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Optik 126 (2015) 3713–3716

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Optik

journal homepage: www.elsevier.de/ijleo

A comparative study of random speckle pattern simulation models in digital image correlation

Guoqing Gu ^{∗}

Civil Engineering Department, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng, Jiangsu 224051, China

a r t i c

l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 20 September 2014 Accepted 31 August 2015

Keywords:

Digital image correlation (DIC) Computer-generated speckle patterns In-plane translation and rotation Measurement relative error

a b s t r a c t

Digital image correlation (DIC) is a non-contact and powerful optical metrology for full-ﬁeld measure- ment of deformation and strain ﬁelds. In DIC, computer-generated random speckle patterns are usually used for the performance veriﬁcation of DIC due to the advantages of well-controlled, high sensibility and high correlation coefﬁcient. Comparative studies of the different random speckle patterns simulation models are presented. The veriﬁcation of the simulation models is investigated through a DIC method for determination of in-plane translation and rotation, respectively. Finally, the deformation measurement relative errors corresponding to different simulation models are shown. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In modern optical metrology, digital image correlation (DIC) is

a popular, effective and practical technique for full-ﬁeld deforma- tion and strain measurement, which is commonly accepted and widely used in the ﬁeld of experimental mechanics and other sci- entiﬁc ﬁelds [1–3]. DIC uses digital image processing to resolve

displacement and strain ﬁelds. A signiﬁcant advantage of DIC is that

it can treat those with the natural texture surface or pre-painted

the random speckle structures as the research object. They have been used as the carrier of surface deformation information in two- dimensional DIC. Due to that, computer-simulated random speckle patterns or artiﬁcial random speckle structures are always applied

for the practical implementation of the DIC. Computer-generated random speckle patterns can provide well-controlled image fea- tures and deformation information so as to verify the performance of DIC effectively. There are some ways how to simulate random speckle patterns numerically. For example, Zhou et al. [4] have proposed an easy model to simulate the random speckle patterns, which is based on the assumption of the sum of the individual Gaussian speckles, and ﬁrstly veriﬁed the performance of DIC using the simulated speckle images. From then on, this simulated model has been increas- ingly used to generate the numerical speckle images in a large quantity of literatures related to DIC. Moreover, another widely used way for the simulation of speckle patterns is based on the

^{∗} Tel.: +86 13815579084. E-mail address: gqgu@ycit.edu.cn

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2015.08.271

0030-4026/© 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

calculation of the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral in statisti- cal optics [5]. For instance, in 1990, Leushacke et al. [6] analyzed the three-dimensional correlation coefﬁcient of speckle intensity for rectangular and circular diffuse apertures in theory. In 2009, Hamed [7] investigated the formation of numerical speckle patterns by cir- cular diffuse apertures with different amplitude variation. Recently, Hamarová [8] has numerically simulated the origin and propaga- tion of speckle ﬁeld, and has applied speckle correlation method to verify the performance of the simulated speckle images. However, to our knowledge, quantitative evaluation of the above-mentioned simulation models, which are applied to generate the numerical speckle patterns, has yet to be reported. A number of experimental results show that the displacement measurement accuracy of DIC is closely related to the quality of the random speckle patterns [9–11]. It is of vital importance that how to properly select the numer- ical random speckle images. Therefore, it is worthy to compare and evaluate the performance of the aforementioned simulation models. In this paper, we fabricate the numerical random speckle pat- terns using the above-mentioned simulation models, respectively. Then, two numerical experiments are implemented to validate the robustness, accuracy and efﬁciency of the different simulation models.

2. Principle of digital image correlation

In this section, the theory of DIC is discussed in brief. DIC uses digital image processing to resolve displacement and deformation gradient ﬁelds. The basic principle of the standard subset-based DIC is shown in Fig. 1, which is to match the same physical points

3714

G. Gu / Optik 126 (2015) 3713–3716

Fig. 1. Schematic of relation of pixel point in reference (or undeformed) and target (or deformed) subsets.

imaged in the reference image and the deformed image. Towards this, a square subset of N × N pixels (or the so-called regions of interest-ROI) surrounding the tested physical point in the initial image is selected and used to ﬁnd its corresponding location in the deformed image by deﬁning the maximum value of the cal- culated correlation coefﬁcient. The vector between the reference subset center and the target subset center is the in-plane displace- ment vector at the interested point P(x, y). A correlation coefﬁcient distribution is acquired by moving the reference subset through the searching subset continuously and calculating the correlation coef- ﬁcient at each location. In practical situations, the zero-normalized cross-correlation criterion [12], which is insensitive to the scale and offset of illumination lighting ﬂuctuations, is deﬁned below as:

C(u.v) =

n

_{i}_{=}_{1} _{[}_{f} (x _{i} ,y _{i} ) − f _{m} _{]} × [g(x _{i} ,y _{i} ^{} ) − g _{m} ]

^{}

_{i}_{=}_{1} n _{[}_{f} (x _{i} ,y _{i} ) − f _{m} _{]} ^{2} · ^{}

i=1 ^{g}^{(}^{x}

n

_{i} ,y _{i} ^{} ^{)} − g _{m} ^{} ^{2} ,

(1)

where f(x _{i} , y _{i} ) and g(x _{i} ,y _{i} ^{} ) are the intensity values at (x _{i} , y _{i} ) in

the reference subset and (x _{i} ^{} ,y _{i} ^{} ) in the target subset, respectively; u, v are the displacements in the x and y directions, respectively; and u = x _{i} ^{} − x _{i} , v = y _{i} ^{} − y _{i} , f _{m} and g _{m} are the mean intensity values of the reference and target subset; n denotes the number of pixels contained in the reference subset.

3. Computer-generated speckle patterns

3.1. Simulation model 1

In Ref. [4], Zhou et al. have proposed an easy and feasible model for the simulation of the random speckle pattern so as to verify the performance of DIC based on computer numerical simulation. Speckle patterns on the charge-coupled device (CCD) target are assumed to be the sum of individual Gaussian speckle intensities:

I(r) =

S

k=1

I _{0} exp −

^{2}

^{} r − r _{k} ^{}

a

^{2}

,

(2)

where S is the total number of computer-generated speckles, a is speckle size, r _{k} =(x _{k} , y _{k} ) ^{T} are positions of each speckle with a ran- dom distribution, and I _{0} is the peak intensity of each speckle and usually equals to one. The speckle patterns are captured by the CCD target into discrete pixels. Equation (2) can be transformed into the discretization form and written by as follows:

I[i, j] =

S

j·dy+ˇ·dy

i·dx+˛·dx ^{}

i·dx

j·dy

^{2}

a

k=1

_{I} 0 _{e}_{x}_{p} ^{} _{−} (x − x _{k} ) ^{2} + (y − y _{k} ) ^{2}

dxdy,

(3)

where dx and dy are the pixel size, and ˛ and ˇ are duty cycles. In general, dx, dy, and ˛ and ˇ are set to 1 for simplicity.

3.2. Simulation model 2

As we all know, a three-dimensional speckle ﬁeld can be pro- duced when an optically rough surface is illuminated by coherent laser light [13] and the origin and propagation of speckle ﬁeld obey the law of statistical optics. For this reason, a computer-generated speckle pattern method is put forward based on the calculation of the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral. We fabricate numeri- cal speckle patterns from randomly distributed object considering aperture modulation. Different types of apertures, such as rectan- gular, circular or annular apertures and so on, used as a diffuser can be investigated in the formation of random speckle patterns. Here, we only take into account that the rectangular aperture is used as the diffuser. A rectangular illumination spot of sizes D _{x} and D _{y} in the part of object’s surface illuminated by a plane wave is assumed. Consider bounded complex amplitude U _{0} (x, y)=U _{r} (x, y)exp(− ikz) of incident light, whose real part is deﬁned as follows:

U _{r} =

⎧

⎪

⎨

⎪

⎩

1;

0;

|x| ≤ ^{D} ^{x} and |y| ≤ ^{D} ^{y}

2

2

|x| > ^{D} ^{x} and |y| > ^{D} ^{y}

2

2

.

(4)

For simplicity we can assume that the plane wave has unity amplitude. Providing the zero-phase of the incident light in the object plane (z = 0) and the unitary reﬂection coefﬁcient r(x, y) = 1, the complex amplitude of the light after the reﬂection from the object’s surface can be written as

U(x, y, ı(x, y)) = U _{0} (x, y)r(x, y) exp(−ikı(x, y)) = exp(−ikı(x, y)),

(5)

where kı(x, y) is a random phase shift caused by random vari- able surface roughness ı(x, y) and k is a wave number. Then the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral for calculation of the com- plex amplitude U(x ^{’} , y ^{’} ) of the light at the distance d from the object plane (x, y) reduces into

_{U}_{(}_{x} _{} _{,}_{y} _{} _{)} _{=} exp(−ikd)

i

d

−D _{x} /2

D _{x} /2

Dy/2

−Dy/2

_{×} _{e}_{x}_{p} ^{} _{−}_{i}_{k} (x ^{} − x) ^{2} + (y ^{} − y) ^{2}

_{2}_{(}_{d} _{+} _{ı}_{(}_{x}_{,} _{y}_{)}_{)}

− 2ikı(x, y) dxdy.

(6)

Equation (6) is used for case of illumination of plane wave, then the intensity of the simulated speckle patterns can be represented

^{2} .

by means of relation I(x ^{} ,y ^{} ) = ^{} ^{} U(x ^{} ,y ^{} ) ^{}

4. Generation of simulated speckle patterns

According to the two computer simulation models presented above, the random speckle patterns can be generated by computer program, respectively. In this paper, two types of random speckle patterns are simulated having image dimensions 512 × 512 pix- els. For model 1, the total number of computer-generated Gaussian speckles is 3000 and the Gaussian speckle size is 4 pixels; for model 2, we assume that D _{x} =D _{y} = 128 m, d = 20 cm, and = 0.6328 m. In order to simulate the Gaussian-correlated surface roughness distribution, ı(x, y) can be replaced by the uniformly distributed

random numbers, which are produced by means of the random

vector sampling method [14]. Fig. 2 shows the two types of computer-generated random speckle patterns, I and II, which are obtained from the models 1 and 2, respectively, and their corresponding histograms. From Fig. 2, we

G. Gu / Optik 126 (2015) 3713–3716

3715

Fig. 2. Computer-generated random speckle patterns and their corresponding gray histograms.

can ﬁnd that the change of speckle average-distribution density in pattern II is much lower than the one in pattern I.

5. Veriﬁcation using numerical simulation experiments

In order to investigate and compare the performance of the aforementioned two computer-generated random speckle pat- terns, veriﬁcation of DIC code is applied in two well-controlled rigid body in-plane deformation experiments, i.e., translation and rota- tion. Firstly, two reference speckle images, shown in Fig. 2, are both generated from numerical simulation by computer program, which are 8-bite images with dimensions of 512 × 512 pixels. Afterwards, numerically simulated deformed speckle patterns are generated by applying the bicubic spline interpolation method [15] to the refer- ence images for the following two sets of numerically simulated experiments.

5.1. Experiment 1: rigid body in-plane translation

For two types of computer-generated random speckle patterns, numerically shifted speckle images in the u− direction with a trans- lation increment of 0.5 pixels are, respectively, generated using the bicubic spline interpolation method and sub-pixel translation method. Cross-correlation of a reference speckle image and a sec- ond image with a given rigid body in-plane translation yields the deformation ﬁeld of the two types of the simulated speckle pat- terns, respectively. The displacements between the undeformed and deformed images are computed using DIC code with a subset size of 41 × 41 pixels, which are shown in Fig. 3(a). The horizontal axes are the preassigned translation values, while the vertical axes are the results obtained from DIC. Obviously, the straight line rep- resents a perfect correspondence between calculated values and preassigned values. From Fig. 3(a), we can observe that the calcu- lated results corresponding to two types of computer-generated speckle patterns are both at the vicinity of the preassigned dis- placements. In addition, the relative error between the measured values and real values is also calculated, which is shown in Fig. 3(b). From Fig. 3(b), we can ﬁnd that the relative error corresponding to simulated speckle pattern I and II are mostly below 5% and the max- imum relative error, corresponding to pattern I, is 5.2%. It can be

Fig. 3. Rigid body translation measuring results.

concluded that these two types of simulated speckle patterns have almost the same performance for the situation of homogeneous deformation. Finally, in order to provide a visual understanding on the type of deformation, a plot corresponding to the in-plane dis- placement vector is shown in Fig. 3(c) in which the arrows indicate the magnitude and direction of the in-plane displacement. It can be easily seen from the displacement vector map that the in-plane displacement is due to the in-plane translation of the simulated speckle patterns.

5.2. Experiment 2: rigid body in-plane rotation

For the situation of heterogeneous deformation, the rigid body in-plane rotation deformation has been taken into consideration. Likewise, numerically counterclockwise-rotated speckle images with a range from 0.5 ^{◦} to 3 ^{◦} and rotation increment of 0.5 ^{◦} between successive images are also generated using the bicubic spline interpolation method for two types of simulated speckle patterns, respectively. For simplicity, the location of rotation center is just the center point of simulated speckle images, i.e. (256, 256). Applica- tion of DIC with a subset size of 41 × 41 pixels for the measurement of in-plane deformation is then investigated for two numerically simulated speckle patterns. According to our recent work [16], the relationship between the rotation angle and the in-plane displace- ment components is linear in theory. Thus, the rigid body in-plane rotation angle can be obtained successfully based on the in-plane displacement components ﬁelds. The calculation results of rotation angle are shown in Fig. 4(a). The horizontal axes are the preassigned rigid body in-plane rotation angles, while the vertical axes are the results using DIC code. It is found that the straight line represents a perfect correspondence between calculated values and preas- signed values. In Fig. 4(a), we can observe the calculated results related to speckle pattern II are much closer to the straight line than those related to speckle pattern I. Fig. 4(b) illustrates the rela- tive error between the measured values and the preassigned values using the two types of computer generated speckle patterns. From Fig. 4(b), we can see that: (1) the relative error corresponding to

3716

G. Gu / Optik 126 (2015) 3713–3716

Fig. 4. Rigid body rotation measuring results.

simulated speckle pattern I are mostly above 15% and the maximum relative error corresponding to it is 23.9%; (2) the relative error corresponding to simulated speckle pattern II are mostly below 5% and the maximum relative error corresponding to it is 5.5%; (3) these two types of simulated speckle patterns have almost the same performance for the situation of small rotation deformation. The comparison of relative error between two types of simulated speckle patterns indicates that the speckle pattern obtained from the simulated model 2 can be more applicable to the large rota- tion deformation than the simulated model 1. It is probably due to the fact that the phenomenon of de-correlation corresponding to pattern I increase gradually for the occasion of large angle rota- tion deformation. Moreover, a plot corresponding to the in-plane displacement vector is also shown in Fig. 4(c) from which it can be easily seen that the in-plane displacement is due to a counterclock- wise rotation of the simulated speckle patterns. Finally, it is demonstrated from the numerical simulation exper- iments that the numerical model 2 for the generation of simulated speckle patterns is more feasible, robust and efﬁcient, and has bet- ter measurement accuracy and stability.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, two types of numerical simulation models for the generation of the random speckle patterns are investigated

and compared by means of DIC. Two numerical simulation experi- ments are also implemented to study and evaluate the performance of the two models. The results from these experiments have shown that the simulated model based on the calculation of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral has a higher robustness, bet- ter accuracy, and higher efﬁciency for the measurement of the rigid body in-plane rotation. For the situation of in-plane translation, two simulation models have almost the same measurement accuracy. While, for the situation of in-plane rotation, the simulation model 2 has a certain advantage, especially in large angle rotation. In addi- tion, we can observe from the simulated experiments’ results that good computer-simulated random speckle pattern in DIC should possess a comparatively high speckle average-distribution density. Therefore, these results give us some hints that how to select the appropriate simulation model for the random speckle pattern gen- eration.

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