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102086 Designing Teaching & Learning 2H 2017

Assignment 2: APST and QT Analysis Template

Section 1: Australian Professional Standards for Teachers

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Only
standards directly addressed in Designing Teaching & Learning that are relevant to this assignment have been
included. However, this does not mean the other standards are irrelevant to lesson planning and evaluation
more generally.

Evaluation score 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)


Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Know students and how they learn


1.3 Students with diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds
1234 Comments: Within the lesson the teacher would provide guidance and instruction if required
5 in specific areas of the lesson plan. This assistance is provided within the brainstorming of the
lesson and the identification of the aim only. Although visual representations of the method
are provided for these students.

1.4 Strategies for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students
1234 Comments: This is not addressed specifically at any point of the lesson plan but could be
5 integrated within adaptations/accommodations for students needs.

1.5 Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities
1234 Comments: The lesson plan addresses the student needs of gifted and talented students by
5 assigning them an additional task that is student driven and which would be analysed and
discussed at the end of the lesson. The activity in itself is lacking detailed instruction.

1.6 Strategies to support full participation of students with disability


1234 Comments: The lesson plan addresses the needs of students with disabilities and how one
5 could cater for them depending on their circumstances within the classroom promoting
participation and discussion. It mentions that student co-operation and visual/audio
explanation resources would be utilised.
2 Know the content and how to teach it
2.2 Content selection and organisation
1234 Comments: The teacher obtains a rough understanding of what prior knowledge students have
5 coming into this lesson with the inclusion of a brainstorming activity.

2.3 Curriculum, assessment and reporting


1234 Comments: The Teacher is encouraged to question them about the practical being conducted
5 and decisions they make throughout the duration of the lesson. The teacher is also required to
check their notebooks before the end of the lesson. This is a form of informal assessment
which the teacher can use to gauge their knowledge

2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)


1234 Comments: The lesson plan requires them to record and write information within their
5 notebooks. The ICT integrations is only available to gifted and talented students as an
additional task and a short YouTube clip to summarise the practical.

3 Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning


3.1 Establish challenging learning goals
1234 Comments: The students goals are clearly identified. Some of the goals are not addressed
5 within the lesson plan extensively or a briefly mentioned.

3.2 Plan, structure and sequence learning programs


1234 Comments: The structure of the lesson has not been thoroughly thought out. The practical
5 does not follow standard procedure structure, the prediction of the experiment should precede
the commencement of the practical. There is a lack of build up of prior knowledge and the
new knowledge fails to present the relationships between each other.

3.3 Use teaching strategies


1234 Comments: The lesson is designed around group work and class discussion. The practical
5 component organises students to co-operate and work together with teacher instruction
whereas the class discussions are guided lightly by the teacher. This is a student led lesson.

3.4 Select and use resources


1234 Comments: Props are used to conceptualise molecules after the practical. ICT integration is
5 only integrated within the lesson for Gifted students. A YouTube clip is utilised to summarise
the lesson for students and explain a real world application.

4 Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments


4.1 Support student participation
1234 Comments: Students are encouraged to participate within class discussions regardless of
5 learning capabilities. Group work within the practical has the potential to lose focus but the
lesson plan addresses this by instructing the teacher to constantly check students progress.

4.2 Manage classroom activities


1234 Comments: The knowledge is not built up sequentially through the lesson. It jumps around
5 too much and forces the students to lose focus of the practical activity completed and focus on
a different aspects of the lesson. This also forces

4.3 Manage challenging behaviour


1234 Comments: The lesson plan does not address challenging behaviour within the classroom. It
5 does set behavioural expectations during the practicals instruction.

4.4 Maintain student safety


1234 Comments: Safety issues concerning the practical and classroom are addressed and how one
5 would manage these situations. The prevention of these situations is also mentioned within
the lesson plan.

4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically


1234 Comments: ICT is only accessible to gifted and talented students and at the end of the lesson
5 to summarise. Gifted students are not monitored during their ICT use, this has potential to
lose focus.

5 Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning


5.1 Assess student learning
1234 Comments: Informal assessment is conducted from the beginning of the lesson with questions
5 on the topic. Informal assessment at the end of the lesson before leaving.

5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning


1234 Comments: Feedback is conducted with questions. More specific feedback is not provided
5 within the same lesson, but provided in the following lesson.

Section 2: NSW Quality Teaching Model

Evaluate the lesson plan according to the following NSW Quality Teaching model elements.

Evaluation score refer to NSW QTM Classroom Practice Guide for each element
Comments incl. evidence for evaluation score (2 sentences)

1 Intellectual quality
1.1 Deep knowledge
1 2 3 4 Comments: The relationship between prior learning and the continuum is obscure and not
5 clear. This focussed on freezing point and temperature but managed to connect the concept to
chemical reactions.

1.2 Deep understanding


1 2 3 4 Comments: Students with guidance and instruction predominantly lead the lesson in the
5 practical. This allows the students to convey what their understandings of the key concepts
within the lesson are.

1.3 Problematic knowledge


1 2 3 4 Comments: Discussion does promote individual thinking but the students are not
5 corrected/addressed by the teacher nor are the predictions of the experiment. This can give
rise to misinterpreted results or information that is not corrected by the teacher and ignored
until the following lesson.

1.4 Higher-order thinking


1 2 3 4 Comments: Discussion and questioning does promote higher order thinking and with no clear
5 goal within the practical students are able to speculate and reflect on why their hypothesis
was correct/incorrect.

1.5 Metalanguage
1 2 3 4 Comments: Periodic elemental abbreviations, freezing points, chemical reactions and
5 compounds are all uses of meta language throughout the lesson plan.

1.6 Substantive communication


1 2 3 4 Comments: The lesson promotes communications between students but there is not enough
5 guidance and information provided by the teacher to fully inform them on the topic. The
lesson would greatly benefit from background information and further guiding education on
the results of the practical.

Quality learning environment


2.1 Explicit quality criteria
1 2 3 4 Comments: The lesson plan does not go over the method of the experiment but refers to the
5 worksheet, which the students will follow. The result of the practical is discussed but not
analysed and appropriately addressed therefore students may remain unsure with what to
produce within certain tasks.

2.2 Engagement
1 2 3 4 Comments: The lesson is quite engaging with the teacher observing, providing light guidance
5 too the students and active group work. There is potential for discussion and activities to get
off track.

2.3 High expectations


1 2 3 4 Comments: The lesson has high expectations around the content to be understood and
5 engagement within discussion activities. These expectations may be extremely high given that
the teacher does not provide adequate explanations or feedback.

2.4 Social support


1 2 3 4 Comments: The teacher facilitates group discussion so it can be assumed that mutual respect
5 and proper behaviour would be expected. This is applicable to the group work during the
practical.

2.5 Students self-regulation


1 2 3 4 Comments: The majority of the learning activates within this lesson plan are self regulated by
5 the students. The teacher is only facilitating these discussion and activities.

2.6 Student direction


1 2 3 4 Comments: There is no assigned task for students who finish tasks early and are gifted and
5 talented students. This is ok due to the teacher planning the lesson around a student driven
discussion and question time.
3 Significance
3.1 Background knowledge
1 2 3 4 Comments: Very unclear as to what prior knowledge they bring into this unit. There is no
5 reference to previous work done and its relation to it.

3.2 Cultural knowledge


1 2 3 4 Comments: No reference made to cultures or social groupings within the lesson plan, this
5 could be included within adaptability.

3.3 Knowledge integration


1 2 3 4 Comments: There is no mention or reference to cross curriculum themes present within the
5 unit.

3.4 Inclusivity
1234 Comments: Specifically mention that all students should be engaged and participate in group
5 discussion and practical. This is extended towards students who struggle with learning
disabilities or reading.

3.5 Connectedness
1 2 3 4 Comments: The inclusion of a video introduced the concept of real world applications of the
5 practical and lesson provided but fails to go into further detail and cuts the video short.
There is scope for improvement within the lesson plan.

3.6 Narrative
1234 Comments: There is no mention or reference to case studies, narrative accounts or other such
5 content that aims to enrich the understanding.

Section 3: Identifying Areas for Improvement

Identify the two APST standards and two NSW QT model elements you are targeting for improvement.

APST
1) 3.2 Plan, structure and sequence learning programs 2) 5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning
QT model
1) 2.6 Student direction 2) 3.5 Connectedness
Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to
Syllabus outcomes Lesson assessment CW4 Describe the effects of factors,
SC5-16CW Questioning throughout Different types of chemical eg temperature and catalysts,
explains how models, the lesson to maintain reactions are used to produce on the rate of some common
theories and laws about that engagement with a range of products and can chemical reactions.
matter have been refined as the students and occur at different rates and
new scientific evidence ensuring they dont get involve energy transfer.
becomes available off track.
Informal assessment of
SC5-17CW
responses of the
discusses the importance of
homework task.
chemical reaction in the
production of a range of
substances, and the
influence of society on the
development of new
materials.

Cross Curriculum themes & General capabilities Explicit subject specific concepts and skills
General capabilities Explain how dissolving salt and sugar into water will affect the
Literacy writing a hypothesis and results of a practical. freezing point depression of water. Predict the freezing points of
ICT capability Youtube Clip, homework. the water solutions containing either salt or sugar and which will
Critical and creative thinking Practical, Discussion and activities. freeze first.
Demonstrate the ability to record and analysis the data collected
from the experiment as they engage in critically thinking about
the topic.
Display the ability to formulate equations of salt dissolved in
water and sugar dissolved in water.
Explain the differences between a physical and chemical
reactions.
Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred
T/S
Intro Start the classroom with a brain storm to draw out students Teacher: Student
current understanding and knowledge of freezing points Write the responses on the board.
5 min and common chemical reactions utilising Record the misconceptions the
students have and address them in
Ask the question Ok class what come to mind when you the lesson.
think about the word freeze? Write the word freeze on the
board with a circle around it. Ask how is relates to the topic
chemical world. Guide their thoughts to the lessons focus Student:
without influencing there the responses. By asking: How Participate in the brain storm.
does something freeze? Why it freezes? What happens Possible responses:
when something freezes? Ice.
Ice cream.
Ice block Liquid to solid Because its
cold .
Temperature .

Resources: Notebook
Body Explain to the class the aim of todays lesson will be on the Teacher: Student
freezing points of water, salt water and sugar water. Write the responses on the board
and ask students the question.
Ask students to what might happen to the salt water and
5 min sugar water when put to freeze. Student:
Listen to the teachers instructions.
Discuss and write on the board responses. Construct a Hypothesis on the
practical.
Tell students to write down their hypothesis into their
books. This will be addressed during the discussion of the
experiment after everyone has completed the practical. Resources:
Notebook

Explain safety procedure of the experiment before Teacher: Teacher


commencement and hand out the method sheet to each Hand out method sheet to each
3 min student. student and ensure students with
Assign students into groups. 4-5 students per group. Give disabilities are organised. Explain
the students roles within the group: timer (keeps track of safety procedure.
the time), recorder (writes down results), handler (mixing
the solutions together) and retriever (takes and places the Student:
test tub). Listen to the teachers instructions.

Resources:
Method sheet for practical.
Safety protocol sheet regarding this
particular practical.
Instruct students that they must follow the method sheet Teacher: Student
provided during the practical. Tell them to record any Go around the classroom and
10 min observations made into their books. Ensure all students are on task and
ask them about their hypothesis.
During this time the teacher should go around the Assists where you can.
classroom and discuss with each group briefly why they
think the hypothesis they wrote earlier would occur and Student:
encourage further discussion amongst the group when you Perform the experiment according
move on to the next group. to the method sheet. Discuss
hypothesis amongst group
members. Perform the assigned
roles in the practical.
Resources:
Method sheet
Discussion Teacher: Student
Instruct students to sit down within
7 min Once the timer for the allocated practical has finished and their groups. Write on the white
all students are seated within their groups ask the students board their responses. Setup
what did they observe? YouTube Video on the Projector.
Write down keywords they say on the board that relate to Explain the effects of solutes.
the practical eg. Colder, frozen, liquid, condensation.
Ask the question raise your hand if anyones hypothesis
correct? Student:
If Students raise their hands, ask do you know why Participate in-group discussion.
If no one knows why proceed to tell them that solutes
lowers the temperature at which water turns too ice Resources:
(freezing point). Follow this up with the YouTube video: YouTube video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkhWV2uaHaA Projector
Similar start video at 38 seconds and stop at 1:16.
Explain the effects of solutes and how these chemical
reactions affect freezing points and touch on boiling points.

Teacher: Student
Students will have an option at this task to choose between Faciliatate, which group, wants to
10 min a more difficult activity or the standard activity. do which activity. Ask the students
ACTIVITY 1. questions. Go around the groups
Introduce the boxes foam spheres representing the observing and assists them.
elements: Na (Sodium), Cl (Chloride), C12H22O11 and H2O Student:
to each group. Complete the chosen task.
Ask if the students know the common names of elements Write data in prepare table.
and compounds of chemical symbols on the foam spheres. Resources:
Allow them to refer to their periodic table for guidance. Activity Worksheet 2
Instruct the student to predict what is happening to all Plastic molecule forming kits
three solutions using the foam spheres. Foam spheres
ACTIVITY 2. Sticks
Layout the molecule forming plastic kits activity and provide Prepared Table for results
each kit with the chemical formula and chemical structure
of sugar and salt. This activity is considerably more difficult.

Go round to each group and observe, assist students who


are struggling or correct students and help conceptualise
the idea for the group.

Prepare a table for the combined results of the all class.


Have the recorder of each group write down their result on
the table. Discuss the predictions and errors from each
group and compare them with all class. Correct any
misconceptions the students may have regarding the
Freezing point and molecule interactions.

Conclusion Ask the questions if dissolving salt and sugar is a chemical Teacher: Student
change or physical one?. Ask questions.
5 min What real world application does this practical reflect? Faciliate discussion on the real
Show more of the YouTube video earlier shown or show world applications.
them how salt and ice can be used to make ice-cream on
YouTube. Student:
Participate in-group discussion.
Assign homework research one real world application of
the experiment conducted today. Does not have to be one Resources:
we discussed. Youtube
How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


SC5-16CW Informal formative assessment during discussion,
observation, Questioning and practical results.
SC5-17CW Informal formative assessment during discussion,
observation, Questioning and Homework.
Academic Justification

The original lesson plan accompanied with the Australian Professional standards
(AITSL, 2016) for Teachers saw scope for improvement in key aspects of the
framework in Plan, structure and sequencing learning programs along with feedback.
This is also applicable to the Quality teaching model (Quality Teaching in NSW
public schools, 2003) and its student direction and Connectedness within the lesson.

Standard 3.2 of the Australian Professional standards for Teachers (AITSL, 2016) is
addressed through the implementations and re-organisation of the lesson plans
practical and the implementations of discussion that helps conceptualise and reflect on
the knowledge attained. The learning cycle approach, derived from the developmental
theory designed by Jean Piaget discusses the structure and sequence in which the
scientific teaching model should be presented in order for students too develop
concepts and experience (Abraham & Renner, 1986). The learning cycle involves the
conceptual invention of data, which is carried out through classroom discussion,
within this phase meta language is developed and the concept is solidified (Abraham
& Renner, 1986). The modifications of the lesson plan entitle students to invent and
critically think of possible outcomes of the practical with only the knowledge
acquired from previous lessons. This act of critical thinking helps students to develop
thinking skills and opinions that are later analysed and assessed by the teacher during
the practical (Larson & Keiper, 2002). This type of self-analysis helps stimulate the
students cognitive processes and results in evidential questions, speculative
questions, definitional questions and policy questions (Larson & Keiper, 2002). This
is achieved when the teacher asks the students their reasoning behind the hypothesis
thought of at the start of the lesson and during the discussion.

The inclusion of feedback (standard 5.2) was underwhelming within the lesson plan.
The original lesson plan did not cater to assists students in achieving the correct
outcome or at least understanding the errors made. This was only addressed at the end
when the teacher would receive questions based on the lesson done so far. Hattie &
Timperley (2007) discuss the relationship between feedback, motivation and
engagement. Without feedback students lack engagement on an emotional, cognitive
and behavioural level (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). When students are provided with
appropriate feedback it can assists students in comprehending, engaging and
developing strategies to acquire and better understand the concepts being presented
(Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Within the modified lesson plan this has been
implemented with the addition of the teacher discussing the hypothesiss thought of
by the students and assisting the students to represent the concept through the use of
models. These strategies help foster peer and self-assessment allowing students to self
reflect and understand the importance of making mistakes and learning from them
(Hattie & Timperley, 2007), allowing them to expand their general understanding of
the newly invented concept (Abraham & Renner, 1986).

Utilising the NSW quality-teaching model (Quality Teaching in NSW public schools,
2003), modifications were made that help improve student direction and
connectedness. Student direction (QT model standard 2.6) was present in the original
plan only allowed students to participate in a more difficult activity if they were a
gifted/high achieving student; even then the task was not mentally stimulating and
only involved searching the Internet. Self-regulation of the students learning gives
them the illusion of control and promotes motivation within the classroom (Pintrich &
de Groot, 1990). This belief of control has been linked to students metacognition,
students who believe they are capable of a task utilise cognitive strategies and persists
in the completion of the task (Pintrich & de Groot, 1990). The modifications applied
to the lesson plan involve the addition of an extra activity that is not limited to high
achieving students. This task will be done within groups and will still receive
assistance from the teacher. Helping to establish a learning environment that gives
students the option to complete a task of their choice and achieve at it has been linked
with the development of effective error detection skills (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).
This acquired skill gives students access to modicum knowledge and the ability to
strategize and regulate self-regulatory proficiencies (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

Connectedness (QT model standard 3.5) was not specifically addressed within the
original lesson plan, it was briefly incorporated within the YouTube video provided
but no discussion took place on it. A study conducted by Chrestensen (2007) showed
the benefits of the application of real-world contexts. Students can visualise the
concepts utilising a real world application that will further solidify and concrete their
understanding of the lesson. Helping students visualise and make the connections
between information and the real world promotes engagement and motivation to
further invest effort into the tasks conducted within the classroom. This was
incorporated into the lesson through the addition of another YouTube video
demonstrating a real life application of the concept within the lesson. The homework
task also encourages students to independently seek other real life applications of the
practical. This activity promotes further usefulness and understanding, resulting in an
expansion of the concept demonstrated within the class (Abraham & Renner, 1986).

References

Abraham, M., & Renner, J. (1986). The sequence of learning cycle activities in high school
chemistry. Journal Of Research In Science Teaching, 23(2), 121-143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660230205

AITSL. (2016). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Retrieved from


http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for- teachers/standards/list

Chrestensen, A. (2007). Real-world context, interest, understanding, and retention. Michigan


Technological University, 1(1).

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review Of Educational
Research, 77(1), 81-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487

Larson, B.E., & Keiper, T.A. (2002). Classroom discussion and threaded electronic
discussion: Learning in two arenas. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher
Education, 2(1). Retrieved from http://www.citejournal.org/volume-2/issue-1-
02/general/classroom-discussion-and-threaded-electronic-discussion-learning-in-two-
arenas

Pintrich, P., & de Groot, E. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of
classroom academic performance. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.82.1.33
Quality Teaching in NSW public schools. (2003) (1st ed.). Ryde NSW. Retrrieved from:
http://web1.muirfield-h.schools.nsw.edu.au