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Reinforced Concrete Element

Design of Two Ways Slab System

LB3 Civil Engineering ITS

Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan


Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

Last Edited 2014

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete Element First Ed Nov 2014 1 / 41


Introduction

If the uniformly loaded rectangular slab supported on all four edges,


then the deformed surface of the slab will be doubly curved, with the
load effects transferred to all the four supporting edges. Such action is
called a two-way action.
The bending moments are expectedly maximum at the middle of the
slab, and of the two principal moments (Mx , My ) at the middle point,
the one (Mx ) along the short span (lx ) is invariably greater.
As the aspect ratio ly /lx (i.e., long span/short span) increases, the
curvatures and moments along the long span progressively reduce,
and more and more of the slab load is transferred to the two long
supporting edges by bending in the short span direction. In such cases,
the bending moments (My ) are generally low in magnitude. Hence,
such long rectangular slabs (ly /lx > 2) may be approximated as
one-way slabs, for convenience in analysis and design.

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When One Way or Two Ways Slab

Differences between one way slabs and two way slabs located on how
the slabs deformed when the load applied on the top of slabs.

One way slab. Two way slab.

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Slab Types: a). Flat Plate, b). Flat Slab, c). Slab on beam, d). Waffle Slab

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Momen on One and Two Ways Slab

The reinforcements in a two-way slab should ideally be oriented in the


directions of the two principal moments (i.e., principal curvatures) at
every point. However, this is not generally convenient in practice, and
the bars are usually placed along the transverse and longitudinal
directions throughout the slab.
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Torsion in Two-Way Slabs

In general, twisting moments develop in addition to bending moments


in a two-way slab element except when the element is oriented along
the principal curvatures. These twisting moments can become
significant at points along the slab diagonals.
In practice, however, corners are usually prevented from lifting up (by
wall loads from above, or by monolithic edge beams framing into
columns); such slabs are said to be torsionally restrained. In such
cases, the corners have to be suitably reinforced at top, (for the
moment M1 with reinforcement placed parallel to the diagonal) and
also at bottom (for the moment M2 with reinforcement placed
perpendicular to the diagonal); otherwise cracks are liable to form at
the corner. (SNI/ACI 13.3.6).

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(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete Element First Ed Nov 2014 7 / 41
Methods of Analysis

Two-way slabs are highly statically indeterminate. They may be


visualised as being comprised of intersecting, closely-spaced grid
beam-strips which are subject to flexure, torsion and shear. Owing to
the high static indeterminacy, rigorous solutions are not generally
available.
The available solutions, based on the classical theory of plates, one of
approximate method is the so-called Rankine-Grashoff method
(further modified by Marcus), the main feature of this method is that it
simplifies a highly indeterminate problem to an equivalent simple
determinate one.
The design factored moment is obtained as:

Mu = wu l2x
where wu is the uniformly distributed factored load and lx the effective
short span and is the appropriate moment coefficient.

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Positive moment coefficients x+ , y+

The value of y+ is obtainable from the following formula:

y+ = (24 + 2nd + 1.5n2d )1000

where nd is number of discontinuous edges. Corresponding to nd = 0,


1, 2, 3 and 4, the values of y+ are obtained as 0.0240, 0.0275, 0.0340,
0.0435 and 0.0560 respectively.
The value of x+ is obtainable from:
q
+
2 3 18 y ( Cs1 + Cs2 ) /r
x+ =
9 (Cl1 + Cl2 )2
(
ly 1 for a discontinuous edge
where r = and C =
lx 7/3 for continuous edge

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Negative moment coefficients x , y
Negative moment at a continuous support is 4/3 times the positive
moment capacity in the midspan region. Of course, at a discontinuous
support, the negative moment developed is zero. Accordingly,

0 at discontinuous support
= 4 +
at a continuous support
3

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Detailing of Flexural Reinforcement
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Detailing of Corner Reinforcement

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SNI ACI 13.3.6.1 - Corner reinforcement in both top and bottom of
slab shall be sufficient to resist a moment per unit of width equal to
the maximum positive moment per unit width in the slab panel.

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Table: Moment for Fixed Support Slab

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Table: Moment for Partially Fixed Support Slab

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ly /lx 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 >2.5
I. pic Mlx = +0.001ql2x X 44 52 59 66 73 78 84 88 93 97 100 103 106 108 110 112 125
Mly = +0.001ql2x X 44 45 45 44 44 43 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 25
II. pic Mlx = +0.001ql2x X 21 25 28 31 34 36 37 38 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 42

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Minimum Slab Thickness For Deflection Control

The SNI/ACI Code, Sections 9.5.3.3 and 9.5.3.4, specifies a minimum


slab thickness in two-way slabs to control deflection.
fy
ln (0.8 +)
1. For 0.2 < fm 2, h= 1400 125 mm. (SNI/ACI
36 + 5(fm 0.2)
9-12)
fy
ln (0.8 + )
2. For fm > 2.0, h= 1400 90 mm. (SNI/ACI 9-13)
36 + 9
3. For fm 0.2 as SNI/ACI Table 9.5
Where = ly /lx , ratio of long span to short. span.
fm is average for all sides, and
E I
= cb b is ratio beam stiffness to plate stiffness.
Ecp Ip

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Slab Included as Part of Beam

SNI/ACI 3.2.4 - For monolithic or fully composite construction, a beam


includes that portion of slab on each side of the beam extending a
distance equal to the projection of the beam above or below the slab,
whichever is greater, but not greater than four times the slab thickness.

That part of slab will be included in beam stiffness calculation.

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(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete Element First Ed Nov 2014 19 / 41
Minimum Reinforcement of Slabs
SNI/ACI 13.3.1 - Area of reinforcement in each direction for two-way
slab systems shall be determined from moments at critical sections, but
shall not be less than required by 7.12.2.1.
7.12.2.1 - Area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall
provide at least the following ratios of reinforcement area to gross
concrete area, but not less than 0.0014:
(a) Slabs where Grade 280 or 350 deformed bars are used . . . . . 0.0020
(b) Slabs where Grade 420 deformed bars or welded wire
reinforcement are used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0018
(c) Slabs where reinforcement with yield stress exceeding 420 MPa
fy
measured at a yield strain of 0.35 percent is used . . . . . . . 0.0018
420
7.12.2.2 - Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be spaced not
farther apart than five times the slab thickness, nor farther apart than
450 mm.
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Slab reinforcement Spacing

13.3.2 - Spacing of reinforcement at critical sections shall not exceed


two times the slab thickness, except for portions of slab area of cellular
or ribbed construction. In the slab over cellular spaces, reinforcement
shall be provided as required by 7.12.
7.12.2.2 - Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be spaced not
farther apart than five times the slab thickness, nor farther apart than
450 mm.

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Example

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We design Plate b,
clear span of Long axis.
40 30
ln = 300 = 265 cm.
2 2
clear span of Short axis.
30 30
sn = 200 = 170 cm.
2 2
265
= = 1.56
170
Take slab thickness h = 12 cm, fc0 = 27 MPa, fy = 300 MPa.
See beam Axis B, joint 1-2 :

Calculate effective width, SNI/ACI 8.12.2


be = bw + 2hw bw + 8hf
be = 40 + 2(60 12) = 136 cm
be = 40 + 8 12 = 136 cm take this.

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Wang and Salmon, in their book "Reinforced Concrete Design"
provide the neat way to calculate T-section inertia, by a coeficient k as:
  "    2    3 #
be t t t be t
1+ 1 46 +4 + 1
bw h h h bw h
k=   
be t
1+ 1
bw h

bw h 3
Inertia calculated as : I = k
12
For our beam B,1-2, we get k = 1.642
40 603
Ib = 1.642 = 1182240 cm4
12
Inertia of slabe is:
bp t3 0.5 (200 + 300) 123
Ip = = = 36000 mm4
12 12
I 1182240
Stiffness ratio: 1 = b = = 32.84
Ip 36000
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(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete Element First Ed Nov 2014 25 / 41
Similarly for:
Beam axis C,1-2, we get 2 = 8.64
Beam axis 2,B-C, we get 3 = 8.64
Beam axis 1,B-c, we get 4 = 21.94
From four of our sides, the fm is calculated:
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 32.84 + 8.64 + 8.64 + 21.94
fm = = = 18.02
4 4
because fm > 2 use SNI/ACI eq 9-13
fy 300
ln (0.8 + ) 2650(0.8 + )
h= 1400 = 1400 = 52.96 < 90 mm.
36 + 9 36 + 9 1.56
use slab thickness h = 90 mm.

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The following example will use slab (e):
ly
Assumed h = 12 cm, ly = 400 cm, lx = 300 cm, = = 1.33
lx
Loading calculation:
A. Dead Load:
- Slab self load = 0.12 2400 = 288 kg/m2
- Floor tiles = 0.03 (240 + 210) = 135 kg/m2
- Ceiling + hanger = 11 + 7 = 18 kg/m2
- Piping (clean water and drain) = 25 kg/m2
- Electrical, AC, etc = 40 kg/m2
+
qDL = 506 kg/m2
B. Live Load:
qLL = 400 kg/m2 , For library function.
Designed Ultimate Load:
qU = 1.2qDL + 1.6qLL = 1.2 506 + 1.6 400 = 1248 kg/m2
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Momen acting on slab, use existing table of moment:
Mtx = 0.001 1248 3.02 53 = 595.30 kg.m/m
Mlx = 0.001 1248 3.02 53 = 595.30 kg.m/m
Mty = 0.001 1248 3.02 38 = 426.82 kg.m/m
Mly = 0.001 1248 3.02 38 = 426.82 kg.m/m
Effective depth of slab:
dx = h dec db /2 = 120 20 5 = 95 mm.
dy = h dec db db /2 = 120 20 10 5 = 85 mm.

X-dir reinforcement:
Mu 595.30 9.8 103
Rn = = = 0.7182 MPa.
bw d 0.9 1000 95
fy 300
m= = = 13.07
0.85fc0 0.85 27
(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete Element First Ed Nov 2014 28 / 41
s !
1 2mRn
= 1 1
m fy
r !
1 2 13.07 0.7182
= 1 1 = 0.00243
13.07 300
As = bw d = 0.00253 1000 95 = 231.11 mm2 /m.
Use 10 200, As = 392.7 mm2
Y-dir reinforcement:
Mu 426.82 9.8 103
Rn = = = 0.6432 MPa.
bw d 0.9 1000 85
fy 300
m= 0
= = 13.07
0.85fc s0.85 27 !
1 2mRn
= 1 1
m fy
r !
1 2 13.07 0.6432
= 1 1 = 0.00218
13.07 300
As = bw d = 0.00218 1000 85 = 184.88 mm2 /m.(10 200)
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By Using Table Moment, x-axis

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By Using Table Moment, y-axis

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Home Work

A rectangular slab with the size of 400x500cm, all sides supported by


beams of 300x550mm. If the slab function as a ballroom, design the
slab thickness and its reinforcement.

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Beam Forces Induced by Slab

Based on Yieldline Theory now we can assumed the loads acting on


the beam as the slab is divided by its "virtual lines" across the surface,
as shown bellow:

45 45 45 45 45 45
45 45 45 45 45 45

45 45 45 45
45 45 45 45

(a) Rectangular Slab (b) Square Slab (c) 3 sides support.

The beams will support "triangle load" or "trapezoid load" depends on


the yieldline drawn on the side of the beam.

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Slab Loads on Beam

The loads acting on the beam induced by a slab is defined as:


1 1
2 lx ly la 2 lx

1
2 qlx

lx lx is short span length.


ly is long span length.

1
2 qlx

ly

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Equivalent Uniform Load for Trapezoid

Lets trapezoidal load on the beam will be replaced by uniform load, as


follows:
1
2 qlx
1
2 qlx

qeq

P1 P2
P1 + P2

P1 = 12 lx 12 qlx 12 , P2 = 12 (ly lx ) 21 qlx


Mmax = (P1 + P2 ) 2 ly P1 ( 21 (ly lx )
1 21 1
3 2 lx ) P2 ( 4 (ly lx ))
Mmax = 18 qeq l2y
1 1 l2
qeq = qlx (1 2x )
2 3 ly

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete Element First Ed Nov 2014 36 / 41


Equivalent Uniform Load for Triangle

Lets triangle load on the beam will be replaced by uniform load, as


follows:
1 1
2 qlx 2 qlx
qe q

P1
lx P1

P1 = 12 lx 12 qlx 12 = 18 ql2x
Mmax = P1 ( 21 lx )2 P1 13 12 lx
Mmax = 18 qeq l2x
1
qeq = qlx
3

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Example

1 2
A

300cm Assumed the ultimate


load on slab qu = 1200
A1 kg/m2.
Find the forces caused
300cm
by slab load on beam
A1-B1.
B

350cm 350cm

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Solution:
1 2
A

300cm

As picture shows, the


A1 beam A1 B1 , will
recieve two triangle
300cm
loads and 1 point load.
The Point load ocure
B from the beam
A1 1 A1 2, which
350cm 350cm
recieve two trapezoids,
1 1
2 qlx 2 qlx one on each side.
P

A1 B1
2lx

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Long Direction (Y-Dir):
Equivalent Uniform loads (qeq ):
1 1 l2
qeq = qlx (1 2x )
1
2 qlx
qeq 2 3 ly
lx = 300, ly = 350,
1
A11 A12 2 qlx = 180000 kg-m/m
ly Load on beam:
1 l2
qeq = 2 180000 (1 x2 )
3 ly
Mb qeq = 271836.73 kg/m.
Mb = 10
1 1
qeq l2y = 10 271836.73 3502

Mb+ Mb = 3329999942.5 kg-m
Vl
Vl = 12 qeq ly = 21 271836.73 350
Vl = 47571427.75 kg.
Slab moment on beam :
Ms = 0.001ql2x 44 = 4752000
kg-m/m.
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Shot Direction (X-dir):
1
Pb 2 qlx
qeq
Mmax = P1 lx P1 21 lx = 18 qeq (2lx )2
P1 = 12 qlx lx 21 = 14 ql2x
A1 B1 qeq = 1 qlx = 1 1200 300 = 180000
P1 P1 2 2
2lx

MA = 81 qeq (2lx )2 + 18 Pb (2lx)2
MA
MA = 18 180000(2 300)2 +
1 2
8 47571427.75(2 300)

MA = 2148814248750 kg-m.
M1+
VA1
VA1 = 21 qeq + 12 Pb = 23875713.87 kg
TA1 = Ms lx + Mb 21
1
= 4752000 300 + 3329999942.5 2
TA1
TA1 = 3090599971.25 kg-m.
The Torsion is Compatibility
Torsion.

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