
beam buckled out-of-plane. The loading will continue until the test beam failed by out-of-plane
buckling.

Figure 3.3 Proposed experimental set-up Figure 3.4 Proposed end supports

19
3.1.8 Obtaining results and comparison with current design rules

( ) vs ( ) / ( ), (i.e. slenderness vs test beam capacity /first yield moment) and ( ) vs


( ) / ( ), ((i.e. slenderness vs nominal member moment capacity/first yield moment) will
be plotted on same graph. Mean and coefficient of variation (COV) will be calculated for each
graph and conclusions will made accordingly. Degree of conservativeness of different design
rules and optimum method for calculating member moment capacities will provide along with
research thesis. If the design rules are not conservative, finite element modelling will be carried
out using ABAQUS software to come up with more desirable design equations.

Steps followed in research methodology is summarised below in a flow chart.

20
Literature Review

Preparation of Test Plan

Preparation of Test Specimens

Measuring residual stress and Initial


Geometric Imperfections

Conducting Tensile Coupon Test

Preparation of Test Set Up

Conducting Tests

Obtaining Results and Comparison


with Current Design Rules

Conclusion of the Research Study

21
4 CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Convenient way of labelling the selected sections are chosen and variable parameters included
such as web height, web thickness, flange thickness, web hole diameter, web hole spacing and
revert spacing.
Labelling arrangement
First bracket web description web height, web thickness
Second bracket flange description flange width, flange depth and
flange thickness respectively

Consider the sample (150x2) x (50x25x1.2)

In hear Web height = 150 mm


Web thickness = 2 mm
Flange width = 50 mm
Flange depth = 25 mm
Flange thickness = 1.2mm

4.1.1 Calculation of slenderness ratio and theoretical member moment capacity

Calculation of torsional rigidity of flange (G*Jf)

4 2
From basic principles, torsional constant (Jf) =
( )
Where Am Area enclosed by the median line of the cross section
S - Perimeter along the median line of the section

22
4[( )( )]
=
2[( ) + ( )]

4[(50.8 1.2)(25.4 1.2)]


=
2[(50.8 1.2) + (25.4 1.2)]

= 46854.247 4

Consider G = 80 000 MPa

Therefore torsional rigidity of flange (G*Jf) = 80000 x 46854.247


= 374833 x 104 2

Calculation of effective torsional rigidity ( )

Assuming E = 200 000 MPa

2 ( 3 2 /(0.912 1 ))
= 2 +0.912 1
2 3748.33 106 (200000 1.23 15002 /(0.912 100.4))
= 2 3748.33 106 + (200000 1.23 15002 /(0.912 100.4))

= 773383160 2

Obtaining warping constant and second moment area

Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis software is used to obtain the values

SECTION ANALYSIS (AutoDesk Robot Structural Analysis Software)


-220 0. -200 0. -180 0. -160 0. -140 0. -120 0. -100 0. -80 0. -60 0. -40 0. -20 0. 0 0. 20 0. 40 0. 60 0. 80 0. 100 0. 120 0. 140 0. 160 0. 180 0. 200 0. 220 0. 240 0. 260 0. 280 0.

140 .0
140 .0

z
120 .0
120 .0

100 .0
100 .0

80 0.

y
80 0.

R Q
60 0.
60 0.

40 0.
40 0.

Z
20 0.
20 0.

Y
0 0.
0 0.

-220 0. -200 0. -180 0. -160 0. -140 0. -120 0. -100 0. -80 0. -60 0. -40 0. -20 0. 0 0. 20 0. 40 0. 60 0. 80 0. 100 0. 120 0. 140 0. 160 0. 180 0. 200 0. 220 0. 240 0. 260 0. 280 0.

23
Geometry description

Point no. Y Z

1 0.00 mm 0.00 mm
2 0.00 mm 150.00 mm
3 0.00 mm 149.40 mm
4 50.20 mm 149.40 mm
5 50.20 mm 124.60 mm
6 0.00 mm 124.60 mm
7 0.00 mm 0.60 mm
8 50.20 mm 0.60 mm
9 50.20 mm 25.40 mm
10 0.00 mm 25.40 mm
11 0.00 mm 75.00 mm

Edge no. Point P1 Point P2 Thickness

1 3 4 1.20 mm
2 4 5 1.20 mm
3 5 6 1.20 mm
4 7 8 1.20 mm
5 8 9 1.20 mm
6 9 10 1.20 mm
7 3 2 2.00 mm
8 6 3 1.20 mm
9 1 7 2.00 mm
10 7 10 1.20 mm
11 10 11 2.00 mm
12 11 6 2.00 mm

General results

Area
A = 560.800 mm2
Center of gravity
Yc = 16.11 mm
Zc = 75.00 mm
Shear center
Yr = -18.08 mm
Zr = 75.00 mm

Base material
STEEL
E = 199948023.75 kPa
den = 0.00 kg/mm3
WU = 0.00 kN/mm

24
Principal system

Angle
alpha = 0.0 Deg
Moments of inertia
Ix = 99622.589 mm4
Iy = 1603110.991 mm4
Iz = 206889.289 mm4
Sectional moments of inertia
Iomy = 0.000 mm5
Iomz = 988.663 mm5
Iom = 644174027.012 mm6

Maximum distances
Vy = 34.09 mm
Vpy = 16.11 mm
Vz = 75.00 mm
Vpz = 75.00 mm

Values in characteristic points

no y(s) z(s) omega(s) A(s) Sy(s) Sz(s) Som(s)


[mm] [mm] [mm2] [mm2] [mm3] [mm3] [mm4]

1 -16.11 -75.00 1767.600 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


2 -16.11 75.00 -1767.600 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
3 -16.11 74.40 -1756.752 61.242 4183.188 898.745 19622.630
4 34.09 74.40 1144.834 -0.198 -388.308 376.685 40168.216
5 34.09 49.60 2426.489 -29.958 -2233.428 -637.753 -
12973.081
6 -16.11 49.60 -896.724 181.200 11249.640 1598.379 39188.525
7 -16.11 -74.40 1756.752 -61.242 4183.188 -898.745 19622.630
8 34.09 -74.40 -1144.834 -0.198 388.308 376.685 -
40168.216
9 34.09 -49.60 -2426.489 -29.958 2233.428 -637.753 12973.081
10 -16.11 -49.60 896.724 -181.200 11249.640 -1598.379 39188.525
11 -16.11 -0.00 0.000 280.400 13709.800 -0.000 -5288.975

Central system

Moments of inertia
Iyc = 1603110.991 mm4
Izc = 206889.289 mm4
Iyczc = -0.000 mm4
Maximum distances
Vyc = 34.09 mm
Vpyc = 16.11 mm
Vzc = 75.00 mm
Vpzc = 75.00 mm
25
Arbitrary system

Angle
alpha = 0.0 Deg
Moments of inertia
Iy' = 1603110.991 mm4
Iz' = 206889.289 mm4
Iy'z' = -0.000 mm4
Maximum distances
Vy' = 34.09 mm
Vpy' = 16.11 mm
Vz' = 75.00 mm
Vpz' = 75.00 mm

Considering above section

Center of gravity

= 15.76
= 75

Shear center

= 17.95
= 75

Moments of inertia

= 1597529.993 4
= 199753.681 4

Warping constant

= 622358542.55 6

= 15205667.5

26
Calculation of

= Z

= 450 2


Z=

= 450 21472.17733

1597529.933
= (1501.2)
2

Z = 21472.17733


Therefore =

45021472.17733
=
15205667.5

= 0.797

Calculation of member moment capacity (Mb)

Section moment capacity gives by,

Ms = Ze x Fy

Assume full depth to be effective

Web

= 2

1 = 100.4
1 100.4
= = 50.8 < 200 clause 2.1.3 (a)
2

Horizontal flange element

Both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements

B = 50.8 1.2 = 49.6 mm


B/t = 49.6/1.2 = 41.33 < 500 clause 2.1.3.1 (b)
Vertical flange element
B = 25.4 1.2 = 24.2
B/t = 24.2/1.2 = 20.167 <500 clause 2.1.3.1 (b)

27
Effective widths of elements
Horizontal flange element

K= 4, b = 50.8, t = 1.2

2 2
=
12(1 2 ) 2

= 403.46

450
=
403.46

= 1.056 > 0.673


= 38.0839mm

Horizontal flange element is slender


Vertical flange element

100.4 mm

28

= 2 clause 2.2.3.2
1
336.155
= = 0.747
450

Therefore k = 4 + 2(1- )3 + 2(1- )

K= 4.538

Therefore

= 0.4958 < 0.673

Vertical flange is full effective

Considering effective section modulus



Ze =
1351682.815
Ze = = 18167.779 mm3
74.4

In hear 0.59< d < 1.7



= ( )
0.59 1351682.815
Therefore = 450 21472.17733 0.797 1597529.933

` = 6.052 KNm

Likewise theoretical member moment capacities are calculated for all selected 30 sections and
it is shown in table below.

29
Table 4.1: Theoretical member moment capacities and slenderness values

30
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK
WEEK

ACTIVITY
Reasearch project duration
5.1 ACTIVITY PLAN

Familiar with reasearch content


Literature review
Preperation of research proposal and presentation
5

Preparation of test plan and validating trial speciemens


Preperation of test specimens
Measuring residual stress and initial geomatric imperfections

31
Conducting tensile coupon test
Preperation of test set - up
CHAPTER 5

Conducting lateral torsional buckling test


Preparation of progress report
Obtaining results and comparison with different design rules
Conclusion of the research study
Conducting FEM modelling uisng ABAQUS software (If necessary)
Develop or modify design equations (If necessary)
REFERENCES

Anapayan, T., 2010, Flexural Behaviour and Design of Hollow Flange Steel Beams, Phd
Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

Anapayan, T., Mahendran, M. & Mahaarachchi, D., 2011. 'Lateral Distortional Buckling
Tests of a New Hollow Flange Channel Beam', Thin-Walled Structures,49, pp. 13-25.

Standards of Australia, 1998, 'Steel Structures', AS 4100.

Standards of Australia, 2005, 'Draft of Cold Formed Steel Structures', AS/NZS 4600.

Standards of Australia, 1996, 'Steel Structures', AS/NZS 4600.

Biswa, G., 2016.'Interpretation of Buckling Analysis in Staad Pro', viewed 6 May 2017, from
https://communities.bentley.com/products/structural/structural analysis design/w/structural
analysis and design wiki/28093

Chajes, A., Britvec, S. J. & Winter, G., 1963. 'Effect of cold-straining on structural sheet
steels', Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE proceeding,89,Apr.

Hancock, G., Wilkinson, T. J. & Zhao, X. L., 2005, Cold Formed Tubular Members and
Connections : Structural Behaviour and Design, Elseveir, United Kingdom.

Macdonald, M., Taylor, G. T. & Rhodes, J., 1997,'The effect of cold-forming on the yield
strength of thin gauge steel-hardness test approach', Thin-walled Structures,29, pp. 243-256.

Orville , L. D., 1988, Handbook of Fabrication Process, ASM INTERNATIONAL, Ohio.

Pi, Y. L. & Trahair, N. S., 1997, 'Lateral distortional buckling of hollow flange beams',
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,123, pp. 695-702.

Seo, J. K. & Mahendran, M., 2012, 'Member Moment Cpapcities of Mono-Symmetric


LiteSteel Beam Floor Joists with Web Openings', Thin-Walled Structures,70, pp. 153-166.

Wanniarachchi, K. S., 2005, Flexuaral Behaviour and Design of Cold Formed Steel Beams
with Rectangular Hollow Flanges, Queesnsland University of Technology, Phd Thesis,
Australia.

Yu, W. W., 2000, Cold Formed Steel Design, John Wiley & Sons, USA.

32
APPENDIX
Support condition and load applying apparatus drawings

33
34
35