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EE Electrical lnstallation Estimating and Costing

l. Step'Up or Primary Substations. Such substations are usually associated with

generating stations. The generated voltage, which is usualiy low (11 or 33 k\), is stepped
up to primarv transmission voltage so that huge blocks of power can be transmitted over
Iong distances to the load centres economically.
2. irimary Grid Subststions. Such substations are located at suitable load centres along
the primary transrnission 1ines. In these substations, the primary transmission voltage
is stepped down to different suitable secondary voltages. 'Ihe secondary transmission lines
are carried (rver to the secondary substations situated at the ioad centres where the
voltage is further stepped down to sub-transmission or primary distribution r.,oltages.
3. Step-Dou)n or Distribution Substations. Such substations are located at the loacl
centres, lvhere the sub-transmission/primary distribution voltage is stepped down to
secondary distribution voltage (4751240 $. These are the substations which feecl the
consumers through distribution network and service lines.
13.2.2. Classification of Substations on The Basis of Service Rendered. The substations,
according to service rendered are:
1. Transformer Substations. T4ansformers are installed on such substations to transform
the power from one voltage levei to another level as per needs.
2. Su;itching Substcttions. Such sutrstations are meant for switching operation of power
lines without transforming the voltage. At such substations different connections are
made between various transmission lines.
3. Conuerting Substations. Such substations are meant for either converting ac to dc or
vice versa or converting frequency frorn higher to lower ol vice versa.
13.2.3. Classification of Substations on The Basis of Operating Voltage. The
substations, according to operating voltage, may be categorised as
L. High Voltage Substations (HV Substations) involving voltages between 11 k\i and
66 kV.
2. Extra High Voltage Substations (EIIV Substations) involving voltages between
132 kV and 400 kV.
3. Ultra High Voltage Substations (IJHV Substations) operating on voltage above
400 kv.
13.2.4. Classification of Substations on The Basis of Importance.
1. Grid Substations. These are the substations from where bulk power is transmitted
from one poiut to another point in the grid. These are important because any disturbance
in these substations may cause the failure of the grid.
2. Town Substations. These substations step-down the voltages at 3il/11 kV for furthe,y
distribution in the towns and any failure in such substations results in the failure of
supply for whole of the torvn.
13.2.5. Classification of Substations on The Basis of Design.
L. Indoor Type Substa,tions,In such substations the apparatus is installed 'aiithin the
substation building. Such substations are usuaily for a voltage up to 11 kV but can be erected
for the 33 k'V and 66 kV when the surrounding atmosphere is contaminated with impurities
such as metal corroding gases and fumes, conductive dust etc.
2. Outdoor Substations. These substations are further subdivided into :
(a) Pole h[ottnted Substations. Such substaticns are erected fbr distribution of power in
localities. Single stout pole or H-poie and 4-pole structures with suitable piatforms are employed
for transforrnels of, capacity up to 25 kVA, 125 kVA and above 125 kVA ftut up to 2b0 k\/A)