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WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

SAMPLE PROBLEMS IN COASTAL HYDRAULICS, VVR040

by

Hans Hanson

1.

(a)

Write down the wave dispersion equation and derive simplified equations for wave

length and wave celerity in deep and shallow water. (Hint: in deep water kd is large and in shallow water kd is small)

(b) A wave with period T = 10s moves from a water depth of 200 m to a depth of 3 m.

Calculate the wave celerity (C) and wave length (L) at both depths (i.e. at 200 m and 3 m, respectively).

(c) How do T, L, and C vary as we progress from deep to shallow water?

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

(a) A wave with period T = 8s and height H = 5 m is at a depth of d = 15 m. Calculate

the local horizontal and vertical particle velocities, u and w, and accelerations, a x and

a z , at a depth of 5 m below the surface when

theory (Airy).

(b) A wave with height H = 3 m and period T = 10 s is at a water depth of d =12 m.

The same wave at deep water has a wave height of H o = 3.15 m. Calculate the horizontal and vertical water particle displacements for z = 0 and z = -d at d = 12 m

when

displacement radius for z = 0 in deep water. Use first order theory.

(c) Draw the theoretical particle motion paths under passing wave, indicating how the

path varies with depth. 1 sketch for deep-water conditions and 1 sketch for transitional

water depth, and 1 for shallow water.

2

x

2t

L

T

3

. Use first order

2

x

2t

L

T

3

. Also determine the horizontal and vertical water particle

(a) At a depth of d = 12 m he wave height H = 3 m and the wave period T = 10 sec.

Find the maximum horizontal and vertical displacement of a water particle from its mean position for z = 0 and z = -d, respectively.

(b) Find the maximum water particle displacement at an elevation of z = -7.5 m when

the wave is in deep water. The corresponding deepwater wave height is H o = 3.13 m and T = 10 sec.

(c) At the wave base (z = -L o /2) in (b), show that the particle displacements are small

relative to the wave height H o .

(a) A wave recorder is located 1m above the sea floor. The water depth is 12 m. The

maximum water pressure measured during the passage of a wave was 1.18 x 10 5 N/m 2 .

The wave period is 15 sec. Determine the wave height using linear wave theory. The density of the water is 1000 kg/m 3 .

(b) Calculate the maximum pressure on the bottom when a wave with length L = 50 m

and H = 2 m passes the point where the depth is 12.5m.

A wave with period T = 10 s moves from a water depth of 200 m to a depth of 3 m. Calculate the wave group velocity, C g , at both depths (i.e. at 200 m and 3 m, respectively).

A wave with length L = 60 m and H = 1.2 m passes a point where the depth is 6 m. Calculate the function for the wave profile (= f()) using first order and second order wave theories. Plot these on a graph and compare. Calculate also the horizontal particle velocities at a wave crest for both 1 st and 2 nd order wave theory and compare the results.

7.

A wave approaches a beach which has a bottom slope of 1:20. The deep water wave height is 3.0 m. As it approaches the beach to the point of breaking, the refraction coefficient is K r = 1.05. The wave period is 10 s. Calculate the breaking wave height and the depth at which breaking occurs.

 8. (a) In deep water a wave has a height of 3 m and a period of 8 s. The wave moves into a water depth of 8 m. Calculate the wave height and period at the new depth. The wave does NOT refract. (b) The same wave moves from 8 m depth to 6 m depth. Calculate the new wave height (assuming you don’t know the deep water wave height). 9. (a) The wave in 8(a) is now crossing straight and parallel bottom contours at an angle

of 30 o from deep water to a depth of 8 m. Calculate the wave height in 8 m depth. How does this differ from the case where the wave moved perpendicular to the contours (question 8(a)).

(b) A storm generated wave heights H 1 = 3.4 m and T s = 7.3 at a depth of d = 40 m.

The wave crests were at 45 o to the bottom contours. Calculate the wave height and

direction outside the harbour entrance where the depth is d = 6 m.
Harbour
o
30
a.
45 o
b.

(c) The following figures show examples of variable bottom topographies. Sketch the wave crests and rays across these contours.

Bottom Contours

Incoming Wave Crest

10.

(a) Waves with a period of 8 s and a height of 3 m propagate towards a semi-infinite

breakwater at an angle of 135 o . The water depth is 10 m at the breakwater tip. Determine the wave height at a location 100 m along and 100 m behind the

breakwater.

(b) A ship is anchored in the harbour described in problem 9(b). The location of the

ship is shown in the figure below. The harbour entrance is 60 m wide. Calculate the wave height near the ship. Assume that the piers are impermeable.

HARBOUR
200 m
300 m
60 m
OCEAN

11.

A sinusoidal wave with H = 4.0 m and L = 80 m is propagating from d = 40 m into an area with d = 7 m at an angle of 30 o . In this process it is losing 20% of its energy while being transformed into a solitary wave. Calculate the height of the solitary wave. (N.B. difficult!)

7 m
30 o
40 m
12.
The wave condition at d = 25 m (assumed to be deep water) are known with Ho =
2 m, T = 5 sec, and α = 28 deg (relative to true North). Use the wave ray method to
calculate the wave conditions in front of the structure below, located at d = 3 m.
H 3 = ? , α 3 = ?
d = 3 m
d = 12 m
d = 25 m
α 25 = 28 o
13.
A rectangular harbour of length 300 m and a fairly uniform depth of 10 m is open at
one of the short ends. If seiching occurs in this harbour with an oscillation node at the
harbour entrance and one within the harbour, what is the oscillation period? (assume
shallow water)
14.
(a)
A wave measured to be 4.5 m in height in deep water with a period of 8 s
propagates from deep to shallow water over a slope of m = 0.05. Estimate at what
depth the wave will break and the breaking wave height. What sort of breaker will it
be? (Spilling, plunging or surging).
(b)
Repeat (a) for a wave of 10 s period. What do the results indicate about the
relationship between wave period and wave breaking?
15.
(a)
What is meant by the significant wave height, H s ? How is it determined from

measurements?

(b) A wave buoy measured wave heights over 10 minutes. A zero-upcrossing method

was used to generate the diagram shown below. The diagram shows the wave heights in decreasing size order so that the first wave n = 1 is the largest wave measured while

n = 75 is the smallest wave measured. The natural log of the wave number has been plotted against the square of the wave height, H 2 (n). All n-values are NOT plotted. Using the plot, calculate the significant wave height and mean period.

(c) Describe the difference between upcrossing and downcrossing wave height.

16. Wave hindcasting (and forecasting) can be used to calculate wave heights and periods using measured (or forecasted) wind velocity, duration and direction. A median wind speed of 20 m/s is recorded during a half hour period by a wind anemometer located at 5 m above the land surface and 5 km from the coast. Calculate the significant wave height and period H s and T s , at a depth of 9 m if the same wind blew for 4 hours over a fetch of 200 km.

17. Calculate H s, H 10 and H 1 for a corrected wind speed of 18 m/s, a duration of 10 hours and a fetch length of 150 km. What would be the result if the fetch length was doubled? Assume deep-water conditions.

18. One of the limitations of these wave hindcasting methods is taking into account the pre-existing wave energy. This question requires you to use a method to take this into account. A wind has a corrected strength of 16 m/s for 8 hours, after which it increases to 20 m/s over the following 4 hours. Calculate the resulting significant wave height for a fetch of 200 km.

19. (a) Make a sketch of wave runup on a planar slope showing how the runup height, R, is defined. R consists of elevated water level from two processes. What are these?

(b) A beach with a 1:100 slope is exposed to waves with deepwater height H o = 2 m,

and period T = 10 sec. Assume that a wave refraction analysis gives a refraction coefficient K R = 1.05 at the point where breaking is expected to occur. Calculate wave height and water depth at breaking.

(c)

Calculate the wave setup across the surf zone for the beach in example (b).

20. Calculate the wave runup height, R u2% , on an even impermeable angled surface with slope 1:4. The angled surface reaches down to a depth of 1 m. The bottom slope in front of the construction is 1:100. The significant wave height in front of the structure is 0.8 m with a period of 7 s. Calculate using the method described in the Delft report in the back of your folder.

21. A rubble revetment is built as shown in the figure below. The 2-layer rubble slope above the water line is 1:2 and underwater is 1:3. At the water line, there is a 2 m wide berm. At the foot of the underwater slope, the water depth is 4 m. The natural bottom slope is 1:100. The crown of the revetment is at 2.5 m above MSL. Calculate the runup height, R u2% , using the method outlined in the Delft report. Also calculate the overtopping discharge per m of revetment. Use H s = 2.0 m and T = 6s. Normally incident waves.

22. (a) Calculate the maximum inertia, F im , and drag forces, F Dm , as well as the maximum inertial moment, M im , and drag moment, M Dm , at the base of a vertical pile with a diameter of 0.3 m. The water depth is 30 m, wave height is 3 m and the wave period is 10 s. Assume C M = 2.0 and C D = 1.2. Water density = 1000 kg/m 3 .

(b) A 40 m lighthouse is to be placed on top of a caisson in a water depth of 50 m. The

caisson is 20 m high and has a diameter of 3 m. The diameter of the lighthouse is 2 m. Calculate the maximum total force on the lighthouse (excluding the caisson) by the waves. Use the significant wave height, H s , in your calculations. Determine also at which angle, the maximum force occurs. H s = 9.0 m and T s = 13.3 s, C M = 1.5 and C D = 1.5, water density = 1025 kg/m 3 .

SWL
4 0
5 0
20
Hint for integration: cosh x = 0.5(e x + e -x ), sinh x = 0.5(e x - e -x )
cosh 2 x = 0.5 (1+cosh 2x)

coshxdx sinh x,

sinh xdx coshx

23. Calculate the maximum horizontal and vertical forces on a pipe with a diameter of D = 1.0 m lying horizontally on the bottom of the sea (for example, a gas pipeline). The water depth is 8 m. The design waves are 4 m high and have a period of 8 s. Assume C M = 3.3 and C D = 2.0, and C L = 2.0. The specific weight of the water is 1.0▪10 3 kg/m 3 . The wave direction is perpendicular to the pipe.

24. Calculate the total force, F m , and moment, M m , at the base of a vertical pile with a diameter of 0.3 m. The water depth is 30 m, the wave height is 3 m and the wave period is 10 s. Use C M = 2.0 and C D = 1.2

25. A caisson is placed at a water depth of 6 m. The bottom in front of the caisson has a slope of 0.02 (1:50). Calculate the design breaking wave height if (1) H s = 3.0m, L = 54 m, and T = 7.5 s and (2) H s = 3.5m, L = 54 m, and T = 7.5 s

26. Calculate the maximum moment and resulting forces on a flat, 6 m high, vertical wall exposed to non-breaking waves with height of 1.5 m. The water depth is 3 m and the period is 6 s. Behind the wall, the water is calm.

27. Calculate maximum force and moment against a vertical structure exposed to breaking waves. The depth in front of the structure is 3 m, bottom slope is 1:20. The wave period is 6 s. Behind the structure, the water is calm. No overtopping occurs.

28. The structure in the above example is a caisson breakwater with a total height of 9 m. Determine the necessary width of the caisson breakwater, with respect to stability and sliding. The specific weight of the caisson is 2.2▪10 3 kg/m 3 .

 29. A caisson breakwater with a total height of 9 m is placed at a depth of 5 m and a bottom slope of 1:50. The structure is exposed to waves with H 1 = 3.0 m and T = 8 s. Inside the structure there are no waves. Determine the necessary width of the caisson breakwater, with respect to overturning only. The specific weight of the caisson 2.2▪10 3 kg/m 3 . 30. A rubble-mound, detached breakwater is located at a depth of 4 m. Wave crests are

parallel to the breakwater and the bottom is horizontal. Wave conditions are H s = 4.0

m and T = 6.6 s. Determine the necessary rock size (

thickness, and crest width. The breakwater will have a 2-layer armour cover and a

slope of 1:3.

r

3

2.65 10 kg/m

3

), layer

(

w

1.024 10

3

3

kg/m )