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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA

Title

Author

First Edition :-
Copy right :-
No. of copies :-
Size :-
Printing :-
Paper :-
No. of. pages :-
Puhlished by :- Printed at

Price

:-

Hindu Culture

Temple Art and Architecture

S. Pathmanathan B. A. (Ceylon) Ph. D. (London) LFIBA

Professor of History

University of Peradeniya

December 200 1

The Dept. of Hindu Religious & Cultural Affairs

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The Dept. of Hindu Religious & Cultural Affairs

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Contents 11. The Temples of Khajuraho
S. Pathmanathan 211
Page 12. The Temples of Orissa
01. Preface xvi
S. Pathmanathan 223
02. Introduction 13. The Temples of Kamataka under the
S. Pathmanathan 01 Chalukyas of Kalyani
03 Gupta Temples S. Pathmanathan 237
S. Pathrnanathan 21 14. Hoysala Temples
04. Chalukyan Temples S. Pathmanathan 253
S. Pathmanathan 31 15. Vijayanagara Art and Architecture
05. Pallava Architecture S. Pathmanathan 263
R. Kalaikkovan 51 16. Temple Sculptures of the Vijayanagara period
06. . Pallava Sculpture Raju Kalidas 301
R. Kalaikkovan 85 17. The Dravidian Style of Architecture under the
07. The Art and Architecture of Ellora Nayaks of Madurai
S. Pathmanathan 119 S. Pathmanathan 325
08. The Architecture of the Chola Temples 18. The Sculptures in the Great Temple of Madurai
M. Nalini S. Pathrnanathan 369
147
09. Chola Sculpture 19. The Sculpture of the Nayakkar period
K. K. Rajarajan 393
M. Nalini 171
20. A select Bibliography 425
10. The Iconography of the Chola period
21. Index 431
Velusamy Suthanthiran 193
22. Contributors 442 xviU

Kadambas and the Chalukyas of Badami and developed to maturity later, during the period of the Chalukyas of Kalyani and their successors, the Hoysalas of Dorasamudra. The dravida style, which had its beginnings under the early Pallavas of Kanci developed to full maturity under the Cholas. The elaboration of the temple complexes in respect of dimensions and ornamentation was carried on further under the Vijayanagara and Nayakkar rulers and the climax in the development of the style is exemplified by the complex and grand formations at Kanchipuram, Thiruvannamalai, Vellore, Sri Rangam and Madurai.

Taisho University of Japan and the Japanese historian Noboru Karashima served as the team leader. Under that project we had visited Aihole, Badami, Pattadakal, Hampi and several other historical and archaeological sites in Karnataka. The photographs of many monuments were taken by the members of the team, and the photographs of Chalukya and Vijayanagara monuments illustrated in this volume were supplied by Professor Karashima. We have pleasure in acknowledging his courtesy of granting permission to publish them.

The development of the temples in the three (or four) styles referred to here earlier are described in eleven chapters in this volume. The contributions on the temples in the dravida style are relatively more comprehensive as the respective contributors had the benefit of personal observation and sometimes, even a close examination of all the major monuments. Although the descriptions of the temples in the nagara and vesara styles are comparatively brief care has been taken to focus on their salient features and present information pertaining to them in the light of recent studies. The other six chapters in this volume contain comprehensive descriptions of sculpture and iconography on the basis of evidence from archaeological monuments.

The second project of which we were the co-ordinators was supported and funded by the India-Sri Lanka Foundation, an intergovernmental Organization formed recently with the objective of facilitating academic co-operation between the two countries. Most of the colour photographs of monuments illustrated here were taken by Dr. M. Somathilake, a member of the team. The support extended by the India-Sri Lanka Foundation and its staff is deeply appreciated.

The inspiration for compiling the present volume was derived from the editor's participation in and experience gained from two projects:

"Medieval Maritime Commerce in the Indian Ocean" (1997-2000) and "Indo-Lankan relations in pre-colonial times". The participants in both projects were multi-national. The first of these was supported by the

We have pleasure in recording the inspiration provided by Professors Y. Subbarayalu and' P. Shanmugam who clarified issues relating to some monuments and provided unqualified support to our activities pertaining to the two projects in India. The support and assistance provided by Professors. S. Raju and K. Rajan, Drs. V. Vedachalam, N. C. Shanthalingam, S. Rajagopal, G. Sethuraman and Professor Vijaya Venugopal have contributed substantially for the production of this volume.

xvi

xVii

had its origins in the Gupta period (A.D. 320 - 550), evolved in course of time into a vast and composite structure of imposing dimensions and architectural grandeur, with several component parts most of which were aesthetically conceived and designed exquisitely.

ghe present volume, which is a compilation of seventeen articles on temple architecture and sculpture, is the first of a series of two volumes on the art and architecture of the Hindu temple undertaken for publication by the Department of Hindu Religious and Cultural Affairs. The second volume consisting of articles on dances and paintings is expected to be published soon. The work on these volumes was completed in 200 1 and the copies of the manuscripts were handed over to this Department in September of that year.

The main styles of Hindu temple architecture are traditionally referred to as nagara, vesara and dravida. According to some silpa sastra texts these styles are defined in the following manner:

The two volumes, which are quite comprehensive, cover almost all important aspects of temple art and architecture. They represent a major contribution to Art History written hitherto in the Tamil language. All the contributions included in the present volume are not of a uniform quality. Some are brief while the others are long and comprehensive and based on personal observations, careful examination of monuments and researches conducted on a systematic basis. Yet, on the whole, this volume contains a comprehensive account of the origins and development of the Hind~ temple in varied forms and styles, from the period of the Imperial Guptas in North India up to the 18th century, when the process of development was at its climax under the Nayaks of Madurai in South India. In the present volume, the expression Hindu architecture is applied primarily to designate the whole range of forms and styles representative of Hindu temples. The Hindu temple, which

"Nagara is that in which the Vimiina is quadranqular throughout; Vesara is the one in which the vimiina is crowned by a circular sikhara above the neck; and Dravida is the one in which the Vimana is crowned by an octagonal or hexagonal sikhara above the neck".

Yet, a fourth style, the kalinga is referred to in some medieval records, after the development of the towering temples of Orissa since the 11th century. The kalinga wasan offshoot of the nagara style.

According to the kamikagama architectural styles are differentiated on a regional basis. The nagara was the one prevailing in the region from the Himalayas to the Vindhyas; the vesara style was the one found in the Deccan, particularly in the basin of the Krishna; and the dravida style should refer to the monuments in the region from the valley of the Krishna to Cape Comorin. The monuments in the vesara style have been largely influenced by both the nagara and dravida styles. The vesara had its origins in Kamataka under the

xx

Finally, we have pleasure In recording our appreciation of the efforts made by Shanthi Navukkarasan and S. Theivanayagam respectively the Director and Assistant Director of the Department of Hindu Religious and Cultural Affairs to bring out this volume without delay. Mr. Vimalendran, the proprietor of Unie Arts (Private) Limited, has taken a personal interest in bringing out this volume as a production of high quality.

01. UlT!Irn.':" (b6O)!I

It is hoped that this volume written in simple and elegant-style will arouse the intellectual curiosity of students and teachers at schools, universities and colleges of Fine Arts, and promote their interest in the study of Hindu Culture in general and the aesthetic conceptions and philosophical ideas symbolised by Hindu monuments.

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