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You are on page 1of 42

CVL 3413

Chapter 3

Weight-Volume Relationships

Dr. Sari Abusharar

Assistant Professor

Civil Engineering Department

Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning

Outline of Presentation

WeightVolume Relationships

and Specific Gravity

Relative Density

WeightVolume Relationships

Air

Water

Solid

WeightVolume Relationships

The total volume of a given soil sample can be expressed as

Assuming that the weight of the air is negligible, we can give the

total weight of the sample as

Void ratio (e) is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids to the

volume of solids. Thus,

total volume, or

WeightVolume Relationships

The degree of saturation (S) is defined as the ratio of the volume of

water to the volume of voids, or

WeightVolume Relationships

Moisture content (w) is also referred to as water content and is

defined as the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of solids in

a given volume of soil:

WeightVolume Relationships

The dry unit ( d) weight can expressed as:

From Eqs. (3.10) and (3.11), the relationship of unit weight, dry unit

weight, and moisture content can be given as

WeightVolume Relationships

Volume Relationships

WeightVolume Relationships

Weight Relationships

WeightVolume Relationships

WeightVolume Relationships

kilogram-force (kgf)

WeightVolume Relationships

Basic Relationships

Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and

Specific Gravity

To obtain a

relationship among

unit weight (or

density), void ratio,

and moisture

content, let us

consider a volume of

soil in which the

volume of the soil

solids is one.

Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and

Specific Gravity

Now, using the definitions of unit weight and dry unit, we can write

and

or

Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and

Specific Gravity

consideration is , the volume occupied by water is

or

Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and

Specific Gravity

saturatedthat is,

the void spaces are

completely filled

with water

Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and

Specific Gravity

manner

Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and

Specific Gravity

As mentioned before, due to the convenience of working with

densities in the SI system, the following equations, similar to unit

weight relationships given in Eqs. (3.15), (3.16), and (3.19), will be

useful:

Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content

The relationship

among unit weight,

porosity, and

moisture content can

be developed in a

manner similar to

that presented in the

preceding section.

Consider a soil that

has a total volume

equal to one.

Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content

Figure 3.5. From Eq. (3.4),

soil solids (Ws) and the weight of water (Ww) can then be expressed

as follows:

Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content

Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content

Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content

According to this figure,

Various Unit-Weight Relationships

Various Unit-Weight Relationships

Examples 3.1

Examples 3.2

Examples 3.2

1958.3

Or d = = = 1803.3 kg/m 3

1 + 1 + 8.6

100

Examples 3.2

Examples 3.2

Examples 3.3

Examples 3.4

Examples 3.4

Relative Density

The term relative density is commonly used to indicate the in situ

denseness or looseness of granular soil. It is defined as:

Relative Density

The values of Dr may vary from a minimum of 0% for very loose soil

to a maximum of 100% for very dense soils. Soils engineers

qualitatively describe the granular soil deposits according to their

relative densities.

Relative Density

Relative Density

Relative Density

Maximum and Minimum Dry Unit Weights of Granular Soils

Relative Density

Maximum and Minimum Dry Unit Weights of Granular Soils

Relative density

vibrating table

Examples 3.5

HW # 2

Problems

3.3

3.6

3.11

3.20

3.24

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