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BJT Small Signal Analysis

BEE2213 Analog Electronics I

Amplification in the AC domain
Transistor can be employed as an amplifying device.
Amplifier - the output sinusoidal signal is greater than the
input signal or the ac output power is greater than ac
input power.
For a system that has input power Pi and output power
P0, the power efficiency can be defined as = P0 / Pi and it
is not greater than 1.
The input dc plays the important role for the
amplification to contribute its level to the ac domain
where the conversion will become = P0(ac) / Pi(dc)

2
Amplification in the AC domain
For the analysis and design of the dc and ac components
of BJT network, we can separate the analysis of dc and ac
response of the system.
First, we make a complete dc analysis of a system and
then the ac response can be determined using a
completely ac analysis.
Amplification in AC Domain
In this chapter, the amplification will be expressed as
voltage gain (Av) and current gain (Ai)

Vo
Av
Vi
Io
Ai
Ii
AC & DC Supplies

DC supply

AC components
AC supplies
AC equivalent
To do analysis in ac-domain, the circuit has to transform
into its ac equivalent circuit
There are four steps have to be taken:
1. Set all DC source to zero (grounded)
2. Replace all capacitors with a short-circuit equivalent
3. Remove elements that will be bypass by the short-circuit
equivalent
4. Redraw the network for convenient look
AC equivalent
Consider a voltage-divider bias configuration:
AC equivalent
Step 1: Set all DC source to zero (grounded)
AC equivalent

AC equivalent

Step 3: Remove elements that will be bypass by the short-circuit

equivalent
AC equivalent
Step 4: Redraw the network for convenient look
BJT Transistor Modeling
3 types of modeling:
re model
hybrid equivalent model
hybrid model (not covered in this chapter)

re and hybrid models will be focused throughout the

class.
Before applying these models to a circuit, the circuit
itself must be converted into an ac equivalent
network (as for only ac response are interested)
re Transistor Model
In this approach, the important parameter of the
equivalent circuit was determined by the actual operating
conditions
There will be 3 BJT configuration:
common-base (CB)
common-emitter (CE)
common-collector (CC)
re Transistor Model
In this approach, the important parameter of the
equivalent circuit was determined by the actual operating
conditions
There will be 3 BJT configuration:
common-base (CB)
common-emitter (CE)
common-collector (CC)
re Transistor Model
Lets reflect the BJT equivalent circuit as in two-port network
where the current and impedance are assumed going into the
network regardless whether its an input or an output
re model: CB Configuration
Lets consider a pnp-BJT first:
re model: CB Configuration
By examining the input, the transistors arrow from terminal E
to B means that the current is supposed to be in that
direction. As for that, a diode is suitable for its equivalent
representation.
Transistor is replaced by a single diode between E & B, and
control current source between B & C
re model: CB Configuration
At the output, the collector current is related to emitter
current by equation Ic = Ie. A dependent source is very
suitable for its equivalent representation.
This means that, collector current Ic is controlled by the level
of emitter current Ie.
For ac response, the diode can be replaced with an equivalent
ac resistance.
AC resistance of a diode are determined as rac = 26 mV / ID.
As for the diode current in this case is IE, the equivalent ac
resistance can be expressed as:
26 mV
re
IE notice the capital letter
is for dc level
CB Configuration
The re equivalent model:

At input:

Vi Veb I e re
Ii Ie
Vi I e re
Zi re
Ii Ie
CB Configuration
For output, I0 = -IC due to the two-port reverse current
V0 will be determined later when load (RL) is inserted
For Z0, it will be determined by the transistors output
characteristic:
Notice that the slope
remains the same for any
input current
And the slope is very close
to a perfect horizontal
This means the resistance
is infinity (Z0 )
CB Configuration
If a load (RL) is connected at output terminal, voltage gain
(Av) and current gain (Ai) can be defined

For Voltage gain: Av For Current gain: Ai

Vi I i Z i I e re Ii Ie
V0 - I 0 Z 0 -(- I c )( RL ) I e RL I 0 - I c -I e
V0 I e RL RL I 0 - I e
Av Ai -
Vi I e re re Ii Ie
CB Configuration
A load is connected at the output terminal:
CB Configuration
For npn transistor, the only difference is the current flow
For this case the current Ii and I0 are reversed resulting in
Ii = -Ie and I0 = IC = Ie
Problem 5.5
Question:
For the common-base configuration, an ac signal of 10
mV is applied, resulting in an emitter current of 0.5 mA.
If = 0.980, determine:
a. Zi
b. V0 if RL = 1.2 k
c. Av
d. Z0
e. Ai
f. Ib
Problem 5.5
Solution:
Convert the CB And then convert it into the
configuration into its re equivalent circuit:
equivalent circuit:
Problem 5.5
Given:
ac voltage,Vi = 10 mV
Ie = 0.5 mA
= 0.980

Remember:
small letter subscript for ac
capital letter subscript for dc
Problem 5.5
a) As for Zi = re:
Vi Vi 10m
Z i re 20
I i I e 0.5m

b) Applying nodal analysis at V0:

V0
- I0
RL
V0 - I 0 RL -(- I c ) RL I e RL
(0.980)(0.5m)(1.2k ) 0.588 V
Problem 5.5

c) For voltage gain, Av = V0 / Vi:

V0 0.588
Av 58.8
Vi 10m
d) For Z0, by removing the RL will result in high
impedance (open-circuit equivalent):

Z0
Problem 5.5
e) For current gain, Ai = Io / Ii:
I 0 - I C - I e
Av - -0.980
Ii Ie Ie
f) All BJT have the same current equation:
Ie Ib Ic
I b I e - I c I e - I e (1 - ) I e
(1 - 0.980)0.5m 10 A
CE Configuration
Lets consider a CE configuration using an npn transistor:
CE Configuration
Transforming into its
equivalent ac model: Same with CB
configuration, at input
terminal the current must
flow from terminal B to E
(equivalent to a diode)
At output terminal, the
collector current is
dependent to the base
current, Ic = Ib
(equivalent to a
dependent source)
CE Configuration
Transforming the ac equivalent model into re equivalent
model:
CE Configuration
In order to convert the re model in Figure 1 to re model in
Figure 2, the current Ie need to independent by not depending
on Ib and Ic. As for that re need to be reconfigured

Figure 1 Figure 2
CE Configuration
In dc, the emitter current IE = ( + 1)IB. The equation still
remains the same in ac condition:
I e ( 1) I b
All the input parameters will be:
Vi Vbe I e re ( 1) I b re
Ii Ib
Vi ( 1) I b re
Zi ( 1)re
Ii Ib
However, in ac, is usually sufficiently larger than 1, so the
approximation:
Z i re
CE Configuration
For output, I0 = IC and V0 will be determined when RL is
inserted
For Z0, it will be determined by the transistors output
characteristic:
Notice that the slope is different from various input current
As for that, a resistance r0
connected from terminal C to E
is equivalent to this slope
(Z0 = r0 )
CE Configuration
The complete re model for CE configuration:
CE Configuration

ro
Problem 5.7
Question:
Using the model given, determine the following for a
common-emitter amplifier if = 80, IE = 2 mA and r0 = 40
k.
a) Zi
b) Ib
c) Ai if RL = 1.2 k
d) Av if RL = 1.2 k
Problem 5.7
Solution:
a) From the re model given, Zi = re:

26 mV 26m
re 13
IE 2m
Z i re 80(13) 1.04 k
a) Ib can be obtained from IE:
I E ( 1) I B
IE 2m
IB 24.69 A
1 80 1
Even though IB is a dc current, Ib = IB due to the current can only
flow in one direction (diode equivalent):

I b 24.69 A
Problem 5.7
c) For Ai, examine the Ii and I0 first:
For I0, r0 and RL is in parallel. In that case,Vec can be
obtained:
V V
I b ec ec
r0 RL
I b r0 RL (80)(24.69 )(40k )(1.2k )
Vec 2.301 V
r0 RL 40k 1.2k
From Ohms law:

Vec 2.301
I0 I L 1.918 mA
RL 1.2k
Problem 5.7
As Ii is equal to Ib, the current gain can be obtained now:

d) For Av:
I 0 1.918m
Ai 77.68
I i 24.69

V0 Vce Vce - 2.301

Av -89.61
Vi Vbe I b re (80)(24.69 )(13)
CC Configuration
The re equivalent for CC configuration is the same with
CE configuration except for its current flows direction
Things to Remember
re model of CE configuration re model of CB configuration
using npn transistor: using pnp transistor:

VBE 0.7 but Vbe 0.7

Small Signal Analysis (AC analysis)
Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuit
The h-parameters can be derived from the re model:

h ie = re h ib = r e
h fe = h fb = -
h oe = 1/r o

The h-parameters are also found in the specification sheet for

the transistor.
Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuit
Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuit
Approximate Common-Emitter Hybrid
Circuit
Hybrid equivalent model re equivalent model
Approximate Common-Base Hybrid Circuit
Approximate Common-Base Hybrid Circuit
Approximate Common-Base Equivalent
Circuit
Hybrid equivalent model re equivalent model