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2007



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2007
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73

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ISBN 978-5-89638-100-6

.., .., 2007


........................................................................ 6
............................................................................... 10
1. ......................... 27
1.1. -
............................................................. 28
1.2. ......................... 45
1.3. ........ 74
2.
.................................................................. 82
2.1. ............................ 83
2.2. ..................... 96
2.3. ......... 136
2.3.1. ............. 139
2.3.2. ... 178
2.3.3. ......... 222
2.4.
............................................................................ 231
3.
................................................................. 240
3.1. ................ 240
3.2. ............ 249
3.3. ...... 254
3.3.1. ......................................... 255
3.3.2. .............................. 321
3.3.3. ................................... 324
3.4. ..................................................... 334
3.4.1. ....................... 334
3.4.2. ................. 342
3.5. .................................. 367
4.
....................... 374
4.1. ............ 375
4.2. ,
................................................................................................... 389
4.3. . 404
5.
................................................................. 436
5.1. .................................................... 436
5.2. .......................... 449
5.2.1. ..................... 449
5.2.2. ......................... 459
5.3. ................ 480
5.3.1. ............................... 480
5.3.2. .............................. 501
5.3.3. ............................ 521
5.4. ............... 524
5.4.1. .................................................... 524
5.4.2. ........................................................ 529
5.4.3. , , ................................ 545
6.
................................................................. 555
6.1. .......................... 561
6.1.1. ..................... 561
6.1.2. ......................... 565
6.2. ................ 574
6.2.1. ............................... 574
6.2.2. .............................. 581
6.2.3. ............................ 586
6.3. ............... 589
7.
....................... 593
8. .... 611
...................................................................... 617
.................................................... 620
........................................... 625
........................................................................ 640
SUMMARY .............................................................................. 657
CONTENT................................................................................ 659
................................................. 661
6



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96, 250, 389, 480,
283, 286 574
515 82, 241, 593
71, 174, 235, 406 83
200 83, 232
41
200 136, 254, 404, 524, 589
174 378
174 244, 377
173 240, 241,
200 593
245,
174 378
199 34, 241
27, 46 21, 44
317 240
290, 317, 24
345, 351, 354 21
96, 250, 389, 480,
195 574
195 30
210 24
335
34
436, 444
106
24
101, 455, 529, 589
24, 83,
590
240, 375, 449, 561
308, 427, 527
375, 593
282
627

243 176
- 98
245 290
74, 246, 378 289
209 339
341
319 341
- 155, 160 444, 476, 528, 529
104, 108, 503 65
460 109
140, 407
206 72
199 50, 244, 445
206 60
178 50
43 45, 51, 58, 464
109 364
219 -
71 58
172 60
201 60
37, 61
60
60
101 61
392 60
589 72
122 200
493 200
425

555
402 572
283, 518, 560
558, 571

270
560
71, 308, 323, 455
628

- 140
518 163
560 99
518, 560 314
561 140
522, 586 153,
415 158, 560
106 171, 372
341 46, 58
70, 188
36, 191
313 -
395
255 () 282,
282 290, 319, 351
114, 167 -
116 612
116 65, 529
385 268
112 469
130 54, 164, 256,
561, 584 330
276, 568, 585 312
275, 420 42
229 183, 312,
106, 188 366
248 219
165 344
171 344, 350, 560
58, 344
114, 372 468, 551
263 429, 528
221
360 99, 104, 189,
51, 76, 241, 379 250, 503

47 337
629

504
307, 427, () 37
583 36
504 77
232, 545 76
221
309, 311
67, 170, 188, 191, 64
378 58, 263, 391
203 64
148
203 64
204
33, 170, 194, 266,
269, 295, 325
54, 73, 93, 97,
173
157, 274, 523
57
390
173
199
170, 414
70
200
32, 101, 323, 324, 390,
266, 296,
396
339
111
339

- 418
110

-
434
486
77, 462
306
78
208
34, 40
282
350
111
-
101, 107, 108,
36
127, 250, 395, 502, 521,
-
584
38,
284, 285
41, 323, 348, 436, 491,
282
593
99
306
630

114 502
- 306
111 420
278 421
278 502
493
283 279
305
514 395
396
252 515
284 99,
283 126, 252
480 251
101, 102, 112, 502
250, 395, 502, 521, 581, 14, 177
582 337
20, 45, 611
128
555, 559
46, 82
307 82

132 240
128
505, 583 351
490, 492 436
306
374
317
284, 286 351
279 99
508 99
193 99
282 36, 356, 480
305 332
280 329, 356
631

351 376
329,
356
108 99, 112, 197,
36 376, 503, 582
58 168
256
296
245, 445
( 448, 507
) 215 37, 48, 50, 379, 594
199 48
69, 106, 271, 50
339, 357, 419, 584
294 48
107 46, 51, 93, 143,
294 153
287 54, 273
107, 287 55, 313
107 46
107, 206, 271, 283, -
357, 419 49
272 88
277, 301 50, 171
290 34, 80
287
271
271
104, 161
275
130
193
332
494
145
130
381, 529
6, 179, 219
405
78
458
30, 555
330
30
128
42
632

366, 444, 445, 447, 296


458 295, 296, 303,
495 339
509 130, 248, 433, 460
441 22, 343
517 128
493 27, 58, 175
490 184, 188,
482 312
464
490 312
513 375
511 331
515 332
511 206
509 529
510 385
464 128
441 332
241, 218
247
86 348
88 222, 250, 269, 325,
29, 193, 235 527, 545
29 211
114 213
148, 411 211
337 325
332 211
197 213, 314
296 145
573 211
101, 494, 529 211
344
99, 123 300
125 118, 299
123, 505 299
633

167
118 167
164
47
42, 353 269, 296
37, 71 199
463 199
112, 444, 463, 122
502 199
50, 171, 173
134, 206 64
134, 205 64, 529
232 184
64
317 184
177 43, 347
264 219
256 144
111
167 28, 30
464 579
156, 308
164, 396 580
- 166 65
166 594
166 368
166 351, 366
456, 235
469 149, 411
467 67, 154,
- 166 186
166 171
283 463
167 444, 447
344 184
344 174
164 65, 164, 566
634

89, 382, 460 251


34 253
91, 252
382, 460 253
252
58 253

383 253
251
384 38, 43, 316
242, 566 525
247, 566 24, 38, 42, 290, 342,
516, 524
() 247 404
32, 44, 250,
248, 566 256, 400, 404
159 420
566 174
275
566 249
89 141, 143, 259
476 178
345
570 29, 241, 444, 502
568 217, 227
477 87
90, 382, 460 318, 350
473
243, 566
214, 303, 42
360 128, 132
71, 142, 259, 261 -
123 192
142 70, 166, 252, 445,
260, 262 447
545 75
171, 174
635

571, 48
573
449 48
570 49
76
60, 140 48
205
210 232
232, 234
207
207
207 447
32, 63, 325 499
115 551
477
219 225, 229, 325,
51, 241 327, 433, 527, 546, 551, 590
315 225, 227, 325,
217 433, 546, 552
504 244
45, 223, 229, 325, 32
432, 527, 546, 551, 590, 591 484
224, 331 263
223, 230 168
223, 330 308, 451,
224 526, 595
223 380
223, 230 305
221
302 27, 72
364 452
36 222
589 376
99, 102, 250, 341,
357, 503
48 255
48 56
636

47 208
360, 367 63, 345
186 32, 138
361 249
508, 519 193
139 245, 473, 517,
108, 492 576
484 114
338 375
27 99, 103, 250, 503
33
361 199
550 32, 264, 324, 390,
586
69 114
- 338 97, 250,
521, 588
491 98, 250, 391,
514 523, 588
517 97, 250,
518 394, 523, 588
- 487 -
517 250, 390
- -
489 521
487, 96, 586
515 96
515 391
516 98, 250, 392,
458 522, 588
59, 372 44, 45
27
259 197
217
88 168, 397
43 398, 585
264
637

158, 331, 560


147 121
249 69
24, 137, 176, 109
254, 404, 524, 560, 589
30 456
24, 68, 96, 138,
183, 189, 192, 250, 389, 456
480, 559, 574 456
353 68
353 331, 335, 337
354
483 357
195
-
147 454
28 455
28, 502 180, 366
114 99, 127
337 32, 38, 44, 156,
280, 295 321, 323, 324, 368
221 73
42
316
182 115,
220 118
411 38, 81, 191, 193,
163 330, 389, 441, 452, 464, 537,
- 575
413
-
412 445
412 88
413 32, 33, 275, 329,
64, 111 335
67, 170, 187 350, 364
282, 289 339
638

290, 343 249


364 274
504, 583 407
200 274
324 274
34, 314 274
298, 299, 300
64, 529
440, 444, 447, 458, 24, 194
524 561
545 83

240
44, 136, 404 449
25, 139,
254, 258, 526 375
25, 226, 377
255, 324, 405, 432, 527,
590, 591
25, 178, 32
254, 321, 404, 527 143
63, 529 32, 250, 451
206 32, 235, 262, 264, 325,
134 455
376 168
332 44, 353
24, 29, 51, 54,
241, 247
32, 324, 400
309
580
222

384
480
403 116
105 116
120, 202
259 116, 119, 121
639

116 199
116, 121, 202 70,
116, 118, 122, 256
199, 202 191
() 377
116, 119, 121, 202 376
28, 396, 411
222 44, 45
84 28, 80


128, 133, 582 63
341 182, 522, 588
134 57, 272
107, 134 392
107, 135, 422 56, 273
134 84, 148
134 73,
134 273
134 273
126 70
238, 305, 327 393

640


1 .., .. : -
. .: , 1990.
2 .. :
. : , 1997.
3 ..
. .: , 1984.
4 .. . .:
, 1980.
5 .. .
. 2. : -
-, 1998.
6 .. -
. .: , 1980.
7 .. -
. : , 1977.
8 .. / -
. .: ,
1998. . 29 51.
9 .., .., ..
- . -
. -: , 1980.
10 ..
. .: , 2002.
11 . ( ).
. . . .-., 1947.
12 .., .. . -
.
. / .
.. . .: , 1988.
641

13 .., .
/ ,
. .:
, 2001.
14 .. /
. , 2002.
15 .., .., .. -
. .: , 1999.
16 .. . .
: , 1996.
17 .., .., ..
/ . . .. .
.: , 1987.
18 .. . .: -
, 1947. : .: - , 2004.
19 .. .
: , 1977.
20 .. .
. . 1-2. , 1998.
21 . 3- . .:
, 1968-1979.
22 .., .. : -
:
. . . . . -
, . /:
, 1999.
23 . . .: ,
1977.
24 ..
. 2- . .: , 2003.
25 .. . ,
1979.
26 .., .., ..
. .:
, 2001.
27 .., .. .
.: , 1997.
642

28 .. : . .: ,
2002.
29 . . .: ,
1972.
30 ..
// . 2000. 6. . 33
36.
31 .. -
- . .: , 2005.
32 .., .., ..,
.. . .:
, 2003.
33 .. :
. .: , 1991.
34 .. . ,
1960.
35 .. -
: . .:
, 2002.
36 . . . .
.: , 1994.
37 .. .
.: , 1977.
38 ..
// . 1999. 20. 1.
39 .., ..
. . 2-. .: ., 1999.
40 .. . .:
, 1995.
41 ..
// . 1966. 6.
42 . . 3. , 1971.
43 ..
( ).
.: , 1985.
44 .. -
. .: , 1971.
643

45 . . :
, 1991.
46 .., .., .. -
: -
. .: ,
2003.
47 .. -
// . 1978. 11. . 29 36.
48 .., .., .. -
-
. .: - , 2002.
49 ..
- . -
. . , 1997.
50 ..
. .: , 1977.
51 . 30- .
25.
52 .. ( -
). , 2003.
53 .. -
. .
. , 1995.
54 ..
/ . .: -
, 1992.
55 .., ..
. .: , 2002.
56 .. . ,
1972.
57 .. . -
, 1998.
58 .. . .:
, 1990.
59 .. -
. .: , 1996.
644

60 . , -
.
. . .: , 1998.
61 .. . .: , 2003.
62 . . .: , 1986.
63 .. -
: . .: - , 1991.
64 . . . . , 1956.
65 .. . -
, 1959.
66 ..
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67 .. -
. ., 1993.
68 .. -
. , 2002.
69 .. . , 1990.
70 .. -
. .: , 1982.
71 .. -
- . , 1995.
72 .. : -
. .: . , 2001.
73 - .. -
. ., 1995.
74 ..
.
. . .: , 2000.
75 .. -
: ,
: . :
, 1998.
76 .., .., ..
. 2- . , 1992.
77 . .
/ .
.. . .: , 1971.
645

78 .. - : -
, , . .:
, 1999.
79 .. : . -
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80 .., .. , -
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81 .., ..
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82 .. // -
. 1964. 1.
83 .., .., .. . -
: / .
.. .: , 2001.
84 .., .. : -
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85 .. - : -
. , 1999.
86 .. . .:
, 2002.
87 .. . ,
1986.
88 ..
: , , . .: ,
2000.
89 / .
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90 ..
. .
, 1954.
91 .. . -
, 1978.
92 .. . .: -
, 1974.
93 .. -
. : 1981.
646

94 .. . .: , 1985.
95 ., . -
.
.: , 2004.
96 .. //
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97 .. . ,
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98 . . , 1990.
99 .., .., ..
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.: , 2001.
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101 .. -. .:
, 1975.
102 ..
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104 .. -
-
. . . , 1999.
105 .. -
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106 . . .
. .: , 1975.
107 .. . .: -
, 1990.
108 .. :
-.
.: . , 2001.
109 .. -
. : - , 1994.
110 .., ..
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111 .. :
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647

112 .. -
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113 / .
.. . . . .. ,
.. . .: , 1985.
114 . // . 1977. 5.
115 .. . . .: , 1997.
116 . . ,
2001.
117 .. -
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118 .. -
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119 .., .. -
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120 .. -
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121 .., .. -
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122 .. -
: . .: , 1980.
123 .. . .:
, 1971.
124 ..
. . .1. -
, 1983.
125 .. . .: -
. 1973.
126 .. . -
. .: , 1982.
127 .. .
.: , 1996.
128 .. . ,
1999.
129 .. . ,
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648

130 .. .
, 1963.
131 .., .. . -
: . .: , 2001.
132 .. :
. , 1993.
133 . . .: ,
1998.
134 .. . .: ,
1959.
135 ., . .
136 - /
.. , .. . .: , 1984.
137 - : .
. .: , 1983.
138 . . .:
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139 .
, 1951.
140 . 2-
. , 1975.
141 .. .
: , 1999.
142 .., .., ..
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2005.
143 /
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144 .. . ,
1975.
145 . . , 1963.
146 /
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, 1972.
147 .
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649

148 : , , . 3- . .-
. .., .. .: -
, 2005.
149 / -
. , 2001.
150 .. .
.: , 1974.
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152 / . .
.. . .: , 1990.
153 : / .
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154 ..
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1998.
155 : 4- . .:
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.: , 2006.
157 .. ? /
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2- . 1997, 3- . 1999.
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2002.
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650

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166 .., .. -
-
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168 .., .. -
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: , 2005.
169 .. -
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170 .. -
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171 .., ..
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2005.
172 ..
. .: , 2005.
173 .., .. .
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175 .. .
.: , 1978.
176 ..
: . .: , 2002.
177 ., . .
.: -, 2003.
178 /
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179 .., .. :
. ..-
, 1995.
651

180 .
. .: , 1969.
181 .. . -
. .: , 2005.
182 .. -
. .: , 1979.
183 .. . .: , 2004.
184 : -
/ .. . . 2-. /:
, 2005.
185 .. -
. .: , 2003.
186 . .: , 1993.
187 . . . .
.. . .: , 1983.
188 : . / .. ,
.. , .. , .. . .: -,
1997.
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.: , 1989.
191 ..
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192 .., .. -
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193 .., .. -
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194 .. -
. .
. , 1992. 22 .
195 .. -
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198 .., ..
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199 .. . .: -
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200 .. -
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201 .. . .: ,
1983.
202 . . ,
1983.
203 .., .., .. -
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204 /
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205 . . , 1990.
206 .. . .: -
, 2005.
207 / . .
.. . , 1997.
208 / . .
.. . 2- . .: , 2001.
209 / . .. ,
.. . 2- . .: -, 1996.
210 . . .: , 1976.
211 .. : -
. .: , 1982.
212 .. . .:
, 1971.
213 . 2- ..
.: , 1993 1999.
214 .. -
. .: , 1985.
215 .. . .-
.: , 2003.
216 .. :
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653

217 .. :
. .: , 2005.
218 . . .: , 1972.
219 (PMBOK) /
. . .: , 2000.
220 .. -
. : , 1984.
221 ..
. .: , 1990.
222 .., .. : -
. .: , 1997.
223 .. -
// . 1997. 3. . 3 6.
224 . .: , 1982.
608 .
225 .. . .:
, 1988.
226 .., .. .
.: , 1998.
227 . .: -
, 2002.
228 . . .: -,
1999.
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230 .., .. -
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231 .. : -
. .: , 1985.
232 ., . / -
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233 . .: -
, 1976.
234 . -
. , , . , 1962.
654

235 /
. .. . .: , 1977.
236 .. 20- .
, 1964.
237 . . .: , 1999.
238 .. SELF-HISTORY,
// :
. : - ,
2004.
239 ..
. : , 1999.
240 .. . -
: , 1984.
241 .., ..
. .: -, 1998.
242 .. . .: -
, 1986.
243 : /
. .. , .. . .: , 2001.
244 .. . .: - -
, 1991.
245 :
/ . . .. .: , 1986.
246 .. :
. .: ,
1995.
247 .
. .: , 1986.
248 ., ., . -
.
. .: : , 2003.
249 .. -
. .: , 1972.
250 .. -

// -
. 2003. 6.
655

251 .
/ .
.. . .: , 1996.
252 . 5- . .: . -
, 1965 1968.
253 . . .. . .
. .: - , 1972.
254 . .: .
, 1983.
255 . /
. ,
1988.
256 . Homo ludens. :
. . .: . , -
, 1992.
257 . .
.: . , 1975.
258 ..
- . -
. . , 1997.
259 ..
. .: , 1969.
260 / .
.: , 2006.
261 .. -
// . 2004. 1.
262 .. . , 1958.
263 .. -
. .: , 1975.
264 . .
.: , 1968.
265 .. -
. .: , 1972.
266 .. -
- . , 1987.
267 . - -
. .: , 1971.
656

268 .. . .: ,
1978.
269 . .: -
, 1966.
270 . .:
, 1999.
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. , 1978.
273 . . .:
. , 1970.
Summary 657

SUMMARY
The book contains the authors approach towards the con-
struction of methodology, which is defined as the theory of the
organization of human activity. This definition determines the
subject of methodology the organization of activity. In this
framework the term organization is considered in the following
three denotations:
1) an internal order, coherency or interaction between more
or less differentiated and autonomous parts of the whole;
2) an aggregate of processes or actions, which lead to the
formation and perfection of interrelations between the parts of the
whole;
3) a community of people, jointly implementing certain pro-
gram of actions or achieving a purpose under given procedures
and principles of interaction.
Under the above definition of methodology it is considered
broadly as the theory of organization of any human activity
scientific, practical, art, educational or play activity on the one
hand; and both individual and collective activity on the other
hand.
The book contains detailed philosophical, psychological, sys-
tems engineering, science on science, ethical and aesthetical foun-
dations of methodology.
Methodology studies the organization of activity. To organize
an activity means to regularize it into the holistic system with
precise characteristics, logical structure, and process of its imple-
mentation (temporal structure).
Logical structure of activity includes the following compo-
nents: object, subject, forms, means, methods and the result of the
activity.
658 Summary

External characteristics are the peculiar properties, principles,


conditions and norms of activity.
Historically, different types of the activity organization cul-
tures are distinguished: traditional culture of aboriginal and
agrarian society, handicraft and professional (scientific) cultures.
The modern one is the project-technological type of organization
culture, which is characterized by the subdivisions of a mans (or
an organizations) activity into complete cycles, which are re-
ferred to as the projects, implemented in the certain temporal
sequence by phases, stages and steps.
The completeness of the activity cycle (completeness of the
project) is determined by three sequential phases:
the designing phase, which results in the constructed model
of the designed system and into the plan of its implementation;
the technological phase, which results in the implementa-
tion of the system;
the reflexive phase, which results in the estimation of the
implemented system and decision-making on its further correction
or starting the next project.
Given above understanding and construction of methodology
allows considering from the unified positions and in the same
logic (chapter 1):
- the methodology of scientific researches (chapter 2);
- the methodology of practical activity (chapter 3);
- the methodology of art activity (chapter 4);
- the methodology of educational activity (chapter 5);
- the methodology of play activity (chapter 6).
Comparative analysis of different types of activitys organi-
zation is given in chapter 7. The problem of teaching the method-
ology in senior school, colleges, universities and post-graduate
courses is considered in chapter 8.
Content 659

CONTENT

PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1. FOUNDATIONS OF METHODOLOGY
1.1. Philosophical-Psychological and Systems Engineering
Foundations of Methodology
1.2. Science on Science Foundations of Methodology
1.3. Ethical and Aesthetical Foundations of Methodology
Chapter 2. METHODOLOGY OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES
2.1. Characteristics of Scientific Researches
2.2. Means and Methods of Scientific Researches
2.3. Organization of the Scientific Research Process
2.4. Particularity of the Collective Scientific Researches
Chapter 3. METHODOLOGY OF PRACTICAL ACTIVITY
3.1. Characteristics of Practical Activity
3.2. Means and Methods of Practical Activity
3.3. Organization of the Practical Activity Process
3.4. Project Management
3.5. Projects and Scientific Researches
Chapter 4. INTRODUCTION TO THE METHODOLOGY
OF ART ACTIVITY
4.1. Characteristics of Art Activity
4.2. Means, Methods and Forms of Art Activity
4.3. Organization of the Art Activity Process

Chapter 5. METHODOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY


5.1. Shift of the Educational Paradigms
660 Content

5.2. Characteristics of Educational Activity


5.3. Logical Structure of Educational Activity
5.4. Organization of the Educational Activity Process
Chapter 6. INTRODUCTION TO THE METHODOLOGY
OF PLAY ACTIVITY
6.1. Characteristics of Play Activity
6.2. Logical Structure of Play Activity
6.3. Organization of the Play Activity Process
Chapter 7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT
TYPES OF ACTIVITYS ORGANIZATION
Chapter 8. TEACHING THE BASES OF METHODOLOGY
CONCLUSION
SUBJECT-HEADING
BIBLIOGRAPHY
SUMMARY
CONTENT
AUTHORS INFORMATION


1941 .., -
, , -
, -
,
,
,
.


,
. .. .
250 ,
-
, . 10
32 .
E-mail: am@anovikov.ru, www.anovikov.ru

1970 .., ,
.

,
-
.
300
- ,
, , ,
.
3 19 .
E-mail: novikov@ipu.ru, www.mtas.ru.

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