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# GPS

## GPS (GLOBAL POSITIONING

SATELIT YANG DIMILIKI DAN
DIKELOLA OLEH DEPARTE-
MEN PERTAHANAN
AMERIKA SERIKAT
PENDAHULUAN
GPS SURVEYING TOPICS

## NAVSTAR GPS USA

(ADA SISTIM GPS YANG LAIN YAITU GLONAS RUSIA 11
SATELIT, DAN GALILEO EROPA 8 SATELIT)
GPS Coordinates
Elevation References
Types of GPS surveys
Static
Fast-Static
Kinematic
Postprocessed Kinematic
Real-Time Kinematic
NAVSTAR 3 SEGMEN GPS

## User Segment Monitor Stations

Diego Garcia
Ascension Is.
Kwajalein
Hawaii
Control Segment
Earth-Centered, Earth Fixed
System

## Z axis = Mean rotation axis

(polar axis) fixed in time

## center of mass of earth (0,0,0)

Y axis = 90 E longitude
Y axis in plane of equator
Ellipse in 3-D: an Ellipsoid

SEMI-MINOR AXIS
b
Flattening

a
SEMI-MAJOR AXIS
ECEF and Geodetic
Coordinates
Z P
Cartesian
H
coordinates (X, Y, Z)
Ellipsoidal
coordinates (f, l, H)
Z

Y
l f
X

Y
X
Reference Surfaces

Earths Surface

Ellipsoid

Geoid
Differential Leveling

Earths Surface

Ellipsoid

Geoid
GPS Height Reference

Earths Surface

Ellipsoid

Geoid
GPS and Differential Levels

Earths Surface

h H H h H
h h
H
h H
Ellipsoid

Geoid

h=H+N
Separation of Geoid & Ellipsoid

Earths Surface

## N = separation between ellipsoid and Geoid

Determined by measurement or by modeling
Ellipsoid

N N
N
N N
Geoid

h=H+N
Determining Elevations with
GPS
Earths Surface

h H H h H
h h
H
h H
Ellipsoid

N N
N
N N
Geoid

h=H+N
Local Datum's
Ellipsoid
Ellipsoid fitting fitting
North America Europe

WGS84

Geoid

## Local Datum: Ellipsoid that best fits the project area.

The GPS Vector:

Ground Station 2
Distance
VECTOR
Direct
Geodesic measurement from
Station 1 to Station
2
Station 1 Y

Ellipsoid
X
KOMPONEN PERALATAN GPS
Characteristics of GPS signal

Signal L1 L2

Wavelength 19 cm 24 cm

## Codes C/A, P (P1), DP (P2), D (ephemeris)

Integer Ambiguity

N=?
Integer Ambiguity

N=?

GPS Baseline

## Solved by using a process called DIFFERENCING

Conditions for surveying with
GPS
required
Track 4 common Satellites with
good geometry
Data must be logged/observed at
common times
Conditions for surveying with
GPS
obtaining carrier phase observables
(not just C/A code)
At least one point must be occupied
which has known coordinates in the
datum and coordinate system
desired
2 horizontal and 3 vertical control
points are required for complete
transformation to the desired datum
Surveying Methods

Static Surveys
Fast-Static Surveys
Kinematic Surveys
Postprocessed
Real-Time
Static Surveys

## Baseline Precision: 1 cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length

Highest level of confidence in results, economical

Static Surveys

## Advantages : Tolerates cycle slips, works out effects of

ionosphere, very long baselines, highest level
of confidence in results

## Disadvantages : Relatively long occupations

Fast- Static Surveys

## Advantages : Short occupations, no need to maintain lock

between points, good level of confidence, long
baselines

## Disadvantages : Susceptible to multipath; requires careful

planning and/or communication in the field
Kinematic (Postprocessed)
Field Technique: Kinematic--L1 only

## Baseline Precision: 1cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (horizontal)

2cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (vertical)

## Advantages : Very short occupations, very efficient data

collection, can be used on moving vehicles,
economical solution.

## Disadvantages : Susceptible to multipath; requires initialization

on a known (or previously surveyed) point
when lock is lost
Kinematic (Postprocessed)
Field Technique: Kinematic--L1/L2

## Baseline Precision: 1cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (horizontal)

2cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (vertical)

## Advantages : Very short occupations, efficient data collection

Initialization On The Fly done by GPSurvey (if
Lock is lost, re-initialization is done while still
moving) Longer Baselines, highest productivity

## Disadvantages : Susceptible to multipath, data is not statistically

checked for integer ambiguity resolution in field
Kinematic (Real-Time)

## Baseline Precision: 1cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (horizontal)

2cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (vertical)

## Advantages : Very short occupations, extremely efficient data

collection, quality checks in field, can perform
staking; No office Post Processing, economical

lock is lost, for short baselines only (+/- 10km)
Kinematic (Real-Time)
Field Technique: Real-Time Kinematic--L1/L2

## Baseline Precision: 1cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (horizontal)

2cm + 2ppm X Baseline Length (vertical)

## Advantages : Very short occupations, extremely efficient data

collection, initialization done in the field (after
lock is lost, re-initialization takes place
automatically while moving- called OTF), can
perform staking

## Disadvantages : For short baselines only (+/- 10 km)

Review & Conclusion

## GPS is a Surveying Tool, not a magical

device
GPS heights must be modeled to obtain
accurate Orthometric Heights
GPS Vectors are produced from Carrier
Wave Processing
GPS Vectors can be adjusted to get
closest to the truth positions
METODE DAN SISTEM PENENTUAN
POSISI DENGAN GPS
Penentuan posisi secara Absolut artinya
Penentuan posisi secara Differensial artinya
penentuan posisi terhadap titik lain yang
telah diketahui koordinat/elevasinya dengan
Yang dipakai dalam survey dengan GPS
PENENTUAN POSISI TITIK-TITIK
DENGAN GPS MODA JARINGAN
PENENTUAN POSISI TITIK-TITIK
JARINGAN KARENA KESALAHAN YANG
DIRATAKAN KE SELURUH TITIK.
DIAGRAM ALIR PERHITUNGAN
KOORDINAT TITIK2 JARINGAN GPS
TAHAPAN UMUM PELAKSANAAN
SUATU SURVEY GPS
FAKTOR2 YANG MEMPENGARUHI
KETELITIAN SURVEY GPS
METODE-METODE PENGAMATAN
1. METODE SURVEY STATIK
2. METODE STOP and GO
3. METODE PSEUDO-KINEMATIK
PERBANDINGAN LAMA PENGAMATAN
4a. KOMBINASI METODE GPS vs GPS
4a. KOMBINASI METODE GPS vs GPS
4b. KOMBINASI GPS vs THEODOLIT
4b. KOMBINASI GPS vs TOTAL STATION
OPERASIONALISASI PELAKSANAAN
SURVEY GPS
ASPEK-ASPEK PENGOLAHAN
DATA GPS
SKEMA PENGOLAHAN DATA GPS
PERATAAN JARINGAN GPS
KARAKTERISTIK BASELINE

## Baseline TRIVIAL adalah baseline yang

dapat diturunkan dari baseline2 lainnya dari
satu sesi pengamatan.
Baseline NONTRIVIAL (baseline BEBAS)