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TAILINGS DEPOSITION MODELLING

TUTORIAL

Downstream Deposition

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INTRODUCTION

During this tutorial the User will develop a Rift TD Tailings Deposition Model. Deposition takes place upstream of an embankment; moving downstream up the embankment face. This tutorial also provide an overview of:

Result output

Pond development using the Pond Wizard

A copy of the Rift TD Users Manual may be useful while working through this tutorial. It is in- stalled as part of the Rift TD installation process. Alternatively, it can be downloaded from our download page at www.riftxone.com.

TUTORIAL COMPONENTS

This tutorial comprises:

This instruction set

ASCII data files

Deposition Line.txt

Vector Slope.txt

Raise Data.txt

Rift TD Data Files

Base Model.rft: The surface used to develop the deposition model

Final Model.rft: The completed deposition model

BASE TOPOGRAPHY

Base topography has been generated from ASCII points. A tutorial outlining initial surface devel- opment is available from our download page at www.riftxone.comModel Setup (ASCII Data).

This tutorial provides the surface model, Base Model.rft, as a starting point.

MODEL DEFINITION

Model definition comprises:

Beach Profile: The horizontal sub-aerial and sub-aqueous profiles. Materials define the complex profile, a sequence of sub-aerial and sub-aqueous profiles, that define the com- plete beach profile from the beachhead to the pond.

Material: The Beach Profiles that form the complex profile, material densities and deposi- tion rates.

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Raise Data: Defines how the deposition points are raised vertically.

Vector Slope: Defines how the deposition points move horizontally as the are raised.

Deposition Boundary: The coordinates, Material, Vector Slope and Raise Data that define the deposition boundary

To start the tutorial open the Rift TD data file Base Model.rft included with the tutorial.

BEACH PROFILES

Beach Profiles define the horizontal tailings beach profile.

In this tutorial linear Sub-Aerial and Sub-Aqueous Profiles will be defined; the Sub-Aerial Profile having a longitudinal slope of 1 vertical in 120 horizontal (0.0083), and the Sub- Aqueous Profile a longitudinal slope of 1 vertical in 40 hori- zontal (0.025).

Click

Note:

By default Rift TD Generates two Pro- files:

Profile No.1 Sub-Aerial Profile Profile No. 2 Sub-Aqueous Profile

Both profiles have a slope of 0.01 (1 vertical in 100 horizontal).

The Beach Profiles tool-

button or

Edit Beach Profiles

Note:

For this example linear profiles are used; no data entry is required on the Data Grid.

For non-linear profiles enter the dimen- sionless Beach Profile on the Data Grid.

Alternatively use the Non-linear Profile Tool:

Tools Generate Beach Profile

Use the Navigation Toolbar to select the Beach Profile to be edited. By default Beach Pro- file 1 is active. If this has been altered activate Beach Profile 1 using the Active Data List-box or the Previous Tool- button.

Click on the Beach Profile Data Tab

The description is used to identify the Beach Profile when defining the complex profile (see Material Definition below).

Enter a description of “Sub-Aerial”

Enter a beach slope of 0.0083 (1 vertical in 120 horizontal)

Activate Beach Profile No. 2 using the Navigation Toolbar

Enter a description of “Sub-Aqueous”

Enter a beach slope of 0.025 (1 in 40)

MATERIAL

Materials define:

The deposition rate over time [mass per day].

The complex Beach Profile: The sub-aerial, sub -aqueous and if necessary, cyclone profiles, defining the complete deposition profile from the beachhead to the pond.

Deposited material densities.

For this example a deposition rate of 10 000 tons per day will be defined.

The Sub-Aerial and Sub-Aqueous Beach Profiles de- fined above are used to define the Complex Beach Profile.

Click

Materials Tool-button

Edit Materials

, or

On the Data Grid enter:

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Beach Profiles

The sub-aerial and sub-aqueous profile drop- down boxes present lists of available profiles. Available profiles vary depending on the pro- file type being defined i.e. Cyclone, Sub-Aerial or Sub-Aqueous.

Note:

It is possible to define a General (Sub- Aqueous) profile as the Sub-Aerial profile. In this case a single profile, the General Profile, defines the entire beach.

Try:

Setting the Sub-Aerial profile to Profile 2. The Sub-Aqueous profile combo box is no longer be available.

A deposition start date of 1 January 2010; and

A deposition rate of 10 000 tonnes per day

Click the Material Beach Definition Tab

Ensure that the Flowable is checked

Check Cyclone Deposition

Check Cyclone Material to Embankment

Enter an Underflow Percentage of 20%

Set a cyclone density of 1.4 tonnes per m³

Set a sub-aerial density of 1.4 tonnes per m 3

Set Beach Profile 1 as the Sub-aerial profile

Enter a sub-aqueous density of 1.3 tonnes per

m 3

Set Beach Profile 2 as the sub-aqueous profile

RAISE DATA

Raise Data defines how deposition points are raised from their initial elevation to their final ele- vation.

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During this tutorial the deposition point will be raised from it’s initial elevation of 1310m to an elevation of 1350m in 8 stages i.e. 5m intervals

Click

Raise Data Tool-button

Edit Raise Data

or

Enter a value of 1310.0m in the first column (El.1)

Enter a value of 1350.0m in the second column (El. 2)

Right Click on the Data Grid and select Deposition Intervals

Enter a value of 8 in the first row

Close the Deposition Interval editor

VECTOR SLOPE

Vector Slopes define how deposition points are moved horizontally as they are raised. For down- stream cyclone deposition the vector slope is used to define the upstream embankment slope.

We will set a slope of 1.0 vertical in 2.5 horizontal.

Click

Vector Slope Tool-button

Edit Vector Slope

or

Enter values on the Data Grid:

Row 1: x = 1.0; y = 0

Row 2: x = 2.5; y = 1

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DEPOSITION LINE

Deposition Lines/Boundaries define lines in space from which deposition occurs. For downstream cyclone deposition they also define the upstream embankment crest location. The following fields require definition:

x, y and z coordinates defining the line in space

Material: Deposition rates, beach profiles and material densities

Vector slope: How the deposition vectors move horizontally as they are raised and the up- stream embankment slope

Raise data: How the deposition points are raised vertically

To define the deposition line:

Click

Deposition Line/Boundary Tool-button

Edit→Deposition Boundary

or

Click (activate graphic addition of data)

Add Graphic Data Tool-button

Right click on the DTM Graphic and select Data Add

or

Click on the DTM Graphic to define the Deposition Line immediately upstream of the em- bankment

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Click on the DTM Graphic to draw the deposition line, drawing the line from the left to the right

Click (deactivate graphic addition of data)

Tip:

Alternatively press the Esc key

Add Graphic Data Tool-button

Right click on the DTM Graphic and select Data Add

or

Set the deposition line elevation to 1355.0m

Right Click on the Data Grid and select Set Node Elevations

Select Constant Elevation and enter a value of 1355.0m

Click Ok

For all nodes Set:

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Material = 1Material No. 1 is used

Vector Slope = 1Vector Slope No. 1 is used

Raise Data = 1: Raise Data No. 1 is used

Click the Deposition Boundary/Line Tab

Ensure that Boundary Closed is not checked

Uncheck Start Point360° deposition

Uncheck End Point360° deposition

Check Deposition Direction to the Left of Line

Check Vector Direction to the Right of Line

Set a Distance between Vectors of 100m (this results in the generation of two deposition vectors per line segment)

Define the Downstream Embankment

Click the Embankment Link

Check Generate Embankment

By default Vector Slope 1 is used for the Upstream Slope. If more than one Vec- tor Slope is defined select an alternate Vector Slope using the Upstream Slope link.

Enter a Downstream Slope of 0.4 (1 in

2.5)

Enter 10 Nodes (the number of nodes used per line segment when generating the embankment)

Click the Embankment Elevations Tab

Enter a Start Elevation of 1310

Enter an End Elevation of 1355

Enter a Raise Height of 10m

Based on this definition embankments will be gen- erated starting at an elevation of 1310m,in 10m increments, to an elevation of 1355m. Note that the final raise height will be 5m (1350 to 1355m)

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DEPOSITION POND DEFINITION

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Deposition ponds are used during a model run to define the interface between the sub- aerial and sub-aqueous beaches.

Rift TD allows provides two modes for depo- sition pond definition:

Freeboard

Deposition node elevation

We will use a freeboard of 3.5m based on the minimum deposition point elevation.

Click Edit Model Options

Select the Pond Tab-sheet

Check Freeboard

Enter a Freeboard of 3.5m

Check Minimum Deposition Point Elevation

Click Ok

MODEL RUN

Click

Run Tool-button

Run Run Model

or

The User is prompted for a result file name enter a name or use the default name

Click Ok

If a file of that name already exists the user is prompted for an action:

Select Overwrite Existing Data

The model runs with summary results being presented as the run proceeds

RESULTS

DISPLAYING RESULTS

Results are automatically displayed following an automatic run, or on loading a result file.

Results comprise:

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Basin Deposition Results and

Embankment Results

BASIN DEPOSITION RESULTS

Output comprises:

Data values on the Data Grid; and

A tri-axial plot showing:

Rate of Rise

Plan Deposition Area

Deposition Volumes

Deposition Tonnage

Result table options are set using the Result Options Output Tab- Sheet.

Graphic options can be set using the Graph Options Tab-sheet.

Generate three dimensional views of the deposited surface on the 3-D Tab-sheet.

Surfaces for each lift are saved to the result file during a model run. Use the DTM Lift Combo-box

on the Deposition Tool-bar to load these surfaces.

The DTM Lift Combo-box values correspond to the lift results presented on the Result Table.

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Select Lift No. 5 from the DTM Lift Combo-box

The DTM Graphic is updated to reflect Lift No. 5; corresponding to Row No. 5 of the Result Table

EMBANKMENT DEPOSITION RESULTS

To view embankment results click the Em-

bankment Results Tool-button

Embankment results are output is on the Data Grid. Output values include:

Construction end date

Maximum embankment crest elevation

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Embankment base plan area

Embankment fill volume

Scenario Analysis

Scenario analysis can be undertaken following a model run.

Click

Material Tool-button

Edit Materials

Select the Material Beach Definition Tab

Cyclone density

Cyclone underflow percentage

Sub-aerial density

Sub-aqueous density

Click Run Fill

Deposition basin and embankment re- sults are updated

POND

We will generate a pond using deposition surface 5 (loaded previ- ously).

Click

Pond Wizard Tool-button on the Wizards Toolbar or

Surface Model Pond Generate Pond

Tip:

Surface elevations at the cursor location are provided in the coordinate box in the bottom right hand corner of Rift TD

Click Select Point

Click on the DTM Graphic to select a point in the pond basin, ensuring that the selected point is be- low the pond top elevation (1332.5m for this tuto- rial)

Click Next

Enter a Pond elevation of 1332.5m

Set a volume Elevation interval of 0.5m

Click Finish

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 The pond is generated, the volume ele-
vation curve presented and the DTM
and 3-D Graphics updated to show the
pond

IMPORTING ASCII DATA FILES

Note:

When importing ASCII data ensure that data columns in the file match the column head- ings on the Data Grid.

ASCII Data must be space or tab delimited

Data can be imported using ASCII data files. Three ASCII files have been included with this tutorial:

Deposition Boundary.txt: Data defining the depo- sition boundary

Raise Data.txt: Data defining the raise data

Vector Slope.txt: Data defining the Vector Slope

To import ASCII data:

Activate the data type into which data will be imported

Click File Import ASCII

The file open dialog is presented

Select an ASCII Data File and click Open

If data exists you will be prompted whether to overwrite or retain existing data; select an option

Data is imported into the Active Data set

PASTING DATA FROM TH E CLIPBOARD

Copy data to the clipboard

Click on the Data Grid to activate it

Press Ctrl V on the keyboard to past data to Rift TD

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