Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Electrical Review Lecture

Fundamentals of Engineering (FE)


Arn Stolp
Exam Information downloaded 4/14
from: www.ncees.org
You can download exam specs, and a reference manual at ncees.org. You can also register for
the exam, take a practice test, and pay for it all. The computer-based FE exam costs $225 and
takes 6 hours. This includes a tutorial, 5 hours and 20 minutes to answer 110 questions, and a
25 minute break. That's about 3 minutes per question. All questions are multiple choice and
discipline-specific to the student's major. General knowledge topics, such as mathematics,
appear on exams for all disciplines. You will take the FE exam on a 24 inch split-screen
computer monitor. Half the screen will show the exam questions, and half will display the
reference manual. The manual will be a searchable PDF. If you aren't sure of an answer to a
question, you can bookmark it and return later, but don't leave it blank in the end. Guessing
doesn't hurt you. Because you have to move through the exam quickly, FE questions are
designed to be answered quickly. Many of them cover simple conceptual information. Read the
problem carefully and ask yourself, "What's the concept they're testing for?"

Search online for information and YouTube videos to review for specific areas of the exam.

Calculator policy (2014) http://ncees.org/exams/calculator-policy/


Casio: All fx-115 models. Any Casio calculator must contain fx-115 in its model name.
Examples of acceptable Casio fx-115 models include (but are not limited to):
fx-115 MS fx-115 MS Plus fx-115 MS SR fx-115 ES fx-115 ES Plus
Hewlett Packard: The HP 33s and HP 35s models, but no others.
Texas Instruments: All TI-30X and TI-36X models. Any Texas Instruments calculator must contain either TI-30X or
TI-36X in its model name. Examples of acceptable TI-30X and TI-36X models include (but are not limited to):
TI-30Xa TI-30Xa SOLAR TI-30Xa SE TI-30XS Multiview TI-30X IIB TI-30X IIS
TI-36X II TI-36X SOLAR TI-36X Pro

Civil: No electrical questions.


Chemical: Basics (3D), Process control (14)
Other Disciplines: Basics (14), Instrumentation (4)
Mechanical: Basics with motors and generators (6), Instrumentation (14)
Electrical: download "FE-Ele-CBT-specs_with-ranges.pdf" from www.ncees.org

This Lecture will touch on the subjects below:


MECHANICAL CBT Exam Specifications # of quest
6. Electricity and Magnetism
35
A. Charge, current, voltage, power, and energy
B. Current and voltage laws (Kirchhoff, Ohm)
C. Equivalent circuits (series, parallel)
D. AC circuits
E. Motors and generators

Answers to problems in following pages


1.(D) 2. (A) 3. (B) 4. (A) 5. (D) 6. (D) 7. (A) 8. (C) 9.(B) 10. (D) 11. (C)
12. (B) 13. (A) 14. (C) 15. (A) 16. (C) 17. (D) 18. (C) 19. (D) 20. (A) 21. (B)

ECE FE Review p1
Electrical Engineering FE Review Lecture
Electrical Engineering FE Review Lecture A. Stolp
4/24/15
Basic electrical quantities Letter used Units Fluid Analogy
3
Charge, actually moves Q Coulomb (C) m
3
Q m
Current, like fluid flow I = Amp (A, mA, A,...)
sec sec
N
Voltage, like pressure V or E volt (V, mV, kV,...) Pa = 1
2
m
V
Resistance R = Ohm (, k, M,...)
I
1
Conductance G = Siemens (S, also mho, old unit)
R
Power = energy/time P = V. I Watt (W, mW, kW, MW,...) W

KCL, Kirchhoff's Current Law


I in = I out of any point, part, or section

I in = I out
I1 I2 = I3 I4

negative current
means the direction
arrow is wrong

Conductors vs Nonconductors

Battery also obeys KCL. No accumulation of charge anywhere,


so it must circulate around. Leads to the concept of a "Circuit"

Voltage is like pressure


KVL, Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

V gains= V drops

around any loop

Sources
Ideal current sources
Must have a
Ideal batteries or voltage + always make the same path for the
sources always make the current flow regardless current to
same voltage regardless of of the voltage flow
current.
_

ECE FE Review p2
Resistors ECE FE Review p3
V
I =
Ohm's law R

V V
R = definition of resistance and the unit ""
I I R
Ideal wires have no resistance

series:
Exactly the same Voltage divider:
R eq = R 1 R2 R 3+ . . . current through each Rn
V Rn = V total.
resistor R1 R2 R 3+ . . .

1
parallel: R eq = current divider:
1 1 1 1
+... Exactly the same Rn
R1 R2 R3
voltage across each I Rn = I total.
resistor 1 1 1
+...
R1 R2 R3

Power P IN = P OUT for resistor circuits


P = V . I for everything Energy (Joules) = Power X time
2
2 V
= I .R = for resistors
R

Ground

Ground is considered zero volts and


is a reference for other voltages.

Nodes & Branches

Node = all points


Branch = all parts
connected by wire, all at
with the same current
same voltage (potential)

ground is a node

Meters
ideally: voltmeter ammeter
open short

ECE FE Review p3
Examples ECE FE Review p4
1. Find I2 in amps.
(A) 9 1
(B) 12 10
(C) 18 36. A. = 24 A (D)
1 1
(D) 24 10 20
(E) 27

2. If a 12-ohm resistor is connected across terminals xy in the


circuit shown, the current through it would be most nearly:
(A) 0.5 A
(B) 1.25 A
(C) 2.0 A
(D) 2.25 A 6.V
= 0.5 A
(E) 5.75 A 12.
(A)

35. V
3. The voltage across the 50-ohm resistor 10. 20.
in the circuit shown is most nearly:
(A) 1.43 V
(B) 2.4 V
(C) 5.95 V 25. V 100.
(D) 8.33 V
(E) 8.57 V 30. 50.
35. V 25. V . 50. = 2.381 V
10. 20. 30. 50. 100.
(B)

4. In the circuit shown, the power loss in R2 is 0.6 W and the power
loss in R3 is 0.3 W. What is the value of the resistor, R3? R1 200.
P R2 0.6 . W
(A) 100 R2 200.
(B) 141 2.
P = I R
(C) 283 Power is directly proportional to the resistor
(D) 400 R2
0.3 . W .
200. R 2 = 100 (A)
P R3 0.3 . W
0.6 . W R3=?

5. In the circuit above, what is output power of the battery?


(A) 0.6 W
(B) 0.9 W P S 2 . P R2 P R3
(C) 1.2 W P S = 1.5 W (D)
(D) 1.5 W ECE FE Review p4
ECE FE Review p5
ECE FE Review p5
Thvevin Equivalent Circuit
A simplified model can be used for any RL
combination of sources and resistors.
To calculate a circuit's Thvenin equivalent:
1) Remove the load and calculate the open-circuit voltage where
the load used to be. This is the Thvenin voltage (V Th). R Th
RL
2) Zero all the sources. (To zero a voltage source, replace it V Th
with a short. To zero a current source, replace it with an open.)
3) Compute the total resistance between the load terminals.
(DO NOT include the load in this resistance.) This is the Thvenin source resistance (RTh).
4) Draw the Thvenin equivalent circuit and add your values.

6. The Thvenin voltage (V Th) of the circuit shown is most nearly:


R1 40.
(A) 0 V
(B) 2.4 V VS 20. V R2 120. RL 60.
(C) 5 V
(D) 15 V
(E) 20 V
R 1 = 40
Find the open circuit voltage:
120 R2
VS 20. V V oc = V Th V S. V Th = 15 V
R1 R2
(D)

7. The Thvenin resistance (RTh) of the circuit above is most nearly:


(A) 30
(B) 40
(C) 120
R 1 = 40
(D) 160 Find the Thevenin resistance:
1
Zero the source 120 R Th
R Th = 30
1 1
R1 R2 (A)

8. The Norton current (IN) of the circuit above is most nearly:


(A) 0.125 A
(B) 0.25 A
(C) 0.5 A
Norton equivalent circuit:
(D) 0.67 A
V Th
IN R N R Th
R Th
R N = 30
I N = 500 mA

ECE FE Review p5 (C)

ECE FE Review p6
Nodal Analysis Steps ECE FE Review p6
1) If the circuit doesn't already have a ground, label one node as ground (zero voltage).
If the ground can be defined as one side of a voltage source, that will make the following steps easier.
Label the remaining node, either with known voltages or with letters, a, b, ....
2) Label unknown node voltages as V a, V b, ... and label the current in each resistor as I1, I2, ....
3) Write Kirchoff's current equations for each unknown node. Va Vb
4) Replace the currents in your KCL equations with expressions like this. Ohm's law relationship
R1 using the nodal voltages.
5) Solve the multiple equations for the multiple unknown voltages.
R1 40. a R2 120. b
9. The nodal equation for node b is:

9. V Va Va Vb Va IS 50. mA
(A) = R4 72.
40. 120. 72. VS 9.V
R3 240.
Va Vb Vb
(B) = 50. mA
120. 240.
I1 I2
Vb Va Vb VS Va Vb
(C) = 50. mA
120. 240. 9. V
R1 R2 IS

9. V Va Va Va Vb Vb 0. V VS R4
I4
R3
I3
(D) = 50. mA
40. 72. 120. 240.

Write Kirchoff's current equations for each unknown node.


node a I1 = I2 + I4 unneeded
node b I2 = I3 + IS

Va Vb Vb 0. V
= + IS (B)
Sinusoidal AC R2 R3

T = Period = repeat time


1
f = frequency, cycles / second f= =
T 2.
= radian frequency, radians/sec = 2 . . f
A = amplitude A
RMS:
DC = average 2
y( t ) = A. cos( . t )
voltage: v( t ) = V p . cos( . t ) current: i( t ) = I p . cos( . t )
t . t . . .
Phase: = 360. deg or: = 2 rad
T T Phase:
10. For the following waveforms, find v(t):
(A) v( t ) 6 . V . cos( 167. t 90. deg ) 3. V
(B) v( t ) 3 . V . cos( 167. t 90. deg ) 6. V
(C) v( t ) 6 . V . cos( 1047. t 90. deg ) 3.V
(D) v( t ) 6 . V . cos( 1047. t 90. deg ) 3.V
V pp 9. V 3. V V pp = 12 V V DC 3.V
1 rad
T 6 . ms f f = 166.7 Hz = 2 . . f = 1047
T s
1.5 . ms .
= 360. deg = 90 deg (D) ECE FE Review p6
6 . ms
ECE FE Review p7
Fluid Model:
Capacitors

iC
Capacitor +
+
v C like pressure
Electrical
equivalent:
- -
= permittivity

A Q dq
C = . = = flow is like
d V dv iC
current
initial voltage
t t /
Basic equations Q 1. 1. d
C = vC = i C dt = i C dt v C( 0 ) i C = C. vC
you should know: V C C dt
0
coul amp. sec 6 12
Units: farad = = F = 1 10 farad pF = 1 10 farad
volt volt

Capacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously


1. . 2 1
Energy stored in electric field: WC = CVC series: C eq =
2 1 1 1
+...
parallel: C eq = C 1 C2 C3 +... C1 C2 C3

Steady-state or Final conditions


If a circuit has been connected for "a long
time", then it has reached a steady state + R2
condition. that means the currents and v C( ) = V S.
voltages are no longer changing. R1 R2
-
d d "long time"
vC = 0 i C = C. vC = 0
dt dt no current means it looks like an open

11. The current shown flows though a 50-F capacitor. 4 i C( t )


The initial voltage on the capacitor is 10V (Vc(0) = 10V).
( mA )
The capacitor voltage at 2.5 seconds is most nearly: 2
time (sec)
(A) -110 V
0 1 2 3 4
(B) -100 V
1 . . . 2
(C) -90 V 2.5 sec ( 2 . mA ) 10. V = 90 V
50. F 4
(D) 110 V (C)
12. Find Ceq between terminals a and b. C1 2. F
a
(A) 3.86 F
(B) 4.2 F C2 3. F C3 4. F
(C) 4.67 F C eq = 3 . F
1
= 4.2 F
C4 12. F
(D) 21 F 1 1 1
2 F
. 4 F
. 12. F (B) b

ECE FE Review p7
Inductors ECE FE Review p8
+
Electrical
Fluid Model: iL vL
equivalent:

2
L = o. N . K
-
is the permeability of the inductor core
K is a constant which depends on the inductor geometry
N is the number of turns of wire

volt. sec 3 6
Units: henry = mH = 10 . H H = 10 . H
amp
initial current
t t /
Basic equations d 1. 1.
v L = L. i L iL = v L dt = v L dt i L( 0 )
you should know: dt L L
0
Inductor current cannot change instantaneously
1. . 2
Energy stored in electric field: WL = LIL
2
1
parallel: L eq =
series: L eq = L 1 L2 L3 + . . . 1 1 1
+...
L1 L2 L3

Steady-state of Final conditions


If a circuit has been connected for "a long
time", then it has reached a steady state
condition. that means the currents and VS
i L( ) =
voltages are no longer changing. R1
d d
iL = 0 v L = L. i L = 0
dt dt "long time"
no voltage means it looks like a short

13. The following circuit has been connected as shown for a long time.
R1 5.
The energy stored in the inductor is:
C 40. F
(A) 0.016. J L 8 . mH
R2 40.
(B) 0.020. J
(C) 1.3 . J
VS 90. V
(D) 1.6 . J
Redraw:
14. The energy stored in the capacitor is:
VS R 1 =5
(A) 0.002. J IL
R1 R2 R 2 = 40
(B) 0.041. J IL=2 A
IL VC I L. R 2
(C) 0.128. J 1. . 2
V C = 80 V
WL LIL
(D) 0.162. J 2 WC
1. .
CVC
2

W L = 16 mJ V S = 90 V 2
(A) W C = 128 mJ (C)
ECE FE Review p8
Complex Numbers ECE FE Review p9
Imaginary
j= 1 the imaginary number
Rectangular Form A = a b.j
Re( A ) = a Im( A ) = b
j.
Polar Form A = A. e
Re( A ) = A. cos( ) Im( A ) = A. sin( )

2 2 b Re
Conversions A = A = a b = arg( A ) = atan
a
a = A. cos( ) b = A. sin( )
b
j. atan
j. 2 2 a
A = A. e = A. cos( ) A. sin( ) . j A = a b.j = a b .e
j. 90. deg 1 j. 90. deg j. 0. deg j. 180. deg j. 180. deg
Special Cases j 1 = e = j = e e =1 e = e = 1
j j. j. ( 90. deg )
j.e = e
j.
Define a 2 nd number: rect: D = c d. j polar: D = D. e

Equality A = D if and only if a = c and b = d OR A = D and =

Addition and Subtraction A D = (a b. j ) (c d. j ) = ( a c) (b d) .j


Convert polars to
A D = (a b. j ) (c d. j ) = ( a c) (b d) .j rectangular form first

Multiplication and Division A. D = ( a b. j ) . ( c d. j )= ( a. c b.d) ( b.c a. d ) . j


Rectangular: A a b.j a b.j . c d. j a. c b.d b. c a. d .
= = = j
D c .
dj c d. j c .
dj 2 2 2 2
c d c d
j. j. j.( )
Polar: A . D = A. e . D . e = A. D . e
j.
A A. e A. j. ( )
= = e
D j. D
D .e
n n j . n. n n
Powers A = A .e = A . cos( n. ) A . sin( n. ) . j Convert rectangulars first, usually

Conjugates complex number Conjugate


A = a b.j A = a b.j A = A
j. j.
A = A. e A = A. e
3 5. j 3 5.j
F = F =
j. 40. deg j . 40. deg
(2 6.j ). e (2 6.j ). e
j. j. j. j.
j. e e e e
Euler's equation e = cos( ) j. sin( ) OR: cos( ) = sin( ) =
2 2.j
j. ( . t )
e = cos( . t ) j . sin( . t )
j . ( . t )
Re e = cos( . t )
j.
If we freeze this at time t=0, then we can represent cos( . t ) by e
j. j. ( . t )
Calculus Remember, when we write e , we really mean e
d d j. j. j.( 90. deg )
A = A. e = j . . A. e = . A. e
dt dt

j. 1 . . j. 1 . . j.( 90. deg )


A dt = A. e dt = Ae = Ae
j.
ECE FE Review p9
ECE FE Review p10
Phasor analysis of Steady-State Sinusoidal AC ECE FE Review p10
The math is all based on the Euler's equation
j. j.
e e
Euler's equation j. = cos( ) j. sin( ) cos( ) =
e 2
OR:
j. j.
j. ( . t ) e e
e = cos( . t ) j . sin( . t ) sin( ) =
j . ( . t )
2.j
Re e = cos( . t )
j.
If we freeze this at time t=0, then we can represent cos( . t ) by e
That's the phasor
Phasor
j.
voltage: v( t ) = V p . cos( . t ) V( ) = V p . e
Phasors are drawn on a complex plane.
j.
current: i( t ) = I p . cos( . t ) I( ) = I p . e

5
Phasors are used for adding and subtracting sinusoidal waveforms.
4
v 1( t )
15. Add the sinusoidal voltages v 1 ( t ) = 4.5 . V . cos( . t 30. deg )
3
v 2( t )
and v 2 ( t ) = 3.2 . V . cos( . t 15. deg ) 2

(A) 7.13. cos( . t 11.5. deg ) . V 1


time
(B) 7.13. cos( . t 45. deg ) . V
1
(C) 7.7 . cos( . t 11.5. deg ) . V 2

(D) 7.7 . cos( . t 15. deg ) . V 3


4
5

using phasor notation, draw a phasor diagram of the


three phasors, then convert back to time domain form.
v 1 ( t ) = 4.5 . V . cos( . t 30. deg )
j. 30. deg
V 1 ( ) = 4.5V /-30o or: V 1 ( ) = 4.5 . V . e
and v 2 ( t ) = 3.2 . V . cos( . t 15. deg )
drawing of the
j . 15. deg
V 2 ( ) = 3.2V /15 o or: V 2 ( ) = 3.2 . V . e phasor diagram

I'm going to drop the () notation from the phasor notation, it gets
cumbersome, but remember that phasors are in the frequency
domain..
j . 30. deg
V 1 = 4.5V /-30o or: V1 4.5 . V . e
j. 15. deg
V 2 = 3.2V /15 o or: V2 3.2 . V . e

Add like vectors, first change to the rectangular form


V 1 = 4.5V /-30o 4.5 . V . cos( 30. deg ) = 3.897 V 4.5 . V . sin( 30. deg ) = 2.25 V V 1 = 3.897 2.25j V \
} add
V 2 = 3.2V /15 o 3.2 . V . cos( 15. deg ) = 3.091 V 3.2 . V . sin( 15. deg ) = 0.828 V V 2 = 3.091 + 0.828j V /
Add real parts: 3.897 3.091 = 6.988 V3 V1 V2
Add imaginary parts: 2.25 0.828 = 1.422 V 3 = 6.988 1.422j V sum
Change V 3 back to polar coordinates:
2 2 1.422
6.988 1.422 = 7.131 atan = 11.502 deg
6.988
Change V 3 back to the time domain:
v 3 ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) v 2 ( t ) = 7.13. cos( . t 11.5. deg ) . V (A) ECE FE Review p10
Impedance (like resistance) ECE FE Review p11
Inductor AC impedance
d d j . ( . t ) j. ( . t )
v L = L. i L = L. I p . e = j . . L. I p . e
dt dt
\
in phasor notation ----> V L( ) = j . . L. I ( ) Z L = j . . L
Capacitor
d d j . ( . t ) j. ( . t )
i C = C. vC = C. V p.e = j . . C . V p . e
dt dt
\
in phasor notation ----> I C( ) = j . . C . V ( )
1 . 1 j
V C( ) = I () ZC = =
Resistor j . C
. jC
. . C
.

v R = i R.. R V R ( ) = R. I ( ) ZR = R

You can use impedances just like resistances as long as you deal with the complex arithmetic.
ALL the DC circuit analysis techniques will work with AC.

series:
Z eq = Z 1 Z2 Z3 +...

Example:
f 500. Hz
R 200. L 80. mH
rad
2 . . f = = 3141.6 C 0.6 . F
sec j . . L = 251.327j
1
= 530.516j
j . . C
1
Z eq R j . . L = 200. 530.5. j . 251.3. j. = 200 279.2j rectangular form
j . . C
2 2 279.2.
( 200. ) ( 279.2. ) = 343.4 atan = 54.38 deg
200.
Z eq = 343.4 /-54.4o polar form
parallel:
Example: Same parts and frequency as above
rad
f 500. Hz 2 . . f = 3141.6
sec
1
Z eq = L 80. mH
1 1 1
+...
Z1 Z2 Z3 3 1
R 200. C 0.6 . F . C = 1.885 10

1 1 1
Z eq = =
1 1 1 1 j 1 3 1 3 1
j . . C 1.885. 10 . j . 3.979. 10 . j .
R 1 j . L
. R . L 200.
j . . C 3 3
1 . 2.094. 10 . j
= . 5 10 = 170.156 + 71.261j
1 5 . 10 3 3
5 . 10
3 3
2.094. 10 . j . 2.094. 10 . j

5
2.93848 . 10

If you want the answer in 2 2 3


3 1 3 1 3 1 2.094. 10 .
polar form, it's easier to 5 . 10 . 2.094. 10 . = 5.4 10 atan = 22.72 deg
convert the denominator first. 3
5 . 10 .
1
= 185.185 Z eq = 185.2 /22.7 o
3. 1
5.4 . 10 ECE FE Review p11

16. Find Zeq . f 3 . kHz ECE FE Review p12
(A) Zeq = 442 / -25.2 o
L 10. mH
(B) Zeq = 2.03 / 34.5 o k
(C) Zeq = 1.84 / -24.8 o k C 0.02. F
R1 2. k
(D) Zeq = 3.44 / -45.8o k
4 rad
find 2 . . f = 1.885 10
sec R2 400.
1
Z eq j . . L R2
1
j . . C
R1
1 4 4 1
j. . C = 5 10 + 3.77 10 j
R1
1 3
divide = 1.275 10 961.412j
1
j . . C
R1
3
add R2 j . . L = 400 + 188.496j Z eq = 1.675 10 772.917j
2 2 772.9
rect to polar 1675 772.9 = 1844.7 atan = 24.8 deg
1675
17. Find V O in the circuit shown. (C)
j. 19.9. deg
(A) 3.91. V . e
j. 100. deg
(B) 3.91. V . e Z1 25. 35j.
j. 69.8 . deg j. 18. deg
(C) 6.53. V . e VS 6.V. e
j. 60. deg
j. 14.2 . deg Z2 80. . e
(D) 6.53. V . e
Z2 V O= ?
VO .V Simple voltage divider
S
Z1 Z2

Z 2 . cos( 60. deg ) = 40 Z 2 . sin( 60. deg ) = 69.282 Z 2 = 40 69.282j


j . 27.81. deg
Z1 Z 2 = 25. 35j. 40. 69.282 . j . = 65 34.282j = 73.486 . . e

Z2 j. 60. deg
80. . e . 6 . V . ej.18.deg
VO .V
S = 80. . . . j .( 60 ( 27.81 ) 18 ) . deg
j. 27.81. deg = 6Ve
Z1 Z2 73.486 . . e 73.486 .
j. 14.2 . deg
= 6.53. V . e (D)
18. The resonant frequency of the circuit shown is most nearly:
(A) 5 rad/s 20. F
2 . mH
(B) 20 rad/s 40.
Resonance:
(C) 5000 rad/s 1 1 rad
o = = = 5000 (C)
(D) 20000 rad/s sec
.
L eq C eq 2 . mH. 20. F

19. What is the magnitude of the equivalent impedance of the circuit at the resonant frequency?
(A) 0.
1 1
= = (D)
(B) 4.44. 1 0
j. o. C
(C) 4.961. j . o. L
(D) 40.
ECE FE Review p12
ECE FE Review p12
armature
DC Motor ECE FE Review p13
A simple DC motor consists of a rotating armature placed
in a stationary magnetic field. The DC current flows R A Armature resistance
through brushes which make contact with a commutator
on the rotating armature. The commentator has a number
of contact points and is wired to the armature windings so
that it's magnetic field is out of alignment with the IA
stationary field. As the motor armature turns to align with L A Armature inductance
the magnetic field, the connection is changed so that the can be ignored if the
VT
next winding gets the current and the armature field is armature current (IA)
again out of alignment. The motor torque () is directly terminal voltage is constant (DC).
proportional to the armature current (IA) by the torque
constant (KT).
E A = back EMF
Because the armature windings are turning within a
E A = K V.
magnetic field, a voltage is induced on those windings.
This voltage is known as the back EMF and opposes
the armature current flow. The back EMF (EA) is = Torque = K T. I A
directly proportional to the armature angular velocity ()
by the voltage constant (KV). An electrical model of a
DC motor is shown at right.
= angular speed
As a motor:
in radians/sec
The stationary field
IA
may be created by RA K T = Torque constant
permanent magnets or
V T = E A I A. R A K V = Voltage constant
by a field winding.
KT = KV
EA


If the shaft is turned faster by some external driver, the generated
As a generator:
EMF could be larger than the terminal voltage. In that case the
current reverses direction and the motor becomes a DC generator
IA RA
V T= E A I A. R A

EA
20. A DC motor is producing a torque of 30 Nm. The current
of the armature is halved. What is the approximate new
torque? Ignore the armature resistance.
(A) 15. N . m the torque now opposes
the mechanical driver
(B) 20. N . m 1
30. N . m. = 15 N . m (A)
(C) 30. N . m 2
(D) 35. N . m

21. A DC motor operates from 24 V (V T) and has an armature resistance of 0.3. At full load, the armature
current is 10 A and the speed is 1200 rpm. Ignoring all losses except the armature resistance, find the
no-load speed of the motor. Note: you may assume IA = 0 when the motor is not loaded.
(A) 1200 . rpm
(B) 1370 . rpm VT 24. V RA 0.30. IA 10. A n 1200. rpm
(C) 1200 . rpm E Afl VT R A. I A E Afl = 21 V
(D) 2400 . rpm EA
Now EA VT n = . ( 1200 . rpm ) = 1371 rpm (B)
ECE FE Review p13 E Afl

ECE FE Review p14


ECE FE Review p14 Wye connection: Delta connection:
Synchronous Generators & Motors
Synchronous machines run on and generate 3-phase power

The 3 phases are wired in the stator to produce


a rotating magnetic field for 60Hz
2 . poles . 60. sec systems
f.
cyc min 7200 . rpm
rotational speed = n m or n sync = =
N poles poles
4 . . f
=
N poles n sync = the synchronous speed

The rotor is an electronmagnet with a DC field current. It will rotate


along with the rotating magnetic field at the synchronous speed.
this machine has
N poles 4
When spinning, the induced armature voltages (EA for our phase) depends
on the field current, If . If causes the field flux (called excitation).
(Ryff, Fig.5.3)
IA
Electrical analysis on a per-phase basis generator IA direction

The electrical model of an armature winding: Xs


X s is the armature inductance load
(armature windings and leakage) EA V or
(magnetization) grid

Synchronous Generators
E A = I A . j. X s V

EA
V = I A . j . X s
The under-excited condition, the current leads
the terminal voltage, V . The generator supplies
IA
-Q (-VARs), that is, it absorbs +Q (+VARs), just
like an inductive load. Usually not desirable.

V
BAD, Needs Q

The over-excited condition, the current lags


EA
the terminal voltage, V . The generator
supplies +Q (+VARs), that is, it absorbs -Q
V = I A . j . X s
(-VARs), just like an capacitive load. Usually
desirable.
= the power angle
Note: if reaches 90o,
(also called the "torque angle")
the generator will lose
V synchronization.
V
GOOD, Supplies +Q I A=
j.X s
ECE FE Review p14