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TOPIC 5

UNIFORM FLOW IN
OPEN CHANNEL
5.1 INTRODUCTION

The stream not completely enclosed by solid boundaries


Occur when free water surface in the channel is at atmosphere
pressure
Example of open channel:
Rivers and streams
Drainage
Ditches
Irrigation canal
5.2 TYPES OF CHANNELS
Types of
Channels

Open
Channel
Without any cover
Closed
Natural Arificial Prismatic Channel
Channel Channel Channel Having a cover

Irregular shape Regular shape Constant bed slope and


i.e : river, water falls the same cross section
i.e : drains, culverts along its length
Prismatic Channel Natural Channel

Artificial Channel Closed Channel


5.3 TYPES OF OPEN CHANNEL
FLOWS
(1) (2)
Steady Flow Unsteady Flow
y (depth of water) and v y and v change with time
(velocity) remain constant
with respect to time

Uniform Flow

Non-Uniform Flow
Gradually Varied Flow
Rapidly Varied Flow
Section 1 rapidly varying flow
Section 2 gradually varying flow
Section 3 hydraulic jump
Section 4 weir and waterfall
Section 5 gradually varying
Section 6 hydraulic drop due to change in channel slope
Types of Flow

Variation in Time?
Steady flow velocity and depth change with time
Unsteady flow velocity and depth change with time
Variation in Space?
Uniform flow velocity and depth same at every cross-
section
Nonuniform flow velocity and depth vary between cross-
sections
Flow Rate

Steady

Unsteady

Time

Steady and Non-Steady Flow


5.4 UNIFORM FLOW

It is the flow in which conditions of flow remains constant


from section to section
e.g : constant discharge though a constant diameter pipe
5.5 HYDRAULIC GRADIENT, WET
PERIMETER AND HYDRAULIC RADIUS

There are several important geometrical properties of open


channels that need to be understood before analysis of flow
in open channel can be attempted.
These properties include;

i) Flow cross-sectional area, A


ii) Hydraulic Gradient
iii) Wetted perimeter, P
iv) Hydraulic mean depth, m or hydraulic radius
Open Channel Flow
GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF
OPEN CHANNELS
5.6 HYDRAULIC GRADIENT, WET
PERIMETER AND HYDRAULIC RADIUS

Hydraulic gradient
The hydraulic grade line, or the hydraulic gradient, in open flow is the
water surface, and in pipe flow it connects the elevations to which the
water would rise in piezometer tubes along the pipe. The energy gradient is
at a distance equal to the velocity head above the hydraulic gradient

Hydraulic Radius, Rh
The hydraulic radius of a section is not a directly measurable characteristic,
but it is used frequently during calculations. It is defined as the area divided
by the wetted perimeter, and therefore has units of length. The hydraulic
radius controls the speed of flow in a channel, and thus its efficiency.
Rh = A/P
Where; A = cross sectional area of flow
P = wetted perimeter
Wetted Perimeter
In open channel flow, "wetted perimeter" is a term used in various
engineering fields to refer to the section of a channel's perimeter that
is wet when the channel is full to a given depth. The greater the wetted
perimeter, the more friction there is between the water, bed and banks
and, therefore, the slower the water flow.
5.7 CONTINUITY EQUATION

3a
Inflow 3 A
Change in Storage
3b

Outflow
1 A 2
Section AA

Inflow Outflow = Change in Storage


General Flow Equation

Q = vA Equation 1

Area of the
cross-section
Avg. velocity
of flow at a (m2)
Flow rate
(m3/s) cross-section
(m/s)
5.8 UNIFORM AND NON-UNIFORM
FLOW
5.9 RESISTANCE EQUATION

1. Chezy Equation
By Antoine Chezy (France), 1768
2. Manning Equation
By Robert Manning (Irish), 1889
5.9.1 CHEZY EQUATION

Introduced by the French engineer Antoine Chezy in 1768


while designing a canal for the water-supply system of Paris

v C Ri
Because i = So, so

v C RS o

Q AC RS o
5.9.1 CHEZY EQUATION

where C = Chezy coefficient


= L1/2/T (Unit m1/2/s)

m m
60 < C < 150
s s

where 60 is for rough and 150 is for smooth


5.9.2 MANNING EQUATION

Most popular in for open channels around the


world C = R1/6 / n
SI Unit
1 2/3 1/2 n = Manning roughness
V R h So
Dimensions of n? T /L
1/3 coefficient
n = T/L1/3 (Unit s/m1/3)

1 .49
V R 2/3
h S1/2
o (English system)
n
Q VA Bottom slope
1
Q ARh2 / 3 S o1 / 2
n very sensitive to n
MANNING ROUGHNESS
COEFFICIENT, N

Lined Canals n
Cement plaster 0.011 n = f (surface
Untreated gunite 0.016 roughness,
Wood, planed 0.012
Wood, unplaned 0.013
channel
Concrete, trowled 0.012 irregularity,
Concrete, wood forms, unfinished 0.015 stage...)
Rubble in cement 0.020
Asphalt, smooth 0.013
Asphalt, rough 0.016
Natural Channels
Gravel beds, straight 0.025
Gravel beds plus large boulders 0.040
Earth, straight, with some grass 0.026
Earth, winding, no vegetation 0.030
Earth , winding with vegetation 0.050
HYDRAULIC RADIUS RELATIONS FOR
VARIOUS OPEN-CHANNEL GEOMETRIES
A = r2 (r2
sin2)/2

r P = 2r
d
r r sin 2
y Rh
2 4
r
If running half full;
A = d2/8
Circular channel ( is in radians)
P = d/2
Rh = d/4

A = x 2my x y
m
P = 2y 1 + m2
y R = A/P
or
A = y2tan

Triangle channel y
P = 2
cos
y sin
Rh =
2
HYDRAULIC RADIUS RELATIONS FOR
VARIOUS OPEN-CHANNEL GEOMETRIES

A = by
P = b + 2y
y by
Rh =
b 2y

Rectangular channel

b A = (b + xy) y
x x
P = b + 2y 1 x2

Rh =
b xy y
y
b 2y 1 x 2
l l
or
A = y(b + y/tan)
b
P = b + 2y/sin
Trapezoidal channel
y(b y / tan )
Rh =
b 2 y / sin
EXAMPLE 1
A rectangular concrete channel is 3 m wide and 2 m high. The water in the channel
is 1.5 m deep and is flowing at a rate of 30 m3/s. Determine the flow area, wetted
perimeter and hydraulic radius.
Solution:
From the sections shape (rectangular), we can easily calculate the area as the
rectangles width multiplied by its depth. Note that the depth used should be the
actual depth of flow, not the total height of the cross-section. The wetted perimeter
can also be found easily through simple geometry.
i. Flow area
A = 3.0 m 1.5 m
= 4.5 m2
ii. Wetted perimeter
Pw = 3.0 m + (2 1.5 m)
= 6.0 m
iii. Hydraulic Radius
R = A / Pw
= 4.5 m2 / 6.0 m
= 0.75 m
EXAMPLE 2
Find the velocity of flow and rate of flow of water through a rectangular channel
of 6 m wide and 3 m deep, when it is running full. The channel is having bed slope
as 1 in 2000. Take Chezys constant C = 55.

Solution:
Given:
Width of rectangular channel b=6m
Depth of channel d=3m
Area A = 6 x 3 = 18 m2
1
Bed slope S = 1 in 2000 = = 5 x 10-4
2000
Chezys constant C = 55
Perimeter P = b + 2d = 6 + 2 x 3 = 12 m
A 18
Hydraulic mean depth, R= = 1.5 m
P 12

Velocity V = C (R h S)

V = 55 1.5x (5x10 4 ) = 1.506 m/s


Rate of flow Q = V x A = 1.506 x18 = 27.108 m/s
EXAMPLE 3
Find the bed slope of trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m, depth of water 3 m
and side slope of 3 horizontal to 4 vertical, when the discharge through the channel
is 30 m/s. Take Chezys constant, C = 70.

Solution:
Given:
Bed width b = 6.0 m
Depth of flow d = 3.0 m
Side slope = 3 horizontal to 4 vertical
Discharge Q = 30 m/s
Chezys constant C = 70
For depth of flow = 3 m = CE
3 9
Distance BE = 3 x = 2.25 m
4 4
Top width CD = AB + 2 x BE = 6.0 + 2 x 2.25 = 10.50 m

Wetted perimeter P = AD + AB + BC = AP + 2BC


2 2 2 2
Area of flow A = Area of trapezoidal ABCD
(AB CD) xCE (6 10.50) x3.0
= = 24.75 m
2 2
A 24.75
Hydraulic Radius, Rh = = 1.833m
P 13.50

1
Q=AxC (mi) = 9.2376 x 55 x 1
1000

30.0 = 24.75 x 70 x (1.833i)

= 2345.6 i
2
30
i= = 1/ ( 2345.6 / 30)
2345.6
= 1/ 6133
EXAMPLE 4
Calculate the flow rate, Q in the channel shown in Figure below, if the roughness
coefficient n = 0.025 and the slope of the channel is 1:1600.

Solution:
Length AB = zd + b + zd
= 2(1.25) + 4.5 + (2)(1.25)
= 2.5 + 4.5 + 2.5
= 9.5 m
1
Flow cross-sectional area, A = (4.5 9.5)(1.25)
2
= 8.75 m2

Wetted Perimeter, P = b 2d 1 z 2

= 4.5 2(1.25) 1 2 2
= 4.5 + 5.59
= 10.09 m
A
Hydraulic mean depth, R h
P
8.75
=
10.09
= 0.867m
Using Mannings Equation;
1 2 1
Q= AR h 3 S 2
n
1
1 2 1 2
Q= x8.75x (0.867) 3 x
0.025 1600
= 7.95 m3/s