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Green Building Guidelines, UAE

New These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works new
projects (new buildings) in the Emirates; adaptations to existing
Buildings buildings are not part of this document.

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Prepared by
TEC Project Team
Najeeb M. Al-Ali, MSc, BEng; Mohsen M. Aboulnaga, PhD, MSc, BSc; Fahad Al Qassim, MBA; Eisa Al Hammadi, BSc; Mohamed Sami, BSc
$  /   $ % /" # ! /     /
  /
MoPW Project Team
Zahra Al Aboodi; Fraeed Al Kathiri; Ibrahim Al Khamiri; Mahmood mustafa Abu Al Shawareb; Afifa bin Hamad; Kusai R. Kulaib; Ahmed Alwaael

 / -
 5: / - 8  )3 3% /) 7 $345 / * 2 * " / * /0 .*! / - * /)

This document is prepared by the project joint team between The Executive Council (TEC), Government of Dubai and
Ministry of Public Works (MoPWs) UAE.

DOCUMENT VERSIONS DOCUMENT NUMBER: MoPWs 01-290109-01


th
First issued on 29 January 2009

TEC and MoPW 2009


The contents of the documents is belong TEC and MoPWs. No part or section will be copied or circulated
outside the two organisations without written approval from the Ministry of Public Works.

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Contents

Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................................................ 13
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Background ........................................................................................................................................................................ 17
Project Outlines and Framework ....................................................................................................................................... 19
Design development ...................................................................................................................................................... 19
Building Types .................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Green Building Guidelines .................................................................................................................................................. 22
Group I: Envelop Efficiency ................................................................................................................................................ 23
Criterion: Glazing .................................................................................................................................................. 24
Criterion: Faades Wall Insulations (non-glazed) ................................................................................................ 25
Criterion: Shading ................................................................................................................................................. 26
Criterion: Glazing and Building Orientations ........................................................................................................ 28
Criterion: Daylighting ........................................................................................................................................... 30
Criterion: Clearstory Windows ............................................................................................................................. 33
Criterion: Skylights: Sun-optic .............................................................................................................................. 34
Criterion: Glare Control ........................................................................................................................................ 35
Criterion: Photosensors ........................................................................................................................................ 35
Criterion: Light Colour Materials .......................................................................................................................... 37
Group II: Cooling Systems .................................................................................................................................................. 38
Criterion: Under-floor Cooling/Heating................................................................................................................ 39
Criterion: Radiant Cooling .................................................................................................................................... 40
Criterion: Solar Absorption Cooling (SAC) ............................................................................................................ 42
Criterion: District Cooling (DC) ............................................................................................................................. 44
Group III: Energy Efficiency ................................................................................................................................................ 46
Criterion: Site Selection ........................................................................................................................................ 47
Criterion: Air Conditioning Efficiency ................................................................................................................... 49
Criterion: CFC-free Refrigerants ........................................................................................................................... 51
Criterion: Lighting Fixtures and Lighting Bulbs ..................................................................................................... 52
Criterion: Motion and Control Sensors ................................................................................................................ 55
Criterion: Swimming Pools ................................................................................................................................... 56
Criterion: Solar Water Heating (SWH) ................................................................................................................... 57
Criterion: CO2 Sensors (Thermal Comfort) ........................................................................................................... 59
Criterion: Renewable Energy ................................................................................................................................ 60
Criterion: Building Management Systems (BMS) and Smart Devices .................................................................. 61
Group IV: Water Use and Efficiency ................................................................................................................................... 62
Criterion: Water Fixtures ...................................................................................................................................... 63
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Criterion: Water-efficient Landscaping ................................................................................................................ 64
Criterion: Water Collection Condensation and Rain ......................................................................................... 67
Criterion: Recycled Water (Grey Water) .............................................................................................................. 59
Group V: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) ................................................................................................................... 61
Criterion: Operable Windows ............................................................................................................................... 62
Criterion: Ventilation Systems and Ceiling Fans ................................................................................................... 63
Criterion: Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)........................................................................................................................ 64
Criterion: Low-emitting (VOCs) Materials ............................................................................................................ 66
Criterion: Clean Materials and Chemical Pollutions ............................................................................................. 67
Criterion: Smoking and Non-smoking Zones ........................................................................................................ 68
Criterion: Noise and Acoustics Controls ............................................................................................................... 69
Criterion: Water Tanks (shading and insulations) ................................................................................................ 72
Group VI: Site Heat Island .................................................................................................................................................. 74
Criterion: High Reflective Roofs (Cool Roofs) ....................................................................................................... 75
Criterion: Sites Material Configuration ............................................................................................................... 77
Criterion: Bright (Light) Colour Material for Pavements ...................................................................................... 78
Criterion: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roofs .................................................................................................... 79
Criterion: Green Roofs .......................................................................................................................................... 80
Appendices I-IVX (1-14) ...................................................................................................................................................... 84
Appendix I: Grouping of Green Building Criteria: short listing Analysis ............................................................................. 85
Appendix II: Glazing SHGC, SC and LSG ......................................................................................................................... 86
Appendix III: Insulation Materials ...................................................................................................................................... 91
Appendix IV: Photosensors ................................................................................................................................................ 93
Appendix V: Emergency Exits Lighting and Efficient Bulbs ................................................................................................ 94
Appendix VI: Lighting Fixtures and Motion Sensors.......................................................................................................... 95
Appendix VI: Swimming Pools Covering Materials ....................................................................................................... 100
Appendix VIII: Solar Water Heating Systems ................................................................................................................... 102
Appendix IX: Water Fixtures ............................................................................................................................................ 107
Appendix X: Operable Windows and Ventilation Systems .............................................................................................. 110
Appendix XI: Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) .............................................................................................................................. 112
Appendix XII: Cool Roof Materials and Solar Reflectance Index ...................................................................................... 117
Appendix XIII: Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements ......................................................................................... 119
Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof .......................................................................................................... 120

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Glossary
Air Change/Hour (ACH) The term Air Change per Hour is defined as the part of the total volume of air inside the building that
is replaced by a volume of outside air per hour. Normally, 1 ACH is adequate for minimum ventilation
requirements.

Air Gap or Cavity Air gap is an insulation media. It is a cavity wall insulation that is injected into the cavity between the
inner and outer leaves of brickwork that make up the external wall of the building. There are a variety
of different insulating materials with different air gap widths. By combining with the still captive air,
the insulation acts as a barrier to heat gain or loss.

Air Leakage The air leakage rating (AL) is a measure of how much air leaks through the crack between the windows
sash and frame*. Heat loss and gain occur by infiltration through cracks in the window assembly. The
lower the AL, the less air will pass through cracks in the window assembly. An air leakage rating (AL) of
0.30 cfm/sq.ft or less is recommended.

Ballast Electrical ballast is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit.
Fluorescent lamps require a ballast to stabilize the lamp and to provide the initial striking voltage
required to start the arc discharge. This increases the cost of fluorescent luminaries, though often
ballast is shared between two or more lamps. Electromagnetic ballasts with a minor fault can produce
an audible humming or buzzing noise.

Brightness differences Attributes to a visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light.

Cool Roof The term cool roof refers to a roof surface that reflects much of the sun's energy. A cool roof
replaces or coats existing roofs to reflect the infrared or hot spectrum that is produced by the sun, in
order to improve a roofs reflectivity to more energy-efficient levels. Most roofing types have cool
options available including metal, tile, roofing membranes, reflective coatings and shingles. While a
cool roof reflects a high percentage of the suns heat, conventional dark coloured roofs generally
absorb more of the suns heat. Much of the heat absorbed is re-emitted into the conditioned space
within the building, hence increasing the need for air-conditioning.
Cool Daylighting It is known as cooling load avoidance daylighting and not a new term. It is a descriptive term to
differentiate daylighting design the takes into consideration whole building energy impacts of
integrated daylighting design from designs that do not do this. Cool daylighting is truly a whole building
approach to daylighting that looks to not only reducing electric lighting needs but to reduce (or at
minimum not increase) cooling loads within the daylight building.

Daylighting The amount of visible light transmitted into building spaces.

Daylight Distribution It is the amount of light scattered on the floor area as a ratio of the total daylight entering the space.

Daylight Factor (DF) It is the ration of the illumination at a point on a given plane due to the light received directly or
indirectly from the sky of assumed or known luminance distribution, to the illuminance on a horizontal
plane due to an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky. The contribution of direct sunlight to both
illuminances is excluded.

Daylight Illumination It is a series of spectral power distribution curves based on measurements of natural
Level (DIL) daylight and recommended by the CIE. Values are defined for the wavelength region 300 to 830nm.

Daylight Technologies A set of systems used in building to provide effective lighting inside buildings such as light well, light
Shelves, etc

Disability glare It took place when a light source reflects from or otherwise covers the visual task, like a veil, obscuring
the visual target, reducing its contrast and making the viewer less able to see and discriminate what is
being viewed.
Discomfort glare It arises when light from the side of the task is much brighter than the light coming from the task. The
eyes attempt to focus on the light from the task, but so much extra light is entering the eye from the
side that the visual processes are confused and it is difficult to concentrate for long periods.

Direct Radiation The amount of short-wave radiation received on horizontal or vertical surfaces.

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Displacement It is an air distribution system in which incoming air originates at floor level and rises to exhaust
Ventilation (DV) outlets at the ceiling.

dB (db) It is abbreviation for decibel, the logarithmic acoustical unit scale for sound levels.

Efficacy The ratio of light produced to energy consumed. It's measured as the number of lumens produced
divided by the rate of electricity consumption (lumens per watt).

Emissivity Emissivity is a measure of how much heat is emitted from an object by radiation. Heat is transferred to
and from objects through three processes: conduction, convection, and radiation. For instance, on a
hot day, heat will be conducted through a window from the outside, causing the inside pane to
become warm. Low-emissivity, or low-e, coatings are put on window panes to reduce the amount of
heat they give off through radiation. In hot climates, where the outside of the window will typically be
hotter than the inside, low-e coatings work best on the interior of the outside window pane. In cold
climates, where the inside of the window is typically hotter than the outside, the low-e coatings work
best on the inside window pane, on the side that faces toward the outside.

Fenestration It is the arrangement and design of windows in a building.

Fin It is an extended control element placed on the exterior facades of the building and fixed vertically on
the sides of an opening (a window). It reflects and redirects natural light which falls laterally upon the
fin to the inside; used to create shad cast shadow on the facades and block solar radiation.

Foot Candle (FC): It is a measurement of the intensity of illumination. A foot candle is the illumination produced by one
lumen distributed over a 1-square-foot area. For most home and office work, a 3050 foot candle of
illumination is sufficient. For detailed work, 200 foot candles of illumination or more allows more
accuracy and less eyestrain. For simply finding one's way around at night, 520 foot candles may be
sufficient.

Glare The excessive brightness from a direct light source that makes it difficult to see what one wishes to
view. A bright object in front of a dark background usually will cause glare. Bright lights reflecting off a
television or computer screen or even a printed page produces glare. Intense light sources, such as
bright incandescent lamps, are likely to produce more direct glare than large fluorescent lamps.
However, glare is primarily the result of relative placement of light sources and the objects being
viewed.

Glazing It is a sheet of glass or plastic panes in a window, door, or skylight.

Glazing Factor It is the ratio of glazing areas to room area.

Grey water: It is the waste water generated from showers and baths wash including soaps contents, laundry water
and other drainage water but excluding toilet water. It may or may not include kitchen water and
kitchens are often equipped with garbage grinders. It is also known as waste water discharged from
lavatories, bathtubs, showers, clothes washers, and laundry trays.

Fenestration The word Fenestration comes from the Latin root word fenestra, which means an opening such as a
window.

Heat Gain It is the transfer of heat from outside to inside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation
through all surfaces of the buildings envelope.

Heat Island Heat island refers to urban air and surface temperatures that are higher than nearby rural areas. Many
cities and suburbs have air temperatures up to 5.6C (10F) warmer than the surrounding natural land
cover. Heat Island contributes to high energy use, mainly for cooling in hot climates

Illumination The distribution of light on a horizontal surface. The purpose of all lighting is to produce illumination.

Insulating Glass (IG) It is a two or more pieces of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit
with one or more air spaces in between (known also as double glazing).

Insulation Construction materials used for protection from noise, heat, cold or fire.

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Lighting The electrical light received at work station. Artificial or industrial lighting consumes 15% of the
households electrical energy use.

Lighting & Daylighting The quantity and quality of light around us determine how well we see, work, and play. Light
affects our health, safety, morale, comfort, and productivity.

Lighting Fixture A lighting fixture or luminaire is an electrical device used to create artificial light or illumination. A
complete lighting fixture unit consists of the light source or lamp, the reflector for directing the light,
an aperture (with or without a lens), the outer shell or housing for lamp alignment and protection, an
electrical ballast, if required, and connection to a power source.

Light-to-Solar-Gain Ratio Light-to-Solar-Gain Ratio (LSG) is a measure of the ability of a glazing to provide light without excessive
solar heat gain. It is the ratio between the visible transmittance of a glazing and its solar heat gain
coefficient.

Light Shelves (LS) LS are light control elements usually positioned horizontally above eye level in a vertical pass through
(glazed) component to mainly protect the interior spaces to the openings against direct solar radiation,
obstructing and redirecting light to the interior ceiling.

Skylight An opening located in a horizontal or tilted roof. It permits the zenithal entry of daylight increasing the
luminic level of the lower space under the skylight. It can also assist in providing ventilation.

Light Tracking Skylights It is a special type of skylight that follow the direction and movement of the sun throughout the day to
get the daylight into the interior space. With most skylights, the downward sunlight beaming can be
obtained down into your house when the sun is overhead.

Light-well It is also known as light duct. It is an interior light space which conducts natural light to interior spaces
of the building. Its surfaces are finished with high reflective materials.

Low-E Glass Low-E glass gives a year-round energy savings and comfort by helping manage the sun's energy and the
cooling system energy in your building. A Low-E glass is coated with microscopically-thin, optically
transparent layers of silver sandwiched between layers of antireflective metal oxide coatings. In the
summer, Low-E glass let in visible sunlight while blocking infrared and ultraviolet solar energy that
drives up cooling costs and damages curtains, window treatments, carpeting and furnishings. And in
the winter, Low-E glass products offer greater comfort and reduced heating costs by reflecting room-
side heat back into the room.

Lumen Lumen is a measurement of light emitted by a lamp. As reference, a 100-watt incandescent lamp emits
about 1750 lumens.

Motion Sensors Motion Sensors and its control unit automatically turn indoor or outdoor lights on when they are
needed (when motion is detected) and turn them off a short while later. They are very useful for
indoor lighting to save energy and for outdoor security and utility lighting provided by incandescent
lamps. Because utility lights and some security lights are needed only when it is dark and people are
present, the best way to control might be a combination of motion sensor and Photosensors.

Operable Window It is the window that can be opened for ventilation.

Overhang It is a control element which is part of the building itself protruding horizontal from the faade above a

Photosensors Photosensors are electronic control units that automatically adjust the output level of electric lights
based on the amount of light detected. Lighting control devices enable occupants to control their
lighting environment by either dimming the lights or switching them on and off. Some control devices,
such as light switches, manual dimmers, and window blinds, can be directly accessed and controlled by
occupants. Others, such as occupancy sensors, timers, and Photosensors, often are designed to take
the place of occupant actions.

Prismatic Glazing It is a control element placed in a pass through component (glazed) which share two environments
redirecting light by its optical-geometrical characteristic.

Reflectance (Ceiling) It is a surface that enable light returns the incidence visible radiation used to alter the special
distribution of light.

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Reflective Glass Window glass coated to reflect radiation striking the surface of the glass.

Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder, also known as SAD, winter depression or the winter blues is an affective,
or mood, disorder. Most SAD sufferers experience normal mental health throughout most of the year,
but experience depressive symptoms in the winter or summer. The condition in the summer is often
referred to as Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder. This phenomena result from poor indoor lighting
and insufficient Daylighting in building spaces or a combination of both.

Shading Coefficient Shading Coefficient (SC) is a measure of the ability of a window or skylight to transmit solar heat,
relative to that ability for 1/8-inch clear, double- strength, and single glass. It is being phased out in
favour of the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and is approximately equal to the SHGC multiplied by
1.15. It is expressed as a number without units between 0.00 and 1.00. The lower a window's SHGC or
SC, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater are its shading ability.

Shading device It is a device that designed and mounted on the buildings facades to obstruct, reduce or diffuse solar
radiation fall in on this facades and partially protect it against heat gain.

SHGC Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) is the fraction of incident solar radiation admitted through a
window, both directly transmitted and absorbed and subsequently released inward. SHGC is expressed
as a number between 0 and 1. The lower a window's solar heat gain coefficient, the less solar heat it
transmits. A SHGC of 0.40 or less is recommended in warm climates.

Solar Reflectance Index SRI is a value that incorporates both solar reflectance and emittance in a single value to represent a
material's temperature in the sun. SRI quantifies how hot a surface would get relative to standard black
and standard white surfaces. It is calculated using equations based on previously measured values of
solar reflectance and emittance as laid out in the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard
(ASTM) E 1980. It is expressed as a fraction (0.0 to 1.0) or percentage (0% to 100%).

Solar Reflectance Solar reflectance, occasionally called Albedo, is to measure of the ability of a surface material to
Albedo reflect sunlight including the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths on a scale of 0.0 - 1.0.

Spandrel The term spandrel is used to indicate the space between the top of the window in one story and the sill
of the window in the story above in a building with more than one floor. It is typically employed in
cladding facades with curtain walls. In insulating units, or as laminated glass, spandrel glass is typically
specified for buildings' non-vision areas to mask construction materials. Even refurbished buildings
covered in a combination of vision and spandrel glass can appear to be constructed entirely of glass.

Sunlight It is the direct portion of the daylight coming directly from the sun at a specific location which is not
diffused on arrival.

Sun-optics skylight system it is a type of a skylight that track the solar movement to capture daylight and it is equipped with optic
devices

Sustainable development means improving peoples quality of life in a way that maintains the capacity of the planet over the
long term. Human security, prosperity and wellbeing depend on a healthy and abundant environment.
The sustainable use of natural resources, pollution prevention, and conservation of natural habitats are
central to alleviating poverty and improving the quality of life.

Top lighting Light that enters through the top part of the interior space such as clearstories, light duct or light well,
and skylights, etc

Task Lighting Facilitates particular tasks that require more light than is needed for general illumination, such as
under-counter kitchen lights, table lamps, or bathroom mirror lights.

Thermal Bridge Thermal Bridge is known as heat leak, or short-circuiting. It is common that heat flows through a path
of least resistance than through insulated paths. Insulation around a bridge is of little help in
preventing heat gain or loss due to thermal bridging; the bridging has to be rebuilt with smaller or
more insulative materials. For example, an insulated wall which has a layer of rigid insulating material
between the studs and the finish layer. When a thermal bridge is desired, it can be a heat source, heat
sink or a heat pipe.

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Thermal Emittance Thermal Emittance of a material refers to its ability to release absorbed heat. Scientists use a number
between 0 and 1, or 0% and 100%, to express Emittance. With the exception of metals, most
construction materials have emittance above 0.80.

Thermal Resistance (R) R- value measures insulating power and the higher the R-value, the better the insulating power. The R-
value is the inverse of the U-value (1/U = R).

Translucent Glass It is a glass that allows only a portion of light to pass through, making objects seen through it appears
unclear; opaline is in this category. It is used in buildings facades and skylights to offset the excessive
Daylighting or sunlight in summer and reduce glare.

U-Value (U-factor) is a measure of how well heat flows through an object (thermal conductivity). It is also referred to as
the heat transfer coefficient or the coefficient of heat transmission. The U-value is measured by how
2
much heat in W (Btu) flows through a certain area (ft ) each hour for a certain temperature difference
2 2
K (F), so it is measured in W/m K (Btu/ft hrF). The U-value is the reciprocal of the R-value (1/R = U).
The lower the U-value, the better the insulation value of the material. Many building and insulation
products have their U-value indicated on their label. A U-value of 0.35 or less is recommended in cold
climates. Nonetheless, in warm climates a low U-value is helpful during hot days or whenever heating
is needed, but it is less important than Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC).

Vegetated Roof (VR) A VR or green roof is a building that its roof is either partially or completely covered in plants. It also
defined as they must be a stable living ecosystem that makes the urban environment more liveable,
efficient and sustainable. A green roof consists of vegetation and soil, or a growing medium, planted
over a waterproofing membrane. Additional layers, such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation
systems may also be included. Green roofs can be used in many applications, including industrial
facilities, residences, offices, and other commercial property. It is widely used in Europe and the USA to
save energy consumption and reduce the impact of urban heat island.

Visual Acuity Visual acuity (VA) is acuteness or clearness of vision, especially form vision, which is dependent on the
sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, the sensitivity of the nervous elements, and the
interpretative faculty of the brain. Visual acuity depends upon how accurately light is focused on the
retina (mostly the macular region); it is largely affected by the insufficient or poor level of indoor
lighting or Daylighting, and surrounding environment.

Visible Light Transmission The visible light transmittance (VLT) is an optical property that indicates the amount of visible light
transmitted through the glass. VLT is expressed as a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The higher the VLT,
the more daylight is transmitted. A high VLT is desirable to maximize daylight. In hot climate it should
not be below 0.30 and not above 0.60.

VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are molecules containing carbon and varying proportions of other
elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and chlorine. They are the "precursors" that react in
sunlight and heat to form ground-level ozone.

Watt A watt is the absolute unit of power equal to the work done at the rate of one joule per second.

Window azimuth It is the angle which the window is tilted normal to the sun; it measured from the North as 180 to
180 deg.

Windows sill a control element placed horizontally on the bottom of a window opening. It reflects and redirects
natural light that falls upon the sill increasing the luminic level in the interior spaces.

* The rating reflects the leakage from a window exposed to a 25-mile-per-hour wind, and is measured in cubic feet per minute per
linear foot of sash crack.

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Executive Summary

The Green Building Guidelines is a scheme set off by The Executive Council (TEC), Government of Dubai and
the Ministry of Public Works (MoPW), based on the request of the Ministry of Public Works, to develop the
guidelines for Sustainable/Green Building for the new projects under the jurisdiction of MoPW; intended to be
carried out in all Emirates of the U.A.E. In addition, these guidelines represent a bundle of green building
elements that will be largely adopted by the League of Arab States (LAS). It is understood that each Arab country
will appropriately exploit and implement these guidelines accordingly to properly suite its socio-economic
structure, urban settings and regulations, and technological advancement, and above all priorities.

As per the directives of his Highness Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan President of The UAE for the need to
achieve Sustainability as part of the UAEs Strategic plan and the emergence of the idea of the project after the
courageous announcement and eminent directive of His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum,
UAE Vice President, Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai to make new buildings being constructed in Dubai by
January 2008 eco-friendly and meet the highest international standards suitable for Dubai and UAE. This
announcement, that reflects the bold vision and stride of His Highness, is directed to withstand the current
environmental challenges and preserve the environment of the UAE in general and Dubai in particular. It also
bound for rigorous implementation of the highest international safety and eco-friendly standards in all avenues of
life to profoundly ensure a safe and secure living style for all citizens and residents in the UAE.

The intents of such project are mainly to save energy, conserve water, improve health conditions and lower CO2
emission generated by the cooling and water demands required for new buildings. The project is structured to
include the guidelines for new buildings; according to its nature, type and location.

This project is considered as part of a well thought plan to make new buildings being constructed in these
emirates livable and healthier, and to a larger extent, contributes towards creating and maintaining sustainable
built environments and eco-friendly cities. Also, it reflects the joint efforts of Dubai Government and Ministry of
Public Works in spreading the awareness on sustainable/green buildings and participating in the international
endeavor to combat global environmental challenges such as Climate Change, making the UAE the first country in
the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to acknowledge and adopt such approach.

This report represents the green building guidelines for new projects to be carried out by the Ministry of Public
Works (MoPW). It highlights the shortlisted Green Building elements in the six focal categories groups: Envelope
Efficiency, Cooling Systems, Energy Efficiency, Water use and Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), and
Site Heat Island. In this project, we portray the developed guidelines for new buildings. Each template highlights
the intent, specifications, technical data, and the building types covered by such guidelines. In principles, these
guidelines will fundamentally lead to huge saving in both energy and water use, enhance indoor environmental
quality, improve health conditions, increase the productivity of buildings occupants, lower the emissions of the
green house gases (GHG) mainly, carbon dioxide (CO2) and contribute towards the reduction of Global Warming
and counterbalance Climate Change, above all contribute to boost the economy of all emirates.

This project is a joint effort between The Executive Council (TEC), Government of Dubai and the Ministry of Public
Works (MoPW), and this report is an outcome of such joint effort. Two teams representing each party
participated in developing these guidelines.
Note: These guidelines are applicable for the Ministry of Public Works new projects (new buildings) in all Emirates; adaptations to
existing buildings are not part of this document. These guidelines are intended for buildings that only fall under the jurisdiction of UAE
Ministry of Public Works.

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Objectives
The objective of this project is to establish the Green Building Guidelines that will be applied to the
new projects under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Works (MoPW). The nature of the MoPW
projects was reviewed in order to relate each criterion of these guidelines to the relevant building type. The
buildings types were reviewed and endorsed by the MoPW team for the analysis.

The current building regulations that are concerned with the overall building performance, water and
energy consumption rates, and indoor environmental quality as well as their environmental impact were
reviewed, with the intention to develop Green Building Guidelines for the Ministry of Public Works. These
guidelines will be fully utilized and implemented on the new project that are commissioned and supervised
by the MoPWs across the UAE. Anticipated savings due to the implementation of the green building
guidelines, in some of the elements with emphases on Dubai, are listed in Figure 1.

Anticipated Saving from implementing Dubai Green Building Policy

80% 70%
75%

60%

40% 30%

30%
20% 12%
9% 10%
6%
0%

Heating &
Cooling Lighting
water Heating
Domestic
Water
Total Consumption Anticipated Savings

Fig.1 Anticipated percentage of savings resulting from implementing the Green Building Guidelines

Introduction
A review on the Green House Gases (GHG) emission in various emirates has been conducted. GHG emissions
in Dubai as an example, resulting from electricity and water desalinization at all power stations, were presented in
Figure 2. The data shown are gathered from DEWA for total emission in 2003-2007. Figure 3 illustrates Dubai total
energy generated in 2006.

DEWA Emission of Green House Gases 2006


(g/hw/ hr) Dubai Total Energy Generated 2006
CO2 - Equivalents (10 4 ) Particulates NMVOC SO2 Systems Energy Requirments 22274.272 (GWh)
23% 3% 4% 0%
NOx
24%
Energy improted Exported Energy to
from ADWEA Dubai (GWh)
(GWh) 106.298
2010.924 0.48%
8.52%

CO2 (10 4 )
23%
DEWA Energy
Requirements
CO
(GWh)
20% 20370.101
N2O
1% CH4 91%
2%

Fig.2 Dubai GHG emissions resulting from electricity Fig.3 DEWA annual power energy requirements against demands
generation and water desalinization (all power stations) Source: DEWA 2006, Dubai

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Federal Water Use and Energy Consumption Rates
The federal water consumption and electricity use rates in the Northern Emirates including Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al
Khaima and Fujairah (excluding Umm Al Qwain) representing the 5 main zones (Middle, Eastern B, Eastern A, Western
A and Northern) are illustrated in Figure 4. Also, the ADDC water and energy consumptions are highlighted in Figure 5
and 6. Finally, the ADDC total water and energy use are shown in Figure 7 and 8. It is clear from Figure 5 that water
use is higher in both domestic and government buildings whereas for energy consumption it was higher in domestic,
commercial, and government buildings.

10000 9008
9000
7879
8000
6804
7000 6375 6339 6496

6000 5595
4854 4921
4609
5000
4000
2129 2356
3000 1679 1748 1934
1490
957 1004 1188
2000 867 1212
615 674 683 822
1000
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Middle Eastern B Eastern A Western A Northern

Fig.4 Water consumption in northern emirates in million gallons (not including Umm Al Qwain)
Data Source: MoPWs

7,000,000,000
45,000,000,000

40,000,000,000
6,000,000,000

35,000,000,000
5,000,000,000
30,000,000,000

25,000,000,000 4,000,000,000

20,000,000,000
3,000,000,000

15,000,000,000

2,000,000,000
10,000,000,000

5,000,000,000 1,000,000,000

0
Domistic Commercial Government Agriculture Industrial Other 0

Domistic Commercial Government Agriculture Industrial Other


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Fig.5 ADDC Water Use in Million Gallons Fig.6 ADDC Energy Consumption in kWh
Data Source: MoPWs Data Source: MoPWs

14,972,207,843
14,216,698,317
85,984,656,793.00
82,811,570,766.00 13,106,569,494 13,150,421,335
79,557,774,786.00

11,309,736,802
67,619,968,132.00

36,031,372,097.00

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Fig.7 ADDC Total Water Use in Gallons Fig.8 ADDC Total Energy Consumption in kWh
Data Source: MoPWs Data Source: MoPWs

15 | P a g e
The annual water and electricity use per sector in Dubai, for example, are portrayed in Figure 9 and 10. However, the
water consumption as a result of using inefficient fixtures is shown in Figure 11 whereas the savings due to the use of
efficient fixtures is depicted in Figure 12. Water consumption in an office building in the USA and that saved by using
efficient flushing apparatus are illustrated in Figure 13 and Figure 14. The heat losses due evaporation and ventilation
are also presented in Figure 15 and Figure 16. Also, the numbers of swimming pools are shown in Figure 17 and Figure
18. Finally, Figure 19 portrays the water use in different countries including Dubai.

Dubai Water Consumption 2006 Dubai Electricity Consumption per Sectors


Total = 64,926 MIG Total = 21475 GWh
Source: DEWA 2006
Source: DEWA
1,999
1,475 9% 6, 580
7,092
3,311 7% 31%
11% 2,356
5%
11%

9,065
16,009 42%
38,514
25%
59%

Residential Commercial Industrial Governement Residential Commercial Industrial Others (Governement) Station Aux and Disalinations

Fig.9 Dubai annual water consumption per sector Fig.10 Dubai annual electricity consumption per sector
Data Source: DEWA ADEWA, SEWA, FEWA
Typical Water Consumption in a Residentail Bldg. (California)
Typical Inefficient Indoor Water Use in the USA Other
(80 gallon per person per day (300 Liter /Day/Person) Domestic
Dishwashers 2.2% Leak
Dishwashers Toilet Leaks 1.4% 13.7% Toilets
3% 5% 26.7%
Toilets
28%
Clothes washer
22% Clothes
washer Showers
Bath 21.7% 16.8%
Showers
9% Faucets
Faucets 21% Bath 15.7%
12% 1.7%

Toilets Showers Faucets Bath Clothes washer Dishwashers Toilet Leaks Toilets Showers Faucets Bath Clothes washer Dishwashers Other Domestic Leak

Fig.11 USA water consumption in an inefficient building Fig.12 Typical water consumption using efficient fixtures
Source: Rock Mountain Institute (RMI), USA
Water Use in Homes in USA with Standard, 1.6 Gallon, & Dual Flush Toilets
Watrer Use distribution in a typical office building
Domestic (toilets, urinals, faucets, etc.), cooling/heating, and landscaping uses
18.8
9%
41%
20%

9.1
6.9
3.61
1.54 1.25
2%

Non-conserving Conserving home Conserving home


1% Home (1.6 gpf toilet) (dual flush toilet)
27%
Domestic Kitchen cooling /heating
Avg. Gallons / Person / Day Avg. Gallons / Flush
once through cooling lanscaping Misc./UAF

Fig.13 Water use in a typical office building, in the USA Fig.14 Water saving by adopting efficient flushing apparatus
Source: Rock Mountain Institute (RMI), USA
Outdoor Energy Heat losses Indoor Energy Heat losses
Losses gto ground Others
and others 3%
10%

ventilation
Radiation to
27%
sky 20%

Evaporation Evaporation
70% 70%

Fig.15 Heat losses due to evaporation, radiation and ground Fig.16 Heat losses due to evaporation, ventilation and other
Source: eere.energy.org
16 | P a g e
Dubai Swimming Pools Capacity
2003 - 2007 Dubai Current & Projected Swimming Pools
Number of Swimming Pools
583
2003 232
351
6339

627 184%
2004 231 Increase
396

695
2005 306
389

587 2233
2006 272
315
283 %
Increase
324 Total = 2816 583
2007 130
194

Total swimming pools Residential Commercial and Hotels Individual villas 2003 2007 2011

Fig.17 Number of swimming pools by building types Fig.18 Licensed & projected swimming pools
Source: Building Department, Dubai Municipality 2007

International Water Consumption 2007


Belgium 107
Nertherland/Austria 125
Germany 127
Denmark 131
UK/Finland 150
Jordan 150
France 164
sweden 190
Norway 200
Japan 254
Spain 265
Canada 310
USA 360
Dubai 515

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Liters per Person per Day (Lpd)

Fig.19 Water consumption in different countries


Source: DEFRA 2006 (www.edie.ne) and DEWA 2006

Background
The projected sectors in the USA that have Green Building activities by sector are shown in Figure 20. Green
Buildings are more beneficial in terms of return on investments, building values, staff productivity, health and well-
being as well as economy. It is clear from Figure 21 that an increase of about 15 percent for 3 indicators; return on
investments, building value, and staff productivity can be achieved and at least 10 percent for health and well-being of
occupants. By-in-large, the 3 major sectors that have most of the green building activities are public facilities,
educational and commercial forming about 75 percent followed by health care facilities at 11 percent. Based on the
st nd th
analysis most of the MoPW projects are falling in the 1 , 2 and 4 sector (public services, educational and health
care).

Green Building Activity by Sector

R&D Industrial Transportation


5% 4% 1%
Hotel/ Residential Public Facilities
5% 30%
Health Care
11%

Commercial
20%
Educational
24%

Fig.20 Sectors expected to have the most Green Building activities


Source: Green Building Market Barometer www.greenbuildingnews.com
17 | P a g e
Return on Investments

Building Value green


buildings

Staff Productivity
conventional
buildings
Health & Well-being
being of Occupants

%0 % 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % 100

Fig.21 Benefits from Green buildings compared to conventional buildings

The MoPWs scope of work and projects


projects profile
The scope of work and projects profile of the Ministry of Public Works are highlighted in Figure 22 and Figure 23.

Design and Construct


Design and Construct Maintenance of Maintenance of Roads
Government Government Buildings and Bridges
Roads and Bridges
Buildings

Fig.22
22 The scope of work of the Ministry of Public Works Projects
Source: www.mopw.gov.ae

Educational
(Schools and
KG's)
Government
Buildings Hosptials
(Officies)

MoPW' s
Roads and Fishing and
Bridges Government Sea Ports
Projects

UAE
National
Polices HQs
Residential
Villas

Massjids

Fig.23 Projects profile of the Ministry of Public Works


Source: www.mopw.gov.ae

About Hundred (100) Green Building


uilding criteria were identified. Analyses were carried out to record the impact of o these
criteria on building types. The building
uilding types includ
included
ed in analysis are: a) public services; airports and ports, hospitals
and clinics, and police facilities; b) recreation: leisure; c) religious: mosques; d) educational: universities, colleges and
schools; e) residential: low-rise offices and villas; and f) industrial: factories and warehouses.
warehouses

To study and group these elements stakeholders barriers were proposed, assessed and evaluated ev (Appendix 1). The
results of the analysis led to the selection of 53 criteria in total. It was then shortlisted to 43 elements.
18 | P a g e
Project Outlines and Framework
The following figure illustrates the framework and approach and phases of the project.

Fig.24 Projects outlines and scope of work

The final shortlist


The impact of the 43 shortlisted Green Building criteria on stakeholders and building types was carried out to identify
the features and develop the guidelines as shown in Figure 25.

Features
Features final Shortlist
100 Criteria
Guidelines
53 Criteria 43 Criteria
6 Groups

Fig.25 Methodology and procedures of the project analysis to prioritising Green Building criteria

Design development
The course of action in the design process is the first crucial component in producing a sustainable building. For
the design phase to be effective, it is vital to define the owners objectives (i.e., MoPW) and the set of criteria including
sustainable and green goals, and baselines (benchmarks) before commencing the design process. process This is mainly to
minimize the potential of elevatinging project costs. A sustainable green building can be delivered much easier in the
early phases of the project, and it can be decreased as the process develops as shown in Figure 26. It could be achieved
but the costs will definitely be increase
increased.

Fig.26 Impact of the early design input on potential for sustainability and other buildings life-cycle
life
Source: ASHRAE Green Guide 2006, ASHRAE Inc.
19 | P a g e
Green Building Criteria and Related Groups
The following chart (Fig.27) depicts the six groups identified with the selected green building criteria including
alternative cooling systems; envelop (fabric) efficiency; energy efficiency; water efficiency; indoor environmental
quality; and site and heat island. Nonetheless, the eliminated elements in these guidelines are shown in Figure 28.

District Cooling,
Solar Absorption Cooling Site Selection
Shading Devices, Floor Cooling, Cooling Systems Buildings Orientation,
External Wall Insulation, Chilled Water Walls, AC Equipment Efficiency,
Glazing, Radiant Cooling, CFC-free Refrigerants,
Daylighting, Building Fabric Electrical Lighting,
Glazing Orientation, Control Sensors,
Efficiency Smart Control Devices,
Glazing Area and Type,
Glazing Characteristics, Thermal comfort,
Skylights. Water Heating ,
Energy Efficiency Swimming Pools,
Water Fixtures , Electrical Cables,
Rain Water, Renewable Energy,
Water Efficient Landscaping, Water Ventilation.
Condensation, Efficiency
Recycled Water,
Non-desalinated Water for AC.
Indoor Air
Low-emitting Materials (VOCs), Quality Roof Shapes,
High-emitting Materials (VOCs), High Reflective Roofs,
Operable Windows, High Emissivity Materials,
Ventilation Systems,
Site & Green Roofs,
Chemical & Pollution, Heat Site Configuration.
CO2 Sensors, Island
Non-smoking & Smoke Control,
Noise and Acoustic Control.
Fig.27 Green Building criteria and its related groups

District Cooling ,
Floor Cooling, Site Selection,
Shading Devices,
Chilled Water Walls, AC Equipment Efficiency,
External Wall Insulation,
Radiant Cooling, CFC-free Refrigerants,
Glazing,
Solar Absorption Cooling, Cooling Systems Lighting Fixtures,
Daylighting,
Photo-sensors devices (schools), Lighting bulbs and systems
Clear Storey Windows, Motion Control Sensors,
Glazing Orientation, Building Fabric BMS - Smart Control Devices,
Building Orientation, Efficiency Thermal comfort,
Glazing Area and Type, Solar Water Heating ,
Glazing Characteristics , Swimming Pools,
Skylights, Electrical Cables,
Light Color External Paints, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy,
Glare Control. Efficient & Passive Ventilation,
Clear Storey Windows,
Water Fixtures , Landscape lighting.
Rain Water (irrigation),
Water Efficient Landscaping, Water Efficiency
Condensation,
Recycled Water (Grey Water) ,
Non-desalinated Water for AC,
Collecting AC surplus water, Indoor Air
Waste Treatment Plants . Quality (IAQ)
Low-emitting Materials (VOCs), Roof Shapes (schools),
High-emitting Materials (VOCs), High Reflective Roofs,
Operable Windows, Site & High Emissivity Materials,
Ceiling Fans, Green Roofs (Rsdl),
Heat Site Configuration.
Ventilation Systems,
Chemical & Pollution, Island
CO2 Sensors,
Non-smoking & Smoke Control (safety),
Noise and Acoustic Control,
Water Tanks (shading and insulation).
Fig.28 Eliminated Green Building criteria and its related groups

Note: The elements highlighted in Blue are optional and that in Red are added elements whereas the crossed ones are these eliminated in the analysis to
match the MPWs projects requirements.
20 | P a g e
Proposed Mandatory and Optional Elements
The following chart portrays the elements that are proposed to be mandatory and those to be optional (the latter are
highlighted in blue). It is clear from the chart that Group I has no optional element whereas Group II, III, IV, V, VI have
2, 2, 3, 1 and 2 respectively (Figure 29).

I. Envelope II. Cooling III. Energy IV. Water V. Indoor Air VI. Site & Heat
Efficiency Systems Efficiency Efficiency Quality Island
Glazing Floor Cooling (Schools) Site Selection, Water Fixtures, Low-emitting Materials High Reflective Roofs,
Wall Insulations (non- Radiant Cooling, AC Equipment Rain Water Collection (VOCs), High Emissivity
glazed Faades), District Cooling, Efficiency, for Irrigation, Operable Windows, Materials,
Shading, Solar Absorption CFC-free Refrigerants, Water Efficient Ceiling Fans, Site Configuration,
Daylighting, Cooling. Lighting Fixtures, Landscaping, Chemical & Pollution, Green Roofs (Res.),
Clear Storey Windows, Lighting Bulbs and Recycled Water (Grey CO2 Sensors, Roof Shapes (schools).
Glazing Orientation, Systems, Water), Non-smoking & Smoke
Building Orientation, Motion Control Non-desalinated Water Control (safety),
Glazing Area & Type, Sensors, for AC, Noise and Acoustic
Glazing Characteristics, Thermal comfort, Collecting AC Surplus Control,
Solar Water Heating , Water, Water Tanks (Shading
Skylights,
Swimming Pools Waste Treatment & Insulation),
Light Color External Plants.
Paints, Efficient & Passive Ventilation Systems,
Glare Control, Ventilation, (Supply air through
Clear Storey Windows Floor or Walls) .
Photo-sensors Devices
(Schools). (schools & others) ,
Landscape Lighting
Renewable Energy
BMS- Smart Control
Devices

Fig.29 Mandatory and optional Green Building criteria and its related groups

Building Types
The following 11 building types represent 6 folds that were included in the analysis and applied to the MoPW projects:
I. Public Services
Airports and Ports Sea ports and its service facilities (as presidential grants only)
Hospitals and Clinics Buildings that are used for medical purposes and treatments including medical clinics
institutions
Police facilities Police headquarters, facilities, centre and stations

II. Recreation
Leisure Sports and recreation facilities including theaters

III. Religious
Religious Buildings in which people gather for religious activities such as mosques (masjids)

IV. Educational
Schools Buildings that are used for academic or technical classroom instruction, such as
elementary, middle, or high schools
Universities & Colleges Buildings used for academic or vocational classroom instruction, such as lecture room
with the vicinities of college or university campuses as well as related facilities on
campus
Training Centres Buildings that are used for technical classroom instruction, such as training centres,
driving and aviation, and hospitality instructions and training
V. Residential
Low-rise offices/ residences: Buildings that are less than 10 floors and used for residential and office purposes
Villas Detached or attached residential buildings (privately owned and used)

VI. Industrial
Warehouses Buildings used to store goods, manufactured products, merchandise, raw materials, or
personal belongings (self-storage).
21 | P a g e
Green Building Guidelines (new buildings)
The guidelines presented hereafter are concerned with new buildings that to be handled, designed, supervised, and
commissioned by The Ministry of Public Works (MoPW). These guidelines encompass more than 40 criteria in total
representing 6 main groups. These elements are listed as follows:
Group I: Envelop Efficiency
1. Glazing
2. Wall Insulations (non-glazed Faades)
3. Shading
4. Glazing and Building Orientations
5. Daylighting
6. Clearstory Windows
7. Skylights: Sun-optic
8. Glare Control
9. Photo-sensors Devices
10. Light Colour External Paints

Group II: Cooling Systems


1. Under-floor Cooling/Heating
2. Radiant Cooling
3. Solar Absorption Cooling
4. District Cooling

Group III: Energy Efficiency


1. Site Selection
2. Air-conditioning Efficiency
3. CFC-free Refrigerants
4. Lighting Fixtures and Lighting Bulbs
5. Motion Control Sensors
6. Solar Water Heating
7. Swimming Pools
8. Thermal Comfort (CO2 Sensors)
9. Renewable Energy
10. BMS-Smart Control Devices and Systems

Group IV: Water Use and Efficiency


1. Water Efficient Fixtures
2. Water Efficient Landscaping
3. Recycled Water (Grey Water)
4. Condensation and Rain Water Collections
5. Non-desalinated Water for AC
Group V: Indoor Environmental Quality IEQ
1. Operable Windows
2. Ventilation Systems and Ceiling Fans
3. Indoor Air Quality
4. Low-emitting (VOCs) Materials
5. Clean Materials and Chemical Pollutions
6. Smoking and Non-smoking Zones
7. Noise and Acoustics Controls
8. Water Tanks (shading and insulations)

Group VI: Site Heat Island


1. High Reflective Roofs (Cool roofs)
2. Sites Materials Configuration
3. High Emissivity and Reflective Materials for Pavements
4. Roof Shapes
5. Green Roofs

Note: The following elements of the guidelines are depicted for the application to new buildings not the existing buildings.

22 | P a g e
Group I: Envelop Efficiency
1. Glazing
2. Wall Insulations (non-glazed Faades)
3. Shading
4. Glazing and Building Orientation
5. Daylighting
6. Clearstory Windows
7. Skylights: Sun-Optic
8. Glare Control
9. Photo-sensors Devices
10. Bright Colour External Materials and Paints

To ensure sustainability of the external envelop of a building, many issues should be considered and judged, for
example, the glazing that is used for the buildings fabric must take into account the following factors:
a. Energy performance (requirements)
b. Heat gains and losses
c. Shading and sun control
d. Thermal comfort
e. Water vapour and condensation control
f. Ultraviolet control
g. Color effects
h. Daylighting
i. Visual requirements (privacy, glare, and view)
j. Acoustic control
k. Safety

As glazing is the larger portion of the buildings facades and is the part that mainly gain and lose heat quickly, the
optimum choice of windows and glazing systems will predominantly depend on certain criteria, including: the building
use, the local climate, utility rates, and building orientation. When considering the selection of the glazing for each
faade of the building many factors and characteristics must be taken into account such as:

Window/ glazing Solar Heat Gain Coefficient/Factor (SHGC or SHGF),


Glazing shading coefficient (SC),
Glass Visible Transmittance or Light transmission (Tv- glass or Lt-glass),
Window U-value, and
Others.

Another major element to ensure a holistic high building performance is achieved and efficiency requirements are met
is daylighting. Daylighting is a system approach that should be fully addressed but natural light isn't simply a feature to
be added to the design process, it is rather a central design principle that drives the entire design of buildings hence,
the following should be considered:
 Orientation and footprint,
 Climate, region and general availability of natural light,
 How Buildings use energy ,
 When the window opens,
 Urban vs. suburban,
 Floor to floor and floor to ceiling heights,
 Window to wall ratios,
 Placement of glazing toplighting, sidelighting or both,
 Glazing performances: SHGF, SC, U-value, and visible light transmittance,
 Exterior and interior shading and solar control,
 Integration with electric lighting systems: lighting power densities, controls and electric lighting design,
 Reduced cooling loads via cool daylighting and energy efficient envelope and equipment,
 Interior design: colour, reflectance, furniture selection, and
 Floor plan; how far will daylight penetrate into deeper spaces?

The next part will highlight the green building guidelines for Group 1, Building Envelop, which is part of the short listed
elements. These are 10 elements for group 1.

23 | P a g e
Criterion: Glazing
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 1

Statement: All glazing areas on external faades or any exposed internal glazing of new Buildings shall meet
the standards drawn in accordance to Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). SHGC shall be 0.30 and
max 0.37. Consequently, the Shading Coefficient (SC) shall be 0.25 0.30 maximum provided a
Visible Light (VL) not exceeding 0.60 is achieved and LSG over 1.40 and maximum 1.80 is
maintained.

Intent: Reducing heat gain through the buildings faades to minimize cooling load and decreasing growth
in peak electric generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, health, recreation (leisure),
educational, religious, and residential as well as Industrial (factories) except warehouses.

Specifications: Solar Heat Gain coefficient (SHGC) or often called Solar Heat Gain Factor (SHGF), the percentage of
solar heat gain transmitted through the fenestration product as a whole. SHGC is function of the
Shading Coefficient (SC) multiply by a constant factor (1.19). The SHGC values can range from
around 0.2 to 0.8 or less depending on coatings, tinting, frame area relative to glass areas, and
other factors. The lowest SHGF values are typically found in windows with Low-E coatings
formulated to reduce solar gains (Refer to Appendix II).
a. Ensure that glazing shall be always double-glazing with Low-E coatings on the interior of outside
pane (Fig.30).
b. Allow thermal break to eliminate thermal bridges in glazing above 40% aluminium sections.
c. Make sure that Northern facades of buildings shall be designed for passive solar cooling and
have glazing with medium SHGC of 0.37 to allow for maximum VL of 0.80 and beneficial for solar
heat gain in winter months (Dec. Feb.).
d. Apply SHGC of 0.30 in case the glazed facades of the building are tilted 15 to 45 from the north
direction (north-east, north-west).
e. Ensure that East and West facades receiving plenty of undesirable sun have SHGC of 0.30.
f. Guarantee that the Shading Coefficient (SC) for glazing areas on facades oriented towards the
North shall be as low as 0.25 and maximum 0.35. For facades facing East, South, and West it
should be 0.25 and not to exceed 0.30.
g. Allow for the glazed shaded lobbies of parking areas in buildings to have SHGC of 0.37 - 0.45
with SC = 0.42 and 0.48 to ensure VL of 0.6 and 0.8 respectively.
h. Apply SHGC of 0.37 - 0.45 with SC = 0.42 and 0.48 to ensure VL of 0.6 and 0.8, and LSG of 1.60
and 1.80 respectively for glazed areas for showrooms should have.
i. Use double glazing in open outdoors at offices building and buildings entrances or revolving
ones.
j. Ensure that the roof glazing in shopping malls, exhibitions, universities, schools and hospitals
etc.., shall have partially or totally translucent to minimize solar heat gain building up during
solar time in summer days.

Technical Data:
 SHGC 0.30 - 0.37 (SHGC = SC x 1.19)
 SC 0.25 and not above 0.30
2
 U-value below 1.5 W/m K
 VL above 0.30 but not to exceed 0.60
 LSG above 1.25 and maximum of 1.80

Fig.30 Different types of Low-E and solar control glazing


Image sources: www.filmcote.co.uk / www.pentagonprotection.com/ www.yourglass.com
Refer to Appendix II.
24 | P a g e
Criterion: Faades Wall Insulations (non-glazed)
Group: Envelop efficiency
Guideline No.: 2

Statement: All faades and external claddings of new buildings shall be probably insulated to meet the
standards drawn in accordance to thermal insulation for energy savings. The thermal resistance
2
(R) of the external walls and roofs shall be equal to 2.865.00 m K/W and the corresponding
2
Heat Transmission Coefficient (U-value) not to exceed 0.250.35W/m K. Radiant barrier
insulation shall be used to block 95 percent radiant heat impinging on walls.

Intent: Reducing heat gain through the building fabric to minimize the cooling load and peak demands
consequently, conserving energy, lowering carbon emissions and combat global warming.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential as well as industrial (factories) except warehouses.

Specifications:
a. Ensure that all insulation materials are complying with ASHRAE Standards and ASTM tests.
b. Introduce the air gap cavity as an insulation medium. The air gap should be 50mm (2 inches) to
make the total external wall 30cm, i.e., 12 inches (refer to Appendix III).
c. Make sure that spandrels or windows frame combining many aluminium sections to have
thermal break to eliminate thermal bridges.
d. Use reflective insulations Radiant Barrier or radiant chips with a low emittance below 10
percent and high reflectance above 90 percent to block solar radiant heat flow into the
buildings envelop.
e. Make sure the thermal insulation value of such material meet the above U-value for roof in case
part of the roof is open (skylight) and Teflon is used instead of glazing.

Technical Data:
2
Thermal resistance (R) 2.86 5.00 m K/W
2
 External Walls Equal or below 2.86 m K/W
2
 Roof Equal or below 5.00 m K/W
2
Heat Transmission Coefficient (U-value) 0.25 0.35 W/m K
2
 External Walls not to exceed 0.35 W/m K
2
 Roof not to exceed 0.25 W/m K

Fire resistance (fire rated wall) 1-2 hrs

Types of Thermal insulation


 Mineral wool
 Packing (fire stopping)
 Installing building insulation
 Building insulation materials
 Super insulation
 R-value (insulation)
 Passive house
 Zero energy building
 Wool insulation

Fig.31 Different wall insulation materials


Image sources: www.fiberglass--insulation.com / www.yixinky.com
Refer to Appendix III.
25 | P a g e
Criterion: Shading
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 3

Statement: Shading devices on external faades or any exposed glazed areas of new buildings shall meet the
standards drawn in accordance to reducing Solar Heat Gain on glazed facades. Shading devices
shall be incorporated to provide shade and shadow to control the excessive sunlight impinging on
these surfaces and minimize heat transmission during solar hours.

Intent: Reducing heat gain through the buildings faades to minimiz


minimize
e cooling load and ensure a
comfortable workplace, decreasing growth in peak electric generating capacity consequently,
saving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air


air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), and health,
educational, religious, residential and industrial.
Specifications:
a. Ensure that gglazing areas are always shaded with shading devices (Fig.32).
b. For glazing on the northern facades there is no need for shading devices unless the building
shape is elliptical (Fig.33)
(Fig.33).
c. Incorporate appropriate shading devises on Eastern and Western ern facades that receive plenty of
undesirable direct solar radiation from the sun to minimise solar heat gain, especially on the
peak hours in hot summer months, i.e., morning from 8.00 to 12.00am and afternoon from
2.00pm to 6.00pm.
d. Add shading elements underneath the skylight or atrium if these skylights are covering the
opened roof or atrium to control the direct sun beams and reduce glare.
glare
e. Design the building to shad itself and benefit from the surroundings.
f. Use exterior shading
shadings to minimize heat gain during hot summer months (Fig.34, 35 & 36).
g. Give west and south windows and glazed area shading priorities.
h. Make glazed
lazed areas on the external facades that receive solar radiation recessed inwards to
minimise direct heat gain in hot summer months.
i. Install fixed shading devices in all applications but if the budget allows then use movable
devices to synchronize with the solar movement
j. Break up overhangs can be used for less projection.
k. Use landscapes
andscapes to rationally provide shad/shadow on the building facades.

Technical Data:
 South facades Horizontal shading devices and elements (Fig.32)
 Eastern and western facades vertical/horizontal (sloped) shading devices (Fig.32)
(Fig
Type Light shelves, overhangs, horizontal louvers, vertical
Louvers, and dynamic tracking or reflecting systems

a) Recessed glazing on South facade b)


b), c), d) horizontal shading devices on western facades e) landscape to provide shadow

f) Shading near glazed areas g) vertical devices h) shading entrances i) shading devices: skyl
skylight
ight j) internal louvers for shading
Fig.32 Different
ifferent types of shading devices for shading glazed areas and building facades
facade
Images source: Authors
26 | P a g e
Fig.33 Shading devices on an elliptical shape to control heat gain from east and west directions
Images source: Authors

Fig.34 Types of external light shelves for shading


Images source: Authors www.chicagogreenworks.com www.ksarchitects.com/ www.yourenergyoptions.com

Fig.35 Shading devises and light shelves to ensure maximize shading and ensure adequate daylighting
Centre for Disease Control (CDC) Arlen Spectre Headquarters and Emergency Operations Centre in Atlanta
Image source: www.aia.org

Fig.36 Shading and light shelves to provide shading enhance natural daylighting and save energy
Images Source: www.hku.hk

27 | P a g e
Criterion: Glazing and Building Orientations
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 4

Statement: All new buildings shall be properly oriented to benefit from the correct site directions to minimise
heat gain into the building fabric, maximize the benefit for natural light, and allow for good cross-
ventilation plus solar capturing in case PV panels to be installed on the building facades. Large
glazed facades shall first benefit from the Northern direction and be minimized on Eastern and
Western facades.

Intent: Reducing heat gain through the buildings faades to minimize cooling load and decreasing growth
in peak electric generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health,
educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial.

Specifications:
a. Maximize the site's potentiality to achieve the best possible climate orientation for new
buildings in hot dry and hot humid climates such as of the UAE.
b. Give orientation the priority to exclude the sun year-round and maximize the exposure to
cooling breezes when possible in hot humid and hot dry climates with few heating
requirements.
c. Align new buildings towards the East-West axis where windows face either north or south
directly so that glazed areas and facades, receive maximum hot morning and afternoon sun
radiation.
d. Design new buildings with large Northern windows to take in cool, diffuse North light.
e. Minimize the height of the window on the South side (strip windows work well), and shade the
window from direct sunlight. When the sun is high in the South sky, a canopy or a tree makes
an excellent sunshade.
f. Minimize windows on East-West, especially west-facing windows; due to the sun is low in the
morning and evening and perpendicular on theses facades, creating a lot of glare and excessive
solar heat gain.
g. Ensure that the optimum directional orientation is given. This depends on the site specific
factors and local landscape features such as trees, hills, or other buildings that may shade the
space during certain times of the day.
h. Align new buildings North side of the new buildings to capture direct sunlight in winter months
(Dec. Feb.) when the sun is in the Northern sky, permitting windows to create passive indoor
heating when needed.
i. Give orientation of buildings with rectangular shapes (long axis) towards East-West, so the
walls facing these directions receive less direct sun radiation in the summer months.
Nonetheless, passive solar heat gain occurs on the south side of the building in winter months
(Dec. Feb.).
j. Incorporate PV panels on the main and lager building facades of new buildings. This should be
o
oriented on South-facing facades within 30 to the East or West of true South to provide
around 90 percent of the maximum static solar collection potential.
k. Locate larger glazing areas on the Northern facades to reduce heat gain hence, cooling loads.
l. Give proper orientation to large glazing areas to reduce the solar heat gain during solar time
and maximize cooling during comfortable months (November April).
m. In case the site, urban sittings or municipal plot direction, is not correctly placed towards North
or South then the direction of the building shall take advantage from the best direction.

Technical Data:
For North-South sites on the South axis of the street it should be wide enough to allow for an
entry at the front as well as private North-facing spaces. Set new buildings back to
accommodate a North-facing garden or trees (Fig. 37).

Sites along the North-South direction are the best solution due to good access to Northern sun
yet have minimum potential for overshadowing by adjacent buildings. In summer, nearby
buildings provide protection from low East and West sun.

28 | P a g e
Sites running East-West should be wide enough to accommodate North-facing outdoor space.
Overshadowing by nearby buildings is more likely to occur on these sites.
North is the best direction to locate windows, living areas, and large office spaces. If the view is
to the south avoid large areas of glass so that heat gain is minimized. West-facing or East-
facing glazed facades will create overheating in summer months if not properly shaded.

Fig.37 Site subdivision with predominantly North and South facing orientation
Image source: www1.eere.energy.gov

In case the site is having a poor orientation or limited solar access due to constraints; urban
settings and regulations, an energy efficient building is still achievable through careful design.
In hot dry climates Surface to Volume ratio (S: V) should be kept low to minimize heat gain
(Fig.38).
Trees orientation on sites: Shade to the South-West and West is very important for blocking
peak solar gain in late afternoon summer. Ensure that trees are located less than 30ft from the
building to maximize shading on building surfaces (Fig.39).

a) Example of minimum and maximum shape V/S Ratio b) Relationship between Volume to Surface Ratio
Fig.38 Impact of Volume to Surface Ratio (V/S) on heat gain
Image source: www.learn.londonmet.ac.uk)

Fig.39 Site running East-West with a building facing North-South and landscape orientation
Image source: www1.eere.energy.gov/ www.fsec.ucf.edu

29 | P a g e
Criterion: Daylighting
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 5

Statement: All spaces in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Daylighting provision.
Glazing areas on external faades shall be selected to ensure good provision and distribution of
Daylighting. Internal spaces in new buildings should be exposed to sunlight; enough to make these
spaces healthier and meet sunlight and daylight requirements for health standards. At least 70
percent of the floor areas should have daylight well distributed across to allow occupants to
effectively perform their activity inside buildings.

Intent: Reducing the buildings electrical energy consumption and decreasing growth in peak electric
generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon emissions. In addition,
maximizing occupant productivity and reducing possible cases of building-related illnesses, thus,
significantly improve life-cycle cost and reducing operating costs.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health,
educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial including factories and warehouses.
Specifications:
General
a. Sunlight transmitted through building facades for health requirements
Ensure buildings spaces to receive sunlight beam for at minimum of an hour in 90 percent of all
residential spaces and 80 percent of other building types;
Use Sun-optics skylight system on building's roof to control the direct Solar Heat Gain (SHG)
from the sun.
b. Daylight Factor (DF)
Achieve the minimum Daylight Illumination Level (DIL) of 275 Lux (27 Fc), an equivalent to 3 on
work stations.
c. Daylight distribution:
Distribute light to illuminate a minimum of 70 percent on each regular occupied floor area;
Achieve a minimum Glazing Factor of at least 3 percent in 70 percent of all occupied areas.
Specific
d. Ensure that at least 70 percent or more of the floor area shall be designed to receive natural
daylight and ensure good distribution especially, deeper spaces. This is to reduce the human
eye adjustments to high levels of luminance due to even distribution (by and large, better
lighting quality can be provided if light is reaching a task indirectly such as that bounced from a
white walls, i.e., directly from a natural or artificial source).
e. Increase perimeter daylight zones extend the perimeter footprint to maximize the usable
Daylighting area.
f. Maximize the use of toplighting and reduce sidelighting to ensure good distribution.
g. Allow daylight penetration high in the buildings spaces. Windows located high in a wall or in
roof monitors and clerestories will result in deeper light penetration and reduce the likelihood
of excessive brightness.
h. Make sure that daylight is reflected within a space to increase room brightness. Light shelves, if
properly designed, should have the potential to increase room brightness and decrease window
brightness.
i. Use different building orientations to benefit from different Daylighting strategies; for example,
light shelves which are effective on south faades shall be used though are ineffective on the
eastern or western facades.
j. Incorporate slope ceilings to direct more light into spaces. Sloping the ceiling away from the
fenestration area will help in further increasing the surface brightness of the ceiling.
k. Avoid direct beam daylight on critical visual tasks. Poor visibility and discomfort will result if
excessive brightness differences occur in the vicinity of critical visual tasks.
l. Filter daylight before entering. The harshness of direct light can be filtered by vegetation,
curtains, louvers, or the like, and will also help distribute light.
m. Incorporate daylight technologies such as light tracking skylights, translucent light wells and
prismatic glazing, etc.., to daylight provision for spaces that by-product, arent receiving
sunlight or daylight.

30 | P a g e
n. Isolated spaces, with smaller windows and internal corridors shall have daylighting technologies
incorporated to capture natural light during the day, such as light wells (ducts) and light shelves
to boost and increase the daylight environments.
o. Incorporate light shelves, light wells, and roof light trackers to capture daylight.
p. Use the buildings north and south facades for daylight strategy to achieve best daylight
direction and application and avoid the use of eastern and western direction (Fig.40).

Technical Data:
Daylight deeper penetration into the building spaces. The depth of the room is not less than
about two and one-half times (2 ) the distance between the top of a window and the sill.
Keep reflectance of the building spaces at the following values to significantly impact daylight
performance:
 Ceiling over 80 percent
 Wall above 50 percent
 Floors around 20 percent

Fig.40 Direction where Daylighting should be best utilized

a) 6x6 skylight to illuminate a1000 Sq.ft b) section through the skylight b) 4x8 fixture to illuminate a 1200 Sq.ft
a 50FC+ fc for an 8 hr Daylighting a 50FC+ fc for an 8 hr Daylighting
Fig.41 Types of skylights used in building

a) Shilton school, WN- USA b) Light shelves c) cool daylighting d) internal light shelves
Images source: www.daylighting.org

e) High windows f) Atrium with top light shelves g) high window h) landscape to filter daylight i) side light shelves
Fig.42 Daylighting techniques in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting
Images source: www.metaefficient.com www.nrel.gov

31 | P a g e
Fig.43 Daylighting techniques (light wells) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting
www.i.treehugger.com www.lotuslive.org www.archrecord.construction.com www.hcgsinc.com

a) External light shelves b) lights helves covering a facade c) Vertical light shelves and light wells at Stittsville Public School
www.wyomingbuildingscience.com www.timgriffithphotographer.com www.designshare.com

d) Light shelves, the Univ. of Washington e) External light shelves with long windows f) EPA facades: External Light shelves
Images Source: www.ga.wa.gov www.leebey.com www.epa.gov

g) Phoenix City Hall


Fig.44 Daylighting techniques (light shelves) in buildings to create natural and cool daylighting
www.sanvanahtrims.com

Ensure typical daylight factors for various spaces are kept according to DF shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Typical Daylight Factor (DF) in relation to buildings spaces and functions
Space Type and function Daylight Factor (DF)
Discussion Groups 14
Residential Living Room 1
Residential Kitchen 2
Office - detail work 4
Office drafting 6
Office corridors 1
Schools - classrooms 2
Schools - art rooms 4
Hospitals - wards 1
Hospitals - waiting rooms 2
Sports facilities 2
Warehouse - bulk storage 0.5-1
Warehouse - medium size storage 1
Warehouse - small item storage 2
Source: Daylight in Architecture, a European Reference Book, James & James, UK, 1998.

32 | P a g e
Criterion: Clearstory Windows
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 6

Statement: New buildings shall incorporate clearstory windows to


maximize the use of natural daylight into internal spaces
and minimise the dependency on electrical lighting during
the day.

Clearstory windows shall be properly placed and oriented


to reduce the solar heat gain during solar time, maximize
daylight and sunlight in the early morning hours and
perhaps, provide ventilation when needed to circulate the Fig.45 A clearstory window
air inside buildings during comfortable months (November Image source:blog.seattlepi.nwsource.com
to April).

Intent: Increasing the penetration of Daylighting into building spaces and lessening the incoming glare. In
addition, reducing the heat gain through the buildings fabric that minimize the cooling loads and
growth in peak electric generating capacity, resulting in improving IAQ, saving energy, and
lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health,
educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial (factories and warehouses).

Specifications:
a. Encourage side or inclined clearstory windows on areas that receive less direct solar beams or
reflected radiation, i.e., on Western facades.
b. Locate clearstory windows mainly on the Northern facades to reduce heat gain hence, cooling
loads.
c. Ensure clearstory windows are installed with glazing at the same specifications according to the
facades orientation as per the specifications listed for Criterion 1: Glazing.
d. Make sure the glazed areas and roofs of the public buildings, schools, health care centres and
hospitals, as well as factories and residential buildings have clearstory windows installed to
attract daylight and direct daylight inward.
e. Guarantee that deeper spaces in buildings are provided with clearstory windows as much as
possible to attract daylighting and distribute it evenly well across the floor space.
f. Allow for natural ventilation through clearstory windows to encourage cross ventilation in
winter months and cool days specially when air temperature outside is below 25 deg C.
g. Provide vertically elongated (height to width is larger) clearstory windows especially, in deeper
rooms and spaces to grantee proviso nod daylighting thus, better performance.
h. Permit for the sunlight to penetrate into the buildings spaces through installing clearstory
windows, especially in residential units and villas when the sun is at low angle and at least for
an hour daily to ensure health requirements are met.

Technical Data:
Clearstory windows to face the Northern or South directions only; and
Low-emissivity (Low-E) glazing must be used in clearstory windows.

Fig.46 Different vertical and horizontal types and styles of clearstory windows
Image source: www.betterbuilding blog.oregonlive.com eccdom.blogspot.com www.architectureweek.com

33 | P a g e
Criterion: Skylights: Sun
Sun-optic
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 7

Statement: New building shall be equipped with sun


sun-optics
optics skylights to control the direct radiation impinging
on the buildings spaces and the use of electrical light inside buildings that result in minimising the
dependency on the use of electrical energy during solar time.

Intent: Reducing heat gain through the buildings faades and roofs to minimize
minimiz cooling load and
decreasing growth in peak electric generating capacity consequently, reducing operation costs,
saving energy and lowering carbon emissions. In addition, help in providing adequate
a Daylighting
when needed especially, in schools and hospit
hospitals.

Building Types: All types of air


air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health,
educational, religious and residential as well as industrial (factories and warehouses).

Specifications:
a. Design buildings roofs to cater for the installation of sun-optic
optic skylights so that the distribution
of daylight is increased and the demand on electrical power is reduced.
b. Incorporate the sunsun-optic skylights to catch up to 30 percent more light transmission at low
sun angles according to appropriate hours of buildings operation hours.
c. Install Sun-o
optic's Skylight prisms to refract the sunlight into micro light beams, spreading the
natural light throughout the building spaces without allowing direct sunlight (UV) to damage
interiors/furniture,
/furniture, i.e., free from "hot spots.
d. Choose Sun
Sun-optics system that lead to lights off 70 - 80 percent of the time, with less AC.
e. Design and install sskylights
kylights to carry a minimum 30psf tributary roof load or greater per site as
specified in the current International Building Code (IBC).
Technical Data:
optic skylight gglazing materials must have a max. Light distribution characteristic that
Sun-optic
maximizes the shading factor and diffusing qualities of glazing;; and minimum haze factor of 90
percent orr greater according to ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Per-addendum
ddendum D.
The combined inner/outer lens target values shall be be:
 Light Transmittance: minimum 68 - 100 percent Class 1 & Class 3* 3 Acrylic outer dome.
 Light
ight Transmittance: minimum 60 percent; clear Polycarbonate
ycarbonate (LEXAN SLX).
SLX)
 Diffusion / Haze Factor: minimum 100 percent.
 U-value:
value: 0.82 or lower (glazing and framing) in accordance with NFRC 100 or "unlabeled
skylight" default requirements of ASHRAE 90.1 2004.
For roof-light
light glazing the U-values for a 12mm air space shall be as follows:
 Double glazed 12mm glass 1.9 or Double glazed 12mm Argon filled glass 1.6
 U-values
values are rounded to the nearest 0.1W/mK. Lower U-values mean better the heat
retention. (Refer to Pilkington K glass thickness, 4mm).

a) Sun-optics
optics Skylights with louvers at a school, USA b) Sun-optic skylight of an auditorium at Univ. of Oregon
Fig.47 Use of skylights to Control the sunlight and provide daylight in schools to save energy
e

a) A classroom at 8.00am b) At 10.00am c) At 3.00pm d) at 4.00pm


Fig.48 Control the operation costs by using sun
sun-optic
optic skylights to minimize heat gain and save energy
Image sources: St Francis High School
34 | P a g e
Criterion: Glare Control
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 8

Statement: All spaces of new buildings shall be provided with a sensible brightness and meet glare index to
avoid both disability and discomfort glare. All external faades, windows, and the reflectance of
interior materials shall meet the standards drawn in accordan
accordance
ce to free glare environments.

Intent: Reducing unwanted brightness, visual discomfort and heat gain through the buildings faades.
Also, minimizing cooling load and decreasing growth in peak electric generating capacity
consequently, achieving comfort, saving energy and lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air


air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (Leisure), health,
educational, religious, residential and industrial including ffactories.
actories.
Specifications:
a. ut down the size and brightness of the visible patch of sky and by increasing the interior
Cut
brightness by the judicious use of surface areas of high reflectance.
reflectance
b. Control entry of direct sun beams and combine natural light ht with artificial light.
c. Make sure the light coming from the source inside the building is equal or higher than that
coming from outside (windows) to provide less exposure to such conditions; conditions and reduce
possibility of having headaches and eye fatigue.
d. Ensure reflection
reflections from objects within the room are controlled to minimise glare.
e. Select window
windows with less bright factor in comparison with the room surfaces.
surfaces
f. Make sure that buildings spaces are brighter; to better match the windows brightness.
g. Ensure elements of landscape (trees) are placed in front of large windows or glazed facades to
reduce discomfort glare.
h. Ensure postures especially, computer screens on working plane inside buildings are designed
design
to avoid strains in relation to the VDU to avoid gglare.
i. Integrate iindirect natural lighting systems that prevent overheating and glare.
j. Consider integrating Photovoltaics into large south glazing areas to reduce glare.
glare
k. Apply light shelves on windows facing South att about head height, highly reflective ceilings,
and light-colo
coloured interior surfaces.
l. Ensure that rroof glazing or clearstory windows in commercial buildings, buildings exhibitions,
universities, schools and hospitals, etc., shall be partially or totally translucent to minimize
solar heat gain and glare building up during solar time in summer days.

Technical Data:
2
Lighting
ighting levels in building should be are between 200 and 400 cd/m (cd=candela) in
conjunction with Lux levels (ambient light) of 500 and 600 are created to avoid glare.
A shading system that delivers a light transmission (T65) should be of 3 percent or less.

Images source: www.lbwcarpentryandupvc.co.uk


www.lbwcarpentryandupvc.co.ukwww.treehugger.com/ www.buildingdesign.co.uk/www.metaefficient.com/
www.buildingdesign.co.uk
www.dca.state.ga.us/www.agsinc.org

Fig.
Fig.49 Different types of solutions to reduce or avoid glare
Images source: www.agsinc.org/ greenlineblog.com// Authors

35 | P a g e
Criterion: Photosensors
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 9

Statement: New building shall be equipped with Photosensors devices to control the use of electrical light
inside buildings, when these spaces are not in use so that energy could be conserved by switching
off or dimming the electric lights. This would be also done wh
when
en the building spaces are naturally
illuminated and lighting output is not required. Photosensors shall be properly installed to
contribute towards reducing energy consumption, especially after working hours.

Intent: Reducing cooling load, providing ccomfort and decreasing growth in peak electric generating
capacity consequently, and saving energy and lowering carbon
arbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air


air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (Leisure), health,
educational,, religious, residential except villas and industrial including factories but not
warehouses.

Specifications:
a. Place and arrange for the Photosensors to be on the ceiling of rooms and receive light from the
work plane (desk) below, as well as other room surfaces.
b. Ensure that Photosensors are not installed in front of areas Fire exit and in spaces of frequent
use such as elevators lobby on ground floor and building entracte to avoid visual disturbances
c. Position
osition Photosensors above the operating desks (known known as work plane) to ensure no
interference of activities with its function.
d. Avoid locating the Photosensors in part of the deeper space or room with smaller windows that
cannot sense Daylighting.
e. Make sure that photosensors are position at the right places, adjacent
adjace place near the door of
the space and can tract the light from the window to effectively operate.
Technical Data:
Inside the building, use a closed-loop system where a photosensor is mounted on the ceiling of
the room where the electric lighting is bei
being controlled.
Outside the building, exploit open
open-loop system where a photosensor is mounted on the
outside of a building that controls the electric light level inside the building.
building
At 20 percent dim level, the energy savings is approximately 60 percent compared to operating
the lamp at full power.
Ballasts that dim lamps down to less than 5 percent light output have a maximum energy
savings of about 80 percent compared to full light output operation.

Fig.50 Types of Photosensors to control the use of electrical light in buildings


Image source: lighting research centre - www.lrc.rpi.edu

Fig.51 Examples of Photosensors inside buildings


Photos Credit: Authors
Refer to Appendix IV.
36 | P a g e
Criterion: Light Colour Materials
Group: Envelop Efficiency
Guideline no.: 10

Statement: All external materials on new building facades shall be highly reflective with high emissivity index
to reduce heat gain and transmission through the building envelop. All materials used for cladding
and painting the external fabric of buildings and facades shall comply with heat reduction
requirements and standards to reduce the heat gain during solar months.

Intent: Reducing heat gain through the buildings faades to minimizing cooling load and decreasing
growth in peak electric generating capacity consequently, saving energy and lowering carbon
emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health,
educational, religious, and residential, as well as industrials and warehouses (industrial).

Specifications:
a. Apply reflective material on building facades to reduce heat gain in hot summer months.
b. Ensure that only light or white or bright colour are applied on the building finish materials
c. Eliminate dark colours from being used in external buildings facades to minimise rate of
absorbed heat.
d. Use water-based paints, finishes and sealants and perhaps, some milk-based paints for
external envelop applications.
e. Install cladding on building facades with light colours.
f. Avoid using dark colour cladding material s on the external fabric to reflect offset heat gain.
g. Use paint on the external facades with thermal shield characteristics to reduce heat absorption
and reduce the transmission of heat conducted into the inter layers of the building fabric.
h. Use external paints that are made of an eco-friendly base to avoid harming the environment.

Technical Data:
Reflectance index should be 0.90 -0.95.
Absorption index should be 0.1 or less.

Fig.52 Examples of light and white colour external finishes materials


Image source: Author

Fig.53 Examples of dark colour external claddings and roof finishes


Image source: Author

37 | P a g e
Group II: Cooling Systems

Mandatory:
1. Under-floor Cooling/Heating
2. Radiant Cooling

Optional:
3. Solar Absorption Cooling
4. District Cooling

To ensure sustainability of the cooling systems for resources management, energy use, water, sub-systems and their
applied techniques in buildings, many issues ought to be considered and judged. For example, Under-floor Cooling
(UFC) or Radiant Cooling (RC), and its operation management in buildings should take into account the following
factors:

a. Size and space cooling


b. Type of spaces
c. Cooling time and peak loads
d. Peak demands requirements
e. Off-peak and peak demands rates
f. Installation and operation
g. Cost effectiveness
h. Total loads

As cooling in hot and humid climates is a prime element required to make the indoor spaces liveable and comfortable,
energy demands and peak load demands in buildings are the larger portion of the electricity supply. It is estimated that
in such harsh climate up to 70 percent of the electrical energy is consumed for cooling. Thus, it must be conserved.

To lower the Air Conditioning, Heating and Ventilation loads, cooling system such as Under-floor Cooling, Radiant
Cooling, and their appropriate selection shall be adopted and utilized. Also, the use of District Cooling (DC) should be
encouraged and provided as the main source of cooling buildings in areas where DC generation stations are available.

Hence, the choice of efficient system and type of cooling will mainly depend on many factors including building type,
local climate, utility rates, building size and occupants activities as well as hours of buildings use. When considering
the selection of the above factors, four key indicators must be taken into account:

Energy consumption per sq. ft.,

Peak-demands,

Saving targets, and

Carbon emission.

The next part will highlight the Green Building Guidelines for Group 2, Cooling Systems, which is part of the short
listed elements. These include 4 elements: 2 are mandatory; and 2 optional.

38 | P a g e
Criterion: Under-floor Cooling/Heating
Group: Cooling Systems
Criterion No.: 1

Statement: All space cooling and systems in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to
cooling systems and meet the cooling demands and effectively supply cool air into buildings
spaces.

Intent: Distribute the cool air evenly, lowering energy use in buildings. In addition, reduce cooling peak-
demands consequently, reducing electricity use and energy consumption needed in the
desalination process hence, lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, health, educational, religious and industrial except recreation
(leisure) and small residential.
Specifications:
The Under-floor cooling and heating system is a unique combination of highly efficient inverter
driven compressor and variable set point temperature capability that allows the system to match
its output precisely to the actual cooling/heating demands of the building. To make it a complete
system, the following should be considered:
System A
a. Use Under-floor cooling system to manage cold air and ensure it effective distribution.
b. Ensure heat pump technology is incorporated into the cooling system to represent a flexible and
cost effective substitute to a fossil fuel boiler, with a cooling and sanitary warm water option.
The inherent energy efficiency characteristics make it an ideal solution to reduce energy
consumption, cost, and CO2 emissions.
c. Apply barriers under the floor to direct the cold air to dense racks and in the ceiling to return it
from the hot aisle.
d. Utilize a raised floor to allow installing the system.
e. Ensure the raised floors are initially built to assist in handling chiller lines, power feeds and the
updraft required by mainframe equipment.
System B
f. Exploit outdoor unit extracts free low temperature heat from surrounding air and increases its
temperature. Upgraded heat is transmitted via refrigerant circuit to indoor hydro-box.
g. Use a fan coil range and connected to Altherma Under-floor system for cooling.
h. Grantee the system has an ability to optimally control heat emitter temperature level.
i. Install a conventional room controller if the over individual room temperatures and comfort
levels is needed to be regulated.

Image sources: www.enr.construction.com www.plenaform.com www.metaefficient.com

Fig.54 Under-floor cooling/heating systems


Image sources: www.effectivecooling.com www.greencampus.harvard.edu
Technical Data:
The under floor cooling or heating system would include:
 The header manifolds, control valves, room thermostats, and the Altherma system*.
Water Temperature setting:
 Reduce the water temperature to 4C and circulate it via the fan coil units.
Energy use KPI lead to:
 For every kilowatt of energy used up to 4kws or more can be absorbed by the system.
*This system is compatible with modern conventional under floor heating/cooling systems and can substitute existing fossil fuel powered boilers.

39 | P a g e
Criterion: Radiant Cooling
Group: Cooling Systems
Criterion No.: 2

Statement: All space cooling and systems in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to
Radiant Cooling Systems and meet the cooling demands and effectively supply and distribute cool
air into buildings spaces.
Intent: Distributing the cooled air evenly, lowering energy use in buildings. In addition, reducing cooling
peak-demands consequently, reducing energy consumption needed in the desalination process
hence, lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, health, educational, religious, and
residential and industrial except leisure (recreation).

Specifications:
Radiant Floor Cooling:
Radiant floor tubing can be used to cool buildings. It is recommended for dry-hot climates and hot-
humid with a dehumidification means. In arid climates, the cool floor can be used to supplement
or replace standard ducted air systems.
a. Ensure the floor temperature is kept at (20C) 68F by using either a small cooling chiller
connected to the floor tubing or make it steady at 13C (55F) temperature of the ground by a
mean of an earth loop.
b. Make sure the system works in winter with a water temperature between 25C and 45C.
a. Grantee that water operating temperatures in summer are between 13C and 15C.
b. Apply a thickness of 30 cm is left along the internal walls where the systems will run or laying the
systems on the slab and then doing a metallic electro-welding net.
2
c. Grantee the joint areas shall not exceed 40 m with maximum length of 8 m for screeds intended
for the application of stone or ceramic coverings.
d. Ensure joint areas of rectangular rooms can exceed these dimensions but maximum to the
length relation of 2 inches to 1 inch.
e. Guarantee that the pipes are covered by a protective sleeve at least 20 cm long in connection
with the crossing of the joints.
f. Apply a tightening test prior to place of the support layer, in order to verify that pipes have not
been receiving any damage during the laying operations.
g. Proceed with the filling up of the circuits, one by one, and vent eventual air pockets.
h. Ensure water test is done at least twice expected working pressure; no less than 6 bar.
i. Make sure over-cooling the floor is effectively controlled to avoid wet slippery surfaces.
j. Apply humidification media and good ventilation, i.e., ceiling fan to offset the wet-bulb
temperature effect, if exist.

Dry Floor Cooling/heating:


k. Ensure Reflective insulation is installed under the tubes to direct the heat upward.
l. Install tubing from above the floor, between two layers of subfloor.
m. Guarantee that tubes are made from aluminium diffusers to spread the water's heat across the
floor so that the floor is evenly heated.
n. Make sure that the tubing and heat diffusers are secured between furring strips (sleepers) which
carry the weight of the new subfloor and finished floor surface.

Fig.55 Different types and images of radiant cooling systems


Image source: www.effectivecooling.com

40 | P a g e
Technical Data:
The radiant cooling or heating system includes:
 Perimeter wall insulation,
 Insulating panel,
 Pipes,
 Dilatation joints,
 Load of the system, and
 Systems tightening and then layer of the concrete.
 Types of radiant cooling
 Super flat system, and
 Water system.

Types of Radiant Floor Heating,


 Radiant air floors (air is the heat carrying medium)*,
 Electric radiant floors**, and
 Hot water (hydronic) radiant floors***.

Types of Tubing
 Use cross-linked polyethylene or rubber tubing with an oxygen diffusion barrier,
 Make sure radiant floor systems are not made from copper or steel tubing embedded in the
concrete floors unless it is protected, i.e., no room for eventual corrosion,
 Fluid additives also help protect the system from corrosion, and
 Copper tubing is considerably good for its superiority in heat transfer abilities more than that
of plastic-based tubing.

Controlling the System


 Avoid waiting time for radiant floor that uses a concrete slab takes many hours to heat up
when it is if it is d permitted to become cold,
 Install floor thermostat instead of wall thermostat to control**** floor systems, and
 Ensure that the system is often designed to keep the circulation pump (s) running while the
thermostat only controls the boiler's burner.

Cooling/heating
 If a geothermal can be effective in Emirates, radiant floor systems can be headed using a heat
pump instead heated by a boiler. It would be a great way to save energy in buildings where
the heating and cooling loads are similar in size such as in villas and low- rise residential
buildings.

*Air cant carry large quantities of heat so radiant air floor is not cost-effective in residential applications.

**Electric radiant floors are usually only cost-effective if your electric utilities authorities offer time-of-use rates
and it is at low charges. It allows the "charge" the concrete floor with heat during off-peak hours. When the
thermal mass of the floor is large enough, the buildings spaces will be kept comfortable as a result of the heat
stored in it for a good number of hours at no additional electrical input. Thus, saving energy dirham but it is not
yet considered in the Emirates.

*** Hydronic (liquid) systems are the most commonly used and applied in buildings and cost-effective.

****sophisticated types of controls sense the floor temperature, outdoor temperature, and room temperature
so the building spaces are kept comfortable; an energy saving system.

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Criterion: Solar Absorption Cooling (SAC)
Group: Cooling Systems
Criterion No.: 3

Statement: All space cooling and systems in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to
Solar Absorption Cooling powered by steam, hot water, or natural gas to be used to offset high
electrical demand or consumption charges. This would mainly utilize solar energy.
Intent: Counterbalancing high electrical demand and lowering energy use in buildings. In addition, reduce
cooling peak-demands consequently; reducing energy consumption needed in the desalination
process and ease the load on grid, and even feed in to the grid hence, lowering air pollution and
Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, health, educational, religious, and
residential and industrial except leisure (recreation).

Specifications:
Solar Absorption Chillers*:
a. Use Absorption chillers when natural gas prices (used to give off steam) are significantly lesser
than electrical cost.
b. Apply absorption chillers for cooling in larger space cooling tonnages (above 500 tons) as it
have a more favourable first cost when compared to electric technologies.
c. Install and operate absorption chillers in areas where district steam is available.
d. Install absorption chillers for cooling at sites with limited access to electricity power.
e. Non-use of CFC or HCFC refrigerants in cooling to maintain a clean environment.
f. Ensure that Absorbers must have a cooling tower; air cooled units are not an option - even for
the smaller units.
g. Guarantee that chilled water temperature is at its lowest temperature 4C (39F).
h. Make sure that absorbers are not utilized in a low-temperature refrigeration application.
i. Ensure that at a very low temperature water is vaporized at 100C (212F) at normal
atmosphere pressure; in an absorber, water vaporizes cold enough to produce 4C chilled
water.
j. Use absorption chillers where steam is available from an on-site process, i.e., steam from a
turbine.
k. Utilize absorption in large complex like hospital where large steam plants are available.
l. Ensure that the absorbers with a COP of 1.0 burn 12,000 BTUs of gas for each ton-hour of
cooling. There is an electric load on the absorbers for pumps (in addition to cooling towers and
chilled water loops) that must be considered as well.
m. Make sure that the steam-fired units require 50-125 psi steam and about 10 lbs/ton-hour
steam usage to minimise cost, i.e., lower the required pounds/ton usage due to higher steam
pressure).

*It is a cooling system to cool air using chilled water. It is generated steam (evaporation) from
heated water by the sun. There are two drivers in the cooling process: one is the water (utilized
as the refrigerant that is the working medium that experiences a phase change that causes the
cooling affect); and second is salt (lithium bromide) where heat is used to separate the two
fluids.

Fig.56 Solar Absorption Chillers with its solar PV panels for heating water for AC
Image sources: Authors Image sources: www.ecsaustralia.com

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Fig.57 Solar Absorption Chillers with its system using flat plate collectors for heating water
Image sources: www.soleuae.com

Sun-Chiller Solar Absorption Cooling


a. Use Sun evacuated-tube solar thermal technology with absorption chilling to economize the
environmental and financial conditioning energy costs for facilities with exceptional cooling
loads (Fig.58).
b. Exploit Sun-chiller as a primary chiller during peak-demand hours with electric as backup.
c. Make use of the Sun system to provide space heating in cold seasons (Nov. Feb.) like that of
the Northern Emirates.
d. Capitalize on the use of Sun evacuated-tube to heat domestic water in buildings by solar power
year-round.

Fig.58 Sun-chillers system used for space cooling/heating (sun evacuated tubes with absorption chillers)
Image sources: www.cogeneration.net / www.sunchiller.com

Technical Data:
To make the absorption chillers cost effective the gas cost should be is below US$4.50/MCF and
the electric cost is above US$0.08/KWH or equivalent.
Types of absorption chillers for cooling:
 Air cooled, single effect
 Water cooled, single effect
 Double effect - direct fired
 Double effect - indirect fired

Table 2: Type of Equipment and Required Efficiencies of Absorption Chillers


Equipment Type Required Efficiency Full Load COP (IPLV)

1. Air cooled, single effect 0.60, but only allowed in heat recovery applications
2. Water cooled, single effect 0.70, but only allowed in heat recovery applications
3. Double effect - direct fired 1.0 (1.05)
4. Double effect - indirect fired 1.20

Source: ASHRAE Green Guide: The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., BN- Elsevier, Boston, USA, 2006

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Criterion: District Cooling (DC)
Group: Cooling Systems
Criterion No.: 4

Statement: Space cooling in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to District Cooling
(DC) when DC distribution plant is available; meet the uniform supply and effective distribution
requirements of cool air in buildings. DC should involve the provision of thermal energy from
more than one or more central energy plants to multiple buildings and large campus such as
hospitals, universities and public buildings, via network of interconnecting pipes where chilled
water (cooling) or hot water (heating) are supplies.

Intent: Distributing cooled air evenly, reducing structural loads by eliminating big cooling equipment
(cooling towers and chillers). In addition, decreasing more than 50 percent of chillers electricity
consumption in large buildings and smoothing cooling peak-demands consequently; decreasing
energy and water consumption needed in cooling hence, lowering Carbon emissions and air
pollution.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential (high-rise towers) and industrial except small residential buildings and
villas.
Specifications:
a. Ensure District Cooling is used in large buildings and facilities to save electricity.
b. Use DC to avoid boilers and chillers in buildings and give roof and floor more flexibility.
c. Supply chilled water in buildings to ensure uniform air distribution and improve comfort.
d. Ensure high efficiency boilers and chillers are used in DC plant to grantee saving.
e. Use due-fuel boilers and alternative-fuel boilers including renewable-fuel.
f. Utilize alternative energy-efficient refrigerant, e.g., ammonia; and non-electrical chillers.
g. Exploit hybrid chillers plants (various combinations of electrical & non-electrical chillers); energy-
efficient series or series-parallel chiller configurations for high Delta-T systems.
h. Use thermal storage to enhance performance in DC and save electrical energy, especially at off-
peak rates and reuse the energy to cut the peak-demands.
i. Apply cogenerations of combined heat and power (CHP) and ensure higher level of operation
efficiency and reliability.
j. Minimise the use of desalinated water in all District Cooling Plants or in new DC plants.
k. Ensure that chilled water is pumped in pipes for Air-conditioning in buildings at 4C.
l. Use of chilled water not an ice-based technique for thermal storage.

District Cooling Plant

Fig.59 District Cooling plant and sketch of supply of chilled water and return of warm water

Cooling Towers

Chillers

Chilled Water pumped in pipes


at 4C for AC

Fig 60 District Cooling with Thermal Storage technology support


Image source: www.energytechpro.com

44 | P a g e
Technical Data:
Use the following as non-desalinated water alternatives in DC:
 Sea Water,
 Treated Sewage Water (Phosphorus less than 0.3 mg/l and total nitrogen of 3 mg/l
or less),
 Grey water.

Recommendations:
o Grey water: suggested due to less residual and Hazard,
o Treated Sewage Water: Not strongly recommended due to hazardous and comfort resulting
from high level of Nitrates and phosphorus unless it is reduced to acceptable level,
o Sea Water: Not recommended due to high cost, but could be applied for projects such as man-
made islands or similar.

Other technical data as per the following references:


1. ASHRAE 2006 GreenGuide.
2. ASHARE 2004. 2004 ASHRAE Handbook-Systems and Equipment, Chapter 11, District Cooling
and Heating, Atlanta, USA www.ashare.org.

Note: Storage Tanks: it operates during off-peak overnight hours, chilled water or ice storage tanks on the project
produce chilled water or ice for the mechanical systems cooling needs during off-peak hours (overnight), reducing
overall power consumption and the load on the utility grid. The cost of this system could offset within five years due to
annual energy savings.

45 | P a g e
Group III: Energy Efficiency

Mandatory:
1. Site Selection
2. Air-conditioning Efficiency
3. CFC-free Refrigerants
4. Lighting Fixtures and Lighting Bulbs
5. Motion Control Sensors
6. Solar Water Heating
7. Swimming Pools
8. Thermal Comfort (CO2 Sensors)

Optional:
9. Renewable Energy
10. BMS- Smart Control devices and systems

To ensure sustainability of the energy consumption resources, energy water concept, systems and applied techniques in
buildings and on their site, many issues ought to be considered and judged. For example, efficiency of Air Conditioning
systems and its operation management in buildings should take into account the following factors:

Demands requirements
Hours of use
Peak and off peak demands
Type of chillers
Type of cooling towers
System output percentage
Total efficiency and savings

In hot dry and hot humid climates, cooling is an essential element required to make indoor spaces liveable and
comfortable. Energy and peak load demands for cooling in buildings are the larger portion of the electricity supply. It is
estimated that in such harsh climates up to 75 percent of the electrical energy is consumed for cooling thus, it must be
conserved.

Increasing the efficiency of the Air Conditioning, Heating and Ventilation systems (HVAC), cooling towers and chillers,
and their appropriate selection shall contribute to such saving and better performance. Hence, the choice of efficient
cooling equipment and type of AC systems will mainly depend on many factors including the type of building, local
climate and types of water and availability, building size and occupants activities as well as hours of buildings use.
When considering the selection of the above factors, four key indicators must be taken into account:

Energy consumption per Square foot,

Equipment efficiencies,

Saving targets, and

Carbon emissions.

The next part will highlight the Green Building Guidelines for Group 3, Energy Efficiency, which is part of the short listed
elements. These include 10 elements: 8 are Mandatory; and 2 optional.

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Criterion: Site Selection
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 1

Statement: All sites of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to site selection and be
properly chosen to ensure long term biodiversity and sustainability.

Intent: Minimizing the negative environmental impact that may accompany the project and reducing the
effect of the site on buildings overall performance. In addition, protect biodiversity and reducing
the exposure to high noise level and air pollution hence, lowering carbon emissions. Consequently,
improving the environmental quality and increasing productivity.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational, religious, and residential and
industrial.

Specifications:
a. Select the site to reduce the impact on the building in terms of first cost, construction and
operation, maintenance of the facility.
b. Prudent the site that lower the impact on prime land.
c. Choose the site sensibly to lower the environmental impact.
d. Select the site location to reduce transportation of materials and embodied energy during
construction and operation.
e. Minimise site selection that trespass on public parks and farmland.
f. Avoid building on or near sites that considered as wetland. It must be 1.00km away from its
boarder to ensure sustainability and biodiversity (Fig 61).
g. Decide on new sites that are near public roads network, bridges and highways to reduce loss of
land, provide access to the new facility, and avoid extra cost of new roads.
h. Opt for sites supporting long-term biodiversity (species*present within its proximity).
i. Choose new site to minimise infrastructures required to support the facility operation.
j. Select sites in urban and developed areas to ensure good building orientation.
k. Decide on the site to be nearby or within the immediacy of water supply sources.
l. Pick the sites that are nearby or within the immediacy of power distribution network to reduce
demand on supply and resources but within the allowable limits to avoid risk.
m. Opt for sites that would have access to various energy sources including renewable
n. Ensure that selected sites shall be within an acceptable good range to residential areas and
other services to enable building users to reduce daily transportation and time.
o. Make sure that all parties are involved in the site selection process to avoid post-occupancy
defects and minimise additional cost for the project.
p. Grantee that sites selection are made to avoid incoming pollution, i.e., prohibit building near an
obvious pollution source.
q. Ensure that the selection of sites has good link to good drainage systems and would not affect
groundwater level.
r. Avoid selecting sites that are nearby electrical transport medium or high voltage towers.
s. Ensure new sites are selected as none of 3 Brownfield categories to minimise risk.
t. Maintain new sites to be within an acceptable distance from major airport to avoid
environmental pollutions, i.e., air and noise.
*It can be measured by the numbers and types of different species, or the genetic variations within
and between species.

Fig.61 Hazardous, industrial areas, and noisy sites to be avoided when selecting a new site for buildings
Images source: www.gulfnews.com/ www.skyscrapercity.com
47 | P a g e
Technical Data:
Brownfield are classified as:
 Industrial: containing chlorinated solvents and other contaminants,
 Per-occupied defence sites: mainly exotic chemicals, toxins, and explosive residue,
 Petroleum site: contained leakage of underground petroleum storage tanks that have
contaminated the soil and groundwater.

Safe distances from electrical power transport high-voltages towers:


 500 meters. Tables 3 and 4 illustrate these safe distances and limitations,
 Homes, schools, etc. away from high voltage power lines consistently have less than this
level, usually 0.02 or 0.03 micro Tesla. A 110 KV AC line would usually reach this level at 100
meters, a 400 KV line at 200 meters. The distance could vary with current loadings,
 Home and school buildings should not be close to 11000 Volt overhead AC lines which may
not reach this level until 15 - 20 meters.
The undesirable health effect risks due to the Electro Magnetic Force (EMF) field levels
surrounding HVAC can be reduced if EMF field levels of buildings and outdoor areas used for
human activities are limited to the following:

Table 3: Limits of Electro Magnetic Force (EMF) field of buildings


Type of Use Maximum alternating current (AC) EMF levels
permitted indoors or outdoors (Microtesla*)
Sensitive areas: 0.1mt
a. Workplace used by adult women, pregnant
women and women of childbearing age
b. Residences that occupied by children
c. Schools, childcare or health facilities

Less sensitive areas: 0.3 mt


a. workplace used by male adults only

* 1 Microtesla is equivalent to 10 Milligauss

New Buildings should maintain a safe distance from current or new High Voltage Alternating
Current (HVAC) transmission lines according to the following Table.

Table 4: Safety of HVAC overhead transmission lines

Voltage of Transmission Lines Distance in Meters *


10kV-25kV 25m
25kV-100kV 75m
100kV-250kV 150m
250kV-400kV 300m

*distance refers to the horizontal distance from the perpendicular of the nearest set of conductors to the nearest edge
of the building.

Source: Smart, Robin F. (2005) Health Effect of High Voltage Transmission Lines: A Survey of the Medical Literature.
www.notowers.co.nz

48 | P a g e
Criterion: Air Conditioning Efficiency
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 2

Statement: All air-conditioning equipment and systems such as, cooling towers, chillers, compressors, and heat
pumps, and air-handling units (AHU) in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in
accordance to air-conditioning efficiency and install efficient and high performance equipment to
save energy, improve operation and reduce energy waste.

Intent: Enhancing performance and lowering energy use and cost in buildings. In addition, decreasing
cooling peak-demands consequently, reducing electricity use and energy consumption needed in
the desalination process hence, lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, health, recreation (leisure),
educational, religious, and residential and industrial.
Specifications:
a. Apply efficient Ac equipment including Air handling units (AHU), cooling towers, chillers heat
pumps, and boilers.
b. Ensure the system and equipment efficiencies are meeting the approved standards.
c. Install cooling and heating equipment that have the correct size to save energy.
2
d. Ensure that 600-1000 Gross ft /ton cooling load is to achieve high performance.
e. Optimized energy efficiency through a 20% energy reduction compared to ASHRAE 90.1-99
Chillers:
a. Use high-efficiency chillers to save energy and improve performance (Fig. 62).
b. Eliminate the use and storage of R-500 refrigerant at the plant (a type of refrigerant no longer
being produced due to its ozone-depleting properties)
c. Reduce the plants annual energy usage by 10 percent (approximately 2,500,000 kWh
HVAC:
a. Install Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) to greatly increase the energy efficiency of motors
circulating chilled water.
b. Set cooling equipment and system performance targets in terms of kW/ton (kW/kWR) as per the
below techinical data.
c. Select energy star system with installed programmed thermostats.
Control:
a. Use Heat Recovery.
b. Provide up to 5100 cfm of 100% outside air for ventilation.
c. Make sure the Enthalpy energy recovery system is 80 percent effective, ASHRAE requires 50
percent efficiency for AHU over 5000 cfm.
d. Ensure Optimal chiller operation delivers more hours at peak efficiency, particularly in variable-
primary flow applications.
e. Install multiple Tracer controllers to enhance ing operation efficiency in buildings.
f. Opt for Unit level open protocol flexibility including BACnet, etc.
g. Ensure that high energy recovery wheels (30 percent more efficient than code) is used on the
100 percent outside air ventilation systems for the apartments.
h. Install variable speed drives (VSD) for variable flow pumping provides only the amount of heating
or cooling water to provide thermal comfort for the complex.
i. Ensure that ventilation air treated and dehumidified is independent of other HVAC systems to
eliminate overcooling and reheat required on the main HVAC systems.
j. Allow all HVAC equipment located within mechanical penthouses to have an ample room of
proper maintenance to greatly increases the equipments average service life.

Fig.62 Different types of efficient chillers with control tracer panel


Images sources: Harvard University - www.greencampus.harvard.edu / www.trane.com
49 | P a g e
Distribution:
a. Install low flow fume hoods in building spaces such as teaching labs, 60 cfm instead of the
standard 100 cfm, to reduce heating, cooling, and fan energy consumption.
Thermal Storage:
a. Use thermal storage medium (chilled water or ice) that is produced during the off-peak period of
electricity demand and store it in tanks possible to reduce electricity consumption and also
reduce the capacity of generators and transformers.
b. Release the chilled water or melted ice melts during peak period of electricity demand, and
absorbs thermal heat.

Technical Data:
Design Process
 System responsive to partial loads, and
 80% of the year, system operates at < 50 percent of peak capacity.

Efficiency Index as per ASHRAE 90.1.


 Chillers 0.51 kW/ton (0.145 kW/kWR)
 Cooling tower 0.011 kW/ton (0.003 kW/kWR)
 Chiller-water pump 0.026 kW/ton (0.007 kW/kWR)
 Condenser water pump 0.021 kW/ton (0.006 kW/kWR)
 Air-handling unit 0.05 kW/ton (0.014 kW/kWR)

Mechanical equipment Efficiency Requirements are listed in Table 5 as per ASHRAE Benchmark
6.5: Mechanical Equipment Efficiency Requirements (www.ashrae.org).

Table 5: Chillers Efficiency


Required Efficiency-chillers Required Efficiency - Chillers with
with or without ASDs ASDs Operational Compliance Path
Equipment Type Size Category
Full Load IPLV Full Load IPLV
(kW/ton) (kW/ton) (kW/ton) (kW/ton)

All 1.2 1.0 N/A N/A


Air cooled w/condenser
Air cooled w/o condenser
All 1.08 1.08 N/A N/A

Water cooled, reciprocating All 0.840 0.630 N/A N/A

<100 tons 0.780 0.600 N/A N/A


100 tons and <
0.730 0.550 N/A N/A
Water cooled, rotary screw 150 tons
and scroll 150 tons and
0.610 0.510 N/A N/A
300 tons
>300 tons 0.600 0.490 N/A N/A
<150 tons 0.610 0.620 0.630 0.400
150 tons and
0.590 0.560 0.600 0.400
300 tons
Water cooled, centrifugal
>300 tons and
0.570 0.510 0.580 0.400
600 tons
600 tons 0.550 0.510 0.550 0.400

a. Compliance with full load efficiency numbers and IPLV numbers are both required.

b. Systems with single chillers that operate on 460/480V require ASDs (ASDs are optional in multiple chiller systems).

c. Water-cooled centrifugal water-chilling packages that are not designed for operation at ARI Standard 550/590 test conditions (and
thus cannot be tested to meet the requirements of Table 2.5.5) of 44* F leaving chilled water temperature and 85*F entering
condenser water temperature shall meet the applicable full load and IPLV/NPLV requirements in Appendix B., Tables 1-6.

50 | P a g e
Criterion: CFC-free Refrigerants
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 3

Statement: All air-conditioning and cooling equipment in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in
accordance to eco-friendly refrigerants, i.e., chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based refrigerants. All
refrigerants used in the cooling process and system must be CFC free.

Intent: Minimizing the negative environmental impact that resulting from the use of conventional
refrigerants and non-use of CFC. In addition, less ozone depletion of the earth's atmosphere due to
using CFC free refrigerant.
Reducing the impact on the environment and ensure long term sustainability and consequently
Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, health, recreation (leisure),
educational, religious, and residential and industrial.

Specifications:
a. Use industrial Refrigerant that are a non-ozone depleting product and completely safe for the
environment.
b. Ensure that cooling equipments and Air conditioning chiller system are totally free from CFC
gases and refrigerant.
c. Do not use CFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerant chemicals to cool most of the large commercial,
industrial and institutional buildings.
d. Replace CFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerant chemicals by eco-friendly substances.
e. Avoid using refrigerants such as R-22 (HCFC-22).
f. Use Industrial 12a Refrigerant for cooling process.
g. Ensure that HFC R-410a and R-134a are used for chillers and the use of R-123 is phase out.
h. Exploit fan-coil units equipped for direct-expansion cooling that is free from CFC.
i. Consider specifying CFC-free refrigerants such as R-407C, (trade name Suva 9000 or Klea 66); or
R-410A (trade name AZ-20, Suva 9100, or Puron).
j. Utilize Ammonia* as a refrigerant to reduce the damage to the ozone layer significantly.
k. Use common refrigerants 1,250, but the GWP for ammonia is zero to lower the impact on global
warming potential (GWP).

*The coefficient of performance for cooling of Ammonia is higher than that of common refrigerants; therefore
ammonia chillers provide both environmentally friendly and high energy efficient benefits.

Fig.63 Water-cooled Ammonia Chillers


Image source: www.emsd.gov.hk

Technical Data:
Refrigerants: the quantity of refrigerant shall not exceed the density limit in ASHRAE 15: Safety
Standard for Refrigeration Systems, when using comfort AC packages.
 The limit for R-22 is 9.4 lb (4.26 Kg) per 1000 sq. ft. (92.9 Sq. m).

If CFC or HCFC equipment are used:


 Give enough space around equipment, into and out of the building for future replacement.
 Provide isolation valves at all inlets, outlets, gauges, etc. to reduce fugitive emissions.
 Install high-efficiency purges on chillers.
 Ensure that operations and maintenance manuals include equipment documentation complete
with start-up and shut-down procedures, and logs that record refrigerant charge types,
amounts and dates.
51 | P a g e
Criterion: Lighting Fixtures and Lighting Bulbs
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 4

Statement: All indoor and outdoor lighting shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to energy saving. All
lighting fixtures inside and outside buildings shall incorporate high efficiency bulbs (lamps)
including active electronic drivers (ballasts) and Lighting control Systems.

Intent: Minimizing the heat gain through indoor lighting fixtures, saving 30 to 75 percent of electrical
energy in professional and consumers lighting by lessening cooling load and consequently,
contributing to the partial reduction of electrical lighting consumption (about 15 percent) and
lowering Carbon emission. In addition, providing higher quality lighting on work stations to
eliminate Visual Acuity and increasing occupants productivity.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential and industrial.
Specifications: I. Low voltage lighting bulbs and fixtures
For all offices, educational, health care and Industrial buildings:
a. Use Master TL-D super 80 fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts and rating capacity of 14 -
32 Watts.
b. Apply Low Voltage Halogen lamps with reflectors.
c. Install lighting fixtures with good quality translucent covers.
d. Use fixtures with efficient reflectors to maximize the distribution of light on task levels.
e. Install efficient lighting bulbs from 5 Watts - 32 Watts inside buildings.
f. Guarantee bulbs with magnetic ballast are not be used in all the above building types.
g. Ensure service and emergency staircases are fitted with timers at a 10-mintute interval. In case
of emergency/fire alarms are active all means of egress mainly exits/staircases shall be
automatically illuminated as per NFPA* and Civil Defence the requirements (Appendix V).
h. Use efficient lighting bulbs and fixtures outside buildings including sidewalks, alleys, local roads
and its shoulders, parking area inside the plot.
II. Low voltage lighting bulbs
For residential buildings including villas:-
a. Use efficient bulbs with capacity of 5 32 Watts.
b. Install typical fluorescent bulbs of sizes 0.60m and 1.20m at a capacity 14 - 32 Watts with
electronic ballasts.
c. Do not use Bulbs with magnetic ballast in all buildings.
d. Ensure service and emergency staircases are fitted with timers at a 10-mintute interval. In case
of emergency/fire alarms are active all means of egress mainly exits/staircases shall be
automatically illuminated as per NFPA* and Civil Defence the requirements (Appendix V).
e. Use efficient lighting bulbs and fixtures outside buildings.
III. Use Fibre Optic lights instead of ordinary lights in swimming pools.
Lighting power density is the maximum allowable measurement of Watts/Sq.ft for a given type of
space.

Technical Data:
Long life compact size bulbs, light weight and with high lumen (Table 6):
 80% energy saving
 Wide voltage range
 Instated and flicker free start
 Cool Daylight (CDL)

Optimal performance criteria for lighting:


 5.9 Lighting Controls,
 6.7 Lighting Power Density, and
 8.7 Task/Ambient.

Maximum lighting equipment power density Table 7.


52 | P a g e
Fig.64 Efficient fixtures and bulbs
(Photo Credit: Authors)

Fig.65 Efficient lighting bulbs including LED Bulbs for efficient Lighting
Images sources: www.google.com and www.metaefficient.com

Table 6: Bulbs wattage capacity for retail, office, industrial and home lighting
Bulb type Rating Capacity (Watts)
CFL Compact Fluorescent Lamps CFL-I 5 18
11 23
TL 8 23
ESH Energy Saving Halogen 11 32
SSL Solid State Lighting (Light Emitting Diode - LED) 20 35
Source: Proceedings of MENAREC-4 Renewable Energy Conference 2007.

Table 7: Maximum Lighting Equipment Power Density


Space type Lighting Power Density (W/Sq.ft)
Office 1.1
Conference Room 1.3
Toilet Room 0.9
Corridors 0.5
Stairways 0.6
Sources: ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Lighting Power Density Requirements.

Table 8: Recommended lighting levels at working station in workplaces


Activity/Space Building Type Artificial Lighting Glare Index
Illuminance (Lux)
Formal teaching & seminar spaces Schools 300 to 500 16
Colleges (300 on desks, 19
Hospitals, etc in hospital)

Deep (open) plan teaching spaces Schools 300 to 500 19


Colleges

Lecture theatres and Schools 500 16


Examination halls Colleges (300 on desks,
Hospitals in hospitals

Music rooms and Educational 300 16


Music practice rooms and Recreational buildings

Art Schools 300- 500 16


Craft Colleges
Needlework Factories
(Studios) Offices
Recreational buildings

To be continued

53 | P a g e
Table 8: Contd
Activity/Space Building Type Artificial Lighting Glare Index
Illuminance (Lux)
Woodwork Schools 500 16
Metalwork Colleges
Engineering Training Centres
(Teaching) Recreational buildings

Laboratories Educational buildings 500 to 750 16


Hospitals (300 to 500 on
Offices bench in hospitals)
Research establishments
Factories

Staff rooms Educational buildings 150 to 300 (100 19


Common rooms Hospitals average in hospitals)
Offices
Factories

Offices (enclosed) Offices 500 19


Educational buildings (300 on desks, in
Libraries)
Factories
Hospitals
Banks
Insurance buildings
Post Offices

Deep (open) plan offices Offices 500 to 750 19


Landscaped offices Colleges
Banks
Insurance buildings, etc

Typing Offices 500 to 750 19


Business machine Colleges
Punch card Banks
Post offices, Etc

Computers Offices 500 to 750 19


Banks Limit luminance
Educational buildings where VDUs are used
Hospitals

Drawing and Educational buildings 500 to 750 plus 16


Design offices Offices local lighting
Factories to 1000 on boards

Workshops Factories Rough work 300 19


Machine shops Offices Medium 500
Processing Hospitals, Etc Fine 750 to 1000
Production plane very fine 1000 to 1500
(300 to 500 on bench, in
hospitals).

Source: Basic Data for the Design of Buildings: Daylight. Draft for Development, DD 73: 1982, British Standards Inst.

* NFPA National Fire Protection Association (USA).

Refer to Appendix VI.


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Criterion: Motion and Control Sensors
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 5

Statement: All lighting fixtures inside and outside buildings shall meet the standards of energy efficiency and
shall incorporate smart and control sensors. All space zonings shall have motion lighting sensors
combined with photosensors to control lighting inside buildings.

Intent: Minimizing the heat gain generated from indoor lighting fixtures, saving 30-75 percent of electrical
energy in professional and consumers lighting by lessening cooling load and consequently, lowering
Carbon emissions. In addition, providing higher quality lighting (Illumination) on work stations to
eliminate Visual Acuity, increasing occupants productivity.

Building Types: All types of buildings including public, industrial and commercial buildings: airports, ports, religious
and hospitals, and educational (schools and universities), as well as residential. For lighting sensors,
all types of buildings except residential (private) and warehouses.
Specifications:
Motion lighting sensors
For all building types except residential buildings excluding villas:
a. Use motion lighting sensors to control electrical energy use in all type of buildings except those
of residential nature (villas) and warehouses.
b. Apply motion lighting sensors only in the corridors in each floor of residential buildings for
commercial use except villas to control electrical energy consumption.
c. Install motion sensors in service areas such as staircases, corridors and lobby of lifts.
d. Ensure that operation time is fully considered according to space type and activities, and age of
building users.
e. Make sure motion sensors are installed around the building spaces will automatically be
switched when the space is unoccupied.
f. Guarantee that motion and daylight sensors are installed at the peripheral areas, of the building
spaces when the office is unoccupied or when there is ample daylight, the sensors will
automatically turn off or dim down to minimize energy consumption.

Fig.66 Different types of motion sensors and photosensors


Image sources: www.drivewayalarmproducts.com/www.northstaralarm.com

Fig.67 Different spaces with installed motion control sensors


Photos: Author

Refer to Appendix IV.


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Criterion: Swimming Pools
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 6

Statement: All indoor swimming pools shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to energy saving.
Swimming pools shall be covered with insulation sheets and outdoor swimming pools shall be also
covered if heated and when are not in use.

Intent: Reducing the indoor heat losses resulting from evaporation and ventilation and controlling the
water heating or cooling peak load demands and consequently, saving energy by 30-50 percent and
lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned buildings including hospitals and spas, educational buildings, residential
(commercial), Leisure and sport facilities and industrial except warehouses

Specifications:
a. Cover swimming pools when it is not in use to save water and energy
b. Ensure that swimming pool covers are made of insulated materials to save energy.
c. Make sure that all covering swimming pools shall meet the following standards:
 Fire retardant
 Mildew and Chlorine Resistant
 UV Stabilized for 1000 Hours on Weatherometer
 Bottom Vinyl is Chlorine and Bromine Resistant
 50C heat crack
 Thickness : 0.040 cm
 Abrasion Resistance : 200 Cycles
 Heat Seals Between Halves to Prevent Heat Loss
d. Guarantee that the cover is superior grade 400 and 500 micron polyethylene which includes a
UV inhibitor.

Technical Data:
For indoor swimming pools, if are not in sue:
 transparent plastic (bubble/solar cover, vinyl cover, Insulated vinyl cover)
For outdoor swimming pools (optional):
 Bubble
 solar cover
 Vinyl cover
 Insulated vinyl cover
2
 Pre-stressed 550g/m green reinforced PVC and fitted with a central filter panel.

Fig.68 Outdoor and indoor swimming pool covers


Image source: www.covers4pools.co.uk / www.poolandspa.com / www.forgeleisure.co.uk/ www.pinelog.co.uk

a. Solar cover b. winter cover c. above ground cover d. indoor cover e. automatic cover
Fig.69 Different types of swimming pool covers
Image source: www.1st-direct.com

Refer to Appendix VII.


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Criterion: Solar Water Heating (SWH)
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 7

Statement: Water heating shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to energy saving. Water heating in
new buildings shall be provided by Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHS), mainly for public,
hospital, residential, and leisure, schools and religious. For non-shallow roof install SWHS if the
building roof area permits.

Intent: Reducing energy consumption for water heating by renewable source and using solar energy to
minimize the peak load demands. Also, minimising the water losses due to evaporation,
consequently, saving in water and electrical energy, and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, industrial and residential except high-rise buildings that have insufficient roofs surface
areas (built on 80% - 100% of the site or roof area is fully utilized by MEP services and equipment)
for the installations of large numbers of SWH panels.
Specifications:
a. Ensure that water distribution for washing and hygiene proposes except cooking, into toilets
and bathroom and hot water in Kitchens are heated by means of solar energy.
b. Use appropriate numbers of solar PV panels on the buildings roof to ensure sufficient storage
and supply of hot water for the building users. For public buildings, the number of panels should
be calculated according to number of users. For households:
 Two (2) panels for a family below 3-4 persons
 Three (3) panels for villas above 4 persons
c. Utilize the right type of solar water heating system in new building including:
I. For heating water 2 collectors:
 Skylight appearance, attractive looks
 Solid and built to last
 Certified high performance
 All-copper black-chrome absorber plate
 Durable tube-to-fin absorber bond
 Double strength tempered solar glass
 Anti-glare finish
 Modular hardware for any tilt
 Wind and impact resistant
 Structural certification
 High output even on marginal days.
II. For water heating of swimming pools: 2 collectors:
 Specs: 2-Gobi 410 w/unions, 2-F1, 2-BU, 1-LX 220/B control, sensors, 1-Cupronickelexgr.
HEX32 CNTB, 1- Col. Loop pumps and fit.15-42F, 1-Expantion tank-EX2, 1-air vent -bushing-
pressure relief-gauge, 4 Gal. Dyno-flo.
III. For water heating in other building types (public and commercial buildings): above 3
collectors based on sizing and capacity.
d. Use water tank incorporated with electric heating elements in case of cloudy skies and no
sunshine for long hours in winter months.
e. Ensure thermostat on hot water heaters to be kept at 120 F (49C) to save energy.
f. Make sure that hot water use is efficiency importantly adopting the following:
 Reduce hot water consumption,
 Lower the water heating temperature,
 Insulate water tank and hot water pipes,
 Install heat traps and a timer on water heaters, and
 Install a drain water heat recovery system.
g. Install electronic (smart) meters to measure electrical, hot and cold water consumption in new
buildings that have solar water heating systems.

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a.Non-pressure solar water heater type used in buildings b. Integrated SWH c. Vacuum tube with heat pipe

d. Balcony style SWH collector e. Non-pressured SWH collector f. Pressure SWH collector
Fig.70Types of Solar water heating systems used in buildings

a. Three target tube b. Electrical heater c. controller for pressure SWH


Fig.71 Accessories of Solar water heating collectors
Images source: www.xiankesolar.com

Technical Data:
Type - Solar collectors applications used in buildings fall under 2 types:
a. Flat-plate collector, and
b. Evacuated-tube solar collectors.
Operation
a. Passive
b. Active, which have circulating pumps and controls
For active systems, there are two types of active solar water heating systems:
 Direct Circulation Systems, and
 Indirect Circulation Systems.
Sizing
 The storage cylinder allow for 40 - 60 liters/person/day.
2
 Allow a minimum of 80 and preferably 100 liters storage/m of collector.
 A typical size for a family of four will be between 200 and 300 liters.
 All collectors should be independently tested for their thermal performance to BS EN 12975
or BS EN 12976 or DCL standards tests:
- 2 Solar Heating Water System, 410 flat plate collector(s)
- 20w PV panel and pump station
- HP SS SW CL heat exchange assembly

Fing.72 Sizes of solar water heating collectors

Fig.73 Commercial water heating system


Image source: www.google.com
Refer to Appendix VIII.
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Criterion: CO2 Sensors (Thermal Comfort)
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 8

Statement: All spaces of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to thermal comfort and
health requirements. All spaces occupied by building users shall be equipped with Carbon Dioxide
(CO2) sensors to ensure comfort and maintain good indoor air.

Intent: Improving indoor air quality and occupant satisfaction in workspaces. Ensuring ventilation rates are
kept at the required effective rates and lessening indoor pollution and improving thermal comfort.
In addition, reducing energy use consequently, conserving energy and lowering carbon emissions
besides enhancing indoor health thus, increasing productivity.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential and industrial except warehouses.
Specifications:
a. Install Carbon Dioxide (CO2) sensors to reduce the energy required for cooling/heating outdoor
air when occupancy is less than peak design and save energy.
b. Use the ASHRAE 62 calculation procedure to establish a minimum outdoor-air quantity.
c. Mount CO2 gas sensors to ensure Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) is effectively measured
and monitored.
d. Monitor DCV by good distribution of CO2 sensors to satisfy the conflicting requirements for
minimum energy consumption while simultaneously maintaining Indoor Air Quality.
e. Introduce and ensure as much outside "fresh" air into building spaces to maintain a balance of
both CO2 gas monitoring and energy demands.
f. Install CO2 sensors to reduce signs of poor building ventilation and provide conform.
g. Ensure that proper demand control ventilation strategies along with CO2 sensors measurement
are kept to grantee indoor air is clean for occupants health and comfort.
h. Make sure that environmental carbon dioxide levels in ventilation systems and indoor living
spaces are in compliance with ASHRAE and other ventilation efficiency standards.
i. Ensure that 1,000ppm of CO2* is not exceeded to grantee Comfort (odour) criteria are satisfied
(ASHRAE Standard 621989, Section 6.1.3).
j. Make sure that CO2 sensors are fixed in the space or at return-air duct to measure the indoor
concentration.
k. Use the variation between the indoor and outdoor CO2 concentrations to adapt the outdoor-air
damper location hence, provide the proper amount of ventilation.
*The absolute 1,000 ppm value is interpreted as the ceiling CO2 concentration for acceptable indoor air
quality. This was based on Specific ventilation rate of 15 cfm/person, Activity level at 1.2 MET, and Outdoor
CO2 concentration of 300 ppm.
Technical Data:
CO2 sensors operation:
 Operating temp 0.0 to 50C)
 Operating humidity 15% to 90% non-condensing
CO2 measuring range:
 Measuring range 0.00 to 2000ppm
 Output 0.00 to 10.0V

Fig.74 Different Types of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sensors and Detectors


Image source: www.futurelc.com/ www.controlsupply.com/ www.thermokon.de

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Criterion: Renewable Energy
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 9

Statement: All new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to thermal comfort and energy
conservation requirements. At least one source of Renewable energy should be used to generate
electricity for the buiding annual energy use.

Intent: Lowering energy and water use in buildings by decreasing cooling peak-demands from
conventional power generation plants. In addition, minimising heat gain through the buildings
roofs from shading provided by the PV arrays hence, minimizing the cooling load, consequently
lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential and industrial.

Specifications:
a. Make sure that 15 percent of the building total annual energy use are generated from
renewable energy sources.
Wind energy
a. Make sure that windmills are installed in areas where wind speed is above 8m/s to usher cost
effectiveness.
b. Install wind turbines on the building roof known as Wind building-integrated energy generation
System to generate portion of electrical load demands the required for building operation such
as for lighting, appliances and water heating (Fig.75).
Solar thermal
a. Use solar thermal technology to heat the swimming pools and in turns, save energy.
Solar energy
b. Install onsite-PV to generate at least 10 kW power, 60 panel photovoltaic array at the. This PV
array would be enough to supply energy to run the garage and is connected to the rest of the
buildings so that surplus energy can be utilized and a battery is not needed. The system is
expected to produce approximately 12,450 kWh of electricity per year (Fig.76.a)
c. Install single a PV shoe box lighting system in front of buildings to generate power for exterior
light. It produces 2kWh of electricity per day in summer while a 0.7 kWh could be generated in
winter (Fig 76.b).
d. Integrate thin film technology of buildings facades to generate electricity from the sun in areas
with no power or transportation of electricity is expensive.
Technical data
To maximize electricity generation low-profile turbines should be used and mounted on
buildings roof and to take advantage of the high pressure ward wind flowing over buildings
 Placement should be in the prevailing wind direction, and
 With no obstruction.

Fig.75 Types of wind turbines used in building or wind farms


Images Source: www.gizmag.com/wind-turbines-harness-building-power

a. Small PV array on a site b. Science Centre PV shoe box c. solar water collectors d. 435 panel, 75.6 kW solar array sits
Fig.76 Examples of renewable energy sources used in building or sites to generate electricity, lighting and heating water
Image sources: www.gizmag.com/north-carolina-campus-goes-solar
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Criterion: Building Management Systems (BMS) and Smart Devices
Group: Energy Efficiency
Criterion No.: 10

Statement: All new buildings shall meet the standards according to Energy control and incorporate smart
and control systems to monitor building performances. All space zoningszoning shall have BMS
installed to monitor the operation of the building and detect fire and variation in temperature
and indoor relative humidity and to record comfort conditions.

Intent: Controlling
ng the thermal comfort and safety inside buildings spaces, improving
i indoor air quality
and occupant
ccupant satisfaction with work space and providing sufficient natural ventilation rate
when required. Also, lessening indoor pollution and heat gain through the building
bu fabric and
minimizing the cooling load consequently, conserv
conserving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air


air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, health, recreation (leisure),
health, educational and religious as well as residential and industrial.

Specifications:
a. Ensure that buildings are operated, managed and monitored by building management
systems (BMS) to conserve energy, water and minimise indoor air pollution and reduce
waste in resources and provide security and safety.
b. Make sure buildings are operated, managed and mon monitored
itored by building management
systems (BMS) to lower carbon emission resulting from energy and water use consequently
reduce the building footprint per user.
c. Install energy meters in the building to assist in the auditing process (Fig.77).
d. Ensure in centralized vertical ducts energy meters are installed and are easy to be accessed.
e. Ensure that hot water has a control temperature meter.
f. Make sure that the heat meters and electricity meters are connected through the M-Bus M
network to 26 M M-Bus masters.
g. Ensure
nsure all fire fighting systems are connected to the BMS.
h. Connect all large rooms are monitored to ensure safety and comfort is secured.
i. Control air temperature, humidity and lighting systems by BMS.
j. Provide an energy and water to reduce waste.
k. Ensure thermal comfort in terms of air and hum and air speed are audited.
l. Allow lighting system be monitored by BMS to reduce electrical consumption.
m. Ensure all AC equipment are monitored and controlled BMS.
Technical Data:
M-Bus
Bus masters should be coupled to a digital substations communicating through RS232.
Smart Intelligent Systems SIS based on advanced technology should be used.

Fig. 77 Building Management Systems (BMS)


Image sources www.automatedbuildings.com

a. An electrical car char


charging socket b. a BMS device c. Lighting operation controlled by BMS
Fig.78.. Smart devices and BMS used in buildings spaces to manage and control operation.
Image source: Authors

61 | P a g e
Group IV: Water Use and Efficiency

Mandatory:
1. Water Efficient Fixtures
2. Water Efficient Landscaping
3. Recycled Water (Grey Water)
4. Condensation and Rain Water Collections
Optional:
5. Non-desalinated Water for AC
6. Collection of Surplus AC Water

To ensure sustainability of the water resources, water efficient systems and applied techniques in buildings and on their
site, many issues ought to be considered and judged. For example, water fixtures installed in and water management
applied to buildings should take into account the following factors:

a. Fixtures type and efficiency


b. Water requirements
c. Landscaping requirements
d. Types of vegetation
e. Irrigation systems
f. Water treatments
g. Removal percentage
h. Hygiene and Safety

As water is a major element used alongside energy in buildings the larger portion of the supply must be conserved,
mainly the potable water; consumed water should be treated or recycled. Part of the potable water that are currently
used for flushing and irrigation should be replaced by recycled water (treated grey water) for flushing toilets. Thus,
saving a large portion of clean and potable water plus, maintaining our natural recourses.

Therefore, the choice of efficient fixtures, type of landscaping and appropriate irrigation systems mean the treatment of
grey water will depend on many factors including building type, local climate, utility rates, and building size and
occupants activities as well as hours of buildings use. When considering the selection of the above factors, four key
indicators must be taken into account:

Water consumption per person,

Type of landscape and areas

Saving targets, and

Carbon emissions.

The next part will highlight the Green Building Guidelines for Group 3, Water Use and Efficiency, which is part of the
short listed elements. These are 4 mandatory elements and 2 optional ones.

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Criterion: Water Fixtures
Group: Water Use and Efficiency
Criterion No.: 1

Statement: All service areas (public toilets, lavatories and kitchens) in new buildings shall meet the standards
drawn in accordance to Water Efficiency and install water efficient fixtures and apparatus
including water closets, showers, urinals, and Lavatories faucets to reduce water use by 40
percent (bath and showers), 28 percent (flushing), 9 percent (kitchens) and 20 percent (laundry).

Intent: Reducing potable water use in buildings by at least 30 percent 40 percent and for buildings
sewage conveyance (grey water) up to 75 percent and 100 percent for air-conditioning water. In
addition, conserving water use and consequently, reducing energy consumption needed in the
desalination process hence, lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational, religious, and residential
and industrial.

Specifications:
a. Use high efficient fixtures (Low-flow fixtures) and sanitary apparatus to reduce water demands
(potable and non-potable water), and to minimize water supply and drainage.
b. Ensure Low-flow fixtures achieve water savings of 20 percent 50 Percent.
c. Install Dry fixtures such as composting toilets and occupant sensors in commercial and industrial
buildings to reduce the potable water demand.
d. Opt for storm water and greywater for non-potable applications including toilet and urinal
flushing, mechanical systems and custodial uses.
e. Ensure that new faucet flow rates shall not exceed 2.5 gpm at 80 psi or 2.2 gpm at 60 psi.
f. Make sure new showerhead flow rates shall not exceed more than 2.5 gallons per minute (gpm)
at a water pressure of 80 pounds per square inch (psi).
g. Built in flow limiter in all water fixtures and devices installed on apparatus in public and
commercial buildings including residential type for commercial use, including:
Faucets
a. Use aerators with low flow rates to ensure maximum water efficiency.
b. Install aerators that come with shut-off valves that allow you to stop the flow of water without
affecting the temperature.
c. Use aerator (screw-on tip of faucet) that ultimately determines the max. Flow rates.
Showerheads
a. Select a showerhead with a flow rate less than 2.5 gpm for maximum water efficiency.
b. Use Energy-efficient dishwashers and clothes washers (Energy Stars).
Technical Data:
Water Closets (W.C.)periodical flushing capacity with toilets no more than 1.6 gpf/0.8 gpf.
Showers low flow showers heads
There are two basic types of low-flow showerheads:
 Aerating showerheads mix air with water, forming a misty spray; and
 Laminar-flow showerheads* form individual streams of water.
Use similar aerator technology and multiple flow settings to save water:
 Low-flow shower heads use about 2 gallons of water per minute compared to between 4
and 5 gallons per minute used by conventional heads;
 Low-flow faucet aerators can cut water usage by 40 percent from 4 gallons/min to 2;
 Ultra-low-flush toilets with maxi. 1.6 gpf compared with 3.5 gpf of standard ones.
Faucets low flow devices with built in flow limiter or sensors:
 Kitchen faucets shall be equipped with aerators that restrict flow rates to 2.2 gpm;
 Bathroom faucets shall be fitted with ones that restrict flow rates by 66 percent from 1.5 to
0.5 gpm.
Urinals install efficient urinals.
* In a humid climate, use a laminar-flow showerhead as it won't create as much steam and
moisture as an aerating one.

Refer to Appendix IX.


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Criterion: Water-efficient Landscaping
Group: Water Use and Efficiency
Criterion No.: 2

Statement: All soft landscape (greenery and planted areas) on the site of new buildings shall meet the
standards drawn in accordance to Water Use and install water efficient landscaping and irrigation
systems including the selection of indigence and desert landscaping, trees, and srubs that consume
less water and retain much of it.

Intent: Reducing water use for irrigating the site of new buildings by at least 30 40 Percent. In addition,
maintaining our natural resources by conserving water use; consequently, reducing energy
consumption needed in desalination process hence, lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of new buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational and religious as
well as residential and industrial.
Specifications:
a. Apply water-efficient landscape including trees and shrubs that retain less water to reduce
demands on potable and non-potable water, and minimize water supply.
b. Exploit materials and systems that consume less water.
c. Use water-wise plants. Native and adaptive plants that consume less water species and
varieties that are resistant to local plant diseases and pests.
d. Use only low-water-use plant material in nonturf areas.
e. Limit the use of turf in areas where it is necessary and select low water-using grass.
f. Avoid irrigation on windy days.
g. Design dual watering systems with sprinklers for turf and low-volume irrigation for flowers,
trees, and shrubs.
h. Mulch around shrubs and trees to conserve water.
i. Apply high technologies to eliminate the use of potable water by 50 percent through one or
any combination of: Plant species factor; Irrigation efficiency systems; Plant landscaping that
does not require permanent irrigation or no irrigation; and Desert landscaping.
Water Management:
a. Group plants with similar water needs such as deciduous trees and plants, coniferous trees and
plants, earth berms, walls, fences, sheds, and garages (Fig.79).
b. Apply drought resistant landscaping with efficient sprinkling and irrigation technology.
c. Select the plants in courtyard and around the building that are hot, dry, shady, or damp.
d. Check watering requirements of the sites plants so that it is located in the right place.
e. Cover soil to minimize wild plant growth, slow erosion and evaporation, and enhance it.
f. Irrigate greenery areas of landscaping on site in the morning and after the dew has dried to
reduce losses due to evaporation.
g. Make sure that watering-off peak to reduce load on municipal water and help utility
management and ensure adequate reservoir levels.
h. Apply shading to reduce water losses in summer and keep deep soil periodically moist.
i. Notice yard areas that suffer from poor drainage and standing water.
j. Distribution system with pressure reduction and Install metering.
k. Inspect irrigation system regularly for leakage, broken pipes, stuck, clogged or broken heads,
and needed adjustments (every week in traffic areas); once a month in non-traffic.

Fig.79 Different types of landscaping


Image source: www.archiverde.it/uk

To ensure water savings on new buildings site, a landscape plan shall be fully prepared to meet
the following requirements:
a. Design of water use shall not exceed 80 percent of the Reference Evaporationspiration (ETo)
for the total landscape area.
64 | P a g e
b. The irrigation system shall average 65 percent or greater in efficiency.
c. Proper scheduling of the irrigation and management practices must be addressed.
d. Ensure a soils test shall be carried out to propose the appropriate landscape plan.
e. The irrigation scheduling shall take into account the soil permeability including soils lab to
provide recommendations for compaction relief.
f. In heavy soils, overhead sprays shall not be used on slopes steeper than 25 percent. All areas
including slopes shall utilize multiple start times to pulse the irrigation and allowing for
maximum infiltration of the applied water. Accordingly, use drip or subsurface irrigation on all
non-paved areas shall have a minimum of 2 percent slope and shall not allow standing water in
any landscape area.
g. A separate irrigation meter and backflow device shall be installed in all projects.
h. Controllers shall be reprogrammed seasonally and all projects other than residential shall
include an automatic rain shutoff device or be linked to a local weather station.
i. All valves shall be operated under proper operating pressure. Pressure reduction shall be
provided as necessary for drip and underground systems (a valve specified for drip use shall be
used for such systems).
j. Check valves to be incorporated at all points where elevation differences cause low head
drainage. Flush valves shall be installed at the end of all drip lines.
k. Spray heads shall be fitted at maximum head to head spacing and shall use flat spray patterns in
most situations.
l. Overhead spray shall be scheduled to run between 9.00pm and 9.00am.
m. Ensure a maintenance procedure manual with irrigation schedules are provided by the
Landscape Architect for each site of the projects commissioned by the MoPW including:
 Mowing (trim) heights for the turf areas,
 Aeration and de-thatching,
 Irrigation system maintenance including daytime visual inspection, cleaning of filters, flushing
of lines, adjusting and/or repairing heads and calibration of rain gauges,
 Replacement of mulch,
 Type of fertilization and pest control,
 Pruning regularly as needed, and
 Scheduling of irrigation.
Post-installation procedures:
A landscape irrigation audit will be required and it should clearly state the landscape plans. The
following tips are essential:
a. Ensure lawn (grass) areas shall not exceed 25% of the total landscape area in commercial or
residential projects except in recreational needs or practical turf areas to save water.
b. Check that the bulk area of the landscape is encompassed with low water use plants.
c. Avoid using overhead spray in narrow, irregular or odd shaped areas where uniformity of
application cannot be achieved.
d. Make sure that overhead spray shall not be used in areas less than 8' wide unless it is shown
that a uniform application of water can be achieved without overspray into adjacent areas under
site wind conditions.
e. Guarantee irrigation is designed for summer winds averaging 4.5 - 5.0 m/s.
f. Ensure that the majority of the plants are adapted to local climatic conditions, after an
establishment period, and placed on a reduced or non-irrigation schedule.
g. Confirm any plant to be used has similar water needs and is grouped together in hydrozones.
h. Make sure the total water use of all hydrozones does not exceed the annual water budget.
i. Utilize Multiple start times (pulsing) to reduce runoff and allow infiltration.
j. Apply Drip irrigation with disc filters for non-potable water or self cleaning screen filters for
projects over one acre in size. The drip or underground system shall provide for uniform wetting
of a minimum of 75 percent of the root zone and supply water to opposite sides of the plant. All
emitters on any particular circuit shall have the same flow rate with larger trees and shrubs
provided with more emitters. All emitters used on slopes shall be pressure compensating
devices.
k. Water features may be used if they use re-circulating water and are included in the estimated
total water use.
l. Cover soil with Mulch of 7.5cm (3 inches) thick in all planting areas except low groundcovers and
turf. In the low groundcover areas, the mulch shall be applied around but
not touching the crown of the plant stem (trunk).
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m. Install the non-potable water irrigation systems where non-potable water will be available in
the foreseeable future.
n. Design and operate the recycled water irrigation system in accordance with all local municipal
codes and the concerned Emirate regulations.

Technical Data:
Landscape areas
It must include, in the plan, the following requirements to ensure water savings:
 Hydro zones,
 Plant materials, details and specifications,
 Container size and quantities, spacing, and other landscape materials including paved areas
including ponds and water features,
 Total landscape area, total irrigated area, and total turf area, and
 Designation of recreational turf (Grass/lawn) areas and specifying needed amount of additional
water above the Maximum Applied Water Allowance.
Irrigation systems
The system shall ensure the inclusion of the following items to opt for water savings:
 Minimize or avoid runoff, low head drainage, overspray or similar conditions,
 Use repeat cycles (pulsing) so that precipitation rate does not exceed infiltration rates
 Have hydro-zones valved separately,
 Show precipitation rate of each head or emitter used,
 Overhead spray in areas < 8' wide and on slopes steeper than 4-1 should not be used,
 Separate irrigation meter and backflow,
 Install automatic control valves wired to automatic controller,
 Proper operating pressure for valves,
 Master valve for systems larger than 12 stations,
 Low angle nozzles for gear driven/impact rotors,
 Minimum head to head coverage,
 Pop-up fixed spray head to be flat spray except on slopes where low angle nozzles might, be
necessary to avoid undercutting the slope,
 Disc filter for non-potable systems or self-cleaning filters for drip systems shall be > 1 acre,
 Matched emitter rates on each circuit,
 Irrigation details and specifications,
 Monthly irrigation schedule chart, and
 Automatic rain shut off device.
Landscape efficiency
Ensure the Landscape Coefficient (KL) is calculated using the following equation:
Landscape Coefficient (KL) = Water Use x Density factor x Microclimate (1)
Where
- Water Use: is a number represented as 0.9 (highest), 0.5 (average) and 0.2 (lowest),
- Density Factor (DF): is an indication of how closely the plant material is spaced in relationship to
the materials mature root/branch spread. DF is as high as 1.3, average as 1.0 and low as 0.5,
and
- Microclimate: is represented whether it is hot or windy. It is ranging from a min of 1.2 to a max
of 1.4 with the average cool and shade factor of 1.0 and 0.5 respectively.

The Five vegetation types in relation to Water Use, Density Factor and Microclimate are listed in Table 9.

Table 9: Landscape Coefficient (KL) in relation to the vegetation types


Water Use Density Factor Microclimate
Vegetation High Avg. Low High Avg. Low Hot/ Windy Avg. Cool/ Shade
Trees 0.9 0.5 0.2 1.3 1.0 0.5 1.4 1.0 0.5
Shrubs 0.7 0.5 0.2 1.1 1.0 0.5 1.3 1.0 0.5
Groundcover 0.7 0.5 0.2 1.1 1.0 0.5 1.2 1.0 0.5
Mix Group 0.9 0.5 0.2 1.3 1.1 0.6 1.4 1.0 0.5
Turf grass 0.8 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.6 1.2 1.0 0.8
Source: www.ci.fairfield.ca.us

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Criterion: Water Collection Condensation and Rain
Group: Water Use and Efficiency
Criterion No.: 3

Statement: All new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Water efficiency and install
pipes and gutters on buildings roofs to capture rain water and store it in special tanks for future
use. Also, water films created as a result of condensation in hot humid summer months especially,
on the outer pane of the external leaf of large areas of glazing on buildings facades shall be
collected and stored in separate tanks; used after treatment when needed for irrigation.

Intent: Reducing potable water use in buildings and its site, and conserving water. Consequently,
decreasing energy consumption needed for the desalination process hence, lowering Carbon
emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential and industrial.

Specifications:
Condensation Water
a. Collect condensation water from the external leaf of the outer pane of glazed surface on
buildings facades in summer (Fig.80)
b. Incorporate gutters (slightly slopped) on the facades to collect condensed water
c. Install a ground water tank to stockpile the gathered water on the buildings site.
d. Use this water, after treatments for landscape irrigation.
Rain Water
a. Collect rain water from the buildings roof using gutters and vertical pipes.
b. Install a ground water tank (sensible size) to stockpile rain water on the buildings site for
landscape purpose (Fig.81 and Fig.82.b).
c. Determine the sizes of water tanks according to the average precipitation rates in each location
(Emirate) and the roof size (roof area plus height until the gutter).
d. Connect vertical pipes with horizontally-sloped pipes to reach the water tanks inlet.
e. Filter rain water before entering the water tank (Fig.81 and Fig.82.a).
f. Ensure access for and excavation depth for the water tank.
g. Guarantee that pipes used for supplying rain is separate from that of potable water.
h. If rain water is collected from parking lots a special filter and treatments are needed.
i. Segregation of oil through filters is needed before water enters into the water thank.
j. Separation of oudour is required in water tanks.

Fig.80 Condensation collection using gutters Fig.81 Rain water storage tanks for industrial and commercial buildings
Image: www.metaefficient.com www.spec-net.com.au www.ainsmag.co.uk

a) Rain water collection b, c, d) Different sizes of galvanized steel water tanks to store rain water
Fig.82 Water tanks used for providing irrigation water from the rain water collection
Image source: www.buildingdesign.co.uk Image source: www.flickr.com

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Technical Data:
Aboveground (External) Water Tank

The rain water collection system (aboveground level) shall include the following elements:
 Tank (storage capacity of 600 gallons or above)  Inlet pipe connector
 Inlet strainer with cover  Float valve assembly
 Outlet with threaded inserts and plugs  External pressure pump
 Over flow elbow kit  Pump cover
 Leaf catcher kit  Flex hose kit with ball valve
 Water diverter kit  Rate of gallons/min required from the pump

Rain water tanks in a School


Fig.83 Types of external water tanks used for providing water for irrigation from rain water collection (outside building)
Image source: www.metaefficient.com www.bluescopesteel.com.au www.rainharvest.com

Underground Water Tank


The rain water collection system (underground level) shall include the following elements:
 Tank (storage capacity of 600 gallons or above)  Pressure hose
 Oil and odour separations  Automatic switch
 underground filter  Over flow trap
 Inflow smoothing filter
 Installation controls
 Water inlet
 Floating filter  Solenoid valve
 Suction hose  Mains backup with air gap
 Multigo pressure pump  Anti surcharge
 Rate of gallons/min required from the pump

Fig.84 Underground water tank for rain water collection


Image source: www.starkenvironmental.com

Note: Sizes of water tanks shall be designed according to each Emirates precipitation records (a10-year period)

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Criterion: Recycled Water (Grey Water)
Group: Water Use and Efficiency
Criterion No.: 4

Statement: New buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Water Use and utilize Recycled
Water (Treated Grey Water) only that used up in showers, baths and faucets, and specifically
reused for flushing toilets, landscape irrigation, and air-conditioning cooling towers.

Intent: Reducing potable water use in buildings by at least 20 percent and water resources plus decreasing
the potable water used in air-conditioning systems by up to 70 percent. In addition, conserving
water use and consequently, reducing energy consumption needed in the desalination process
hence, lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential and industrial.

Specifications:
a. Avoid the discharge of water used up by showers, bathtubs and lavatories in buildings into the
drainage system but collect this Grey Water and reuse it for flushing toilets. This process shall
be in line with that of the International Plumbing Code (IPC).
b. Carry out the collected Grey Water from the building service areas to a separate drainage
system from that of the black water (solid drainage).
c. Transport the Grey Water to a Grey Water Treatment Plant for recycling. This could be on the
building site level or the neighbourhood and district level (Fig.85).
d. Install sensible water tank (at least 50 gallons) to store this grey water.
e. Make sure that Grey Water doesnt include visible tints and it should be hygienically sound and
odour free. It may be necessary to correct pH and hardness but it is unlikely.
f. Guarantee that water is disinfected before supplying it into pipes (Fig.85.a).
g. Analyze the water that includes solids both settleable and suspended, a moderate level of BOD
and FOG (fats, oils and greases) both in a free form and emulsified from kitchen* and
shower/bath water (Fig.85).
h. Recycle the treated grey water and it must have very low levels of Biological Organic Deposition
(BOD), FOG and suspended solids (Fig.86.b).
i. Ensure that stored Grey Water, in the storage tanks, should not exceed 72 hours and its dyed
either blue or green with a vegetable dye. Grey Water can be used as sub-surface landscape
irrigation but a proper procedure for treatment is required.
*Kitchen waste water adds significantly to the organic load hence demands additional treatment equipment.

a.FLO EC Electro coagulation treatment b. Sodium Hypochlorite Dosing for Residual Disinfection c. Pre-Treatment Screening
Fig.85 Process of Grey water recycling and treatment for buildings water use
Images source: www.eflo.com

a. 250 Litres per hour EFLO EC b) Grey Water in the 3-phase treatment
i.Raw ii.After EFLO EC iii.Clean Water
Fig.86 EFLO EC system and samples of grey water before and after treatment
Images source: www.eflo.com

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Technical Data:
To provide environmentally sound Grey Water Recycling system in Commercially used buildings
(hotels and offices) and industrial buildings the following treatment must be followed:
Commercial buildings
 Pre-treatment,
 Aerobic treatment,
 Membrane filtration, and
 Clear water storage.
Domestic buildings
 Use ultra-filtration membrane ISB technology.

General
Clarification Tank:
 Ensure the removal of sinking and floating sludge.

Media Filtration:
 Guarantee the removal of suspended flocked particles.

Disinfection:
 Provide Sodium hypochlorite dosing to disinfect and provide residual disinfection in the
delivery side of recycled grey water back to the residents.

For the distribution, piping materials should meet one of the standards listed in IPC 2006 Table
605.4.

The Grey Water entering the water tank shall pass first through an approved filter such as a
media, sand, or diatomaceous earth.

Guarantee that the Grey Water collection tank is fitted with a vent sized in accordance with IPC
2006, Chapter 9, and based on the diameter of the reservoir influent pipe.

The overflow pipe to Grey Water tank should have an equal or larger diameter as the Gray
Water influent pipe collection.

The overflow pipe and drain shall have direct connection to the sanitary drainage system.

Table 10: Limits of removal of containments in grey water


Containment % Removal not less than
1. Suspended Solids 90
2. Oil & Grease 95
3. Total Organic Carbon 97
4. BOD 70
5. Metal Ions in Concentrations < 100mg/l 97
6. Bacteria (Fecal Coli forms) 98 - 99+
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7. Textile Dye 98
8. Pesticides 96
Source: www.ipc.org

Group V: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

Mandatory:
1. Operable Windows
2. Ventilation Systems and Ceiling Fans
3. Indoor Air Quality
4. Low-emitting (VOCs) Materials
5. Clean Materials and Chemical Pollutions
6. Smoking and Non-smoking Zones
7. Noise and Acoustics Controls

Optional:
8. Water Tanks (shading and insulations)

To ensure sustainability of buildings in terms of the environmental quality and health, many issues ought to be
considered and judged. For example, the quality of air, acoustics satisfaction and acceptable noise levels inside
the spaces of new buildings and its readiness to be healthy and comfortable, it is important that many factors
should be taken into account to usher such quality:

a. Size and area of indoor spaces,


b. Number of users,
c. Hours of use,
d. Time of the year,
e. IAQ limits,
f. Exposure time,
g. Low and high frequency sound,
h. Vibration levels and dB allowable levels,
i. Type and quality of AC equipment,
j. Limits of materials emittance, and
k. Total quality of indoor air, light, thermal and acoustical environments.

In hot dry and hot humid climates IEQ is a vital criterion to make indoor spaces liveable and comfortable. Lighting
pollution, air pollution and the level of CO2 and CO concentration, ventilation rates, and VOCs, as well as noise
and vibration levels in buildings are also important elements to assess the indoor environment quality (IEQ). It is
estimated that productivity could be increased by 15 percent due to the improvement of such environments,
thus, well-being.

Reducing the level of pollution and material emittance rates (low VOCs) besides the appropriate material
selection and AC equipment shall contribute to such improvement of IEQ. Hence, the choice of efficient cooling
equipment and type of AC systems that produce less noise and vibration rates, proper design and fittings of
internal spaces to reduce noise level, will mainly depend on many factors including: the type of the building, local
climate condition and its microclimate zone, the building size and occupants activities as well as hours of
buildings use. When considering the selection of the above factors, five key indicators must be taken into
account:

Lighting quality,

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Air Pollution level,

Overall air quality,

NCR, and

Productivity rate per hour,

The next part will highlight the Green Building Guidelines for Group 5, Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), which
is part of the short listed elements. These include 8 elements: 7 are Mandatory; and 1 optional.

Criterion: Operable Windows


Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 1

Statement: All glazing areas of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Indoor Air Quality
and shall provide an operable window for each space, at least one per each occupied room and
more than one for zones occupied by group users.

Intent: Improving indoor air quality and occupants satisfaction with work spaces and providing sufficient
natural ventilation rates during comfortable months. Also, lessening indoor pollution and heat gain
through the building fabric to improve thermal comfort and minimizing the cooling load
consequently, conserving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, religious, and
residential and industrial.
Specifications:
a. Make sure that buildings spaces have operable windows in each occupied room and more than
one for zones occupied by larger group users.
b. Increase the number of operable windows in large spaces to minimise the development of
symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) due to poor indoor air.
c. Use operable windows to encourage cross-ventilation when outside air temperature is almost 5
deg C above the set indoor temperature of 20 deg C, i.e., 25 deg C, to eliminate health problems
resulting from poor indoor air quality.
d. Ensure adequate fresh air is provided into the indoor to eliminate the experience of symptoms
such as eye, nose and throat irritations, coughing, headache, skin allergy/rash.
e. Avoid making buildings fully airtight especially, schools and children care centres and with no
operable windows as such buildings will eventually become unhealthy and identified ill-buildings.
f. Ensure operable windows are preferably opened outwards but in certain cases inward.
g. Make sure that the area of operable windows is meeting ASHRAE Standards, 62.1-2004
Paragraph. 5.1. NV.
h. Guarantee that naturally ventilated buildings shall comply with ASHRAE 62.1-2004, paragraph
5.1.

Technical Data:
Maximum opening angle of 30 to ensure safety especially, in high rise buildings.
Size of operable window is at least 1.00 Sq.m.
Opening could be done in comfort months (November to March)

Fig.87 Different building facades with Operable windows


Photos: Author

62 | P a g e
Fig.88 Different opening directions of the Operable windows
Image source: invisiblethreads.com
invisiblethreads.com/ www.bedwellhomes.com/www.cbe.berkeley.edu
www.cbe.berkeley.edu
Refer to Appendix X.

Criterion: Ventilation Systems and Ceiling Fans


Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 2

Statement: All spaces of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Indoor Air Quality and
shall provide effective
ffective delivery and mixing of fresh air to provide safety and comfort for, and well-
being of buildings occupants
occupants. In most new buildings, allll ventilation systems shall be effective and
preferably include lower floor cooled air inlet instead of ceilings iinlets, and incorporate
incorporat ceiling fans
wherever
ver appropriate.

Intent: Improving indoor air quality and occupants satisfaction and providing sufficient natural ventilation
rates during comfortable months
months. In addition, decreasing indoor air pollutions and improving
thermal comfort inside buildings. The floor ventilation systems will help in increasing effectiveness
of air flow and its mixing and distribution. Consequently, reducing cooling load and conserving
energy thus, lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, and religious, as well
as residential and industrial. In addition, the spaces of large areas such as ballrooms and open office
spaces with low partitions.

Specifications:
Ventilation Systems:
a. Make sure that HVAC systems and building envelop shall optimize air change effectiveness.
b. Optimize Air change effectiveness using a variety of ventilation strategies including displacement
ventilation, low-velocity
velocity ventilation, and plug
plug-flow ventilation such as under-floor
under or near floor
delivery.
c. Check and test Air change effectiveness of the building after construction.
d. Follow the recommended design approaches in ASHRAE 2001 FFundamentals
undamentals Chapter 32, Space Air
Diffusion.
e. Ensure effective ventilation in at least 90 percent of each room or zone area in the direction of
airflow for at least 95 percent of hours of occupancy in naturally ventilated spaces.
f. Ensure that naturally
aturally ven
ventilated buildings comply with ASHRAE 62.1-2004,
2004, Para.
Para 5.1.
g. Apply under-floor
floor air delivery system as it increases ventilation effectiveness in compliance with
ASHRAE 129-19971997.
Ceiling fans:
a. Install ceiling fans in areas of large numbers of users to effect
effectively
ively distribute the air.
b. Increase the speed when relative humidity level increased in the indoor air.
c. Save up to 40 percent on electricity bill in the summer months and 10 percent in the winter ones.

Technical Data:
Ceiling fans with an indoor air speed below 0.3m/s.

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Fig.89 Different types of ventilation systems
Image source: www.applegate.co.uk/ www.ferret.com.au/ www.alliedhvac.com

Fig.90 Side and under-floor ventilation systems


Image source: www.construction
www.construction-innovation.info/ www.buildinggreen.com/ www.gsa.gov/ www.achatrading.com
Refer to Appendix X.

Criterion: Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)


Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 3

Statement: All occupied spaces of new buildings


uildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Indoor Air
Quality (IAQ) and comply with the acceptable threshold and be free from Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs). Occupied spaces not complying with the threshold prior to building occupancy
measures shall be adopted to ensure the IAQ conditions are complying with the allowable
allowabl limits to
remove hazardous and air pollutants substances.

Intent: Reducing
ing the impact of indoor finishing materials contaminations after construction and their VOC
on air quality. Improving the air quality inside buildings consequently, minimizing
m such impact on
occupants health and enhancing their productivity and well being.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, and religious, as well
as residential and industrial except warehouses that are not used as offices and storing goods for
human consumption and medical use.

Specifications:
a. Ensure the IAQ for comfort and health are meeting the minimum imum requirements of ASHRAE*
62.2.2004/ Section
tion 4-7, Ventilation for Acceptable IAQ or the latest edition.
b. Make sure ventilation per person (Air changechange/hour/person) is meeting the standard of 1-2 ACH.
c. Install power vent equipment that emits VOCs and Ozone.
d. Utilize effective moisture control to curb humidity and prevent mold problems.
e. Avoid using hard--to-sealseal building cavity such as dropped mold plenums for air movement unless
these areas are totally
otally well constructed and sealed, and has non non-toxic
toxic substances.
f. Eliminate using artificial
rtificial carpet
carpets (wall-to-wall carpet) in bedrooms to reduce air contamination.
g. Utilize moisture control to curb humidity and prevent mold problems.
h. Install power vent eq equipment
uipment to emit building up VOCs and ozone level inside building
i. Provide IAQ monitoring to sustain long term occupants health and comfort.
j. Install combustion appliances that are sealed by eco eco-friendly labels.
k. Ensure permanent minimum IQA performance moni monitoring for CO2, CO, O3, NOx, and VOCs.
l. Apply building control via the 3 areas of minimum airflow rates such as VAV Systems control,
mixed-mode
mode ventilation system, and dynamic reset of outdoor air intake flows.
m. Measure the supply airflow rate and CO2 concentrations ntrations in the return air ducts, mixed air plenum,
and outdoor air ducts on a continuous basis.
n. Reset the minimum outdoor airflow based on the changes in occupancy or changes in zone air
distribution effectiveness.
o. Measure the CO2 concentration in occupy occupying zones and small spaces.
p. Make sure the design minimum outdoor airflow rates are provided for a set period in advance of
occupancy to compensate for the lag between increased occupancy and increased CO2 levels.
q. Ensure naturally
aturally ventilated buildings comply with ASHRAE 62.2, paragraph 5.1 or latest edition:
edition
 Conduct a baseline IAQ testing prior to occupancy according to the USEPA**and UAE, if exists.
 Demonstrate that contaminant maximum concentrations are not exceeding the allowable
limits (refer
efer to technical data below).
 Ensure commercial
ommercial building
buildings (offices) that have shell and core comply with the threshold of
IAQ as stated in the below technical data.

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Technical Data:
If the results of the Indoor Air quality (IAQ) tests exceed the above threshold perform flush out
to lower the contaminant levels in the building and to comply with the IAQ threshold:
A. Ventilate building spaces before occupancy by supplying a total fresh air volume of 14,000cu. ft/
Sq.ft of floor area with RH 60 percent and air temperature at least 18 C - 20C,
A minimum two-week building flush-out with new Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV)
13 filtration media at 100 percent outside air; and
After the flush out, replace the filtration media with new MERV 13 filtration media, except the
filters solely processing outside air.
B. If occupancy is required prior completion, flush it out with a min. air volume of 3,500cu.ft./Sq.ft,
C. Once the space is occupied ventilate the space at a minimum rate of 0.30cfm/Sq.ft.

Table 11: Types of indoor contaminate and the levels of allowable air quality to offset it
No. Indoor Contaminants Allowable Air Concentration Levels (EPA)
1. Carbon monoxide (CO) < 9 ppm
2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) < 800 ppm
3. Airborne mold and mildew Simultaneous indoor and outdoor readings
4. Formaldehyde < 20 g/m3 *
5. Total VOC < 200 g/m3 *
6. 4 phenyl cyclohexene (4-PC) < 3 g/m3
7. Total particulates (PM) < 20 g/m3
8. Regulated pollutants < NAAQS
9. Other pollutants < 5% of TLV-TWA
VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds
*Above outside air concentrations.
4-PC is an odorous contaminant constituent in carpets with styrene-butadiene-latex rubber (SBR).
TLV-TWA: Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average.
P.S. The above levels do not account for contributions from office furniture, occupants, and occupant activity.
Source: Facilities Operation Manual for EPA campus in Research Triangle Park, NC.

Table 12: AQI categories that correspond to different levels of health concern (the 6 levels)

Air Quality Index Values Levels of Health concerns Colours


When the AQI is in this range Air quality conditions are as indicated by colours
0 to 50 Good Light

51 to 100 Moderate Light orange

101 to 150 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Orange

151 to 200 Unhealthy Red

201 to 300 Very Unhealthy Dark Red

301 to 500 Hazardous Maroon


Source: US Environmental Protection Agency -USEPA (www.usepa.org)

Each category corresponds to a different level of health concern. The six levels of health concern and
what they mean are:
a) Good: The AQI value for any community is between 0 and 50. Air quality is considered
satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk.
b) Moderate: The AQI for any community is between 51 and 100. Air quality is acceptable; however,
for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people.
For example, people who are unusually sensitive to ozone may experience respiratory symptoms.
c) Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups: When AQI values are between 101 and 150, members of
sensitive groups may experience health effects. This means they are likely to be affected at lower
levels than the general public. For example, people with lung disease are at greater risk from

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exposure to ozone, while people with either lung disease or heart disease are at greater risk from
exposure to particle pollution.
d) Unhealthy: everyone may begin to experience health effects when AQI values are between 151
and 200. Members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects.
e) Very Unhealthy: AQI values between 201 and 300 trigger a health alert, meaning everyone may
experience more serious health effects.
f) Hazardous: AQI values over 300 trigger health warnings of emergency conditions.

* ASHRAE American Society of Heating Refrigerant, Air-conditioning Engineers.


** USEPA US Environmental Protection Agency.

Refer to Appendix XI.

Criterion: Low-emitting (VOCs) Materials


Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 4

Statement: All finishing materials used in the interior inside new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in
accordance to Low-emitting materials with less Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). External and
internal materials should meet the allowable limits.

Intent: Lowering emitting gases from finishing materials and contaminations thus, lessening indoor
pollutions. Also, improving the indoor air quality and lowering the need for extra ventilation rates to
offset such impact. Consequently, reducing energy consumption and minimizing the impact of VOCs
on occupants health thus, enhancing their productivity and well-being.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, and religious as well
as residential and industrial.
Specifications:
Exterior cladding and finishes
a. Ensure that Low Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as adhesives, sealants, paints, tiles,
glazing are applied all finishes of the exterior.
Interior finishes
b. Apply Low VOCs such as adhesives, sealants, paints, composite wall, carpet systems, ceramics, dry
wall partitions that comply with the limits (g/L) listed in Table 13.
c. Make sure that all architectural paints, coatings and primers applied to the interiors do not exceed
the VOCs contents limits (Table 13).
d. Make sure that anti-corrosive and anti-rusting paints applied to the interior ferrous metal do not
exceed VOC contents limits listed in Table 13.
e. Ensure that clear wood finishes and floors coatings do not exceed the allowable limits (Table 13).
f. Guarantee all applied stains and shellacs do not exceed VOC critical Limits portrayed in Table 13.
g. Utilize aerosol adhesives that has eco friendly seal standard.
Removable Low-emitting materials
g. Ensure installed carpets meet testing and product requirements of eco-friendly/municipal limits.
h. Make sure carpet cushion installed meet testing and product requirements of GLPPl.
i. Guarantee all adhesive used to glue floor carpets meet the requirements of environmental quality
VOC contents limits of 50 g/L.
j. Ensure composite wood and agrifibers* have non-added urea-formaldehyde resins
k. Avoid products containing formaldehyde, e.g., carpet, wall panels, and cabinetry.
l. Use added urea-formaldehyde resins for laminated adhesives used in fabricated on-site composite
wood assemblies.
Technical Data:
Materials are limited to office buildings
Materials applied to interiors should ensure that VOCs are meeting the allowable below limits.
Table 13: Interior materials and its allowable VOCs contents limits
No. Materials applied to interiors Allowable VOCs contents limits
Gram per Litre (g/L)
1. Architectural paints, coatings and primers Flats 50
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Non-flat 150
2. Anti-corrosive & anti-rusting paints applied to ferrous metal 250
3. Clear wood finishes Varnish 350
Lacquer 550
4. Floor coatings 100
5. Sealers Waterproofing sealers 250
Sanding sealers 275
All other sealers 200
6. Shellacs Clear 730
Pigmented 550
7. Stains 250
Source: US Environmental Protection Agency -USEPA (www.usepa.org)
*Agrifibers is a fabric that made of natural Agri-fabrics such cotton and wool used in building panels.
Refer to Appendix XI

Criterion: Clean Materials and Chemical Pollutions


Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 5

Statement: All spaces of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Indoor Air Quality and
shall provide effective delivery of clean and recycled materials to reduce hazardous and pollution
effect and ensure safety and well-being of building occupants. All new buildings should ensure
indoor air quality prior occupancy to grantee healthy spaces.

Intent: Improving Indoor air quality and occupant satisfaction in buildings spaces, and providing sufficient
natural ventilation during comfortable months to lessen indoor pollutions resulting from buildings
fabrics, consequently, improving health, conserving energy and lowering carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, and religious as well
as residential and industrial.

Specifications:
a. Integrate products fabricated from (plants) that are harvested within 10 years cycles or shorter.
b. Use materials of lesser environmental impact such as:
Supplement Cementing Materials (SCM), and
Apply Fly ashes and Silica fume as recycled materials.
c. Use recycled carpet whenever possible.
d. Try to use drywalls with at least 75 percent recycled content, including 10 percent or greater
postconsumer content.
e. Install use drywalls produced from synthetic gypsum or fly ashes instead of natural gypsum.
f. Install 100 percent recycled glass tiles instead of ceramics tiles.
g. Select bamboo as hard flooring finishes due to its attractiveness and sustainable alternative to
conventionally harvested hardwood flooring.
h. Utilize recycled paints for ceiling and walls and others finishes surfaces or use latex paint over oil
based as it releases fewer toxins, and contain less petrochemicals and is easy to be disposed of.
i. Avoid using Vinyl flooring due to its content of petroleum-derived plastic.
j. Choose linoleum floors to eliminate indoor pollution due to its characterisation as renewable
materials made of all-natural resources.
k. Use absorbent materials in patios, paths, walkways, and consider laying gravel, wood ships,
nutshells or salvaged materials.
l. Use water or vegetable based adhesive in all materials used in interiors.
m. Apply recycled material for roofs and elastomeric roof coatings.
n. Minimize and control pollution entry into the building.
o. Choose materials and products that ensure high levels of renewability, reusability and
Select green materials that are assessed in terms of its environmental impact over its life cycle.
p. Ensure all materials used in buildings are at low levels of embodied energy, i.e., energy required
to extract, process, and transport; and negative effects on outdoor and indoor environments.
Technical Data:
Fixed entryway systems should be at least 6.00ft long in prime direction to capture dirt/
particulates,
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Exhaust each space with (-) pressure and closed doors if hazardous gases/chemicals occur, and
In mechanically ventilated buildings provide regularly occupied areas with air filtration media
with a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 13 or better for both return and outside air.

a. Glass tiles b. Mature coconut flooring c. Recycled aluminium tiles d. managed wood source
Fig.91 Clean and renewable flooring materials to reduce waste and indoor chemical pollutions
Image source: www.ecofriendlyflooring.com

Criterion: Smoking and Non-smoking Zones


Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 6

Statement: All spaces in new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to non-smoking
regulations and IAQ. Smoking shall be not allowed inside buildings. All smoking areas shall be
separately designated with the appropriate level of ventilation.

Intent: Improving indoor air quality and occupant satisfaction with work space and providing sufficient
natural ventilation rate during comfortable months, lessening indoor pollution and heat gain
through the building fabric to improve thermal comfort and minimizing the cooling load
consequently, conserving energy and lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational, religious, and residential and
industrial.
Specifications:
a. Prohibit smoking inside buildings.
b. Guarantee that all spaces in the buildings are free from smoking.
c. Design entrances to assist in preventing smoke and dirt from entering the building.
d. Create a buffer zone before the entrance to limit the flow of smoke inwards resulting from
smokers entering the building.
e. Ensure that designated smoking zones are not located near the entrance or near a fresh air
intake (Fig.92).
f. Locate designated room to effectively contain, capture and remove Environmental Tobacco
Smoke (ETS) from the building.
g. Minimize uncontrolled pathways for ETS transfer between buildings by sealing penetration in
walls.
h. Ensure doors leading to common hallways are weather-stripped to minimize air leakage.
i. Develop a non-smoking policy for the building throughout the year based on its type and users.
j. Install Tobacco smoke detectors in buildings spaces to eliminate smoking in all non-smoking
environments and reduce hazard.
k. Install non-smoking sign to guide the building users.
l. Use ozone directly into ducts of ventilation systems to reduce the impact of smoke in smoking
areas, if exist and to purify air supplied indoor (Fig.93.b).
m. Install air zones and air filters to remove the solids from contaminated indoor air.
Technical Data:
Exterior designated smoking area should be located 30 ft or more from entrance.
Exterior designated smoking areas should be located 30 ft from entries, air intakes and operable
windows.
3
Typical levels in public buildings where smoking is allowed should not exceed 120g/m .
Exposure to CO concentrations from smoking should be according to WHO approved limits.

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Fig.92 Zones of the building that smoking areas should not be allowed: entrances, corridors, courtyards, and operable
windows
Image sources: google.com/casestudies.cascadiagbc.org Photos 4-7: Author

a. Large spaces b. Air duct c. Rooms d. Sport halls


Fig.93 Different devices to control smoking and remove odours from small, large and sport buildings spaces
Image sources: www.air-zone.com

Criterion: Noise and Acoustics Controls


Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 7

Statement: All spaces of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to noise and acoustics
controls. Air-conditioning equipment shall be selected to ensure low noise level for the outdoor and
indoor sources. Indoor spaces shall be fitted with sound barriers and surfaces that contribute to less
noise and better acoustical quality. Equipment shall be chosen with low vibration rates.
Intent: Improving acoustical quality inside building and reduce noise level from outdoor cooling equipment
such as cooling towers. Improve the indoor environment quality to ensure indoor sound quality and
occupant satisfaction within the work place space and providing acceptable noise level.
Consequently, improve productivity and health condition.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational, religious, and residential and
industrial. All types of spaces in buildings with large spaces such ballrooms, exhibition halls and
office space with low partitions.

Specifications: Acoustics:
Indoor Sound Sources: Fan and mechanical equipment noise and vibration
a. Oppress noise always at the source.
b. Control the path of airborne and structural born noise.
c. Ensure that boilers and chillers in buildings have very low vibration and local building
environments are free from noise and vibrations associated with such equipment.
d. Ensure that noise level inside building spaces are kept below 50 dB.
e. Make sure that distraction is not increased in buildings by eliminating the presence
of too much high-frequency sound relative to low-frequency sound.
f. Allow for high-frequency sound in spaces as it helps well in masking speeches.
g. Make sure there is a balance between low-frequency and high-frequency to
guarantee satisfaction.
h. Ensure that sound travel through and noise creates from equipment: fans, pumps, chillers,
compressors, vacuum pumps; and duct system airflow; and pipes system noise flow are kept at
the minimum level.
i. Apply sound barrier (landscaping) and street absorbers.
j. Eliminate noise and vibration sound generated from cooling equipment
k. Use sound insulation (noise barrier) inside building and between spaces
l. Efficient Insulation for rooms with high noise levels.
m. Apply wall liners in sport facilities to reduce the reflection of sound through surfaces (Fig.94).
n. Specify acoustical ceilings with noise reduction coefficient (NRC) of 0.75 in open office spaces.
o. Choose systems furniture with sound absorbing surfaces on both sides.
p. Avoid placing lighting fixtures directly over partitions as sound reflects to adjacent cubicle.
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q. Locate copy machines in separate rooms away from offices and provide separate ventilation to
minimize ozone in the workspace.
r. Ensure that Sound masking is utilized to reduce the interference from distracting office sounds
and render speech from co-workers virtually unintelligible by introducing unobtrusive
background sounds into the office environment.
s. Ensure that doors are not located adjacent to each other or have doors directly across from each
other to reduce noise from adjoining classrooms, conference rooms and private offices.

Fig.94 Acoustical control of air conditioning equipment and ventilation systems


Image source: www.acoustical.co.uk/ www.applegate.co.uk

Fig.95 Ceiling acoustical control panels and building roofs


Image source: www.itopwww.epfl.ch/ www.power-master.co.uk/ www.igra-world.com

Outdoor Sound Sources: Cooling towers, Direct expansion and Condensing units, Dry coolers, and
Exhaust fans.
a. HVAC systems should be specified to have an ambient sound level compatible with the
occupancy.
b. Avoid through-the-wall air return louvers that draw air from one room through another in
private offices, conference rooms, and other rooms where confidential discussions are expected
to occur. All air returns should be ducted.
c. Do not locate air supply or return registers close to each other on opposite sides of a partition
wall. Doing so will cause sound to pass directly from one room to another, negating the
acoustical value of the partition.
d. Specify quiet HVAC equipment. Though the price may be somewhat higher, the alternative of
using standard equipment may lead to costly and disruptive remediation.
e. Ensure fan noise (cooling towers) is controlled by using larger units with slower fan speeds.
f. Install more efficient and quit motors with variable speed controls.
g. Control water noise via interrupting the path of noise from the tower by using barriers and
silencers. Alternatively, reduce the height of which the water falls or travels and make it fall on
smooth surfaces.
h. Select low-noise fans and use duct silencers to effectively reduce the noise level.
i. Use larger slower moving fans in dry coolers to reduce noise level.
j. Ensure that compressors are enclosed in sound sealed compartment or wrapped in a sound
sealed barrier of composite materials to reduce the source of noises.
k. Install green roofs near noisy source can reduce sound reflection by up to 3 dB and improve
sound insulation by up to 8 dB.
Safety & Fire protection
a. Spray fire protection such as ENVIROSPRAY 300 on absorber for the acoustic treatment. It is
excellent reverberation control, high thermal ratings, condensation and vapour barriers and high
transmission loss walls.

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b. Refrain using fire suppression systems containing ozone-depleting substances: CFCs, HCFCs and
Halon
c. Ensure fire exits are not obstructed
d. Apply indoor materials with less toxic fumes

Technical Data:
Compressors should be kept at lower frequency bands of 31.5, 63 and 125 Hz.
Lower fan tip speeds to reduce noise level.
Use variable speed drives in fans instead of inlet guide vanes or volume dampers to reduce noise
by 10 dB.
The Use of VFD on cooling towers can reduce the noise level by 6 dB.
Locating a sound source near reflective surfaces result in adverse increase in the effective sound
level of the equipment.
Keep sound sources a minimum of 10ft from walls
Using thermal storage systems can lead to reduction in noise level due to shut down of cooling
towers and associated condensers pumps from peak time 9.00am - 5.00pm.
Follow recommended background noise reduction design criteria for typical occupancies in
Architectural Graphic Standards. For example, in office buildings:

 Small conference rooms NC 30-35


 Small private offices, libraries NC 30-35
 General offices NC 35-40
 Computer rooms NC 40-50
Specify low reverberation times (0.6-0.8 seconds) for office areas with exposed ceiling structure,
to minimize echoing and unwanted sound reinforcement.
Ensure a cork layer is installed underneath the carpet to absorb overhead sound resulting from
footfall noise.
Follow the ANSI S12.60-2002, Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and
Guidelines for Schools.
Ensure that noise level inside religious facilities, classrooms/lecture halls, office spaces and
conference rooms, theatres and public buildings such as in court rooms, libraries; broadcast
studios and Sports arenas are meeting the requirement of sound level.

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Criterion: Water Tanks (shading and insulations)
Group: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
Criterion No.: 8

Statement: All water tanks located on the buildings roof shall meet the standards drawn in accordance in to
IAQ, water safety and health. Water tanks shall be shaded and insulated to protect the inside water
temperature from increasing above 35C and avoiding the growth of legionary disease transmitted
through water vapour in bathroom and showers.

Intent: Preventing the development of water born legionalla in water tanks and lessening the spread of
legionary diseases inside bathrooms and hygiene areas. Also, improving indoor air quality and
occupant satisfaction with work space, and lessening indoor pollution hence, providing health
buildings. Consequently, lowering reported medical cases and enhance well-being.

Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), health, educational, religious, and
residential as well as industrial.

Specifications:
a. Make sure that water tanks installed above the buildings roof is properly insulated.
b. Install water tanks with high thermal capacity to protect water from excessive solar radiation and
heating in summer.
c. Ensure these water tanks are located in areas where it receives less sun to avoid the increase in
water temperature above 50C.
d. Provide shading to all sides of the water tanks installed on the buildings roof to minimise heating
of water.
e. Reduce the danger of Legionellosis that thrives at the lower heated water ranges of 37C.
f. Ensure that the water temperatures are revised to cater for ASHRAE prudent recommendations
for the hot-water supply temperature to be 40C 49C.
g. Protect against possible Legionellosis can be achieved by generating hot-water centrally (in a well-
insulated heater/storage tank) at 60C then mixing to lower temperature through mixing valve.
h. Prevent building up of legionellosis in the water by regular monitoring.
i. Ensure that water tanks used to supply water for air-conditioning systems are properly checked
and maintained.
j. Conduct tests and take samples of water in Ac systems to ensure that the water is safe and clean.
k. Conduct random measurements inside bathrooms and shower to ensure these areas are free
from legionella*.
l. Avoid the use of natural rubbers, wood, and some plastics as these materials support the
amplification of Legionella, while other materials, such as copper, inhibit their growth.

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* Legionella is water borne and can be aerosolized. They may survive as long as 139 days at room
temperature in distilled water and for more than a year in tap water.

Fig.96 Legionellosis that infects water in storage tanks and through shower heads by the bacterium Legionella Pneumophila
Images Sources: www.lenntech.com/ www.imclive.com/ www.plumbingengineer.com/ www.flow-clean.co.uk/ www.tomher.com.my

Technical Data:
Sources that amplifiers and disseminator legionella are
 Cooling Towers
 Evaporative Condensers
 Domestic Hot Water Systems
 Spas & Whirlpools

 Humidifiers
 Decorative Fountains
 Reservoir Misters in supermarkets
 Portable Cooling Units with stagnant water
 Faucets and showerheads

The water temperature should approaches 131 deg F so that it starts to kill the organism.
The bacteria should be prevented from growing in cooling tower water or in domestic hot water
systems, specifically those systems set at a tepid water temperature range. High temperatures,
greater than 131 F, can be used to control the bacteria.
Follow ASHRAE Guideline 12 - Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water
Systems including:
 Hot water should be stored at temperatures of 67 deg C (120 deg F), or above.
 Elevated holding tanks for hot and cold water should be inspected and cleaned annually.
 Copper silver ionization should be used for high-risk applications such as hospitals.
 In high-risk applications, showerheads and faucet aerators should be removed monthly to
clean out sediment and scale and to clean them in chlorine bleach.
 Emergency shower and eyewash stations should be flushed at least monthly.
 During the release of fire water during a fire emergency it is assumed that fire department
personnel will be wearing protective respiratory equipment and that non-fire fighting
personnel will exit the burning area.
 Appropriate precautions should be taken when testing the fire protection system.
 High temperature flushing or chlorination is recommended.

Avoid environmental conditions which promote the growth of Legionella are:


 Water temperatures between 20 to 50 deg C (68 to 122 deg F).
 Optimal growth occurs at temperatures between 35 to 46 deg C (95 to 115 deg F).
 Stagnant water.
 A pH range of 2.0 to 8.5.
 Sediment in water which supports the growth of supporting microbiota.
 Microbiota including algae, protozoa and others.
 The presence of L-cysteine-HCL and iron salts.

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Fig.97 Range of water temperatures that enable the legionella to grow or die
Image source: www.engr.psu.edu

Links: www.bbc.co.uk/dna/hub/A882371 and www.stl-inc.com

Group VI: Site Heat Island

Mandatory:
1. High Reflective Roofs (Cool Roofs)
2. Sites Materials Configuration
3. High Emissivity Materials for Pavements

Optional:
4. Roof Shapes (Schools)
5. Green Roofs

To ensure sustainability of the site Heat Island applied techniques on the site fabric and in and around buildings, many
issues ought to be considered and judged. For example, cool roof of the building should take into account the following
factors:

a. Coating material
b. Color and brightness of covering
c. Reflecting index
d. High emissivity of applied materials
e. Shape and slope direction of roof
f. Type of roof plantation

As the Heat Island Impact is a phenomenon that contributes to the rise in air temperature above urban areas, major
element mainly, the materials covering the roof shall be replaced by reflective to ensure surface temperature is kept
cooler, thus air temperature.

The choice of roof coating, greening the building roof and site pavements mean the energy consumption will be less due
to the selection of roof upper coating and colour of the materials covering ground will depend on many factors including
building type, local climate, utility rates, and building size. Also, less air pollution, reducing AC cooling loads; saving
energy, improving air and water quality, decreasing storm water runoff; and minimize noise.

In the selection of the above factors, four key indicators must be taken into account:

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Surface temperature reduction,
Urban air temperature reduction,
Saving targets, and
Carbon emissions.

The next part will highlight the Green Building Guidelines for Group 6, Site Heat Island, which is part of the short listed
elements. These include 5 elements: 3 are mandatory; and 2 optional.

Criterion: High Reflective Roofs (Cool Roofs)


Group: Site Heat Island
Guideline No.: 1

Statement: All roofs of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Heat Island Effect. All
covering and finishes materials shall have High Albedo Reflectance characteristics, i.e., bright and
white colour with Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of at least 0.80 preferably, 0.90 with high emittance
value from 0.85 - 0.90.

Intent: Controlling the overall heat gain through the building roof surface area, and in-turn, lowering
temperature of the air passing over these surfaces resulting in a decrease in the overall
temperature of the area, known as "Heat Island Effect." Also, reducing peak cooling demands and
consequently, saving energy and lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential as well as industrial (factories and warehouses).

Specifications: a. Cool roofs are typically white and have a smooth texture (minimum surface emissivity of 0.90).
b. Asphalt roofs with a cap sheet and modified bitumen roofs should be coated with a material
having an initial reflectance greater than 0.7 and an emittance 0.8.
c. Use high Albedo that constitutes at least 75 percent of the total roof area.
b. Use ENERGY STAR compliant of highly reflective and high emissivity roofing (emissivity at least
0.90 when tested in accordance with ASTM 408 for a minimum of 75 percent of roof surface.
c. Apply cool roof with concrete, specifically white cement tiles, with an SRI of 90 percent (0.90).
d. Use new concrete made with White Portland Cement (WPC) has an SRI of 86 percent (0.86).
e. Install white reflective roof membrane such as white acrylic paint to reduce solar heat gain.
f. Black non-metallic surface i.e., black acrylic paint that has an Emittance 0.9 shall not be used.
g. Black and dark colour asphalt shingles should not be used on roofs due its low SRI.
h. Eliminate opaque non-metallic materials on roofs that have an emittance 0.75 - 0.95.
i. Use roof materials that emit the majority of received heat and have an emissivity of 0.96.
j. In case the roof is fully or most of its areas covered with PV cells that provide shades the cool
roof coating may not be required.
k. Ensure that largest exposed roof areas of villas are coated with cool membrane and preferably
all, if possible.
l. Apply White Acrylic paint at SR 0.8, emittance 0.9 and SRI 100. Refer to tables and Appendix XII.

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Fig.97 Images of Heat Island Effect in dense urban areas
Image source: www.lbnl.org

Fig.98 Cool roof membrane applied to buildings roof for reducing surface temperatures & offsetting Heat Island Effect
Photos: Authors

Technical Data:
For roofing products that qualify as cool roofs, it fall in the following categories:
 Single-ply and liquid-applied includes: 1) White PVC (polyvinyl chloride), 2) White CPE
(chlorinated polyethylene), 3) White CPSE (chlorosulfonated polyethylene, e.g. Hypalon),
and 4) White TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin).
 Liquid-applied products may be used to coat asphalt cap sheets, modified bitumen, and
other substrates. Products include:
1) White elastomeric coatings; 2) White polyurethane coatings; 3) White acrylic coatings;
and 4) White paint (on metal or concrete).
 Combinations of high Albedo and vegetated roof can be used providing they collectively
cover 75% of the roof area.

Table 14: Solar Reflectance and Emittance of Different Roofing Materials


Coatings Material Total Solar Emittance
Reflectance
Reflective Coatings Elastomeric coating over asphalt shingle 0.71 0.91
Aged elastomeric on plywood 0.73 0.86
Elastomeric coating on shingle 0.65 0.89
Aluminium pigmented roof coating 0.30 - 0.55 0.42 - 0.67
Lo-mit on asphalt shingle 0.54 0.42

White Metal Roofing Siliconized white 0.59 0.85

Single-Ply Membrane Black EPDM 0.86 0.86


Grey EPDM 0.23 0.87
White EPDM 0.69 0.87
White T-EPDM 0.81 0.92

Paint White 0.85 0.96


Aluminium paint 0.80 0.40

Asphalt Shingles Black 0.03 - 0.05 0.91


Dark brown 0.08 - 0.10 0.91
Medium brown 0.12 0.91
Light brown 0.19 - 0.20 0.91
Green 0.16 - 0.19 0.91
Grey 0.08 - 0.12 0.91
Light grey 0.18 - 0.22 0.91

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White 0.21 - 0.31 0.91

Note: Shaded products all have a reflectivity greater than 0.70 and an emittance greater than 0.80.

Source: Berdahl and Bretz 1995, Akbari 1990, Parker et al. 1993, LBNL Cool Roofing Materials Database

Refer to Table 1 and Appendix XII.

Criterion: Sites Material Configuration


Group: Site Heat Island
Criterion No.: 2

Statement: All site materials shall be selected and arranged to meet the standards drawn in accordance to
Heat Island Effect. All covering and finishes materials applied to the site of new buildings shall have
High Albedo Reflectance characteristics i.e., bright colour with Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) at least
0.80 preferably, 0.90 with high emittance value from 0.85- 0.90.
Intent: Controlling overall heat gain through pavements and hard landscape of the site of new buildings.
In-turn, lowering temperature of the air passing over these surfaces resulting in a decrease in the
overall temperature of the air and surfaces of these areas, known as "Heat Island Effect." Also,
reducing peak demands and consequently, saving energy and lowering Carbon emissions.
Building Types: All types of buildings: public services, leisure, educational, religious, residential and industrial.
Specifications:
a. Ensure that sites Urban Fabric (SUF) including roofs (light and dark), site pavements
configuration (parking, roads and sidewalks, and vegetations and water landscape, is organised
to lower their surface temperature.
b. Grantee that driveways, access lanes, parking areas, and streets are made of concrete pavers to
reduce the impact of surface temperature and air temperature on forming the Heat Island.
c. Warrant that site surrounding the building are typically made of light/bright colours and have
smooth and semi-smooth textures (minimum surface emissivity of 0.90).
d. Use materials that have high Albedo and constitute at least 75 percent of the total site area.
e. Eliminate standing water on the site pavement and for proper drainage, by applying a slope on
the driveway towards the street at a minimum of 1percent or 1/8 in. per foot.
f. Ensure concretes higher (brighter) reflectance is used for pavements of the site to lower
infrastructure and ongoing lighting costs, while boosting safety for vehicles and pedestrians.
Concrete parking areas require fewer lighting fixtures than other surfaces hence, less energy.
g. Guarantee Asphalt applied to parking areas on sit is made from bright concrete materials or
modified bitumen that is coated with a material of initial reflectance 0.7 and emittance 0.8.
h. Make sure black/dark colour asphalt materials are not used on sites pavements due low SRI.
i. Use concrete tiles on site, specifically white cement tiles, with an SRI of 90 percent (0.90).
j. Apply new concrete made with White Portland Cement and has an SRI of 86 percent (0.86).
k. Ensure pavement materials emit the majority of received heat and have an emissivity of 0.96.

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l. Specify concrete mixes for pavement
pavements using Fly Ash or Slag as a percent of the cement reduction
and exploiting recycled aggregates from crushed concrete to change the properties of the mix
design compared to a conventi
conventional mix.
Technical Data:
Apply light concrete including recycled aggregates with the following reference:
 Specify concrete with an emissivity of 0.90 when tested for ASTM 408 and an initial
reflectance of at least 0.25 when tested for ASTM E903.

Fig.99 Elements of the urban fabric


fabrics to assist in reducing the Heat Island Effect

Fig.100 Bright coloured surfaces to help in lowering the Heat Island Effect in urban areas
Images source: www.concretethinker.com

Criterion: Bright (Light) Colour Material for Pavements


Group: Site Heat Island
Criterion No.: 3

Statement: All pavements on the new buildings site including plazas, sidewalks, courtyards, alleys, and
shoulders, etc, within the plot as well as hard landscape areas shall be bright (light) colour with high
Albedo i.e., Solar Reflectance from 0.75 to 0.95.

Intent: Controlling the overall heat gain through the pavement and hard landscape of the site of new
buildings. In-turn, lowering temperature of the air passing over these surfaces resulting in a
decrease in the overall temperature of the air and surfaces of these areas,
area known as "Heat Island
Effect." Also, reducing
ing peak cooling demands and consequently, saving energy and lowering Carbon
emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned


conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation
recreati (leisure), health,
educational, religious, and residential as well as industrial (factories and warehouses).

Specifications:
a. Apply light-coloured/high
coloured/high-Albedo
Albedo materials (reflectance of at least 0.3) and/or open grid
pavement for at least 75 percent of the sites non-roofroof impervious surfaces including parking lots,
walkways, Plazas, etc.
b. Ensure half or more of parking spaces is underground or covered by structured parking;
c. Use an open-grid
grid pavement system (less than 50 percent impervious) for f a minimum of 50
percent of the parking lot area.
d. Apply bright concrete
oncrete masonry units
units, i.e., pavers, concrete pavers, paving stones, paving block,
and brick pavers to pave driveways, access lanes, parking areas, streets, plazas, walks, patios,
swimming pool decks, floors
floors-on-grade, and other flat surfaces.
e. Select bright/light
ight colo
coloured or porous concrete pavers to fully reflect the radiation of solar heat
helping in reducing
ing the urban Heat Island Effect.
f. Choose interlocking pavers and paving materials that can have a great effect on ambient air
temperature in urban areas compared to suburban or rural areas hence, reduce the impact on
Heat Island Effect..

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g. Use light coloured concrete paving to effectively lower the ambient air temperature thus,
decrease the energy required for cooling buildings.

Technical Data:
Apply light coloured material for pavements using the following reference:
 White colour Materials of SRI of 90.
 Paige colour materials of SRI of 80.
 Light yellow or gray materials of SRI of 75.
 Consider specifying 70 percent to 90percent of recycled coarse aggregate and 5 to 15 percent
for fine aggregate for cement pavement.
 The largest paver size shall be 6-1/2 inch wide, 9-1/2 inch long and 5-1/2 inch thick.
Nonetheless, it can be much smaller.
 The compressive strength of pavers shall be at least 8000 psi.

Fig.101 Light colour paving materials to reduce surrounding air temperature and offset Heat Island Effect
Image sources: www.concretethinker.com

Refer to Appendix XIII.

Criterion: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roofs


Group: Site Heat Island
Guideline No.: 4

Statement: All building roofs shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to lowering the impact of Heat
Island phenomenon on rising air temperature in urban areas and shall be at a slope angle of 45 or
above with the lowest point of the roof plane facing North; highest roof plane facing the south.

Intent: Lessening the direct heat gain caused by the direct (short) wave solar radiation through the roof
surfaces and reducing cooling load peak demands to eliminate the rise in air temperature, known
as Heat Island Effect; consequently, saving energy and lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure), educational,
religious, and residential as well as industrial (factories and warehouses).

Specifications:
a. Ensure that building roofs are inclined or cascaded enough in the right direction (North) to
reduce the direct solar radiation impinging on the buildings roof.
b. Grantee that the roof would receive the lowest solar radiation rate and heat compared to the
roof being horizontal.
c. In case chillers, cooling towers, AHUs and pipings, and other MEP services to be installed on the
buildings roof, guarantee the sloped roof should be on surface area that free from services, i.e.,
Total Roof Area Total Services Areas = Net sloped Areas.
d. In case building services are provided by district cooling plants make sure the building roof is
complying with sloped or cascaded regulations.
e. In case the building roof is totally shaded (e.g., by pergola or screening shading) apply no slope
for the roof.
f. If the roof is composed of multiple layers (roof slab is at different heights), make sure the
largest area of the roof should be sloped facing North-South, and the rest could be if possible.
Technical Data:

79 | P a g e
To ensure receiving less short-wave radiation, i.e., direst heat on the roof, the slope should be in
accordance to the following inclinations:
 The slope of the roof shall be above 45 and up to 60 or more for high-rise multi-storey
buildings such as public offices, hospitals, and residential.
 The slope shall be 25 and up to 45 for low-rise buildings such as exhibitions, universities
and schools, sport facilities, and villas.
 For deeper low-rise buildings, the slope shall be carried out and done in intervals every 5
meters to allow for daylighting and minimize the solar heat gain during peak solar time and
reduce the surface temperature hence, the rising in air temperature near the roof.

a) Water Purification Facility, USA b) Care Facility in LV in USA

c) Cascaded roof facing N-S d) Slope facing N/E-W e) Sloped facing N/E-W
Fig.102 Examples of buildings with sloped roofs in the USA and Dubai, UAE
Photo credit a: Paul Warchol and b: Tom Bonner (Source: www.aia.org) and Photo credit c, d, e: Authors

Refer to Appendix IVX.

Criterion: Green Roofs


Group: Site Heat Island
Guideline no.: 5

Statement: All roofs of new buildings shall meet the standards drawn in accordance to Heat Island Effect. Roof
covering shall include plantation (green) cover to reduce surface temperature, cooling loads, and
using recycled water from buildings for irrigation.

Intent: Controlling the overall heat gain through the building roof surface area; in-turn, lowering
temperature of the air passing over these surfaces resulting in a decrease in the overall
temperature of the roof area, known as a "Heat Island Effect." Green Roofs improve air quality by
absorbing air pollution, collecting airborne particulates, and storing carbon. Also, lower roofs
surface temperature, reduce storm water runoff and noise transmission, and reducing the peak
cooling demands for HVAC, consequently saving energy and lowering Carbon emissions.

Building Types: All types of air-conditioned spaces in buildings: public services, recreation (leisure) and health,
educational, religious, and residential except warehouses (industrial).

Specifications:
a. Use green plantation on the buildings top Roof to provide shade/shading and protect it from
direct heat gain and cool the atmosphere around these roofs by evapotranspiration process,
hence significantly reduce the urban heat island effect.
b. Apply green roofs to improve water quality in two ways: a) by capturing, breaking down and
detoxifying pollutants found in rainwater such as, nitrogen and phosphorus. This is achieved by
the root systems' bacteria and fungi, which utilize the natural filtering processes of
bioremediation and Phyto-remediation; and b) by acting as a sponge that captures storm water
and slowly releases it over time. This reduces storm water flow that holds organic materials,
chemical pollutants.
c. Ensure roofing membrane is used as a critical waterproofing layer under a green roof.
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d. Apply a unique, root-resistant compound to prevent plant roots from penetrating beneath this
waterproofing membrane.
e. Install a drainage layer to grantee that excess moisture is drawn away from the roofing
membrane.
f. Guarantee a filter layer is included to prevent soil from clogging the drainage system, i.e.,
placed between the base membrane and a layer of soil while enabling water to penetrate and
support the plant life.
g. Apply lightweight: formulated soil to absorb and retain water in a controlled manner and to
nourish the plant life
h. Customize a surface layer of plant life is to meet specific functional and aesthetic requirements
of individual applications.
i. Install a vapour barrier or vapour retarder over the deck depending on occupancy and local
conditions.
j. Ensure water and root-repellent membranes are installed on top of a reinforced roof structure.
k. Grantee that a soil layer is seeded with varieties of simple durable plants-sedums.
l. Use green roofs to reduce sound reflection by up to 3 dB and improve sound insulation by up to
8 dB.

Technical Data:
Green roofs generally include the following components:
 Waterproof membrane
 Root barrier
 Thermal insulation media
 Drainage system
 Filter layer
 Growing medium

Living plant material: 50 percent green roof or a combination of green roof and high SRI roofing
materials.
Types of green roofs includes:
1. Extensive*: are shallow (less than 6"), unirrigated, light-weight roof covers offer low cost and
maintenance with high performance value. These are typically planted with sedums - low
drought tolerant ground covers that thrive in a shallow, rapidly draining growth media and
are resistant to harsh rooftop conditions.
2. Intensive**: it is made with deep soil (greater than 6") and greater organic content to
support broad variety of plant varieties. Design variations are practically limitless.
Possibilities are only limited by overall weight of the system and its effect on the cost of the
supporting construction.
3. Semi-intensive: It includes features of intensive and extensive green roofs.
4. Modular: it is partially congregated off-site and installed in units. It also features plastic or
metal trays that are filled with growing medium and placed on the rooftop. Plants can be
grown in these trays before or after installation.
5. Integrated: it is installed as a series of layers.
6. Flat: It allows for the construction of the simplest and less cost. The flat roof is never
perfectly flat enough pitch is required to facilitate positive drainage.
7. Sloped: it is only up to 45degree.

Green roof should take into consideration the following:


a. Modules size is Standard: 2x4 ft, 2ft.x2ft.x2.5in or 2ft.x2ft.x4in. 2ft.x4ft.
b. Depth of modules is either as 2.5 in., 4 in., and 8 in.
c. Weight of planted modules (fully saturated) do not exceed the following: i) 2 in. depth 11-
13 pounds per sq. ft. (wet); ii) 4 in. depth 18-22 pounds per sq. ft. (wet); and iii) 8 in. depth
35+ pounds per sq. ft. (wet).
d. Filter layer is a thin sheet starting from 1.2 inch thick.
e. Module drainage clearance above the roof should be 0.5 inch.
f. Roof membrane or any other roofing materials, as an acceptable underlying material.
Modules can be placed directly on membrane or other roof materials.
g. Black polystyrene tubing, as a drip irrigation system should not require for 4 in. depth
modules but needed for 8 in. depth modules, based on climate & plant.
h. Paver weight is 7.5 lbs./sq.ft or less.
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* Extensive green roofs are generally not accessible to the public.
**Intensive green roofs are generally accessible to the public.

Plant (vegetation)
Growing medium
Filter membrane
Drainage layer
Water proofing/root repellent layer
Support panel
Thermal protection layer
Vapour control layer
Structure support

Fig.103 An image and a sketch of a green roof structure and the required layers
Source: National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction

a. Extensive b. Intensive c. Modular


Fig.104 Types of green roofs
Image sources: www.igra-world.com / www.mngreenroofs.org/ www.furbishco.com

Fig.105 Different types of green roofs


Images source: www.furbishco.com

Comparision of green roofs loads and those of


conventional roofs (weight Kg/m2)

Minimum Maximum

600
500 500

220 200
150 160 150
90 60

Gravel Paving Vehicle Extensive Intensive


Surface Slabs Surface Green Roof Green Roof

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Fig.106 Green roofs minimum and maximum structural loads ads
Data source: www.ecoroofsystems.com

Table 15: Green Roof performance Indicators


Item Frequency

Maintenance Low Periodically High

Irrigation No Periodically Regularly

Plant communities Moss-Sedum-Herbs Grass-Herbs Lawn or Perennials,


and Grasses and Shrubs Shrubs and Trees

System build-up height 60 - 200 mm 120 - 250 mm 150 - 400 mm on underground


garages> 1000 mm
2 2 2
Weight 60 - 150 kg/m 120 - 200 kg/m 180 - 500 kg/m
13 -30 lb/sq.ft 25 - 40 lb/sq.ft 35 - 100 lb/sq.ft

Costs Low Middle High

Use Ecological protection Designed Green


layer

Data source: www.buildinggreen.com /www.ecoroofsystems.com

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Appendices I-IVX (1-14)

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Appendix I: Grouping of Green Building Criteria: short listing Analysis
No. Stakeholders Evaluation Criteria
Barriers
1. Regulatory Is it technically easy to be monitored?
Does it require many processes for inspection?
Does it incur major cost to carry out the monitoring process?
Will it help in achieving their vision and mission?
Does it add value and benefit them in their activity?

2. Developers Is easy to be understood?


Is it technically easy to be adopted?
Does it incur extra Initial cost?
Does it benefit them in reducing the operating cost?
Will it increase the projects duration?
Will it benefit them in improving the life-cycle costing?
Will it add value and improve the quality of their project?
Will it add market value and increase sales?
Will it help in achieving their mission?
3. Design Team: Is it technically easy to be understood?
Architects, Is it available?
Consultant, Does it require an education or a training program?
Engineers, Does it need many specifications to be written?
MEP, Lighting Will it benefit them in producing efficient design for their project?
Designers, and Will it improve the life-cycle costing and quality of their project?
Interior Will it add market value to their design project?
Designers
Will it add value to their profile?

4. Contractors Is it available locally?


Is it technically easy to be understood?
Does it require an education or a training program?
Is it easy to be incorporated and built?
Does it require many tests?
Does it need many labors staff in construction hence, extra cost?
Will it benefit them in producing better projects?
Will it add value to their profile?

5. Suppliers Is it available locally?


Is it technically easy to be understood?
Is it easy to be assembled or manufactured?
Does it need many processes in production hence, extra cost?
Does it require many tests?
Is it easy to be marketed and saleable?
Does it require an education or a training program?
Will it benefit them in being part of completing better projects?
Will it add value to their profile?

6. Facilities Is it technically easy to be understood?


Managers Is it easy to be operated and maintained?
(FM) Does it require an education or a training program?
Does it need many labors staff and processes in maintenance hence, extra cost?
Does it save energy and money?
Will it benefit them in offering efficient projects?
Will it add value to their facility and profile?
7. End Users Is it easy to be understood and used?
Is it easy to be maintained?
Does it require an awareness or education program?
Does it save money?
Will it improve their well being?
Will it add value to their living standards?

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Appendix II: Glazing SHGC, SC and LSG
Introduction

Glazing Performance

In the summer, Low-E glass allow in VL while blocking infrared and ultraviolet solar energy that drives up cooling costs and
damages curtains, window treatments, carpeting and furnishings. The solar heat transmittance of a window is measured by the
solar heat gain coefficient, SHGC or SHGF. This is the fraction of incident solar radiation that enters the building as heat gain by all
mechanisms. Also, the fraction of sunlight, skylight, and reflected daylight incident on a window that enters as light is measured
by the visible transmittance. Hot-climate glazings systems are normally are intended to make the window pane high in VT while
low in SHGC. The ratio of these two performance indicators is called the light-to-solar-gain ratio, or LSG. In general, the higher
the LSG, the better the hot climate performance, with the emphasis being on lowering the SHGC value. LSG numbers greater than
1.0 should be chosen, and those exceeding 1.5 offers the best protection from the heating rays of the sun while still providing
good views of the outdoors and letting in plenty of daylight.

Fig.1 Glazing Performance in hot climate


Typical SHGF values for representative window types* are:
Single-pane, metal frame, clear glass .75
Double-pane, metal frame, clear glass .66
Double-pane, metal frame, bronze tint .55
Double-pane, wood-vinyl frame, clear glass .55
Double-pane, metal frame, low solar gain low-e coating .37
Double-pane, wood-vinyl frame, low-solar-gain low-e coating .31

The LSG value is seldom published by manufacturers, nor does it appear directly on window energy labels. To calculate, divide the
visible transmittance of the glazing plus frame by its solar heat gain coefficient. If a window manufacturer does not publish SHGC
values, but instead the older shading coefficient, SC, the results usually will be little different if SHGC is replaced by SC in the
above formula. There is a caution in this, however. The NFRC values for both the VT and the SHGC apply to the whole window,
including opaque framing elements. It is an area-weighted sum of the transmittances of all parts of the window, including glass,
opaque frame, and semi-opaque parts. Thus, the visible transmittance value used in calculating the LSG above should be the NFRC
standard one (for the whole window). When using SC in the denominator of the LSG equation, however, the numerator should
contain the visible transmittance of the glass only.

High-LSG glass provides the best energy and comfort performance in hot climate such as in Florida or the equivalent in Dubai.
The extra initial cost for such glass can often be counterbalance by smaller air-conditioning equipment (reduced peak load) and
lower monthly electric bills hence, reduced average energy use. Since high-LSG glass is most often offered only in double pane
models, the extra benefits of double pane windows are a bonus. The indoor solar gain could always be reduced still further by
lowering VT, while keeping LSG the same. This should not be overdone. A VT below about 0.3 to 0.35 would VT look somewhat
extreme. The equation that governs the LSG is expressed below:

LSG = VT / SHGC
Source: www.fsec.ucf.edu

* ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, 1997.


** refer to the two characteristics specified by the NFRC or that published by reputable window manufacturers.

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Fig.2 Performance Indices Fig.3 Heat Flow through Windows

Source: FSEC Florida Solar Energy Center

Fig.4 Relation between SHGC and LSG


Search for LSG = TV/SHGC values of 1.40 or greater

Typical values for the Total Window and Center of Glass for different types of windows are shown in Table 1.
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Table 1: shows SHGC, VL, LSG for different types of windows
Window and Glazing Types SHGC VT LSG

Single-glazed, clear 0.79 (0.86) 0.69 (0.90) 0.87 (1.04)

Double-glazed, clear 0.58 (0.76) 0.57 (0.81) 0.98 (1.07)

Double-glazed, bronze 0.48 (0.62) 0.43 (0.61) 0.89 (0.98)

Double-glazed,
glazed, spectrally
0.31 (0.41) 0.51 (0.72) 1.65 (1.75)
selective

Double-glazed,
glazed, spectrally
0.26 (0.32) 0.31 (0.44) 1.19 (1.38)
selective

Triple-glazed, new low-ee 0.37 (0.49) 0.48 (0.68) 1.29 (1.39)

Detailing of glazing

Nevertheless, factors to consider when choosing windows are: climate, building design, building orientation, and external
shading. Check with manufacturers for product specifications but consider both cooling loss and solar gain. Three
Thr major things
needed to be addressed when selecting the window to first ensure that your building is well
well-sealed
sealed with a minimum of thermal
bridging. These are:

Thermal bridging across the frame


Air leakage around the frame within its opening
Edge sealing between the glazing unit and the frame

The proportion of glass to frame makes a difference as the framing is often a worse (higher U value) than the glass. Warm edge
edg
spacer technology is a marginal help but worth considering. The bigger the window the less significant the spacer bar conductivity
is.

Fig.5 Low
Low-E coating and thermal bridges

The cause for this might be the following:


1. Complete or partial penetration of materials with different coefficients of thermal conductivity in the external construction
construct
2. Different thickness of the material
3. Places of connection between two or three external constructions, or connection betbetween
ween external and internal construction:
wall, floor, and ceiling.

88 | P a g e
The influence of the thermal bridge to the rest of the compact part of the construction, according to ISO standards, extends along
the construction up to 1000mm. After this, there is no heat exchange between the two neighbouring parts in the construction.
The negative influence of the thermal bridge consists of increased thermal flow through it (this is not so terrible, because the loss
can be compensated by decreasing the thermal flow in other parts of the construction). However, a great danger exists when the
thermal bridge decreases the internal surface temperature under the point of bedewing, which causes internal condensation and
formation of mould. From the above stated facts, an analysis of thermal bridges is needed for building in Dubai, regarding the
intensity of thermal flows, and above all, regarding the risk of internal condensation.

U-value
The U-value of a glazing unit varies across its area. The centre of the unit will perform best with the lowest U-value whereas the
perimeter will perform less well due to the conductivity of the spacer units. There is as yet no standard by which U-values are
presented within the industry.

Typical available U-values:


Single-glazing 5.0
Double glazing 3.0
Triple-glazing 2.2
Double-glazing with low-e coating 1.7
Double-glazing with low-e coating and Argon filled 1.3
Triple-glazing with multiple low-e coatings and Xenon filled 0.4

Typical U-Factor ranges for different window assemblies are:


Single glazed: U- factor (value) = 0.91 - 1.11
Double glazed: U- Factor (Value) = 0.43 - 0.57
Triple glazed: U-Factor (Value) = 0.15 - 0.33

Low-E glazing
Low-E glazing has special coatings that reduce heat transfer through windows. The coatings are thin, almost invisible metal oxide
or semiconductor films that are placed directly on one or more surfaces of glass or on plastic films between two or more panes
(Heat Mirror Glass). The coatings typically face air spaces within windows and reduce heat flow between the panes of glass.
When applied inside a double-glazed window, the low-e coating is placed on the outer surface of the inner pane of glass to reflect
long wavelength energy (heat) back into the living space whilst permitting short wavelength solar energy (light) transmission
through from the outside. This same coating will slightly reduce solar heat gain during the summer season.

Types of Low-E glazing


There are two types of Low-E (low emissivity) glass available
a. Pyrolytic (hard coat)
Pyrolytic (hard coat) is considered to be a medium performer, and sputtered (vacuum deposition or soft coat) is considered to
be the highest performer.

b. Soft-coat low-e films degrade


Soft-coat low-e films degrade when exposed to air and moisture, are easily damaged, and have a limited shelf life, so they are
carefully applied by manufacturers in insulated multiple-glazed windows. Hard low-e coatings, on the other hand, are more
durable and can be used in add-on (retrofit) applications.

The soft coats have low U-values but because they are so effective they also stop more short wave radiation. The hard Pyrolytic
coats are more transparent to short wave radiation. The net effect is that the energy equation is about the same for both types. A
new option is to use low iron glass in the outer pane to improve the g value (total solar heat transmission).

Gas filling
Filling the gap between the glass panes with low conductivity gas such as argon or krypton at atmospheric pressure improves the
window performance by reducing conductive and convective heat transfer. They are mostly used in conjunction with low-
emissivity coatings. One drawback though might be the long-term integrity of the fill.

Vacuum double glazing (evacuated windows)


Working much in the same way as a Thermos flask, the "fill" strategy with the lowest conductance is the use of vacuum between
low-e coatings. Only a very small distance between the glass panes is necessary, but the long-term integrity of seals and the
structural stability of the unit (due to pressure differences) are difficult to master in a cost-effective manner.

Translucent glazing
It is used to reduce the excessive daylight and eliminate glare and provide a pleasant working environment inside buildings in
addition good distribution of daylight.

89 | P a g e
a) Translucent glazing installed on a building facades (from outside) b) Translucent glazing from inside

Fig.6 shows Translucent glazing to reduce excessive western solar heat, daylighting and glare (Aviation College-Dubai)
Photo credit: Authors

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Appendix III: Insulation Materials
Introduction
The following are different insulation materials:
Fiber Glass Insulations: Mineral Wool Insulations:

Pipe Insulation (factory/specialty Pipe Insulation


jacketing) Block Insulation
Blanket/Board (faced/unfaced) Blanket Insulation
Duct Wrap Metal Mesh Blanket
Pipe/Tank Wrap (ASJ/FSK) Preformed and Fabricated Fittings
Duct Liner Bulk Fiber
Duct Board Precision Cut
Preformed Fittings Pipe and Tank Wrap (ASJ/FSK)
Air Handling Systems Refractory Fiber Block
High Temperature Fiberglass Textiles Safing
Polyvinyl Encapsulation Curtain Wall
Acoustical
Flexible Closed Cell Insulations: Metal Deck Plugs
(flexible elastomeric thermal insulation)
Metal/PVC Fitting Covers:
Pipe Tubing (standard or pre-slit/pre-
glued) 90-45 Degree Elbow Covers
Sheets/Rolls Tee/Valve Covers
Fittings Victaulic Fitting Covers
Tape Mechanical Line Couplings
Adhesive
Flange Covers
Coatings
End Caps
Anti-vibration Pads Specialty Fittings
Colored Coded PVC
Fire Protection Systems: Tank Tops

Grease Duct/Plenum Wrap Protective Coverings:


Mineral Wool Fire Safing
Caulking/Putty Stainless Steel/Aluminum
Board/Block (smooth/corrugated/embossed)
Composite Sheets PVC Covering (cut and curled)
Cable Tray Wrap/Cable Coating Removable Covers (high temp. fiberglass
Restriction Collar cloth)
FRP Jacketing
Air Handling Systems: Corrugated and Flat Sheeting
Coils
Duct Wrap Fittings
Duct Liner All Service Jacket (ASJ)
Duct Board
Rigid Plenum Liner High Temperature Fiberglass Textiles:

Calcium Silicate Insulations: Plain, Aluminized, Vermiculite Fiberglass


Cloth
Pipe Insulation Silicone Coated Fiberglass Cloth
Block Insulation (flat/scored/molded and Teflon Coated Fiberglass Cloth
curved radius) Fiberglass Tape/Rope/Tubing
Fabricated Fittings Fiberglass Tadpole Tape
Premolded Fittings Pressure Sensitive Fiberglass Tape

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Urethane, Styrene, Foams: Cellular Glass:

Preformed Pipe Insulation Preformed Pipe Insulation


Board Block
Bun Curved Segments
Pour/Spray Head Segments
Froth-Paks Fittings
Fittings
Head Segments Accessories and Fastening Devices:

Adhesives, Mastics, Coatings and Tapes (ASJ/FSK/PVC/foil)


Sealants Metal Banding w/Wing Seals
Weld Pins
Fire-resistance Coatings Stick Clips w/Speed Washers
Vapor Barriers Hex Mesh and Lath (stainless
Weather Barriers steel/aluminum)
Finish Coatings Tie Wire (stainless/aluminum)
Duct Liner Adhesive Staples/Tacks
Contact Cement Vinyl Flex Connector
Silicone Caulking Vane Setter
Weld-Ons
Ceramic Fiber:

Blankets and Felts


Block
Bulk Fiber
Rope and Brad
Paper
Cloth and Tape
Spray

Table 1: A list of different materials with the English measurement of R-value:

Material R-value
Hardwood siding (1 in. thick) 0.91
Wood shingles (lapped) 0.87
Brick (4 in. thick) 4.00
Concrete block (filled cores) 1.93
Fiberglass batting (3.5 in. thick) 10.90
Fiberglass batting (6 in. thick) 18.80
Fiberglass board (1 in. thick) 4.35
Cellulose fiber (1 in. thick) 3.70
Flat glass (0.125 in thick) 0.89
Insulating glass (0.25 in space) 1.54
Air space (3.5 in. thick) 1.01
Free stagnant air layer 0.17
Drywall (0.5 in. thick) 0.45
Sheathing (0.5 in. thick) 1.32

Source: Hyperphysics Georgia State University

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Appendix IV: Photosensors

Photosensors
A photo-sensor is an electronic component that detects the presence of visible light, infrared transmission (IR), and/or ultraviolet
(UV) energy. Most photosensors (PS) consist of semiconductor having a property called photoconductivity, in which the electrical
conductance varies depending on the intensity of radiation striking the material. The most common types of photosensors are
the photodiode, the bipolar phototransistor, and the photoFET (photosensitive field-effect transistor). PS devices are essentially
the same as the ordinary diode, bipolar transistor, and field-effect transistor, except that the packages have transparent windows
that allow radiant energy to reach the junctions between the semiconductor materials inside. Bipolar and field-effect
phototransistors provide amplification in addition to their sensing capabilities.

Fig.1 Different types of photosensors

Photosensors are used in a great variety of electronic devices, circuits, and systems, including:

fiber optic systems


optical scanners
wireless LAN
automatic lighting controls
machine vision systems
electric eyes
optical disk drives
optical memory chips
remote control devices

Nearly all photosensors are used to decrease the electric power demand for lighting. In addition to lowering the electric power
demand, dimming the lights also reduces the thermal load on a building's cooling system when the building is running its chillers,
adding to the energy savings. For new building designs, the added solar heat gain that occurs when substantial amounts of
daylight enters a space must be taken into account for a whole building energy usage analysis. When considering the energy
savings potential from dimming fluorescent lamp luminaries, it is important to realize that fluorescent lamp systems have lower
efficacy when dimmed. This loss of efficacy leads to diminished energy savings as lamps is dimmed to lower and lower levels.

The figure below illustrates relative light output (dim level) as a function of power. At 20% dim level, the energy savings is
approximately 60% compared to operating the lamp at full power. Ballasts that dim lamps down to less than 5% light output have
a maximum energy savings of about 80% compared to full light output operation.

Fig.2 Shows relative light output (dim level) as a function of power

Source: www.247able.com

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Appendix V: Emergency Exits Lighting and Efficient Bulbs
I. Efficient lighting timers
In a tower with 6 flats per floor by installing 20 Watts bulbs instead of the 100 watts bulbs and using the less capacity wiring of
15mm enormous saving in electrical energy and money can be achieved (Table 1 and Figure 1).

Table 1: Calculated rates, cost for electrical consumption in a typical office building in Dubai Service staircases
Bulb Rating (watts) No of floors no of lamps / floor total number of No of working hrs consumption/ day (kwh) consumption/ year (kwh) Cost /year (AED) annual consumption annual saving annual saving of CO2
bulbs saving (kwh) (AED) emission (ton)
100 5 2 10 24 24 8760 1752 7300 1460 4.672
100 7 2 14 24 33.6 12264 2452.8 10220 2044 6.5408
100 12 2 24 24 57.6 21024 4204.8 17520 3504 11.2128
100 60 2 120 24 288 105120 21024 87600 17520 56.064

Avrage CO 2 emission saving resulting from using a light timmer in


Service staircases instead of non-stop luminaers
1 = 5 flr, 2= 7flr, 3= 12 flr, 4 = 60 floors

1 2
6% 8%
3
14%

4
72%

Fig.1 shows the saving in CO2 emission from reducing electrical annual consumption in service staircases using timers
Note: the Ave Emission of CO2 (kg/ Kwh) was estimated at 0.64.

II. Efficient lighting bulbs


In a tower with 6 flats per floor by installing 20 Watts bulbs instead of the 100 watts bulbs enormous saving in electrical energy
and money can be saved.

Table2: Calculated rates, cost for electrical consumption in a typical residential building in Dubai lighting bulbs
annual
saving of
annual CO2
Bulb Rating total number of consumption/ year consumption emission
(watts) No of floors no of lamps / floor bulbs No of working hrs consumption/ day (kwh) (kwh) Cost /year (AED) saving (kwh) annual saving (AED) (ton)
100 5 136 680 8 544 198560 39712 138992 27798.4 88.95488
100 7 136 952 8 761.6 277984 55596.8 194588.8 38917.76 124.5368
100 12 136 1632 8 1305.6 476544 95308.8 333580.8 66716.16 213.4917
100 60 136 8160 8 6528 2382720 476544 1667904 333580.8 1067.459

Annual saving of electrical energy cost and CO2 Emission

1 2
6% 8%

3
14%

4
72%

Fig.2 shows the saving in energy cost and CO2 emission from reducing electrical annual consumption in a typical residential
tower in Dubai.
Note: the Ave Emission of CO2 (kg/ Kwh) was estimated at 0.64

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Appendix VI: Lighting Fixtures and Motion Sensors
Introduction
Fluorescent Lighting: Fluorescent lamps use 25%35% of the energy used by incandescent lamps to provide the same amount
of illumination (efficacy of 30110 lumens per watt). They also last about 10 times longer (7,00024,000 hours). The light
produced by a fluorescent tube is caused by an electric current conducted through mercury and inert gases. Fluorescent lamps
require a ballast to regulate operating current and provide a high start-up voltage. Electronic ballasts outperform standard and
improved electromagnetic ballasts by operating at a very high frequency that eliminates flicker and noise. Electronic ballasts also
are more energy-efficient. Special ballasts are needed to allow dimming of fluorescent lamps. Improvements in technology have
resulted in fluorescent lamps with colour temperature and colour rendition that are comparable to incandescent lamps.

Types of Fluorescent Lamps


Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)
Fluorescent tube and circline lamps

Efficient Electrical bulbs


a. Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) 5- 28 Watts
b. Energy Saving Halogen 11 32 Watts
c. Solid State Lighting (Low Emitting Diode - LED) 8 3Watts

a. CFL b. ESH c. SSL (LED)


Fig.1 Different samples of efficient lighting fixtures
www.Philps.com
Definition
Solid state lighting (SSL): SSL refers to a type of lighting that exploits light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes
(OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas. The term solid
state refers to the fact that light in an LED is emitted from a solid objecta block of semiconductorrather than from a vacuum
or gas tube, as is the case in traditional incandescent light bulbs and fluorescent lamps. Unlike traditional lighting, SSL creates
visible light with reduced heat generation or parasitic energy dissipation. In addition, its solid-state nature provides for greater
resistance to shock, vibration, and wear, thereby increasing its lifespan significantly.

Fig.2 Samples of Solid State Lighting - LED bulbs


Source: Illumination Engineering Society, IES

A light-emitting diode (LED): LED is a semiconductor device that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased
in the forward direction of the p-n junction. This effect is a form of electroluminescence. An LED is usually a small area source,
often with extra optics added to the chip that shapes its radiation pattern. The colour of the emitted light depends on the
composition and condition of the semiconducting material used, and can be infrared, visible, or near-ultraviolet (Table 1).

Fig.3 Samples of LED bulbs


Source: Illumination Engineering Society, IES.
Table 1: illustrates different colours of LED with potential difference in voltage

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Colour Potential Difference
Infrared 1.6 V
Red 1.8 V 2.1 V
Orange 2.2 V
Yellow 2.4 V
Green 2.6 V
Blue 3.0 V 3.5 V
White 3.0 V 3.5 V
Ultraviolet 3.5 V
Source: Illumination Engineering Society, IES

a) 3 Assorted types of fluorescent lamps b & c) spiral type compact fluorescent lamp)
Top: two CFLs, bottom: two regular tubes
Fig.4 Standard Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)
Source: Illumination Engineering Society, IES

a) Biax or liner CFL b) Globe CFL c) Reflector CFL d) Spiral CFL


Fig.5 Different types of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)
Source: Illumination Engineering Society, IES

Fig.6 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) come in a variety of sizes and shapes including: (a) twin-tube integral, (b and c)
triple-tube integral, (d) integral model with casing that reduces glare, (e) modular circline and ballast, and (f) modular
quad-tube and ballast. CFLs can be installed in regular incandescent fixtures, and they consume less than one-third as
much electricity as incandescent lamps do.
Source: Illumination Engineering Society, IES
Table 2: Illustrates the IES illuminance categories and values for generic indoor activities
Luminous flux (Light output) in lm Consumption of electricity

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Incandescent Compact fluorescent Incandescent LV Halogen
240 V 120 V 12 V
Lifetime 1,000hr 15,000hr Variable 4,000hr
90 15 W - - -
240 - 5W - -
400 - 7W - -
415 40 W - - -
505 - - 40 W (1000hr) -
660 - 11 W - -
700 60 W - - -
865 - - 60 W (1000hr) -
900 - 14-15 W - 35 W
930 75 W - - -
1190 - - 75 W (750hr) -
1230 - 20 W - -
1250 - - - 50 W
1330 100 W - - -
1500 - 23 W - -
1700 - - - 65 W
1710 - - 100 W (750hr) -
1900 - 30 W - -
2140 150 W - - -
2990 200 W - - -
Source: http://catalog.myosram.com

Ballasts

Ballasts: Fluorescent lamps require a ballast to stabilize the lamp and to provide the initial striking voltage required to start the
arc discharge. This increases the cost of fluorescent luminaries, though often ballast is shared between two or more lamps.
Electromagnetic ballasts with a minor fault can produce an audible humming or buzzing noise.

Electrical ballast: is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit.

a) An automotive (ignition system) b) Electronic Ballasts of a CFL


ballast resistor Electronic ballasts
Fig.7 Different types of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)
Source: Illumination Engineering Society, IES

Fig.8 Shows garden light can use stored Solar Power due to such low power consumption of the LED
Source: http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Light Emitting Diodes

Lighting level
In interior offices or residential buildings, illuminance levels shall range between 10 -100 FC (100 & 1000 Lux).
In exterior situations, levels may range from 100 to 10,000 FC (1000Lux 100,000 Lux) or more.

Ensure good lighting is achieved in interior spaces to save energy. This depends on more than just illuminance levels:
Direction,
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Distribution,
Colour temperature, and
Colour rendering index of the source all contribute to effective lighting (and visibility).

The task reflectance and contrast also contribute greatly. The determination of target illuminance levels are generally considered
however to be a starting point of any effective lighting design.

Illumination levels are generally dictated by the needs of the visual task. Typically, the more light available, the easier it is to
perform a specific task. But how much light is enough? Illuminance levels are influenced by:
a.) details of task
a.) reflectance and contrast (task and background)
b.) the eye - (age and condition)
c.) importance of speed and accuracy

ILLUMINANCE LEVELS
Provide appropriate lighting levels for the required task(s). It is also equally important to NOT under light a task. There is
generally little value in under lighting a task where human performance is concerned. The electrical energy saved is often offset
by a far greater loss in human performance or productivity.

As the eye ages, it requires more light to see the same detail with the same speed and accuracy. For this reason lighting systems
must be designed with specific human needs in mind.
a. A classroom designed for children might require only 40 foot-candles, while the same classroom designed for adult
activities might require 80 foot-candles or more.
b. Lighting levels in the home, school or office may range from 20 to 100 foot-candles or more.

Illumination Index:
Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) has published illuminance recommendations. These tables cover both generic tasks
(reading, writing etc), and 100's of very specific tasks and activities (such as drafting, parking, milking cows, blowing glass and
baking bread). All tasks fall into 1 of 9 illuminance categories, covering from 20 to 20,000 Lux, (2 to 2000 FCs). The categories are
known as AI; and each provide a range of 3 illuminance values (low, mid and high).

Table 3: IES Illuminance categories and values for generic indoor tasks
Activity Category Lux Footcandles
Public spaces with dark surroundings A 20-30-50 2-3-5
Simple orientation for short B 50-75-100 5-7.5-10
temporary visits
Working spaces where visual C 100-150-200 10-15-20
tasks are only occasionally performed
Performance of visual tasks of D 200-300-500 20-30-50
high contrast or large size
Performance of visual tasks of E 500-750-1000 50-75-100
medium contrast or small size
Performance of visual tasks of F 1000-1500-2000 100-150-200
low contrast or very sm size
Performance of visual tasks of G 2000-3000-5000 200-300-500
low contrast or very sm size
over a prolonged period
Performance of very prolonged H 5000-7500-10000 500-750-1000
and exacting visual tasks
Performance of very special I 10000-15000-20000 1000-1500-2000
visual tasks of extremely low contrast
A-C for Illuminance over a large area (i.e., lobby space) D-F for localized tasks G-I for extremely difficult visual tasks
Source: IES
IES recommendations
1. Define visual task and visual plane.
2. Select illuminance CATEGORY (use IES tables or Table 3 above)
3. Determine illuminance RANGE. (Table 3).
4. Select WEIGHTING factors:
 for category A-C use 'Table 3a
 for category D-I use 'Table 3b

Table - 3a - (for Categories A-C)


Room and Occupant Weighting Factor
Characteristics -1 0 +1

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Occupant ages below 40 40-55 over 55
Average room surface reflectance more than 70% 30-70% less than 30%

INSTRUCTIONS for Table 3a: Add both weighting factors algebraically.


If the total factor is -2 use the low illuminance value.
If the total factor is +2 use the high illuminance value.
If the total factor is 0 use the middle illuminance value.

Table3b- (for Categories D-I)


Room and Occupant Weighting Factor
Characteristics -1 0 +1
Occupant ages below 40 40-55 over 55
Importance of speed not important important critical and/or accuracy
Average room surface reflectance more than 70% 30-70% less than 30%

INSTRUCTIONS for Table 31b: Add all 3 weighting factors algebraically.


If the total factor is -2 or -3 use the low illuminance value.
If the total factor is +2 or +3 the high illuminance value otherwise use middle illuminance value.

Case study:
What illuminance is recommended for an adult aged 56, performing detailed accounting tasks of medium contrast or small size?
Use 'Table 3' to identify CATEGORY' E' as the appropriate category.
Use 'Table 3' to also identify the illuminance RANGE as 50-75-100 FC.
From 'Table 3b' calculate the weighting factor:

AGE - 56 factor +1
IMPORTANCE OF SPEED AND ACCURACY - (important) factor 0
BACKGROUND REFLECTANCE - (medium contrast, about 40%) factor 0
+1
In accordance with 'Table 1b' instructions, use a weighting factor of +1 and then select the middle value of 75 foot-candles for the
task.

Use IES method of determining target illuminance values.


Select appropriate illuminance level from TABLE 4. Then, multiply by appropriate "weighting" factor from TABLE 4a.

Table 4: TASK CATEGORIES AND REFERENCE ILLUMINANCE LEVELS


ILLUMINANCE CATEGORY DIFFICULTY OF VISUAL TASK IMPORTANCE OF SPEED & ACCURACY
Non-critical / critical
A MOVEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC SPACES 50 - 75 Lux
(5 - 7 FC)
B INFREQUENT READING OR WRITING; 100 - 150 Lux
High contrast & large size (9 14 FC)
C FREQUENT (& easy) READING OR WRITING; 200 - 300 Lux
High contrast & large size (19 28 FC)
(e.g., typewritten page)
D MODERATELY DIFFICULT READING OR WRITING; 300 - 450 Lux
Low contrast or small size (28 42 FC)
(e.g., pencilled mechanical drawings)
E DIFFICULT READING OR WRITING; 500 - 750 Lux
Low Contrast & Small size (46 - 70 FC)
(e.g., poor copy of a blueprint)
Source: M.S. Rae, the IES Journal V17#1, 1988.

Table 4.a ADJUSTMENTS TO REFERENCE ILLUMINANCES


(For different task background reflectance and worker ages)
AGE (A, in years)
> 30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60+
TASK R > 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 3.1
BACKGROUND 0.8 - 0.6 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.6 3.9
REFLECTANCE 0.6 - 0.4 1.7 2.0 2.5 3.4 5.2
(R) 0.4 - 0.2 2.5 3.0 3.8 5.1 7.8
0.2 or less 5.0 6.0 7.6 10.2 15.6

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Appendix VI: Swimming Pools Covering Materials
Swimming Pool Covers

Swimming pool heating/cooling costs can be significantly reduced by using a pool cover. The use of a pool cover also can help in
reducing the size of a solar pool heating/cooling system, hence save money.

Swimming pools lose energy in a variety of ways, but evaporation is by far the largest source of energy loss. Evaporating water
requires tremendous amounts of energy. It only takes 1 Btu (British thermal unit) to raise 1 pound of water 1 degree, but each
pound of 80F water that evaporates takes a whopping 1,048 Btu of heat out of the pool The evaporation rate from an outdoor
pool varies depending on the pool's temperature, air temperature and humidity, and the wind speed at the pool surface. The
higher the pool temperature and wind speed and the lower the humidity, the greater the evaporation rate. In windy areas,
windbreaktrees, shrubs, or a fence can be added to reduce evaporation. The windbreak needs to be high enough and close
enough to the pool that it doesn't create turbulence over the pool, which will increase evaporation. Under this condition make
sure windbreaks are no causing shades or shading on the pool from the sun, which helps heat it.

Indoor pools aren't exposed to the environment, but a swimming pool can lose a lot of energy from evaporation. It even requires
room ventilation to control indoor humidity caused by the large amount of evaporation. The ventilated air also must be
conditioned, which adds to the energy costs.

In hot climate such as that of Dubai, outdoor pools gain heat from the sun, absorbing 75%85% of the solar energy striking the
pool surface. This is an important contribution to the pool's heating needs. A pool cover will decrease the solar gain contribution
to some extent, depending on what type you use. A transparent bubble cover (Fig 1) may reduce pool solar energy absorption by
5%15 %. A completely opaque cover will reduce it by 20%40%.

Covering a pool when it is not in use is the single most effective means of reducing pool heating costs. Savings of 50%70% are
possible. Pool covers on indoor pools not only can reduce evaporation but also the need to ventilate indoor air and replace it with
unconditioned outdoor air. You can also shut off exhaust fans when an indoor pool is covered, which saves even more energy.

Types of Pool Covers

The simpler form swimming pools covers are a large sheet of plastic. Plastic meets the requirement of being a vapour barrier. Use
a cover designed specifically for swimming pools such as:

UV-stabilized polyethylene,
Polypropylene,
Vinyl.

Also, swimming pools covers can be transparent or opaque. Covers can even be light or dark coloured. Different types at low cost
are:

o Bubble (or solar) cover: Bubble covers are similar to bubble packing material except they use a thicker grade of plastic and
have UV inhibitors.
o Vinyl covers: It consists of a heavier material and has a longer life expectancy than bubble covers
o Insulated vinyl covers: a thin layer of flexible insulation sandwiched between two layers of vinyl.

Fig.1 Different types of swimming pool covers


Source: eere.energy.org

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There are three operation systems:
Manual
Semi automatic
Automatic

Manual: cover can be manually pulled and the cover on and off, fold it, and place it somewhere out of the way.
Semi-automatic: cover uses a motor-driven reel system. It also use electrical power to roll and unroll the cover, but usually
require someone to pull on the cover when unrolling, or guide the cover onto the reel when rolling up the cover. Semi-automatic
covers can be built into the pool deck surrounding the pool, or can use reels on carts.

Automatic: cover has permanently mounted reels that automatically cover and uncover the pool at the push of a button.

Use a Pool Cover


Pool covers should be used during your swimming season. If you use your pool only at night, the effectiveness of a pool cover will
depend on whether the evaporation and other losses prevented by the cover exceed the solar gain reduction caused by the
cover. The type of cover and the climate affects this balance.

Climate relates issues


a) In dry and/or windy conditions, the evaporation rate of the pool increases. Therefore, it is generally beneficial to have a
transparent or bubble cover on during daylight hours.
b) In warm, humid conditions such as Dubai the evaporation rate decreases. In this case, it may be more beneficial to leave the
cover off during the daytime.

Benefits from covering swimming Pools


Further to energy savings, pool covers also do the following:

Conserve water by reducing the amount of make-up water needed by 30%50%


Reduce the pool's chemical consumption by 35%60%
Reduce cleaning time by keeping dirt and other debris out of the pool.

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Appendix VIII: Solar Water Heating Systems
Introduction

Solar water heating could typically provide 60-70 Percent of domestic hot water needs. A solar water heater has it main
component a collector. The collector could be copper absorber plate or evacuated tube collector. The function of the collector is
to capture the suns rays and impinging on its surface in the form of heat energy to the fluid in the collector. The indirect
circulation system is the most common. The process composes of heat absorber, heat transfer fluid, pump, hot water cylinder,
and then to the source of water supply (taps).

Heat absorber Heat transfer fluid Hot water cylinder taps

Pump

Collector Cold water


Fig.1 Schematic showing the function of a solar water heater

Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems:

A. Active, which have circulating pumps and controls


B. Passive

Cold water Cylinder Hot water

Collector

Pump

Cylinder Collector

Active circulation Passive circulation


Fig.2 Two types of Solar Water Heating Systems

There are two types of active solar water heating systems:


Direct Circulation Systems
Pumps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes.

Indirect Circulation Systems


Pumps circulate a non-freezing, heat transfer fluid through the collectors and a heat exchanger. This heats the water that then
flows into the home. They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures.

Also, there are two basic types of passive systems:

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Integral collector-storage passive systems
These work best in areas where temperatures rarely fall below freezing. They also work well in households with significant
daytime and evening hot-water needs.

Thermosyphon systems
Water flows through the system when warm water rises as cooler water sinks. The collector must be installed below the
storage tank so that warm water will rise into the tank. These systems are reliable, but contractors must pay careful attention
to the roof design due to the tanks heavy storage capacity. They are usually more expensive than integral collector-storage
passive systems.

Passive solar water heating systems are typically less expensive than active ones, but they're usually not as efficient. However,
passive systems can be more reliable and may last longer. Most solar water heaters require a well-insulated storage tank. Solar
storage tanks have an additional outlet and inlet connected to and from the collector. In two-tank systems, the solar water heater
preheats water before it enters the conventional water heater. In one-tank systems, the back-up heater is combined with the
solar storage in one tank.

Types of Solar Collectors

Solar collectors used for residential applications falls into 3 types:


a. Flat-plate collector
b. Integral collector-storage systems
c. Evacuated-tube solar collectors

Fig.3 A Flat-plate collector


Source: Green specs
Flat-plate collector
Glazed flat-plate collectors are insulated, weatherproofed boxes that contain a dark absorber plate under one or more glass or
plastic (polymer) covers. Unglazed flat-plate collectorstypically used for solar pool heating have a dark absorber plate, made
of metal or polymer, without a cover or enclosure.

Integral collector-storage systems (known as ICS or batch systems)


It features one or more black tanks or tubes in an insulated, glazed box. Cold water first passes through the solar collector,
which preheats the water. The water then continues on to the conventional backup water heater, providing a reliable source
of hot water. This type should be installed only in mild-freeze climates not in Dubai.
Evacuated-tube solar collectors
They include parallel rows of transparent glass tubes. Each tube contains a glass outer tube and metal absorber tube attached
to a fin. The fin's coating absorbs solar energy but inhibits radiant heat loss. These collectors are used more frequently for
commercial applications.

Fig.4 Evacuated-tube solar collectors


Source: Green specs
Flat Plate v Evacuated tube
Despite being much more expensive than flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors achieve both higher temperatures and
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efficiencies. They perform well in both direct and diffuse solar radiation similar to that of Dubai. This characteristic, combined
with the fact that the vacuum minimizes heat losses to the outdoors. Because of the circular shape of the evacuated tube,
sunlight is perpendicular to the absorber for most of the day. For comparison, in a flat-plate collector that is in a fixed position,
the sun is only perpendicular to the collector at noon.

Heat Distribution
Solar heating primary circuits transfer heat from the solar collectors to the pre-heat cylinder. They may be Direct or Indirect:

Direct - Direct circuits are those that directly heat the water that flows from the household taps.

Advantages:
Simplicity and increased efficiency over secondary circuits through reduction of heat transfer loss.
Disadvantages:
They are subject to freezing unless the water is drained-back when the pump switches off, which puts constraints on the
positioning of the collectors in relation to the feed tank.
As new water continually flows through the collectors, they can be prone to furring in the collector waterways resulting in
loss of efficiency.

Fig.5 Direct and indirect circuits of solar water heating systems


Source: Green specs
Indirect
Indirect circuits use a separate heat-transfer fluid circuit to transfer heat from the collectors to the pre-heat cylinder. Their main
advantage is that they can employ a wide range of materials and fluids as part of the circulation. There many types, namely,
pumped indirect circuits which incorporate a heat-transfer fluid including anti-freeze and corrosion inhibitor. The pump,
controlled by a differential temperature controller, circulates the heat-transfer fluid from the collector panels through the heat
exchanger in the hot water cylinder and back to the solar collectors for re-heating. The temperature sensors of the differential
temperature controller are situated at the solar collector and on the hot water cylinder. This type ensures that fluid is only
circulated when the fluid in the collectors is hotter than in the cylinder.

Advantages:
Integral protection against freezing
Overheat control
Heat is delivered from the collector at optimal rate
Greater choice of collector and pipe layout
Reduces heat loss through pipes
Disadvantages:
Increased complexity
Pump requires electricity (though this can be alleviated by PV supply)
More expensive

The pre-heat configuration for the typical solar water heating system can be achieved in two ways, a separate pre-heat cylinder
may be placed between existing cold water feed and the normal hot water storage, or the existing hot water storage cylinder can
be replaced with a larger double heat exchange coil cylinder. Whichever design is chosen, extra storage volume is required. The
space available to accommodate this extra storage capacity will often be the determining factor in the choice of system and also
in the location of the storage cylinder.

a. Solar twin coil system


b. Solar pre-feed system to combi-boiler with heat store
c. Solar pre-feed system to combi-boiler

Fig.6 Meters for the water cylinder Source: Green specs


Sizing

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1. Selecting the type of storage cylinder
Vented, mains pressure or thermal store. Mains pressure (un-vented) cylinders and thermal store cylinders are more expensive,
but they enable the hot water to be maintained at the same pressure as the mains supply.

2. Selecting the collector type and system (see above)


Choose the type of collector- usually a flat plate or evacuated tube.
Choose a direct or indirect distribution system (normally direct in Dubai)
Choose gravity or pumped circulation
Determine a pre-heating storage strategy basically the choice is between a single cylinder with twin coils or the placement of a
distinct pre-heat tank before the conventional cylinder.

Fig.7 A (Stiebel) twin coil cylinder


Source: Green specs

The Position of the collector


The collector position to give optimum all year round energy collection is roughly south facing and at a tilt of 35 degrees to the
horizontal. The orientation and tilt angle will usually be determined by the roof angle. Collectors can face anywhere between
south, south east and south west and have tilt angles commonly found on roof of UK houses i.e., 15 50 degrees without losing
more than 5% of optimum annual energy collection. However, a steeper angle might be considered to optimize spring and
autumn performance at the expense of summer surplus. Shading from trees, buildings etc. can produce significant losses in
system efficiency and should be avoided

Fig.8 Pipes line Fig.9 A system pump


Source: Green specs

The Size of pipe line


Piping is required to route and control the flow of heat transfer fluid between various components of the solar subsystem. The
objective of the piping design is to accomplish all these functions with the best compromise between minimum parasitic power
requirements and minimum capital costs. The pipe size should be determined according to the flow rate required for the solar
heating system, maximum allowable flow velocity as well as economic aspect. A lot of heat can be lost in a conventional solar
water heating system because the pipes used can be wide. Issues to consider here include both surface area and pipe volume.
Reducing surface area means reducing thermal losses. Using narrow micro-bore pipes in conjunction with low flow pumps instead
of wider pipes will typically cut heat loss from pipes by over 50%.

The Circulation pump sizing


Pumps should circulate heat transfer fluid at the design flow rate with minimum expenditure of electrical energy. Analysis of the
complete pipe work will allow a total system head to be determined, describing variation of the total pressure drop of the system
with operating flow rate. A suitable pump should provide the required flow rate at the necessary head while operating at or near
its best efficiency.

Sizing a Solar Swimming Pool Heating System

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In general, the surface area of your collector should be equal to at least 50 percent of the pool's surface area. Sizing a solar
swimming pool heating system involves many factors:

Pool size
Length of swimming season
Average regional temperatures
Desired pool temperature
Site's solar resource
Collector orientation and tilt
Collector efficiency
Use of a pool cover.

In cooler and cloudier areas, you may need to increase the ratio between the collector area and the pool surface area. Adding
collector square footage also lengthens the swimming season. In hot humid climate such Florida or Dubai, a 15-by-30-foot
outdoor swimming pool may typically requires a collector that equals 100% of the pool's square footage to accommodate year-
round use. This equals 450 square feet of collectors. If the outdoor pools to be used for 68 months per year, so they typically
size their systems at 60%70% of the pool's surface area. In any climate, you can usually decrease the required collector area by
using a pool cover.

Sitting a Solar Swimming Pool Heating System's Collector

Collectors can be mounted on roofs or anywhere near the swimming pool that provides the proper exposure, orientation, and tilt
toward the sun. Both the orientation and tilt of the collector will affect your solar pool heating system's performance. Make sure
that these are well considered during in installation for site's solar resource and sizing the right system.

Collector Orientation

Solar pool heater collectors should be oriented geographically to maximize the amount of daily and seasonal solar energy that
they receive. In general, the optimum orientation for a solar collector in the northern hemisphere is true south. However, recent
studies have shown that, depending on your location and collector tilt, the collector can face up to 45 east or west of true south
without significantly decreasing its performance. Factors such as roof orientation should be considered (if the collector to be
mounted on the roof), local landscape features that shade the collector daily or seasonally, and local weather conditions (foggy
mornings or cloudy afternoons), as these factors may affect your collector's optimal orientation.

Fig.10 Swimming pools solar water heating systems, orientation and tilting angle
Source: www.eere.energy.org
Collector Tilt

The angle at which a collector should be tilted varies based on your latitude and the length of your swimming season (summer or
year-round). Ideally, collectors for summer-only heating should be tilted at an angle equal to current latitude minus 1015.
Collectors for year-round heating should be tilted at an angle equal to your latitude. However, studies have shown that not having
a collector tilted at the optimum angle will not significantly reduce system performance.

Evaluating Your Site's Solar Resource for Solar Water Heating

Prior to installing a solar water heating system, consider the site's solar resource first. The efficiency and design of a solar water
heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. If the site and building has not been shaded
and generally faces south, it's a good case for a solar water heating system. Although the optimal tilt angle for your collector is an
angle equal to your latitude, fixing the collector flat on an angled roof will not result in a big decrease in system performance.

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Appendix IX: Water Fixtures
Introduction

Water efficiency covers much more than just low flow fixtures. Domestic fixtures do account for a significant portion of water use,
especially in areas with heavy cooling loads such as Dubai and arid climate this can be equal or outweighed by cooling water and
landscape uses. It should also be remembered that the building stock consists of much more than office buildings such as
hospitals, laboratories, industrial manufacturing, and parks. These non-office building facilities will have heavy process water
uses. Saving water in these processes might be only the beginning. Savings from chemical, energy and labour usually eclipses
water savings in these building types. As shown in Figure 1, domestic water account for 41% and cooling/heating 27%,
landscaping 20% and the rest 12%.

Watrer Use distribution in a typical office building


Domestic (toilets, urinals, faucets, etc.), cooling/heating, and landscaping uses

9%
41%
20%

2%
1%

27%
Domestic Kitchen cooling /heating
once through cooling lanscaping Misc./UAF

Fig.1 Domestic water uses that represent the best opportunities to conserve water in an office building
Source: www.mri.org

Low Flow fixtures: Summary

The use of toilets that use no more than 1.6 gallons of water per flush are called efficient and low flow ones. Low-flow plumbing
fixtures including toilets, faucet aerators and showerheads shall be used to ensure water saving in buildings and proved to save
substantial amounts of water compared to conventional fixtures while providing the same utility.

Different types of low-flow toilets use various technologies aimed at making the toilet more functional. Some toilets have large
drain passages, redesigned bowls and tanks for easier wash down. Others supplement the gravity system with water supply line
pressure, compressed air, or a vacuum pump.

Conventional faucet aerators don't compensate for changes in inlet pressure, so the greater the water pressure, the more water
you use. New technology compensates for pressure and provides the same flow regardless of pressure. Aerators are also available
that allow water to be turned off at the aerator itself.

Standard kitchen and bathroom water faucets shall use 4 to 7 gallons of water per minute (gpm). This means that a single
incidence of washing dishes may consume up to 120 gallons of water. Non-conserving showerheads use 5 to 8 gpm, consuming
up to 40 gallons of water for a single five-minute shower. It has been indicated that by simply installing a high-efficiency
showerhead and faucet aerator will save about 7,800 gallons of water per year in an average household. An easy-to-install faucet
aerator will reduce both the flow rate (from 4 to 7 gpm to 1 to 2.75 gpm) and splashing while increasing areas of coverage. This
conserves water and improves faucet performance at the same time. Low-flow heads save more than 12 gallons per shower (a
savings of 44% over non-conserving showerheads). Ultra-low-flow heads conserve even more, using only .8 to 1.5 gpm, reducing
the average five-minute shower's water usage from 40 to 7.5 gallons.

Source: http://www.fypower.org).

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Fig.2 A sample of an efficient and low-flow Showerhead

Showerheads use similar aerator technology and multiple flow settings to save water:

Low-flow shower heads use about 2 gallons of water per minute compared to between four and five gallons per minute
used by conventional heads.
Low-flow faucet aerators can cut the water usage of faucets by as much as 40% from 4 gallons per minute to 2.
Low-flow toilets use a maximum of 1.6 gallons of water /flush compared with 3.5 gallons of water used by a standard one.

Laminar flow fixtures

Controls for laminar flow fixtures deliver a precise volume of water at faucets, showerheads, and hose outlets, typically 1.5 to 2.2
gallons per minute (gpm). Fixtures equipped with laminar flow controls deliver a constant rate, unlike conventional water-saving
fixtures that deliver varying flow rates in response to varying line pressure. Under the same flow rate/pressure conditions,
aerated streams actually tend to feel lighter because they mix air and water; laminar streams are heavier (water only) and feel
stronger.

a. Laminar flow controls work differently than faucet aerators. Aerators add air to the water stream to make stronger flow.

b. Laminar flow controls, on the other hand, work by producing dozens of parallel streams of water. When the faucet is open,
water flows in a clear, solid-looking stream, and does not splash.

High efficient toilets fixtures with Low flow - Summary

High efficiency toilets (HETs) designed for water conservation have been defined according to the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) as those that use an average of 20 percent less water per flush than the industry standard of 1.6 gallons (or, 1.28
gallons).

1. Using a high efficiency unit (in place of 1.6 gallon flush units) can save up to 8,760 gallons of water each year for a family of four
with average daily flushes of six each. This is the target to achieve in climates were water is scares.

Types of apparatus:

New innovation lead to 10% greater savings in total bathroom water usage than market leading Smart flush technology and even greater savings
when compared to single flush 11L or standard 6/3L dual-flush toilet suites used in combination with separate hand basin.

www.caroma.com.au
1. Dual-Flush Toilets designed for light and heavy flushes, dual-flush toilets tend to average less than 1.2 gallons per flush. They
meet HET criteria of 1.28 gallons per flush or less (HET criteria for a dual flush toilet identifies the effective flush volume as the
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average of one high flush and two low flushes). Dual flush models are available from many wellwell-known
known manufacturers with light
flush capacities from .8 to 1.1 gallons and heavy flush capacities from 1.3 to 1.6 gallons per fl
flush.
ush. These toilets typically operate
with a handle that can move up or down, or a two button system. One direction or button will activate the lower flow flush, whilew
the other will activate the higher flow flush.

a. residential b. commercial water conversation fixture*


Fig.3 Residential
esidential and commercial types toilet fixtures
Source: ASSE and Tool bases

2. Pressure Assist Toilets Pressure assist, or pressurized tank, toilets are another high perfo performance,
rmance, low consumption
alternative. These toilets use either water line pressure or a device in the tank to create additional force from air pressure
pressur to flush
the toilet. The device in the tank could either be a storage device with compressed air that wou wouldld require replacement or a tank
that creates pressure when the tank is being filled. These toilets typically average 1.1 to 1.2 gallons per flush. Some pressure
press assist
systems move a greater volume of water at a significantly lesser volume of sound.

3. Power Assist Toilets Power assist toilets operate using a pump to force water down at a higher velocity than gravity toilets.
Power assist toilets require a 120V power source to operate the small fractional horsepower pump. Typical flush volumes are
between 1 and 1.3 gallons per flush and dual--flush models are also available.

4. Gravity Fed Single Flush Toilets Gravity fed single flush toilets operate the same way as any standard toilet, however, they
use less total capacity per flush. Typical flush capacities that are available for these models are 1.1 and 1.28 gallons.

Additional guidelines:
Type of fixtures Standard number
Water efficient showerhead using conventional aerator or venturi technology 2 per fixture
for flow rate <2.5 gpm

Water-efficient
efficient sink faucets/aerators <2.2 gallons/minute 2 per fixture

Ultra low flow, (<1.6 gpm/ flush) toilets installed:


Power-assist 4
Dual flush 6

Note: Commercial water conversation fixture are also HETs, flush with 20% less water than Afwall FloWise and Madera
FloWise. Like the residential FloWise toilet, the Afwall toilet and Madera toilets dont.

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Appendix X: Operable Windows and Ventilation Systems
II. Operable Windows

The following images illustrate operable windows on buildings facades in Dubai.

Fig.1 Operable windows in different commercial (Residential) buildings in Dubai


Photo Credit: Authors
III. Ventilation Systems

The ventilation system is independent of the heating/cooling system and supplies outdoor air to all offices. The main air-handling
unit has two heat exchangers, two fans and a heating/cooling coil. Fresh air from the air-handling unit is delivered via
displacement ventilation that places the air close to occupants. Displacement ventilation uses 100% outdoor air. Ventilation air is
introduced at floor level, rises as it warms, and is exhausted at ceiling level. CO2 levels are typically 450 ppm in offices. Incoming
ventilation air passes through a desiccant-coated energy recovery wheel, a cooling coil (in summer only) and a second heat
exchanger before delivery.

Ventilation system operates at full capacity 20 hours a day at two rates. The normal rate is 10L/S/person. The high flow rate is
used when additional fresh air is needed or when free cooling is provided by outdoor air.

A. Displacement Ventilation
It is an air distribution system in which incoming air originates at floor level and rises to exhaust outlets at the ceiling.

Fig.2 A schematic diagram of an efficient ventilation system (Displacement Ventilation)


Source: www.advancedbuildings.org

Incoming air is delivered to interior rooms by way of floor-level vents. This incoming air displaces upper air, which is exhausted
through ceiling-level vents. Because displacement ventilation systems typically use 100% outdoor air, air pollutants generated
within the building are removed at source and are not re-circulated. In addition, heat generated by ceiling level lights is removed,
and thus heat is not included when estimating building cooling loads.

Displacement ventilation is applied in several different ways, depending on the method used to deliver incoming air. In a typical
design, air is released from wall ducts that run under windows. Air is exhausted through ceiling plenums. If the office is more than
five metres wide, one air supply may be insufficient. Additional air supply would be required from interior partitions.

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In another application of displacement ventilation, air is supplied through floor plenums with in-floor fans, or from above-floor
fans associated with workstation air outlets.

A third method uses ceiling jets to send a vertical column of conditioned air to the floor. This method is often used as a means of
personal temperature control.

Types of buildings that shall use Displacement Ventilation are:

High-rise office and Low-rise offices


High-rise and Low-rise apartment s
Retail
Food service
Institutional
Arena

Benefits
DV removes internal heat gains and entrain pollutants captures and removes air pollutants at source

Limitations
It may add complexity to supply air ducting, it is more difficult to incorporate free cooling more difficult to remove sensible and
latent heat gains because of higher air temperatures

Application
Displacement ventilation is typically used in offices and industrial plants. The Scandinavian concept is applied successfully in
offices with double-loaded corridors.

The temperature of incoming air must not be much lower than room temperature in order to avoid chilling the occupants. This
factor has implications for building energy use. In some conditions, additional air volume must be circulated in order to capture
internal sensible heat gains and in order to cool air for dehumidification purposes.

B. Personal Temperature Control

Fig. 3 A schematic diagram of a ventilation system with Personal Temperature Control


Source: Awarded ASHRAE Technology Award, Division 2 (1997)

Types of buildings that shall use temperature control systems are:

high-rise and low-rise office


retail
food service

Limitation:
Installations that include overhead jets may require a minimum pressure of 100 Pascals in the air distribution ducts. Some
installations require a raised-floor supply air plenum.

Source: Awarded ASHRAE Technology Award, Division 2 (1997)

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Appendix XI: Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
Definition
According to a famous IAQ standard in USA (ASHRAE Standard 62-2007) an acceptable IAQ can be defined as:

(a) Air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations; and
(b) Air with which a substantial majority (80% or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.

This definition implies compliance is required with both objective criteria (such as measured concentration of contaminants) to
prevent illness and subjective criteria (such as odour panels) to provide comfort. Like the criteria in thermal comfort, the level of
satisfaction and acceptability (80%) indicates that conditions do not have to be unanimously or universally applicable. The purpose of
the AQI is to help you understand what local air quality means to your health.

Table 1: Seven classes of indoor air pollutants


Pollutant class Typical examples

Combustion products Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, tobacco smoke components
Volatile organic chemicals Pesticide and fungicide components, alcohols, benzene, esters, chloroform
Respirable particulates Asbestos, fiber glass, inorganic and organic dusts, frayed materials, pollen
Respiratory products Water vapour, carbon dioxide
Biologics and bioaerosols Molds and fungi, bacteria, viruses, nonviable microbial particulates
Radionuclide Radon, radon progeny
Odours Odours associated with any of the above
Source: USEPA

Table 2: New Materials: Furnishings and construction materials can have odors associated with formaldehyde and VOCs. Common
products with odorous chemicals include:
Material Chemical
New carpet 4-phenylcyclohexane
New woods Butyric acid
Fiber glass Trim ethylamine
Permanent press textiles Formaldehyde
Vinyl wall covering Methyl isobutyl ketone and styrene
Plastics and resins Phenols
Floor leveler Phenoxyethanol and phenol
Cleaner Butoxyethanol and limonene
* Odors can result from ozone and VOCs such as styrene and other aromatic hydrocarbons. Carbonless copy paper, transparencies,
and labels result in additional odors.
Source: www.usepa.org
Adhesive products:
According to California EPA 10 chemicals are required to meet the threshold as adhesive products for emission levels,
plus 5 additional chemicals. The 15 chemicals are as follows:
Acetaldehyde
Benzothiazole
2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol
Formaldehyde
Isooctylacrylate
Methylbiphenyl
2-Methyl-Pyrrolidinone
Naphthalene
Phenol
4-Phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH)
Styrene
Toluene
Vinyl Acetate
Vinyl Cyclohexene
Xylenes (m-,o-,p-)
Source: Carpets and Rugs Institute, USA
Carpet products:

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According to California EPA, 7 chemicals are required to meet the threshold for emission levels (IAQ) plus 6 additional
chemicals as required by CRI. The 13 chemicals are as follows:
Acetaldehyde
Benzene
Caprolactam
2-Ethylhexanoic Acid
Formaldehyde
1-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone
Naphthalene
Nonanal
Octanal
4-Phenylcyclohexene
Styrene
Toluene
Vinyl Acetate

Chemicals of Concern:

Table 3: Chronic Reference Exposure Levels for organic chemicals with possible indoor
Sources, based on the California OEHHA list as of September 2002
No. Substance Chronic Hazard Index
(CAS #) Inhalation REL
3
(g/m ) Target(s)
1 Acetaldehyde* 9 Respiratory system
(75-07-0)
2 Acrolein 0.06 Respiratory system; eyes
(107-02-8)
3 Acrylonitrile 5 Respiratory system
(107-13-1)
4 Ammonia 200 Respiratory system
(7664-41-7)
5 Arsenic 0.03 Development; Cardiovascular system; Nervous system
(7440-38-2) & arsenic compounds
6 Benzene 60 Hematopoietic system; development; nervous system
(71-43-2)
7 Beryllium 0.007 Respiratory system; immune system
(7440-41-7)
and beryllium compounds
8 Butadiene 20 Reproductive system
(106-99-0)
9 Cadmium 0.02 Kidney; respiratory system
(7440-43-9) & cadmium compounds
10 Carbon tetrachloride 40 Alimentary system; development; nervous system
(56-23-5)
11 Carbon disulfide 800 Nervous system; reproductive system
(75-15-0)
12 Chlorinated dioxins 0.00004 Alimentary system (liver); reproductive system; development;
(1746-01-6) & dibenzofurans endocrine system; respiratory system; hematopoietic system
(5120-73-19)
13 Chlorine 0.2 Respiratory system
(7782-50-5)
14 Chlorine dioxide (10049-04-4) 0.6 Respiratory system
15 Chlorobenzene 1000 Alimentary system; kidney; reproductive system
(108-90-7)
16 Chloroform 300 Alimentary system; kidney; development
(67-66-3)

No. Substance Chronic Hazard Index


(CAS #) Inhalation REL
3
(g/m ) Target(s)
18 Chromium hexavalent: soluble except 0.2 Respiratory system
chromic trioxide

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19 Chromic trioxide 0.002 Respiratory system
(as chromic acid mist)
20 Cresol mixtures (1319-77-3) 600 Nervous system
21 Dichlorobenzene (1,4-) 800 Nervous system; respiratory system; alimentary system;
(106-46-7) kidney
22 Dichloroethylene (1,1) (75-35-4) 70 Alimentary system
23 Diesel Exhaust* 5 Respiratory system
24 Diethanolamine 3 Cardiovascular system; nervous system
(111-42-2)
25 Dimethylformamide (N,N-) 80 Alimentary system ; respiratory system
(68-12-2)
26 Dioxane (1,4-) 3,000 Alimentary system; kidney; cardiovascular system
(123-91-1)
27 Epichlorohydrin 3 Respiratory system; eyes
(106-89-8)
28 Epoxybutane (1,2-) (106-88-7) 20 Respiratory system; cardiovascular system

29 Ethylbenzene 2,000 Development; alimentary system (liver); kidney; endocrine


(100-41-4) system
30 Ethyl chloride 30,000 Development; alimentary system
(75-00-3)
31 Ethylene dibromide 0.8 Reproductive system
(106-93-4)
32 Ethylene dichloride (107-06-2) 400 Alimentary system (liver)
33 Ethylene glycol 400 Respiratory system; kidney; development
(107-21-1)
34 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (110-80 70 Reproductive system; hematopoietic system
35 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate 300 Development
(111-15-9)
36 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether 60 Reproductive system
(109-86-4)
37 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate 90 Reproductive system
(110-49-6)
38 Ethylene oxide 30 Nervous system
(75-21-8)
39 Formaldehyde 3 Respiratory system; eyes
(50-00-0)
40 Glutaraldehyde (111-30-8) 0.08 Respiratory system
41 Hexane (n-) 7000 Nervous system
(110-54-3)
42 Hydrazine 0.2 Alimentary system; endocrine system
(302-01-2)
43 Hydrogen chloride 9 Respiratory system
(7647-01-0)
44 Hydrogen cyanide 9 Nervous system; endocrine system; cardiovascular system
(74-90-8)
45 Hydrogen sulfide 10 Respiratory system
(7783-06-4)
46 Isophorone 2000 Development; liver
(78-59-1)
47 Isopropanol 7,000 Kidney; development
(67-63-0)
48 Maleic anhydride 0.7 Respiratory system
(108-31-6)
49 Manganese & manganese compounds 0.2 Nervous system
50 Mercury & mercury compounds (inorganic) 0.09 Nervous system
51 Methanol 4,000 Development
(67-56-1)

No. Substance Chronic Hazard Index


(CAS #) Inhalation REL Target(s)
3
(g/m )
53 Methyl chloroform 1,000 Nervous system
(71-55-6)
54 Methyl isocyanate 1 Respiratory system; reproductive system
(624-83-9)
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55 Methyl t-butyl ether 8,000 Kidney; eyes; alimentary system (liver)
(1634-04-4)
56 Methylene chloride 400 Cardiovascular system; nervous system
(75-09-2)
57 Methylene dianiline (4,4'-) (101-77-9) 20 Eyes; alimentary system (hepatotoxicity)
58 Methylene Diphenyl Isocyanate (101-68 0.7 Respiratory system
59 Naphthalene 9 Respiratory system
(91-20-3)
60 Nickel & compounds 0.05 Respiratory system; hematopoietic system
(except nickel oxide)
61 Nickel oxide 0.1 Respiratory system; hematopoietic system
(1313-99-1)
62 Phenol 200 Alimentary system; cardiovascular system; kidney; nervous
(108-95-2) system

63 Phosphine 0.8 Respiratory system; alimentary system; nervous system; kidney;


(7803-51-2) hematopoietic system
64 Phosphoric acid 7 Respiratory system
(7664-38-2)
65 Phthalic anhydride (85-44-9) 20 Respiratory system
66 Propylene 3,000 Respiratory system
(115-07-1)
67 Propylene glycol monoethyl ether 7,000 Alimentary system (liver)
(107-98-2)
68 Propylene oxide 30 Respiratory system
(75-56-9)
69 Selenium and selenium compounds (other 20 Alimentary system; cardiovascular system; nervous system
than hydrogen selenide)
70 Styrene 900 Nervous system
(100-42-5)

71 Sulphuric acid 1 Respiratory system


(7664-93-9)
72 Tetrachloroethylene* 35 Kidney; alimentary system (liver)
(perchloroethylene)
(127-18-4)
73 Toluene 300 Nervous system; respiratory system; development
(108-88-3)
74 Toluene diisocyanates (2,4-&2,6-) 0.07 Respiratory system
75 Trichloroethylene 600 Nervous system; eyes
(79-01-6)
76 Triethylamine 200 Eyes
(121-44-8)
77 Vinyl acetate 200 Respiratory system
(108-05-4)
78 Xylenes 700 Nervous system; respiratory system
(m-, o-, p-)

Source: California Environmental Protection Agency CEPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA)

Note: The most recent list shall be used for this specification as published at http://www.oehha.org/air/chronic_rels/allChrels.html
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Calculation of VOCs Concentration

The concentration of a compound in the building shall be calculated using the following Equation;

(Emission factor) * (Loading factor)


Concentration =
(Air change rate)
2 2 3
(g/m hr) * (m /m )
For this equation, the units are: g/m3 =
-1
(h )
This can be simplified as follows:

Concentration = Emission rate

Air change rate


Note: the weekly average air change rate must be used in the calculations of concentrations of contaminants.

Smoke exposure limits


Tobacco smoking can also cause a small increase in indoor CO concentrations. Short-term exposures to highly elevated
concentrations of CO can cause brain damage or death. Lower concentrations can exacerbate the heart disease,
angina.
Current indoor exposure guidelines (WHO 2000) are set in relation to exposure durations is shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Smoke Exposure limits inside buildings


CO Limits Exposed time

100 mg/m3 15 minutes*

60 mg/ m3 30 minutes*

30 mg/ m3 60 minutes* (1 hour)

10 mg/ m3 8 hour

Note *: exposures must be limited to these time periods and must not be repeated within eight hours.

Source: www.who.org/ /www.yourbuilding.org

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Appendix XII: Cool Roof Materials and Solar Reflectance Index
Introduction

Cool roofs are a highly reflective and emissive material that remains 50 to 60 degrees F cooler in the summer sun, hence, reducing
energy costs, improving occupant comfort, cutting maintenance costs, increasing the life-cycle of the roof, and contributing to the
reduction of urban heat islands and associated smog.

If the building have a dark-colored roof, it will be hotter than if it had a light-colored roof. Cool Roofs are roofs consisting of
materials that very effectively reflect the sun's energy from the roof surface outwards. Cool materials for low-slope roofs are
mainly bright white in color, although non-white colors are starting to become known and available for sloped roof applications.
Cool Roofs must also have high emissivity, allowing them to emit infrared energy. Cool roofs reduce the roof surface temperature
by up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, thereby reducing the heat transferred into the building below.

White Metal Roofing


Coated aluminum
sheets covering

 Cool roof : white coating b) Cool roof by using aluminum covering


Fig.1 Cool roof applications Aviation College, Dubai
Photos: Authors

Cool roof by using aluminum covering


Fig.2 Cool roof application DCCI building, Dubai
Photos: Authors

Cool roof materials have two important surface properties: a high solar reflectance or Albedo and a high thermal emittance.
Solar reflectance is the percentage of solar energy that is reflected by a surface. Thermal emittance is defined as the percentage
of energy a material can radiate away after it is absorbed.

Cool roofs reflect heat well across the entire solar spectrum, especially in the infrared and visible wavelengths. The less solar
radiation materials absorb, the cooler they are. In addition to absorbing less heat, the coolest roofing materials radiate away any
absorbed heat. Cool roofs keep your building cooler in the summer, reducing air conditioning bill. A cool roof installation not only
reduces energy costs, but will also benefit in terms of:

Save up to 10% on electricity bills during the summer months by reducing air conditioning use
Save peak electricity demand costs if you have time-of-use metering
Increase indoor comfort by decreasing indoor temperatures during the summer months

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Reduce the heat island effect in cities and suburbs
Reduce air pollution and smog formation

The following chart illustrates the cool roof materials of different Albedo reflectance indices.

Fig.3 Roof Cool and materials characteristics (SRI)

Source: ASHRAE Green Guide

White-topping:
White-topping is a cool paving technique in which an existing pavement is covered by a layer of light-colored concrete. It involves
adding a four to eight inch thick layer over the asphalt base or the roof base cover (concrete). However, a new method called
ultra-thin white topping requires only two to four inches of concrete.

Cool roof Performance

The performance of cool roofs is affected by the accumulation of dirt. Dirt accumulation can be reduced if roof surfaces
slope at least 0.25 in./ft.
When liquid-applied coatings are used, carefully select coatings that is compatible with the underlying substrate.
Liquid-applied cool roof coatings should comply with ASTM Standard 6083-97 for durability and elongation and have a
minimum thickness of 20mils.

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Appendix XIII: Bright (Light) Colour Materials for Pavements
Introduction

To reduce the heat island effect materials should stay cool in sunlight on at least half of the sites non-roof impervious surfaces,
such as sidewalks, courtyards, plazas and parking lots (hardscape). The materials solar reflectance index (SRI) must be at least 29.
Where paved surfaces are required, using materials with higher SRI will reduce the heat island effect, consequently saving energy
by reducing demand for air conditioning, and improve air quality.

Concrete and concrete pavers are ideally suited to meet this requirement. Ordinary Portland cement concrete has an SRI in the
range of 38 to 52, although it can vary. New concrete made with white Portland cement has an SRI of 86.

It can also be achieved with concrete, specifically white cement tiles, with an SRI of 90. The threshold for the roof credit is 75% of
the roof with an SRI of 78 or better for low-slope and 29 or better for steep-slope. However, concrete surfaces can help in
reducing surface temperature. The following table illustrates cool materials for pavements.

Table 1: Solar reflectance (Albedo), Emittance, and Solar Reflective Index (SRI) of select material surfaces
Material surface Solar Reflectance* Emittance SRI*
Black acrylic paint 0.05 0.9 0.0
New asphalt 0.05 0.9 0.0
Aged asphalt 0.1 0.9 6
White asphalt shingle 0.21 0.91 21
Aged concrete 0.2 to 0.3 0.9 19 to 32
New concrete (ordinary) 0.35 to 0.45 0.9 38 to 52
New white Portland cement concrete 0.7 to 0.8 0.9 86 to 100
White acrylic paint 0.8 0.9 100
* SRI Solar Reflectance Index

Table 2: Solar Reflectance and Thermal Performance of Asphalt Shingles


Product Solar Reflectance Infrared Emittance Temperature Rise (F) Solar Reflectance

White 0.21 0.91 68 21


ISP K-711 White 0.36 0.91 55 40
ISP K-711 White 0.31 0.91 59 34
Shasta White 0.26 0.91 64 27
Generic White 0.25 0.91 64 26
Generic Grey 0.22 0.91 67 22
Antique Silver 0.20 0.91 69 19
Aspen Gray 0.17 0.91 71 17
Ocean Gray 0.12 0.91 76 9
Gray 0.08 0.91 79 4
Beachwood Sand 0.20 0.91 69 19
Light Brown 0.19 0.91 70 18
Medium Lt. Brown 0.10 0.91 77 7
Medium Brown 0.12 0.91 76 9
Autumn Brown 0.10 0.91 77 7
Dark Brown 0.08 0.91 79 4
Green 0.19 0.91 70 18
Surf Green 0.16 0.91 72 14
Onyx Black 0.03 0.91 83 -2
Island Brown 0.09 0.91 78 6
Weathered Wood 0.08 0.91 79 4
Coral 0.16 0.91 72 14
Saddle Tan 0.16 0.91 72 14
Desert Tan 0.12 0.91 76 9
Generic Black 0.05 0.91 82 1
Black 0.05 0.91 82 1

Source: LNBL, USA

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Appendix IVX: Sloped/Cascaded (Staggered) Roof
Introduction

Slope Roof
A slope roof is a roof surface with an inclination towards North to reduce the impact of solar intensity normally during noon time
by reducing and reduce the altitude angle and making the solar beam less perpendicular.

Sun

Highest intensity of solar radiation beam at 12 noon

Sloped roof at 45

45
90
Building roof flat

Fig.1 A schematic drawing for a sloped roof at 45 and compared with a flat roof with the heist solar intensity

This appendix highlights some examples of sloped/cascaded roofs of buildings. Some of these examples are being built in the City
of Dubai. It also illustrates examples of ill-oriented sloped roofs.

st nd
Fig.2 Examples of 2 buildings with sloped roofs: 1 is Whitney Water Purification Facility in New Haven, CT; and 2 is an Animal
Care Facility in Las Vegas, NV, USA (Source: www.aia.org)
Photo credit: Paul Warchol Photo credit: Tom Bonner

a) Cascaded roof facing N-S (Jumeirah) b) Sloped roof facing N/E-W (Jumeirah) c) Sloped roof facing N/E-W (Burjman office)

Fig.3 Examples of 3 commercial buildings with sloped/cascaded roofs in Dubai (a hotel and 2 office buildings)
Photo credit: Authors

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a & b a sloped roof facing north-south
south near DIC c. Steeped roof facing N-S d. A steeped roof facing north-East
north

Fig.4.. Examples of Sloped roofs of commercial (residential and office) buildings near DMI and Marsa, Dubai
Photo credit: Authors

Fig.5. Examples of Sloped roofs facing north - south of commercial (residential) buildings Umm Sequim - Jumeirah, Dubai
Photo credit: Authors

a) ill-oriented
oriented sloped roof facing south
south-west b) ill-oriented sloped roof facing west though it is cool roof

Fig.6. Example of ill


ill-oriented sloped roof in Sheikh Zayed Road and Deira, Dubai
Photo credit: Authors

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