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: .. , ..., .

- .. , ..., .

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: / . ..
. -: - , 2004.-124 .
ISBN 5-892330-066-8


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, , , .



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, .
-

.
-
,
.

ISBN 5-89230-066-8 ..
., 2004.
, 2004.
-, 2004
I.

, 1.
,

, ,
. .

. :
, , t= t1 - t2, t1>t2.
, ,
- , ,
. ;
,
.
. ,
. .
.
, .
, , ,
.
. (,
, , , ..).
.
, : ,
. .

.
-
.

4
3
2. Q1=Q2=Q3=Q
1
Q= F (t1 t 2 ) =>
1 1
+ +
1 2

t1

=> Q = kFt
t cm 1

1
Q1
t cm k=
2
1 1
+ +
1


Q3
t2
1 2 ; t c = t1 t 2 t1 = const ,
2 t2 = const ,
Q

Q ,
, [];
1 2 -
: 1 ; , [/ 2], ,
2 ; 3
. 1C, ..
: ;
, [/2],
1 Q1 = 1F (t1 tcm1 ) : 1 1
Q = F(t1 t1 ) 1C, ..
1
;

2
Q2 = F(tcm1 tcm2 )

:
, [/ 2],


Q =F(t11 t12) ,


1C, ..
3 Q3 = 2 F(tcm2 t2 ) :2 1 ;
Q = F(t2 t 2 ) F
2
, 2;
4 Q = KFt

1
Q + +
1
= , .
1 2

F (t1 t 2 )
6
5
3.
G2.
:
, Q
G1 = , / ; (1.4)
C1 (t1H t1K )
, )
. :
: Q = G2 C 2 (t 2 H t 2 K ) = DrD = D( I n C t ) , (1.5)
Q
F= . (1.1) rD - (),
kt / 1 .

4. Q Q
D= . (1.6)
rD
rD=f(Pn)-
: .
)
,
Q = G1C1 (t1H t1K ) = G2 C 2 (t 2 K t 2 H ) (1.2) .

5. t
1 - ;

2 - ;
t :
G1- , /; ) :
G2- , /; t t
C , t = ; (1.7)
t
, ln
t
.
t + t
, t = . (1.8)
2
t + t1K
C1 = f t = 1H . (1.3)
2
7 8
6.
-

:
: 1
K= . (1.9)
1 1
+ +
1 2
t
z
1 , R/R>2
t
t
2k (R R)- ).
t1 t1k 1 2
t2k t2
t1k
t ,
t2
.

t = t1 t2k t = t1k t2
1 2, .
l(H),

) , 7.



t , Ct t , C
= f (
t = t t

) Pn ) (
),
(, , , ),
t (, ,

.), .
t = f ( Pan )
[3].
:
6. . N u = f (Re, Pr, Gr , 1 , 2 ...), (1.10)
l ( H ),

9 10
1 2 - ; Nu = 0,023 Re 0,8 Pr 0, 4 ( D d ) 0, 45 , (1.14)
Nu = l - ;
D - , ;
( )
Gr = d 3 g v 2 t - ; d - , .
Pr = c - ; d
Re = ud v - ; :
, -1 ; d = D d .
(1.15)
d , ;
7.3.
l , ;
:
c, , , ,
, , Nu = Cd Re 0,6 Pr 0, 23 , (1.16)
(/, /, ., /); (=1,72
u , /; ; =1,16
t . );
d=(D2-nd2)/( D-nd) -
, ,
: D - , ; d-
, ; n .
7.1. 7.4.
:
) Re>10000 - ,
0,9 0 , 43 Pr 0 , 25
Nu = 0 , 021 Re Pr ( Pr ) ; (1.11) :


) 10000>Re>2320 - Re 1000 Nu = 0,24 Re 0,6 Pr 0,36 (Pr Pr ) 0, 25 ; (1.17)
0,9 0 , 43 Pr 0 , 25
Nu = 0 , 008 Re Pr ( Pr ) ; (1.12)
Re <1000 Nu = 0,34 Re 0,5 Pr 0,36 (Pr Prc ) 0, 25 . (1.17)
) Re>2320 - (1.17 1.17)
Nu = 0,17 Re 0,9
Gr ( 0 ,1 P2 0 , 25
Pr) ; (1.13)
.
.
7.2.
:
11
12
7.5. 1 :
)
: :
0,25
3 2 r 2dn
0, 43
Nu = a Re Pr (Pr Pr) (1.21)
1 = 2,043 = 3,783 , (1.18)
Ht1 G Re Pr
/; 0,2 (0,2 ) 0,086 0,73 10030000 0,7 20
, /;
r , /; (0,3 ) 0,1 0,73 10030000 0,7 20
H , ;
t2=tk-t - 0,5 (0,5 ) 0,135 0,73 50 30000 0,7 80
, ; 0,5 (0,5 ) 0,165 0,65 20050000 0,7 - 50
n ;
G , /; )
d- , . :
1 Nu = a Re 0,33 Pr 0,33 (Pr Pr )
0 , 25
(1.22)
: <Re Pr>
3 2 r 2 nL (1.19)
1 = 1,28 E 3 = 2,02 E 3 ,
Ht1 G 0,2 (0,2 ) 0,5 100 20
- , ; 0,2 (0,3 ) 0,6 100 50
L , . 0,5 0,63 50 80
7.6. 0,5 0,46 200 50
: 7.8. ,
Nu = 0,18(d Z )0,54 (h t )0,1 Re 0,65 Pr 0, 4 , (1.20) ,
:
dn - ;
Nu = a Re m Pr 0,33 ( )
0 ,14
t ; ,
(1.22)
h , h=0,5(D -d); a=0,36; m=0,67 ;
D . a=0,87; m=0,62
t. .
7.7. , D nd 2
Nu = ; Re = ,

,
13 14
D ;
n ; G1 r G1 r
Ht =
d - , . d n d t = Ln
7.9.
(1.23)
:
: n
= 4 3 2 rg tl , (1.23) = 3,78 3 2 d n G1 ; (1.25)
=1,15; l=H (H ) n L
; = 2,02 3 2 Ln G1 . (1.26)
a=0,72; l=d (d - )
. (t-t)=t>100C
t=t-t1 (1.23),
, L.
t100C :
t=0,5(t-t1).
Nu = Re 0,7 Pr 0, 4 , (1.27)
, t 30-40,
Re = Lq r = G1L F (F
t, , ; G1 - , /).
. t < 30 40C
.
, :
, ,
, 0,2 338
: =. (0,3 ) 322
=0,7, n100 0,5 240
=0,6, n>100. 0,5 376
(1.23) t=q/d
= a 3 2 rg lq (1.24) 7.10.
: =1,21, l=H. :
: =0,645, l= d. ,
G1 :
15 16
3 2
2 1
3 23 G2=6,0 /

= 0,075 1 + 10 1
q , (1.28) t2=102,5 t2=30. -

,
: t = 0,5(t 2 + t 2 ) = 0,5(102,5 + 30 ) = 66
1,3 0,5 n0,06 -
= 780 0,5 0, 6 0, 66 0,3 0,3 q 0,6 ;
r n ,o (1.29) : P2=986 /; 2=0,662 /( );
2=0,00054 ; C2=4190 /( ); 2=0,00048 .
1

, , , c, , , t1 =20 t1 =40.
, , :
; Pn- ; 1. :
Pn,o- 1 ; r Q=G2C2(t2- t2)=6,0*4190(102,5 30)=1820000 .
() . 2.
, :
, Q 1820000
G1 = = = 21,8 / ,
C1 (t1H t1K ) 4180(40 20)
, , 4180 /0 1
: t=0,5(t1+t1)=300; P1=996 /; 1=618 /( );
q = 0,142 n 4 g 1=0,000804 ; C1=4180 /( ).
. (1.30) 3.
(1.28) (1.30)
, 102 ,5 30
Pn,o=273M/22,4

n = n ,o (102,5 40) (30 20) = 28,6

t =
102,5 40
40 20 ln
. 30 20

8. 4.
1. .
:

Fop = Q
K op *tcp = 1820000
28, 6*800 = 79,5 2 .
17 18

(600-800) .
F = 1820000
22 *800
= 103 , 5 2 .
Z = 4
n/z, 50. ( ):
I D=600 ; dH=25*2 ; z=4; n/z=206/4=51,5;
, , II D=600 ; dH=20*2 ; z=6; n/z=316/6=52,7;
D=800 ; dH=25*2 ; z=6; n/z=384/6=64,0;
. IV D=800 ; dH=20*2 ; z=6; n/z=618/6=103.

5.
:
I :
4 G2 4*6 , 0
Re 2 = d ( n / z ) = 0 , 000543,140 , 02151, 5 = 13100;
2
C2*2 4190*0, 00054
Pr2 = 2 = 0, 662 = 3, 4.

c (1.9),
, ,
:
Nu=0,023*Re20.8*Pr20.4;
Nu*2 0 , 662 0 ,8 0, 4 2 0
2 = d = 0 , 021 * 0 , 023 * 13100 * 3, 4 = 2360 /( * ).


. I. 1. t ( oa) S= 0,040 2,
: G1*d 21,8*0 , 025
; Re 1 = S = 0 , 040*0 , 000804 = 16960;
*N1
1 .
40 20 102 , 5 30 G1*1 4180*0 , 000804
= 102 , 5 20 = 0 , 24 ; R = 40 20 = 3, 6 ; Pr1 = 1 = 0 , 618 = 5 , 43.
=0,77; t = 28,6 * 0,77 = 22. (1.16),
:
: 0 .6 0 , 23
Nu 1 = 1,16 * Re 1 * Pr1 ;
19 1 = 1
* Nu1 = 0 , 618
*1,16 *16900 0.6 * 5,430.23 = 3785 /( 2 * ). 20
d 0 , 025
- , 4,0 , FIIIk=121 2,
=10%, . IIIk= 3950 ,
20 1,
r31 = r32 = 1 / 5800 K / ;
1 .
0
= 17 , 5 / ; .
/
,
0, 002 1 1 20
= 17 , 5 + 5800 + 5800 = 458 / . I .
IV .
:
D = 800, dH =20 2 , z=6, n/2=618/6=103.
= 1/ ( 2360 3785
)
1 + 1 + 0 , 000458 = 874 /( 2 0 ). : Re1=8560 ( ),
2=1940/20,Re1=8350, 1=3075 /2*, K=770/20.
:
F=107,5 2.
1820000 2 ,
F1 k = 22 , 0*874 = 94 , 6 .
3,0 FIV =116 2 -
, =7,9%. IV =3550 , 400
l= 6,0 III .
Flk=97 2,
97 94 , 6 (1 , III , 1 )
= 94 , 6 * 100 = 2 , 54%. .
M=3130 . 6. .
II .
: :
Re1=16770, 1=3720, Re2=14670, 2=4310, K=1045, F=79,2 2
, 4,0
(
P = +
d
u 2
2 ; ) (1.31)
(F=79,0 ),
.
6,0 119
( u2
h = + 2 g .
d
) (1.32)
1. :
III . 4*G * z
u = .
: Re2=10540, 2=1985 /2*, d 2 n (1.33)
Re1=10440, 1=2830 /2*, K=760 /2*, FIIIk=109 2.
,
22
21
: :
0 , 25

= 0 ,11 +
68
, (1.34) = 2 + 1 = 2 n 1 + 0 , 25 . (1.37)
Re 3
l=/d . ,
, , 0,5 :
; n 1 + 0 , 25 n.
1=1,5 , m = (1.38)
3 3
2=2,5 - ;

3=1,0 - .


:
:
2 u2 * 2
*u 2
*u
. = . ( . * u . / 2 ) . (1.35) Lz
P = d * 2 [
+ 2,5( z1)+2z 2 +3] 2

2 .*u2. .*u2.
: 3( +1) u.*.
G . P. = 2 * + * 1,5 * +3 ,
Re. 2 2 2
u = , (1.36)
S M . * .
.
S. - .

,
.
:
.1=1,5 ; 1. .
.2=2,5 - ; G2 6,0
u . = = = 0 , 338 / ;
.3=3m/Re0.2. , S * 2 0 , 018 * 986

{[ ) ]}
G . * d .
2

Re . =
S . * .
; = 0 , 25 lg
0 , 2 *10 3
0 , 021 * 3 , 7
+( 6 , 81
13100
0 ,9
= 0 , 0422 .
m - ,
. d.=0,150 .
6 ,0* 4
u . = 0 , 344 / .
n=I+3+32 , - * 0 , 15 2 * 986
.
,
23
24
2
3*9 (18+1) 0 , 546 *996 996*0 , 546 2
: ,
P . = 16960 * 2 + 18 * 1, 5 2 +
1800 .

996*0 , 696 2
(1.31) :
+ 3* 2 = 14455 .
0 , 338 2 *986
6*4
P = 0 , 422 * 0 , 021 * 2 [ ]
+ 2 , 5 ( 4 1) + 2*4 *
III .
986 *0 , 338 2 986 *0 , 344 2 :
* +3 = 3768 . u =0,277 / =0,0431 u .=0,344 /;
2 2
u =0,377 / u ..=0,446 / m=12, =8;
,
=2965 , =3857 .

1
mz 206
3
= 8,27 , m=9, =18. , ,
d.=0,200 , III .
: IV .
21 , 8 * 4 :
u . = = 0 , 696 / . u=0,304/ =0,0472 u.=0,344 / =3712 ;
* 0 , 2 2 * 996
u .=0,377 / u ..=0,446 / m=15, =6;=3728 .

S . =0,040 2. III , 400 ,
21 , 8 III ,
u . = 0 , 04 * 996 = 0 , 546 / .
I IV .
-
: , 18 .
( =18) 2.
19 , I,
(+1).
1.37 .
,

,
.
25 26
: 1 2 0
= = 918 / .
In. F=80 2 , N=154, 0,5; 0 , 000401 + 1 + 1
2120 4610
IIn. F=63 2 , N=122, 0,5;
IIIn. F=50 2 , N=98, 0,5; :
1- 4 I. F=1820000/918*28,6=69,3 2.
5. . F1=80 2
In. 77
0,0018 2 (.II.14)[3]. =
80 69 ,3
*100 =15,5% 1=2040 (.II.13)[3]
6 ,0 69 ,3
u2 = = 0 , 0439 / .
986 * 77 * 0 , 0018 II. :Cx=61/61
d=0,0080 . : u2=0,0555 /, Re2=810, 2=2530 /2*,
0 , 0439 * 0 , 0080 * 986 u1=0,2/, Re1=1980, 1=5490 /2*, K=1022/2 0,
Re 2 = = 643 > 50 ,
0 , 00054 FII=62,3 2
.. , (1.21)
2
FII=63 =1,1%
0 , 662
2 = 0 , 0080 * 0 ,135 * 643
0 , 73
* 3, 4
0 , 43 20
= 2120 / K .
II=1810 .
III. :Cx=49/49
77 :
21 , 8
u1 = = 0 ,158 / ; u1=0,0069 /, Re1=1008, 1=2970/2*, u1=0,249/,
996 * 77 * 0 , 0018
Re1=2465, 1=6440 /2*, K=1224 /2 0, FIII=56,6 2.
Re 1 =
0 , 158 * 0 , 0080 * 996
= 1565 > 50 ; FIII=50 2 ,
0 , 000804

0 , 618 0 , 73 0 , 43 2
1 = 0 , 0080 * 0 ,135 * 1565 *5 = 4610 /
0
. . ,

, . . .
1,0 (. 11) , ,
: Cx=24+25/49, ,
-
1 , 0 *10 3 1 1 2 0 .
= + + = 0 , 000401 / .
17 , 5 5800 5800 , . .
: ,
.
27
28
Cx=24+25/49. .
Re2 , 2 6. .
(1.19)
20,73=1,66 .
1 . :
1=2970*1,66=4930 /2*0; L u2
2
u
= d * 2 + 3 2 ,
1 2 0
= 1 1 = 1320 / * .
0 , 000401+ + L - , (. 14)[3];
4930 6440
d - , ;

x - ;
,
u- , /;

= a1/Re - ;
.1.1. t=0,77;
= a1/Re 0,25 - ;
tcp =28,6*0,77=220C
.
0,2 (0,3 2) 0,5 0,5 0,5
F=1820000/1320*22=62,6 2.
1 200 425 485 324 210
F111=50 2 -
2 17 19,3 22,4 15,0 4,0.
.
(.
,
14)[3] .
Cx=24+25/24+25,
I.
1 1,66 :
:
1=6440*1,66=10690 /2 0. 22 , 4
1 2 0 1 = 4 = 4 , 46 1=1; L=1,15; d=0,15; u1=0,344/;
= = 1435 / ; 643
0 , 000401 + 1 + 1
4930 10690 u1=0,0439 /;
F=1820000/1435*28,6=44,3 2. 0 , 0439 2 *986 986 *0 , 344 2
1,15
P1 = 4 , 46 * 0 , 008 * 2 +3 2 = 785 ;
50 44 , 3
= 44, 3 * 100 = 12, 9% . 22 , 4
2 = 4 = 3, 57 ; =1; u =1,24 /; u =0,158/;
u2=0,138 /, Re2=2016, 1565 2 1 2

u1=0,498/, Re1=4930.
111=1655 . 0,1582*996 1, 242*996
1,15
P2 = 3, 57 * 0, 008 * 2 + 2 = 6380 + 2305 = 8685 .

29
30
II.
: ( )
22 , 4 - - .
1 = 4 = 4 , 2 ; =1; L=1,15 ; d =0,15 ; u =0,344 /;
810 1 1 3.
u1=0,0555 /; ,

0,05552*986 986*0,3442 G2=2,/ -
1,15
P1 = 4, 2 * 0,008 * 2 +3 2 = 916 + 176 = 1091; t2=20 t2k=80
t=0,5(20+80)=50. -
22 , 4 : 2=900/3 ; 2=0,458 /*;
2 = 4 = 3, 36 2=1; u2=1,24 /; u2=0,2 /; 2=0,534*10-3 *; 2=3730 /*; r2=4,35.
1980

0 , 22 *996 0,6 . t1=158,1.
1,15
P2 = 3, 36 * 0 , 008 * 2 + 2305 = 11925 ; : 1=908/3
; 1=0,683 /*; 1=0,177*10-3 *; r1=2095000 /;
III. r1=1,11.
: :
22 , 4 1. :
2 = 4 = 3, 35; =2; L=1,15 ; d =0,15 ; u =0,344/;
2 2
2016 Q=G2*C2(t2-t2)=2,0*3730(80-20)=448000 .
u2=0,138 /; 2.
0 ,138 2 *986 :
1 ,15
P2 = 2 * 3 , 35 * 0 , 008 * 2 + 175 = 9050 + 175 = 9225 ; Q 448000
G1 = = = 0,214 / .
r1 209500
22, 4
= = 2, 68 1=2; u1=0,498 /; 3. :
1 4
4930
(158,120 )(158,180 )
0, 4982*996 t cp = = 105 .;
1,15 n138.1
P1 = 2 * 2, 68 * 0, 008 * + 2305 = 95000 + 2305 = 97305. 78.1
2
t=t1-t2 =158,1-20=138,1;
I 2,
t= t1-t2=158,1-80=78,1.
, ,
. , ,
31 . I (3).
32
4. 2 (. . 13)[3], - , =17,5/
0
1000 1500 K.
/2 *. =1250 /*. :
1, 0*10 3 20
1
: = 17 , 5 + 5800 = 0 , 000229 / .
448000 2 :
Fop = 105 *1250 = 3 , 41 .
1 20
5. . = 1 + 1 +0 , 000229 = 2010 / .
3,0 5010 14780
2, 0,3 2, N=12 (. :
II.13)[3]. t = 2010 * 105 = 14 , 3 > 10 .
14780
Re
:
0,0011 2
448000 2
0,008 (.II,14)[3] F = = 2 , 12 .
105 * 2010
:
F=3,02
G2 2,0
u 2 = ( N / 2 ) S = 900*6*0 , 0011 = 0 , 337 / ; = 41,7%. =291
2 (. . II.13)[3].
Re 2 =
0 , 337 * 0 , 008 *900
= 4520 .

0 , 000534 (1.37), d=0,05
(. II.14)[3].
: :
0 , 458 0 , 73 0 , 43 20 2,0*4
2 = 0 , 008 * 0 ,1 * 4540 * 4 , 35 = 5010 / . u = = 1,13 / .
900 * * 0 , 5 2

:
, t10 .,
2 19, 3
L=1,12 (. II.14)[3] : = = 4 = 2 , 35.
0 , 214 * 1 , 12 4 Re 4540
2
Re 1 = 0 , 000177 * 3 , 0 = 451 ;
X=1.
0 , 662 0,7 0, 4 20 :
1 = 1,12 * 322 * 451 * 1,11 = 14780 / .
0 , 337 2 * 900 900 *1 .13 2
6. 1 . 12
P = 2 .35 * 0 , 008 * 2 + 3 2 = 18520 .
. 1,0
33 34
4. 4 G2 4*15 , 4
n
z = *d * 2 *Re 2 3,14*0 , 04*0 , 00082*10000 = 114 ,

() n - ;
G1=1,2 / , r1=1180000 /, z - ;
t1=66. - d - , .
: 1=0,219 /*, 5.
3
1=757/ , 1=0,000446 *. I. . II.4[3]
t2=18. n/z
D = 600 ,
t2=40, t2=0,5(18+40)=29 dH=25x2, z=2 n=240:
- : n/z=240/2=120.
2=0,616 /*, 2=4180 /*, 2=996 /3 , 2=0,00082 (3,0; 4,0 6,0 )
C2 *M 2 57, 75
*, Pr2 = 2 = 5, 56. 113 2.
Re
: 4 G2 z 4*15 , 4*2
1. : Re 2 = *d *n* = 3,14*0 , 021*240*0 , 00082 = 9490
Q=1180000*1.2=1415000 . 2
2. :
1415000
G 2 = 4180 ( 40 18 ) = 15 , 4 / .
(1.10.):
0, 616
= 0, 008 = 9490 0,9 *5,56 0, 43 =1865 / 2 *
3. : 2 0, 021
( 6618 ) ( 66 40 ) 0 ,
t = = 36 C.
n 48 ,
36
(1.24.):
4. . II,1 [3] =600
/2*. : 7572 *240*0, 025 20
1 = 3, 78 * 0, 2193 = 1540 / .
0, 000446*1, 2
1415000 2
Fop = 600*36 = 65, 5 .

Re2=10000,
:
n/z dH=
25x2 :
36
35
2*103 1 1 20 , I,
= 17 , 5 + 5800 + 11600 = 0 , 000372 / . 25% ,
:
2 .
1 0
= = 642 / ; 6. P2
1 + 1 + 0 , 000372
1865 1540 (1.35).
1415000 2 :
F = = 61 , 2 .
36 * 642 4 G2 Z 4*15.4*2
. II.4 [3], u2 = 2 = 3.14*0.021*240*996 = 0 , 372 / .
d n 2
4,0 75 2 :
7561, 2 (1.31) :

{[ ]}
= 61, 2 * 100 = 22 , 5%. 2
II.

= 0 , 25 lg
0 , 2*10 3
( )
+
6 ,81 0 , 9
0 , 021*3, 7 9490
= 0 , 0436.

3,0 . ( . 8):
, , 4 G2 4*15 , 2
u 2 = 2 = = 0 , 492 / .
, 4 d p2 3.14*0 , 22 *996
.
(1.26): :
0,3722*996 996*0,4922
[ ]
2 3*2
1 = 2 , 02 * 0 , 6 * 0 , 219 * 3 757 * 240 *3 = 2430 . 2 = 0,436 * *3 + 2,5+(21)+2*2 *
0 , 000446 *1 , 2 0,021 2 2

996*0,3722
, : * = 860 + 362 + 448 = 1670
2
I 20
= I + I +0, 000372 = 757 / .
1865 2430 5.
:
1415000 2
F = 757*36 = 51,8 ,
.. 3,0 G2 = 0,98 /
57,0 2 . .
57 51,8 t2 =102,6
= 51,8 * 100 = 10%. -
37 38
: 2 = 957 /3; 2 = 0,00024 *; 2=0,0583 g
/; C2 =2240000 /(*); 2=0,680 /(*); r2 =2240000 ,
/. =0,65 :
/3, =0,6515 /3 . F=Q/q.


- (. 11.2)[3].
0,2 .
1. :
r1 =2208000 /,
Q=0,98*2240000=2195000 .
: t1 =119,6C. -
2.
: 1
: G1=2195000/2208000=0,994 /.
= 943 /3; 1= 0,000231 -; 1=0,686 /(-). 3. :
, t=119,6-102,6=17,0 C.
. 1 ()[3]
, (1.23):
1 =1400 /(2 0).
12gr1 1 3 4.
1 = 1, 21 * 1 3 3
q = Aq .
1H :
Fop=2195000/1400-17=92.2 2.

. II. 4[3], ,
(1.28):
,
1.3 0.5 0,06
2 * 2 * 0.6 0.6 =3,0 2,0 D=0,8
2 = 780 * 0,5 0.6 0,66 0,3 0.3 g = Bq . =4,0 D=0,6 .
2 *r2 * * 2 *M 2

5.
, 1.
t =3,0
1
= q = 1
1 + + 1
2 . D=0,8 F=109 2.
.
1 2,
:
: q1=q=2195000/109=2010 /2.
4 f(q1)
A ( )

1 0, 4
( q ) = 1 g 3 + q + B q t = 0. :
40
39
943 2 2208000 9,84 Q 2195000 2
A = 1,21 0,686 3 = 2,54 10 5 F = Kgt = 29475 = 74 , 5 .
0,000231 3,0
0 , 6801, 3*9670 , 5*0 , 65150 , 06
:
= 780 * = 12 , 43. 109174, 5
0 , 05830 , 5*22400000 , 6 *0 , 650 , 66*42000 , 3*0 , 000240 , 3 = 74, 5 * 100 = 46, 3%.
2,0, - , 1=3200 (.II.10)[3].
=17,5/(0). 11 .
( F = 73 2,
) : =2,0 (.II.4)[3].
2*103 1 20 .
= + = 0 , 000286 / .
17 , 5 5800 :
, = 2,52 *105 * 3 32 = 2,885 *105.
4
0 .4
( q1 ) = 1 *20100 3 + 0 , 000286 *20100 + 20100 17 , 0 = 4 , 83 .
2 , 5212 *10 5 12 , 43
2195000 2
q1 = = 30100 / .
: q2= 30000 /2, : 73
4 ,
30000 3 0 .4
( q2 ) = + 0 , 000286 *30000 + 30000 17 , 0 = 0 , 27 . 4
3 0 .4
2 , 52 *10 5 12 , 43 ( q1 ) = 30100 + 0 , 000286 *30100 + 30100 17 , 0 = 0 ,16.
2 , 855*10 5 12 , 43
, q3,
, I q2 =30700 /2, :
4
2 (q) q. 3 0.4
q 2 q1 ( q2) = 30700 + 0 , 000286*30700+ 30700 17 , 0 = 0 ,14.
q 3 = q 2 ( q ) ( q ) ( q 2 ).
2 1 2 ,855*105 12, 43

: q3 ():
30000 20100 2 3070030100 2
q 3 = 30000 0 , 27 ( 4 ,83) * 0 , 27 = 29475 / ; q 3 = 30700 0,14( 0,16) * 0,14 = 30420 / .

29475 3
4
29475 2
q3 = 5 + 0 , 000286 * 29475 + 12 , 43 17 , 0 = 0 , 02 / . 4
2 , 52*10
30420 3 0.4
(a) ( q3) = + 0 , 000286 *30420 + 30420 17 , 0 = 0 , 03.
2 , 855*105 12 , 43
.
: :
41 42
2195000 2 6.
F = 30420 = 72 ,1 .
: 6.1. - I
73 72 ,8 ) ; )
= 72 ,1 * 100 = 1, 25. .
2=2300 (.II.10)[3].
III . ,

4,0 , 0,6
81 2 (.II.4)[3].
():
q=28825 /2, F=76,0 2,
81 76
: = 76
* 100 = 6 , 6 %.
. II.10[3] ,
: M3=2180 .

,
,
(I.28)
:
q kp = 0,14 * 2 * 240000 0,6515 * 9,81 * 0,0583 * 957 = 1223 / 2 .
,
.

1 2 , 29 *10 5 20
3
1 = A = 3 = 7470 /( );
28825
0.6 0, 6 2 0
2 = Bq = 12, 43 * 28825 = 5880 /( * );
q 28825 2 0
= t = 17 , 0 = 1697 /( * ).

43 44
6.2. - 2

45 46
6.3. - 5
a) ;
b)

47 48
9.
, ,
, , .. Q
- ,
(.1.2) Q,
III, t t.
, c=const :
II V. III =Qp /Qo =G(tp th)/G(t t) =t t /(t t),
IV,
76- G , /; C
79. , /(*0); t
I II III IV , .

:
)
:
Q=G(t-t)(1-); (1.39)
) :
t= t+(t-t); (1.40)
t= t-(t-t). (1.41)

:

= ( )( )
L
d
u 2
2
x, (1.42)
Ln- , ; d -
. 1.2 , ; - , /3 ; u-
, /. X ; -
20 2 :
V. =11,2Re-0,25, (1.43)
II, 1 4 R .
.
. 1.2, .
49 50
t4=t1+(t3 t2)=5+76-63,2=17,8.

. t=t3-t2=76-63,2=12,2.
1. ) .

:
, . 1.2. t=t-(t3 t2)/ (-n)=79-3850(76-63,2)/(4187*4)=76.
G =5000 /, -
t1 =5, t =70 , 3850 /(*); t
t3 =76 , t6 =4 =70 , 4187 /(*);
, =0,82, t=t t2=76-63,2=12,8;
t=79 , n =4, t=t t3=79-76=3;
t =8 , t/t=12,8/3=4,27>2.
n=3,
t=1 , n=4. t=(12,2-3)/(2,3lg*4,27)=6,75 .
) .
t5 =10 . ,
-2; :
F=0,22, b=0,27, t=t+(t4-t5)/(cn)=8+3875(17,8-10)/(41873)=10,4;
L=F1/b=0,8, t=t4-t=17,8-10,4=7,4;
h=0,0028, t=t5-t=10-8=2;
f1=0,00082, d=2*h=0,0056, t/t=7,4/2=3,8>2.
=0,0012,
=16/( 0). :
: t=(7,4-2)/2,3 lg3.8=4.
1. ) .
. :
) . t=t+(t5 t6)/ (n)=1+3869(10-4)/(4200*4)=2,4;
t=t5 t=10-2,4=7,6;
: t=t6 t=4-1=3;
t2=t1+(t3 -t1)=5+0,82(76-5)=63,2. t/t=7,6/3=2,53>2.

: :
51 52
t=(7,6-3)/(2,3lg*2,53)=5. =0,673/(0); =0,37*10-3 *; =973/ 3;
2. . =4193 /(0); Pr=2,3.
: ( )
V=C-/(3600)=5000/(3600*1021)=0.0014 3/c, t =77,5-t =77,5-6,76=70,75
- t =40 , 1021 /3. =0,525/(0); =0,63*10-3 *; =1005/
u=0,46 /, 3; =3850 /(0); Pr=4,62.
: ) .
m=V/(f1u)=0,014/(0,0008*0,46)=3,8. (
m=4. ) t=0,5(t+t)=0,5(8+10,4)=9,2
: =0,572/(0); =1,35*10-3 *; =1000/
u=0,46*3,8/4=0,44 /c. 3; =4193 /(0); Pr=9,85.
( )
: t=9,2+t=9,2+4=13,2
u /u =0,44 /c. =0,49/(*); =2,28*10-3 *; =1031/
: 3; =3876 /(0); Pr=18.
u /u =0,85 /c. ) .
(
3. ) t=0,5(t+t)=0,5(1+2,4)=1,7
.. =0,555/(*); u=1,71*10-3 *;
) . =1000/3; =4208 /(0); Pr=12,96.
( )
( ) t=0,5(t5+t6)=0,5(10+4)=7
t=0,5(t1+t2)=0,5(5+63,2)=34,1; =0,487/(*); u=2,82*10-3 *; =1032/
=0,502/(0); 3; =3869 /(0); Pr=26,1.
=1,25*10-3 *; =1023/ 3; =3904 /(0); 4. R=ud/..
Pr=9,74. ) .
R=0,44*0,0056*1023/1,25*10-3=2017.
( ) t=0,5(t3+t4)=0,5(76+17,8)=47,9 R=0,44*0,0056*1017/0,94*10-3=2666.
=0,513/(0); =0,94*10-3 *; ) .
=1017/ ; =3882 /(0); Pr=7,12.
3
R= 0,44*0,0056*1005/0,63*10-3=3,931.
) . R=0,85*0,0056*973/0,37*10-3=12517.
( ) .
) t=0,5(t+t)=0,5(79+76)=77,5 R=0,44*0,0056*1032/2,28*10-3 =1114
53 54
R=0,44*0,0056*1000/1,35*10-3=1825 =1/(1/4118+0,0012/16+1/5239)=2000 /(2 0).
) . ) .
R=0,44*0,0056*1032/2,82*10-3 =902.
R=0,85*0,0056*1000/1,71*10-3=2784. 1=0,1*0,487*9020,7*26,10,43/0,0056=4141 /(2 0).
5.
. 2=0,1*0,555*27840,7*12,960,43/0,0056=7688 /(2 0).
1 2 -2 :
: =1/(1/4141+0,0012/16+1/7688)=2273 /(2 0).
=0,1Re 0.7 Pr 0.43 /d. 6. ,
) . .
) .
1=0,1*0,531*26660,7*7,120,43/0,0056=5329 /(2 0). Fp=G(t2-t1)/(Kt)=1,45*3904(63,2-5)/(1957*12,2)=13,82.
n =Fp/F1=13,8/0,2=69.
2=0,1*0,502*20170,7*9,740,43/0,0056=4907 /(2 0). m=4, :
=np/2m=69/2*4=8,6; =9.
(XIII-6)[4] ) .
=0,9: :
=0,9/(1/5329+0,0012/16+1/4907)=1957 /(2 0). F=Gcm(t2-t1)/(Kt)=1,45*3850(76-63,2)/(2576*6,75)=4,11 2.
) . n =F/F1=4,11/0,2=20.
:
1=0,1*0,773*125710,7*2,30,43/0,0056=12695 /(2 0). =n/2m=20/2*4=2,5; =3.
) .
2=0,1*0,525*39310,7*4,620,43/0,0056=5938 /(2 0). :
F=Gcm(t2-t1)/(Kt)=1,45*3876(17,8-10)/(2000*4)=5,48 2.
:
=0,85: n=F/F1=5,48/0,2=27,4; n=27.
=0,85/(1/12695+0,0012/16+1/5938)=2576 /(2 0). :
) . =n/2m=27/2*4=3.
) .
1=0,1*0,49*11140,7*180,43/0,0056=4118 /(2 0). :
F=G(t2-t1)/(Kt)=1,45*3869(10-)/(2273*5)=2,962.
2=0,1*0,572*18250,7*9,850,43/0,0056=5239 /(2 0). :
: n =F/F1=2,96/0,2=4,18. n=15.
55 56
: =11,2*3931-0,25=1,41.
=n/2m=15/2*4=2. :
=1,41*0,8*1005*0,442*3/(0,0056*2)=58,8 .
n=n+n+n+n=69+20+27+15=131, ) (x=3).
(n=133). Re=1114
m x, =11,2*1114-0,25=1,94.
: :
: =1,94*0,8*1031*0,442*3/(0,0056*2)=83 .
(4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4)/(4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4+4). ) (x=2).
: (4+4+4)/12. Rep=902
: (4+4+4)/12. =11,2*902-0,25=2,04.
: (4+4)/8. :
7. =2,04*0,8*1032*0,442*2/(0,0056*2)=58,2 .
.

(1.42): =+1+++=211+199+58,8+83+58,2=610.
L u 2 2.
= ( n )( ) x, ()
d 2
, G=1 /c t1=15 t2=65
=11.2*Re-0.25 ,
) ( xp=9). . t1=95,
Rep=2017 t2=65 . 38*1,5
p=11.2*2017-0.25=1,67. , 76*2 .3.
3 .
.
=1,670,810170,4429/(0,00562)211. =0,85.
: t=0,5(15+65)=40
Re=2666 : =0,0635
1p=11.2*2666-0.25=1,56. /(0); =0653*10-3*; =992/3; =4174 /(0);
Pr=4,31.
: (1.2)
p=1,56*0,8*1023*0,442*9/(0,0056*2)=199 . Q =1*4174(65-15)1,03=2147961 .
) (x=3). tk=0,5(95+65)=80
Re=3931 58
57
: k=0,674 /(0); =0,355*10-3 =0,85/(1/3609+0,0015/16+1/4469)1431 /(2 0).
*; =972/3; =4195 /(0); Pr=2,21
t
: .
95 65
GkCk(tk1-tk2)0,97=GC(t2-t1), 65 15
t=30 t=50
G C ( t 2 - t 1 ) 1* 4174 ( 65 15 ) t/t=50/30=1,66<2; t=(30+50)/2=40 .
Gk = = = 1, 71 / .
(t k1 - t k2 )0,97 4195 ( 95 65 )*0 , 97
:
. F=214964(1431*40)=3,76 2.
: .
u=4G/(2d)4*1/(992*3,14*0,0352)=1,05 /. N=F/(dcpl)=3,76/(3,14*0,0365*3)=11.

f=(D2+d2H)/4=3,14(0,0722-0,0382)/4=0,003 2
:
u=Gk/(kf)=1,71/(972*0,003)=0,59 /. 1. ..
. . .: , 1973.- 752
: Re= ud/ =1,05*0,035*992/0,653*10-3=55828. 2. .., , .
,
2 (1.14) . .: , 1987.- 575 .
Nu=0,023*5528 0,8*4,310,43(76/38)0,45=246,3. 3. ..
. .: , 1983.- 272 .
2=Nu /d=246,3*0,635/0,035=4469 /(2*). 4. ..
: . .: , 1985.-
d =D-d=0,072-0,038=0,034 . 137.
u d 0,59 0,034 972
Re = k k = = 54925
k 0,355 10 3
,
Nu=0,023*549250,8*2,210,43(76/38)0,45=182.

1=Nu /d=182*0,674/0,034=3609 /(2 0).

59 60
II.
1. ,
.
,
,
,
() . ( )
.
, - ,
.
, . 2.1.
, ( )
. . ,
, ,
: () .
Pan >1 - ;
Pan =1 - ; ,
, .
Pan <1 - (
, ..
).

,

,
.

1.1.

. ,
.2.1. -
1 :1-3 ; 4 ; 5
1 . ; 6 ; 7 -
.
61
62

, , , ,
.
.
1.2.
. , ,
, ,
. .

,
.


4,
.
(
)
5,
. ,
(
),
,
- 6 - 7.
-
, ..
,
.
. 2.2. . 2.3.
: 1 : 1
; 2 ; 3 ; 2;
, : 4
. , 3-
()
; 4
.
63 64
1
, .
(. 2.2.).
(
1 , ),
2 .
. . 2.2.
, ,
3 , .
() , , .
4 . , 4,
.
, .
1
1,5 /,

. ,
.
1.3. ,

.


. ,
, . 2.3
. .
(.
2.3) , , ..
7. (. ).
, ,
, .

.
65 66
2. 2.4. ()

2.1. Q
D= , / , (2.4)
rD x

.

. 2.5.
Q
F= , 2. (2.1)
kt 1
K= , / 2 , (2.5)
1 1
+ +
2.2. 1 2
1 = -
x
W = G 1 , / , (2.2) , /;
2 = -
G - , /; , /;
, - ,

%. -
, /.
2.3.
2.6.
Q = (1,03 1,05)WrW = DrD , , (2.3)
1,03/1,05 Q;
= 2,044 13 12 r 1 Ht1 = At 0, 25 , / , (2.6)
D () , /;

A = 2,04 1 1 r 1 H , /;
3 2

rW , rD -
1 , 1 , 1 - (/), (/),
() , ..
1 , /. t = t t 1 t
( ) 2

=4 ;
67
68
r () r - ()
Pn .
, /; , -
2.1. , /;
2.1 2 - , /;
P, 2 3 4 5 6 2 - , .
1, / 10450 10621 10650 10754 10850

:
2.7.
t = C 0 + 0,00175(t t 0 ) ; (2.9)

1 t = 0 + 0,0005(t t 0 ) ; (2.10)
t=120 : t = 0 + 0,00068(t t 0 ) ; (2.11)
1 = 1163(1,9 + 0,04t ) , /. (2.7) 12,90 (2.12)
t = 0 ,85
,
2.8. t
0 , 0 , 0 , 0 -
20.
. 2.8.2. ,
2.8.1. :
12,3 20,5 0,06 120.
2 = 780 0,5 0, 6 0,66 0,3 0,3 q 0,6 = 2 q 0, 6 , / 2 , (2.8)
2 r , 2 2 2 = 2 q 0, 6 , (2.13)
2 - , 2 - ,
/; .2.4;
2 - , /;
q=Q
- , F - , /;
/; q = 1 t1 = 2 t 2 ; q = kt ; q = ur , (2.13)
2 - , /;

69
70
u (u=W/F, (2.13)
/()). 2 =
0 , 023 + 0 , 024
, / 2 ,


- ,
/;
= 0,145t 2,33 0,5 (2.13)

= 0,13q 0,7 P 0,15 , (2.13)
t - ,
;
, .
2.8.4. 2
( ).

,
.2.4. 2
. 2
(2.15):
q
: 2 =
0 , 023 + 0 , 024
,

q = 2,050, 4 0,17 r 0,36T
0 , 32 0 , 21
( 0,215 0,08 ) , (2.13)
=5000 / (,
- , (2.15) (2.15)).
; 2.8.5.
, , , ,
- 3mk
=3
; 2
, (2.13)
r
m
k - , /,
, /.
2.8.3. mk = 400 . (2.13)
(, ,
). :
71 72
2 t = C 0 + 0,00175(t t 0 ) ; (2.18)
u= , / . (2.13)
2
2.8.6. , . t = 0 + 0,0005(t t 0 ) ; (2.19)
ur (x2 x1 ) t = 0 + 0,00068(t t0 ) ; (2.20)
L= , (2.13)
x2 kt 12,9 (2.21)
t = 0,85 0 .
t
ur (x2 x1 )
L= , (2.13)
Zx2 kt 2.9.
Z .
2.8.7. t = t n t .
, . (2.22)

:
.
= 9,74 + 0,07(t cm t 0 ) . t = t n t , . (2.23)
(2.13)
2.8.8. t n - ,
t cm1 = t n (kt ) 2 , (2.13) .;
, t .
- , .;
t cm 2 = t (kt ) 2 , (2.13) t n - , ;
, .
2.8.9. - , , :
20. = ' + " + "' , .,
0 = 41,87[0,3 + (100 )] , / ;
-
'
(2.14)
0 = 10[1,42 + (100 )] , /; (2.15)
;
0 , 53
'' - ;

0 = 1,160,51 , / ; (2.16) ''' - .
46
:
0 = 0,94 10 3 0, 05+ 0,08
, . (2.17)
2 2 '
2.9.1. = 1,62 10 ,
'
(2.24)
: r

73 74
-
'
2.9.2. " = f (P + ) f (P ) , (2.27)
,
2 g
f = 1,62 10 2 = , (2.28)
r - , 2
.2.2. ,
' = t p t t
, p - ; [
= 26 + 0,14( )

]
100
, (2.29)
t - ( H O ).
2
- , ;
, ;
2.2

- , /;
f f - , /.


''

t n , 1,5 .
f
2.9.3. -
'''
t n , .
.
t n , , ,
. 0,7 1 .
40 0,66 80 0,88 120 1,14
2.10.
50 0,71 90 0,94 130 1,18

60 0,76 100 1,00 140 1,22
70 0,82 110 1,07 150 1,25 2.10.1.
, Q K
:
: Qi
t
' = 0,380, 05 + 0,045 . (2.25) Ki
t i = . (2.30)
: i=n Qi
' = 0,025 1,1 0,7 ,
(2.26) i =1 Ki
, %; 2.10.2.
Pn - , .
75 76
Q K : 3.
Q
t i
Ki
ti = i = n , (2.31) :
Qi
GH = 5 / = 1,39 /
i =1 Ki
NaNO3;
Qi- ;
XH = 12% ()
Ki- .
NaNO3;
2.11.
XK = 40% -
G =
(
W i '' i ' ) / , (2.32)
NaNO3;
C (t 2 t1 ) Pn = 0,4 = 4 . ()
i , /; ;
i , /; P = 0,08 = 0,8 .
- , /; .
.
t1 t 2 - .
2.12. , - (. 2.5).

G = 0,00025(W + G ) + 0,01W / (2.33)
- :
R(273 + t )G
V = . (2.34)

2.13.

:

0 = 10,33 , (2.35)
760

.2.5. :
1-3- ; 4- ; 5-
, .. ; 6--; 7- ; 8
; 9- .
77 78
3.1. , 3.4.

X 12
W = G H 1 H = 1,39 * 1 = 0,97 / . :
XK 40
P = Pn P . = Pn (P P ) = 4 0,2 = 3,8 .
3.2.


, .. :
:
I : II : III = 1,0:1,1:1,2 3,8
P 1 = = 1,27 .
, : 3
W *1 0,97 *1 :
IK W1 = = = 0,295 / ; III 3 = = - = 1-0,8 = 0,2 = 19,6*103 ;
1 + 1,1 + 1,2 3,3
II 2 = 3 + 1 = 0,2+1,27 = 1,47 = 143,7*103 ;
0,97 *1,1 I 1 = 2 + 1 = 1,47+1,27 = 2,74 = 267,8*103 ;
IIK W2 = 0,324 / ;
3,3 = 1 + 1 = 2,74+1,27 = 4 () = 392,4*103 .
0,97 *1,2
IIIK W3 = = 0,351 /
3,3 ( LV)[ 2]

___ W = 0,97 /.
3.3. :
I 1 = 2,74 . t1 = 130 r1 = 2179 /;
GH * X H 1,39 * 12
IK X1 = = = 15,2% ; II 2 = 1,47 t2 = 110 r2 = 2233 /;
G H W1 1,39 0,295
= 1056 / 3 [3, . 180] III 3 = 0,2 t3 = 60 r3 = 2359 /.
GH * X H 1,39 * 12 = 4 t = 143 r = 2141 /.
IIK X2 = = = 21,6% ;
G H W1 W2 1,39 0,295 0,324 .
= 1102 / 3 I t1 = t1 = 130 ;
IIIK
GH * X H 1,39 *12 II t2 = t2 = 110 ;
X3 = = = 40% = X K ;
GH W1 W2 W3 1,39 0,295 0,324 0,351
III t3 = t3 = 60 .
= 1255 / 3
.
79 80
3.5. I
P1 = P + 1 gH = 267,8 *10 + 1056 * 9,81 * 0,4 = 272 *10 3 = 2,78; II
3

: P2 = P2 + 2 gH = 143,7 *10 3 + 1102 * 9,81 * 0,4 = 148 *10 3 = 1,51; III


= 1 + 11 + 111 .
) 1 - , P3 = P3 = 3 gH = 19,6 *10 3 + 1255 * 9,81 * 0,4 = 24,52 *10 3 = 0,25.
1 = t n t . ,
:
( XXXVI)[2]
I t P1 = f (P1 = 2,78 ) = 131,52 ;
NaNO3
: t P1 = f (P1 = 2,74 ) = 130,93 ;
111 = 131,52 130,93 = 0,59
, II t P 2 = f (P2 = 1,51 ) = 110,9 ;
NaNO3, %
t P 2 = f (P2 = 1,46 ) = 109,9 ;
, H2O,
112 = 110,9 109,9 = 1
I x1 = 15,2 102 100 1 = 2 III t P 3 = f (P3 = 0,25 ) = 64,7 ;
II x2 = 21,6 103 100 1 = 3 t P 3 = f (P3 = 0,2 ) = 59,7 ;
III x3 = 40,0 107 100 1 = 7 113 = 64,7 59,7 = 5

: 11 = 6,59
. 2.2.
I t1 = 130 ) (111 ) .
11 = f1 * 1 = 1,18 * 2 = 2,36 ;

II t2 = 110 12 = f 2 * 1 = 1,07 * 3 = 3,21 ;
1, 111 = 1 * 3 = 3 .
III t3 = 60 13 = f 3 * 1 = 0,76 * 7 = 5,32 ;
_____________________ : = 10,83 + 6,59 + 3 = 20,42
: 1 = 10,83 . 1 = 2,36 + 0,59 + 1 = 3,59 4 .
) : 3.6.
11 = t P t P t = t t 3 = 143 60 20,42 = 62,58 ;
H = 0,4 t 1 t1 1 = 143 130 4 = 9 .

. 82
81
3.7. 3.8.
t = t +
:
, 1
III t 3 = 60 + 5,32 + 5 + 1 = 71,32 ; K= .
1 1
II t 2 = 110 + 3,21 + 1 + 1 = 115,21 ; + +
1 2
I t 1 = 130 + 2,36 + 0,59 + 1 = 133,95 . 3.8.1. ,

. 2.3. c / / .
2.3 , .
X17
.
= 25,1 /.
.
I II III .
0,002 0,0005
1 W-- / 0,295 0,324 0,351 0,97
= + = 0,287 *10 3 , [2/].
25,1 2,42

3.8.2.
.
2 X- % 15,2 21,6 40 X = (2.6) = 4 = 4 .
40
13 12 r
1 = 2,04 * 4 = A * t10, 25 , /2.
3 P- / 267,8/2,74 143,7/1,47 19,6/0,2 = 4 1 t1

4 tr- - 130 110 60 t = 143 = 10650 = 4 . 2.1.
t1 = 2 ,
5 - 3,95 5,21 11,32 20,53
10650
- = A * t 0, 25 = 0 , 25
= 8955,5 / 2 .
2
6 t 133,95 115,21 71,32
:

1
q = 1 * t1 = * t = 2 * t 2 . (2.36)
7 t

8,95 18,74 43,83 62,42 /


83 84
2 20,5 0,06
. 2.6. 2 = B * q 0,6 = 780 * q 0, 6 .
20,5r0,6 00,6620,3 20,3

. 2.4.
2.4
. -
I II III

1 - / 0,61 0,62 0,69 [2, 3]




2 - /3 1062 1104 1399 [3]

3 - / 3771 3561 2765 [2, 3]


4 - * 0,1* 0,29* 0,7* [2, 3]
10-3 10-3 10-3
5 - / [2, 3]

. 2.6.
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 . 6 r - / 2068 2148* 2372 [2]
- *103 103 *103

3.8.3. 7 - /3 3,75 2,0 0,098 [2]

8 - /3 0,579 0,579 0,579 [2]
(2.8).
= 1

85 86
0,611,3 *1062 0,5 * 3,75 0,06 q1 q2 , 10%,
2 = 780 * q 0,6 =
(
0,058 0,5 * 2068 *10 )
3 0, 6
(
* 0,579 0,66 * 37710,3 * 0,1*10 )
3 0, 3 t1=1 .

= 18,76 * q 0, 6
= 18,76 * ( 1 * t1 ) 0, 6
= 18,76 * (8955,5 * 2) 0, 6
= 6685 / 2
1 , 1
:
= 18,76. 1 = * t1-0,25 = 10650*1 = 10650 /2;
q1 = 1*t1 = 10650*1 = 10650 /2.

:
t = 10650*1*2,87*10-4 = 3 ;
t2 = 9-1-3 = 5 ;
2 = *q10,6 = 18,76(10650)0,6 = 4893,76 /2;
q2 = 2*t2 = 4893,76*5 = 24469 /2.
, q1q2.

. 2.7. q
t1 q

(. 2.7.) t = 1,7 .
: :
q1=2*t2= 6685*2 = 13370 /2, 1 = * t-0,25 = 10650/1,70,25 = 9326 /2; q1 = *t
t2 = t1- t t1 = 9-5-2 = 2 0; = 9326*1,7 = 15856 /2;
t
, (2.39): t= 1* t* / = 9326*1,7*0,287*10-3 = 4,55 ;
t= 1* t1* / = 8955,5*2*0,287*10-3 = 5 . t2 = 9-4,55-1,7 = 2,75 ;
2 = (q)0,6 = 18,76(15856)0,6 = 6214 /2;
: q2 = 2*t2 = 6214*1,7 = 17087 /2.
q1=1*t1 = 8955,5*2 = 17911 /2;
q2=2*t2 = 6685*2 = 13370 /2.
q1 q2

q q2 17911 13370 q q1 17087 15856
= 1 * 100 = * 100 = 33,96% . = 2 * 100 = * 100 = 7,76% .
q2 13370 q1 15865
87
88
< 10%
,
1 = 9326 /2 2 = 6214 /3. 3.10. I :
, Q 643000
1 D= 1 = = 0,3 / .
1 = = 1828 / 2 . r1 2140
1 1 :
+ 0,287 * 10 3 +
9326 6214 D 0,3
d= = = 0,31 D / W.
W 0,97

1 : 2 : 3 = 1 : 0,58 : 0,34.
3.11.


:

I 1 = 1828 /2;

II 2 = 1060 /2;
,
III 3 = 621 /2.
. . Q Q .
3.9. K K
:
,
. Q Q * 10 3
: K K
643 Q1 643000 0,351
I I Q1 = = 0,593 K1
= = 351
K1 1828 1828
Q1 = W1 * r1 = 0,295 * 2179 * 10 3 = 643000
II Q2 647 Q2 647000 0,61
II = 0,781 = = 610
K2 1060 K2 1080
Q2 = W2 * r2 G1 * C1 (t1 t 2 ) = 0,324 * 2233 *10 3 1,09 * 3,69 *10 3 *
III Q3
=
722
= 1,078 Q3 722000
* (134 115) = 647000, K3 621 = = 1162 1,16
K3 621
G1 = G H W1 = 1,39 0,295 = 1,09 /
III
Q
K
= 2,452 Q K = 2,121
Q3 = W3 * r3 G 2 * C 2 (t 2 t 3 ) = 0,351* 2359 *10 0,771* 3,43 *10 *
3 3

* (115 73) = 722000 ,


G2 = G H W1 W2 = 1,39 0,295 0,324 = 0,77 / .
89 90
3.12.

: Q1 643000 Q1 643000
F1 = = = 23 2 F1 = = = 33,9 2
K 1 t 1 1828 * 15,13 K 1 t 1 1828 * 10,35

Q2 647000
F2 = = = 33,9 2
t * Q1 Q2 647000 K 2 t 2 1060 * 18,0
K1 F2 = = = 30 2
t1 = = Q3 722000
I Q K 2 t 2 1060 * 19,93 F3 = = = 33,9 2
K K 3 t 3 621 * 34,23
=
62,58 * 0,593
= 15,13 t * Q1 Q3 722000
2,452 K1
=
62,58 * 0,351
= F3 = = = 30 2
K 3 t 3 621 * 38,68
II Q K 2,121

t * Q2 = 10,35
t 2 =
K2
=
F = 83 2
F = 101,7 2

Q
K 62,58 * 0,61
= 18,0 , ,
62,58 * 0,781 2,121
= = 19,93
2,452 .
III

t *
Q3 62,58 * 1,16
K3 = 34,23 :
t 3 = = 2,121 I II III
Q
K 10,35 18,0 34,23
62,58 * 1,078 t , 8,95 18,74 43,89
= = 27,51
2,452
t ,
,
,
.

, ( ).

91 92
3.13. ) .
, , Q1 = D * rD = 1,03 * W1 * r1 = 1,03 * 0,295 * 2217 *103 = 674,
,
1- 2- , 1,03 - 3% .
,
r1 = f (P1 = 1,814 ) = 2217 *10 3 / ;
1 , 11 111 .
rD = f ( = 4 ) = 2141*103 / ;

() 674
D= = 0,31 / ;
. 2.5. 2141
2.5 Q2 = 1,03[W2 * r2 G1 * C1 (t 1 t 2 )] =
. = 1,03[0,324 * 2285 1,09 * 3,651(119,68 94,1)]658,
. I II III Q3 = 1,03[W3 * r3 G 2 * C 2 (t 2 t 3 )] =
1 W / 0,295 0,324 0,351
= 1,03[0,351 * 2390 0,771 * 2,765(94,1 54,66)] = 777.
2 X % 15,2 21,6 40 ) .
Q1 674 * 10 3
1 = = = 1920 / 2 ;
3 tn 130 F * t 1 33,9 * 10,35

Q2 658 * 10 3
4 t - 10,35 18,0 34,23 2 = = = 1078 / 2 ;
F * t 2 33,9 * 18

5 t 119,65 94,1 54,66 Q3 777
3 = = = 669 / 2 .
F * t 3 33,9 * 34,23
t = t1 t ) :
6 t - 116,7 89,89 44,34 674
Q K 1920
t 1 = t 1 1 = 62,58 = 10,32 ;
( )
t = t 1 + 11 Q K 674
+
658 777
+
7 1,814 0,715 0,0977 1920 1078 669
0,61
t 2 = 62,58 = 18;
8 t r = t 111 115,7 88,89 2,12
1,16
t 3 = 62,58 = 34,24 .
2,12
93 94
: 11987-81 (V)[4]
t = 10,32 + 18 + 34,24 = 62,56 . :

, F =40 2
2- 1- : d = 38*2
h = 4000
I II III D = 600
t 2- D1 = 1200
, 0 10,32 18,0 34,24 D2 = 400
t 1- = 15000
, 0 10,35 18,0 34,23 = 3000


1- 2- 1 %.
5 %, .
, t 2-
.., .
3.14.
) :

Q1 674 *10 3 .
F1 = = = 34 2 ;
k1 t 1 1920 *10,32 ,
,
Q2 658 *10 3 ( 20 0).
F2 = = = 33,9 2 ;
k 2 t 2 1078 *18
10 , .. 1 10 . . .
,
Q3 777 *10 3 -.
F3 = = = 33,9 2 .
k 3 t 3 669 * 34,24 ,

, -.

95
96
3.14.1. . , ;
0,5
: .
= + = 0,5 + 1,0 = 1,5 ;
W ( I C * t k ) B=P-P=9,8*104-2*104=7,8*104;
G = , (2.37)
C (t k t )
I 4 * d * U * d 0,08 * 0,3
Re = = = = 60000 ;
, /; 0,4 * 10 6
t , 0 , 25
0
; 68 1 1
= 0,11 + 10 Re560 ; (2.38)
t , 0. d
60000 e

64
35 . = Re<2320; (2.39)
Re
35 0,316
; =
: Re 0, 25
tk = tk 3 = 60-3 = 57 0. 232 Re10
1
(2.40)
e
0,351(2608,3 4,18 * 57)
G = = 5,38 / .
4,18(57 20) =0,11e0,25;
3.14.2. . 1
Re > 560 , (2.41)
e
d=300 . Re = 60000
U : 0,2 68
0 , 25

4(G + W3 ) 4(5,38 + 0,381) = 0,11 + = 0,023 ,


U = = = 0,08 / 300 60000
d 983 * 3,14 * 0,3 2 = 0,2
[4, 1]:
: 7,8 *10 4 0,08
H U2 = + 1 + 1,5 + 0,023 * + 0,5 = 8,6 .

= + 1 + + * + 0,5 , 983 * 9,8 0,3 2 * 9,8
* g d 2 g
97 98
3.14.3. . 1867-57 [4, V, 6]
D - 1,5 3/.
:
4W3 4.
D = , (2-46)
n *U n * 4.1.
n , /3;
G=1,5\ =5% ,=20%.
Un 15 25
/ 104. . , I p=0,13 ,
4 * 0,351 ,
D = = 0,42 .
0,128 * 20 * 3,14 , p=12.
D = 500 [4, V, 5]. .2.7.
3.14.4. -.
- G .
(), , (2.2):
: W=1,5(1-5/20)=1,125/.
G = 2,5 * 10 5 (W3 + G ) + 0,01W3 , (2.42)
-5
2,5*10 , 1 ,
; :
0,01 , I : II=1,0 : 1,1.
1 .

G = 2.5 *10 5 (0,351 + 5,38) + 0,01 * 0,351 = 3,65 *10 3 / I : W1=1,125 1,0 /(1+1,1)=0,536/;
- :
R(273 + t ) * G I : W2=1,125 1,1/(1+1,1)=0,589/,
V = ,
M * ________________
W=1,125/.
t = t n + 4 + 0,1(t t ) = 60 + 4 + 0,1(57 20 ) = 67,7
:

8310(273 + 67,7 ) * 3,65 * 10 3
V = 3
= 0,018 3 / = 1,09 3 / (2.43)
29 * 19,6 * 10 G1=G-W1=1,5-0,536=0,964 /.
99 100
:
G2=G-W=1,5-1,125=0,375/. II 2=12 ();

I 1=2+=12+59=71.
=1+=71+59=130.


( 0)
( /) ( )
:
, t, 0 r, /
71 90,3 2282103
12 49,4 2384103
130 107,4 2238103
.
-
.2.8.

(2.29):

:
=G/(G-W1--W): I -=0,0257,81,17,10,17=0,490;

II -=0,025201,1120,17=1,030,
I 1=1,5 5\(1,5-0,536)=7,8%; , -
II 2=1,5 5\(1,5-0,536-0,589)=20%, 0
=0,49+1,03=1,52 .
.. .
. 1,50 .
, I , .. =1,52=30.

0
1 .
=-=130-12=118. =12=20.


, . =118/2=59.
=1,52+3+2=6,520.
101
102
2=12510,9=1126/(2).
.
t=107,1-49,4=57,70. .
,
(XV-4) [6]:
t=t+-+..
II t2=49,4+1,03+1,5=51,90; Q1=W111,05=0,53622861031,05=1284103.
II , ,
I t1=90,3+0,49+1,5=92,30. ,
.
. II
, Q2=[W2r2-G1c1(t1-t2)]1,05=[0,5892384103-
331,5 / , 0,9643150(92,3-51,9)]1,05=1345103,
( / (2)) :
=3150/()-
=12/(1+2). ( 3)[6].
1 I
t=1020 I (2.7) D1=Q1/r1=1284103/(2282103)=0,56/.
1=1163(1,9+0,04102)=6960\(2). d1=D1/W=0,56/1,125=0,5/w.

u=24/(2) 2=2u 0,6. .
.2.4. (XV-
=7,8.% t=92,30 2=470. 7)[6]
2=47024 0,6=2920/(2); t=t-t;
1=69602920/(6960+2920)=2050 /(2).
II t1=107,4 -92,3=15;
.
t=800 1=1163(1,9+0,0480)=5931/(2 ). t2=90,3-51,9=38,4.
II
u=18/( ). .2.4. =20.% t2=51,90,
2
(2.1)
=280. , 2=280180,6=1586/(2) I F1=1284 103/(184515,0)=372;
2=59311586/(5931+1586)=1251/(2). II F2=1345103/(112638,4)=372.
104
103
3,
,
. 5.
1 12
4.2. 5,

. .
.2.9. 11
. 6
9 6 4 7, 10
2. 5.
4
3.
2
5
7, 8.
.
:
G=0,4\- ;
=13%()- ;
=40% - ;
-=0,2 - ();
=0,02 -
.
.
4.2.1. .
2.9. .
W=G(1- )=0,4(1-13)=0,27/


. :
. I:II=1,0:1,1,
1,
105 106

W : 1,0 0,27 1
W1 = = = 0,13 / ; :
1 + 1,1 2,1
I 1=110 t1=101,65 r1=2256,5103/;
II 2=20 t2=59,7 r2=2358 103/;
0,27 1,1
W2 = = 0,14 / , n=200 t=119,6 rn=2208103/.
2,1
W=0,27/. 4.2.4. .
I II 3 :
: =I+II+III.
I
G1=G -W1=0,40,13=0,27/. - -
II : ;
G2=G-W=0,4-0,27=0,13/. II-
4.2.2. ;
: III-
;.
G 0,4 0,3
I 1= = = 19,26% ; I (2.28):
G1 0,27 I 1I=0,38(0,05+0,04513)=2,440;
II 2I=0,38(0,05+0,04540)=0,720 .
I=3,160.
G1 X 0,4 13
II 2 = = = 40%. II- 1,5 .
G2 0,13 :
II=1,52=30.
4.2.3. I III- 1,
: III
=12=2.
= =200-20=180. :
I=I+IIIII=3,16+3+2=8,160.
: 4.2.5.
=/2=180/2=90. I t 1=tn t1-( 1I-1II-1III) =119,6-101,65-
0
: (2.44+1.5+1)=13,01 ;
I 1=20+90=110; II - t 2=t1-t2-( 2I-2II-2III)=101,65-59,7-
II 2=20. (0,72+1,5+1)=38,73 0.
108
=110+90=200.
4.2.5.
107

1 I II III 0
I t1=t + 1 -1 -1 =101,65+2,44+1,5+1=106,6 ; 1
= = 1089 / 2 .
1 1
II t2=t2+ 2I-2II-2III =59,7+0,72,+1,5+1=62,90. + 0,459 10 +
7773 3030
4.2.6. .
. 1=1163(1,9+0,04101,65)=6978/2 ;
5000
2 = 0 , 023 + 0 , 02 40
= 1838 / 2 .
(2.5): 2 , 72
1
1 = , / 2 , 1
1 1
+ + 2 = = 873 \ 2 .
1 2 1
+ 0,459 10 3 +
1
6978 1838

1 2 103 1 .
) = + + = 0,459 10 3 , 4.2.7.
5800 17,5 5800 I :
) 1
(2.7): Q1=1,05W1r1=r ;
Q1=1,050,132256,5103=308103.

1=1163(1,9+0,04t)=1163(1,9+0,04119,6)=7773/2, II :
t=t=(n=2)=119,6.
Q2=1,05[W2r2-G1c1(t1-t2)]=1,05[0,142358-
) 2 0,273,850(106,6-62,9)]=299.
(IV- :
27)[4]: Q 308
= 1 = = 0,14 / ,
5000 r 2208
2 = = 2
= 3030 / ,
0 , 023 + 0 , 024 1 2 ,79 0 , 023 + 0 , 024 19 , 26 r=(=2)=2208/ ( 2)[6].
=5000/2-
. 4.2.8.

109 110
:
I :
t Q / K 35,8 0,2
t 1 = 1 1 = = 16,2 0 ;
Q / K 0,62
3 0,69 103 276 103
= 3
2
= 0,80 102 = 0,8;
35,8 0,34 1027,7
II t 2 = = 19,63 0 ; t=630C;
0,6
12,9 0
0,6 = 0 ,85
= 0,69 10 3 ;
Q1 308 103 t
F1 = = = 17,4 2 ; m=4000,6910-3=27610-3; =1027,7/3.
K 1 t 1 1089 16,2
299 4.2.10. ,
F2 = = 17,4 2 .
873 19.63 (2.13).
I :
11987-81 [4, 5], 2 1027,7 0,6 2 10 6
: 3, 2. u= = = 0,42 / .
2 2 0,69 10 3
F=252 , d=38*2, =600, =9500, II :
.=4000. 1027,7 0,8 2 10 6
u= = 0,476 / .
2 0,69 10 3
4.2.9. (2.13). 4.2.11. (2.13)
: u r ( 1 )
3 3 0,44 103 177,5 103 L= ;
=3 =3 = 0,06 10 2 = 0,6 , 1 t
2 1027,7 2
I :
0=1,8210-3;
0,6 10 3 0,42 1027,7 2256 10 3 (19,26 13)
L= = 129 .
m=400=4000,4410-3=177,510-3; 13,26 1089 2
II :
12,9 0,8 103 0,476 1027,7 2358 103 (40 19,26)
= 0,85 0 = 0,44 10 3 . (2.21) L= = 263.
t 40 873 2

111 112

1. ..
. - .: , 1971. - 784 .
2. .., .., ..

. - ., ,1987. - 552 .
3. . - -.: . - .
I,1964,1010 ., .III, 1962.100 .
4. ..
:
. - .: ,1983. - 261.
5. ..

. - .-., ,1966. - 284 .
6. ..
.- -.: ,
1983. - 136 .

20.12. 2004 . 6084 1/16.


... 6,74, .-. . 6,3 100 . 125

, . -, . , 40,
, 2004 .

113