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Homers Iliad 6 and 22

Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and


Commentary

Geoffrey Steadman
Homers Iliad 6 and 22
Greek Text with Facing Vocabulary and Commentary

First Edition

2012 by Geoffrey D. Steadman

revised September 2014, April 2015

All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may
not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that copying permitted
by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the
public press), without written permission from the publisher.

The author has made an online version of this work available (via email) under a
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. The terms
of the license can be accessed at creativecommons.org.

Accordingly, you are free to copy, alter, and distribute this work under the
following conditions:

(1) You must attribute the work to the author (but not in any way that suggests that
the author endorses your alterations to the work).
(2) You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
(3) If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting
work only under the same or similar license as this one.

The Greek text is the edition by T. W. Allen, first published by Oxford University
Press in 1920.

ISBN-13: 978-0-9843065-9-6
ISBN-10: 0-9843065-9-5

Published by Geoffrey Steadman


Cover Design: David Steadman

Fonts: Times New Roman, Times-Roman, GFS Porson, New Athena Unicode

geoffreysteadman@gmail.com
Table of Contents

pages
Preface to the Series...v-vii

How to Use this Commentary....ix

Outline of Books 6 and 22.......x

Outline of the Iliad in 24 Books.xi

Major Differences between Homeric and Attic Greek...xii-xiii

Scansion...........xv-xx

Running Core Vocabulary (10 or more times) ...xxi-xxiii

Abbreviations.xxiv

Additional Resources.....xxiv

Text and Commentary


Book 6.1-529..1-53

Book 22.1-51555-106

Greek-Only Text
Book 6.1-529109-126

Book 22.1-515..127-144

Glossary
Synopsis of (Attic) ..146-147

Synopsis of - Verbs (Attic) ......146-149

Running Core Vocabulary (5 or more times) .150-156


v

Preface to the Series

The aim of this commentary is to make all 1044 lines of Homers Iliad Books 6 and
22 as accessible as possible to intermediate and advanced Greek readers so that they
may experience the joy, insight, and lasting influence that comes from reading one
of the greatest works in classical antiquity in the original Greek.
Each page of the commentary includes 10 lines of Greek verse (Allen's third
edition, Oxford Classical Text) with all corresponding vocabulary and grammar
notes below the Greek. The vocabulary contains all words occurring 9 or fewer
times, arranged alphabetically in two columns. The grammatical notes are organized
according to line numbers and likewise arranged in two columns. The advantage of
this format is that it allows me to include as much information as possible on a
single page and yet insure that entries are distinct and readily accessible to readers.
To complement the vocabulary within the commentary, I have added a list of
words occurring 10 or more times at the beginning of this book and recommend that
readers review this list before they read. Together, this book has been designed in
such a way that, once readers have mastered the core list, they will be able to rely
solely on the Greek text and commentary and not need to turn a page or consult
dictionaries as they read. Those who wish to review common vocabulary more
regularly may go to the website and consult a running list of all words that occur 5
or more times. Lastly, I have provided Greek-only pages of the text for teachers
who want their students to review in a class setting without the assistance of notes.
The grammatical notes are designed to help beginning readers read the text, and
so I have passed over detailed literary and philosophical explanations in favor of
short, concise, and frequent entries that focus exclusively on grammar and
morphology. The notes are intended to complement, not replace, an advanced level
commentary. Assuming that readers finish elementary Greek with varying levels of
ability, I draw attention to subjunctive and optative constructions, identify unusual
aorist and perfect forms, and in general explain aspects of the Greek that they
should have encountered in first year study but perhaps forgotten. As a rule, I prefer
to offer too much assistance rather than too little.
vi

Better Vocabulary-Building Strategies

One of the virtues of this commentary is that it eliminates time-consuming


dictionary work. While there are many occasions where a dictionary is absolutely
necessary for developing a nuanced reading of the Greek, in most instances any
advantage that may come from looking up a word and exploring alternative
meanings is outweighed by the time and effort spent in the process. Many continue
to defend this practice, but I am convinced that such work has little pedagogical
value for intermediate and advanced students and that the time saved by avoiding
such drudgery can be better spent reading more Greek, reviewing morphology,
memorizing vocabulary, mastering verb stems, and reading advanced-level
commentaries and secondary literature.
As an alternative to dictionary work, this commentary offers two approaches to
building knowledge of vocabulary. First, I isolate the most common words (10 or
more times) for immediate drilling and memorization. These words are not included
elsewhere in the commentary but have been gathered into a running list in the
introduction to this book. Second, I have included a longer running vocabulary list
of words occurring 5 or more times in the glossary of this volume. Readers who
desire a quick review of core vocabulary before reading should consult and master
the core list (10 or more times); while those who want a daily review of vocabulary
may single out, drill and memorize the 5 or more list in the glossary. Altogether, I
am confident that readers who follow this regimen will learn Homers vocabulary
more efficiently and develop fluency more quickly than with traditional methods.

Print on Demand Books

This volume is a self-published, print-on-demand (POD) book, and as such it


gives its author distinct freedoms and limitations that are not found in traditional
publications. After writing this commentary, I simply purchased an ISBN number
(the owner is de facto the publisher) and submitted a digital copy for printing. The
most significant limitation of a POD book is that it has not undergone extensive
peer-review or general editing. This is a serious shortcoming that should make
readers wary. Because there are so many vocabulary and commentary entries, there
vii

are sure to be typographical and factual errors that an extra pair of eyes would have
spotted immediately. Until all of the mistakes have been identified and corrected, I
hope the reader will excuse the occasional error.
The benefits of POD, however, outweigh the costs. This commentary and
others in the series simply would not exist without POD. Since there is no
traditional publisher acting as a middle man, there is no one to deny publication of
this work because it may not be profitable for the publisher. In addition, since the
production costs are so low, I am able to offer this text at a comparatively low price.
Finally, since this book is no more than a .pdf file waiting to be printed, I am able to
make corrections and place a revised edition of a POD book for sale as often as I
wish. In this regard, we should liken PODs to software instead of typeset books.
Although the first edition of a POD may not be as polished as a traditional book, I
am able to respond very quickly to readers recommendations and criticisms and
create an emended POD that is far superior to previous editions. Consider,
therefore, what you hold in your hand as an inexpensive beta version of the
commentary. If you would like to recommend changes or download a free .pdf
copy, please see one of the addresses below. All criticisms are welcome, and I
would be grateful for your help.
Lastly, I would like to thank Grant Robinson from Cape Town, South Africa
for recommending many changes both large and small in the latest revision. All
readers will benefit from his assiduous attention to detail.

Geoffrey Steadman Ph.D.


geoffreysteadman@gmail.com
www.geoffreysteadman.com
ix

How to Use this Commentary


Research shows that, as we learn how to read in a second language, a combination
of reading and direct vocabulary instruction is statistically superior to reading alone.
One of the purposes of this book is to encourage active acquisition of vocabulary.
1. Master the list of words occurring 5 or more times as soon as possible.
A. Develop a daily regimen for memorizing vocabulary before you begin reading.
Review and memorize the words in the running list that occur 5 or more times
(glossary, pp. 150-156) before you read the corresponding pages in Greek.
B. Download and use the digital flashcards (5 or more times) available online in
ppt or jpg formats. Research has shown that you must review new words at least
seven to nine times before you are able to commit them to long term memory, and
flashcards are efficient at promoting repetition. Develop the habit of deleting
flashcards that you have mastered and focus your efforts on the remaining words.
2. Read actively and make lots of educated guesses
One of the benefits of traditional dictionary work is that it gives readers an
interval between the time they encounter a questionable word or form and the
time they find the dictionary entry. That span of time often compels readers to
make educated guesses and actively seek out understanding of the Greek.
Despite the benefits of corresponding vocabulary lists there is a risk that
without that interval of time you will become complacent in your reading habits
and treat the Greek as a puzzle to be decoded rather than a language to be learned.
Your challenge, therefore, is to develop the habit of making an educated guess
under your breath each time before you consult the commentary. If you guess
correctly, the vocabulary and notes will reaffirm your understanding of the Greek.
If you answer incorrectly, you will become more aware of your weaknesses and
therefore more capable of correcting them.
3. Reread a passage immediately after you have completed it.
Repeated readings not only help you commit Greek to memory but also promote
your ability to read the Greek as Greek. You learned to read in your first language
through repeated readings of the same books. Greek is no different. The more
comfortable you are with older passages the more easily you will read new ones.
4. Reread the most recent passage immediately before you begin a new one.
This additional repetition will strengthen your ability to recognize vocabulary,
forms, and syntax quickly, bolster your confidence, and most importantly provide
you with much-needed context as you begin the next selection in the text.
5. Consult an advanced-level commentary for a more nuanced interpretation
After your initial reading of a passage and as time permits, consult the highly
readable notes in books by Graziosi and Haubold (Book 6, see Additional
Resources) or by de Jong (Book 22) for a more detailed and learnd discussion
than this commentary can provide.
x

Outline of Books 6 and 22


Book 6
1-36 The battle continues.
37-65 Agamemnon convinces Menelaus not to spare Adrestes.
66-118 Helenus urges Hector to go to Troy to encourage the women to pray to
Athena to stop Diomedes, the foremost Greek fighter.
119-143 Diomedes encounters the enemy Glaucus and asks about his lineage.
144-211 Glaucus explains his lineage and relates the story of Bellerophon.
212-236 Diomedes claims his ancestor was a guest-friend of Bellerophon.
Diomedes exchanges armor with Glaucus as a gesture of guest-friendship
and agrees to avoid Glaucus on the battlefield.
237-285 Hector comes to Troy, refuses his mother's gift of wine, and bids that
she and the Trojan women pray to Athena to stop Diomedes.
286-311 Hecuba and the Trojans honor Athena with a robe. Athena refuses to
help the Trojans.
312-368 Hector finds Helen and Paris in their bedchamber and refuses Helen's
offer that he sit. He bids Paris to return with him, and Paris says that he
will make preparations and catch up with Hector.
369-493 Hector looks for Andromache and finds her and his infant son
Astyanax on the city walls overlooking the battle. Andromache offers their
son as a reason to stay, but Hector refuses.
494-502 Hector departs as Andromache and the servants mourn for him as if
he were dead.
503-529 As Hector leaves the city, Paris catches up with his brother, and the
two leave for battle.

Book 22
1-24 Apollo distracts Achilles on the battlefield as the Trojans retreat.
25-89 Priam and Hecuba call Hector from the wall and plead with him to enter
with the rest of the Trojans.
90-130 Hector deliberates whether to go within the walls or await Achilles.
131-166 Hector flees as Achilles chases him around the walls.
167-223 Zeus laments Hector's doom, weighs the fates of Achilles and Hector,
and sends Athena, goddess of victory, to help Achilles.
224-272 In the form of Dephobus, Hector's brother, Athena deceives Hector
and agrees to help him fight Achilles.
273-336 Hector wishes to make a pact with Achilles, but Achilles refuses.
During the battle, Hector notices that Dephobus is missing and is mortally
wounded by Achilles in the neck.
337-374 In a final speech, Hector asks for burial, but Achilles refuses. The
Achaians marvel at Hector's corpse and defile the body with stab-wounds.
375-404 Achilles ties Hector behind a chariot and drags him around the walls.
405-436 Priam and Hecuba wail at the death and treatment of Hector.
437-515 Andromache emerges from her house to learn the fate of her husband.
xi

Outline of the Iliad Books 1-24


1 After Agamemnon and Achilles quarrel, Achilles withdraws from fighting.
2 Agamemnon interprets a dream and tests the Achaians. Catalogue of ships.
3 Paris faces Menelaus in a duel for Helen. Paris, though losing, is whisked away
by Aphrodite and dropped into the bedchamber of Helen, where he remains.
4 As the gods quarrel, the Trojan Pandarus breaks the truce, and battle ensues.
5 The Greek Diomedes excels on the battlefield.
6 Glaucus encounters Diomedes, and they exchange gifts. Helenus bids Hector to
go to Troy and tell the women to pray to Athena to stop Diomedes. Hector
encounters Hecabe, Helen, and Andromache and returns to the battle with Paris.
7 Ajax and Hector fight a duel. The Achaians build a wall in front of the ships.
8 Hector and the Trojans attack and threaten to burn all of the Greek ships.
9 Agamemnon sends Odysseus, Phoenix, and Ajax to resolve the quarrel from
Book I and urge Achilles to return to the fight. Achilles refuses but lingers.
10 Odysseus and Diomedes go on a night raid within Trojans lines.
11 Agamemnon excels in battle. Nestor asks Patroclus to persuade Achilles to fight.
12 The Achaians defend their wall as Hector breaks the wall's gates.
13 The Achaians attack.
14 Agamemnon wants to leave, but Odysseus and Diomedes urge him otherwise.
15 The Trojans attack and threaten to burn the ships again.
16 Patroclus, disguised in Achilles' armor, drives off the Trojans and kills
Sarpedon. Hector kills Patroclus, strips off Achilles' armor, and wears it.
17 The Achaians and Trojans fight over Patroclus body.
18 Achilles learns about Patroclus death and is visited by his mother Thetis.
Polydamus advises the Trojans to retreat within the walls, but Hector convinces
them to do otherwise. Thetis has Hephaestus make Achilles divine armor.
19 Agamemnon offers gifts, and Odysseus offers food, but Achilles casually
accepts the former and refuses the latter. He wishes to fight immediately.
20-21 The gods join the battle. Achilles slaughters many in escalating violence.
22 Trojans retreat, but Hector remains outside. Achilles fights and kills Hector.
23 Achilles sponsors funeral games for Patroclus.
24 Achilles mistreats Hector's body. The gods reconcile. Priam comes to Achilles
tent to plead successfully for Hector's body. The poem ends with Hector's burial.
xii

Summary of Major Differences


between Homeric and Attic Greek

Read the following two pages thoroughly and return to them frequently as you read the text.

1. Verb Augments: The past augment - is frequently missing from verbs.


(was sleeping) (set out) (led)

2. Infinitives: Infinitives may end not only with - but also with - or -.
(to go) , or (to be) , or

3. Three different meanings for the pronoun , , :


The most common use is demonstrative which you may translate as personal: he, she, it.
A. Demonstrative: this, that (he, she, it) frequently before , , and .
B. Relative: who, which, that accented and often following commas
C. definite: the (weak that) preceding a noun (not frequent in Homer)
m. sg. f. sg. n. sg. m. pl f. pl. n. pl.
Nom. , ,
Gen. , ,
Dat. , , ,
Acc.
N.B. Do not confuse the nom. pl. form with the far more frequently used form ,
a 3rd person dat. sg. pronoun: to him, to her, or to it (see below).

4. Personal pronouns
Homer often uses gen. , dat. , acc. () in place of 3rd sg. , , .
1st person sg. 2nd person sg. 3rd person sg.
Nom. I , you
Gen. , my , your , his, her, its
, , , , ,
Dat. to me , to you , to him, her, it
Acc. me , you , him, her, it

1st person pl. 2nd person pl. 3rd person pl.


Nom. , we , you they
Gen. , our , your , their
Dat. to us to you (), () to them
Acc. , us , you , , them

Possessive Adjectives
1st , , my, mine , , (, , ) our(s)
2nd , , (, , ) your(s) , , (, , ) your(s)
3rd , , (, , ) his, her(s), its , , (, , ) their(s)
xiii

5. Prepositions: It is sometimes difficult to distinguish uses (A) and (B) below


A. Some prepositions are adverbial in force, particularly at the beginning of clauses.
and therein, and in (it) and besides, and beside (her)

B. Tmesis (Cutting): The separation of a prefix from the verb by one or more words
is common. The reader may translate the preposition as a prefix or as an adverb (A).
=

6. Declension Endings: All endings are common. Without articles, context is the best guide.
1st declension feminine 1st declension masculine
Nom. -, -, - - -, -, - -
Gen. -, - -, -, - -, -, - -, -, -
Dat. -, - -, -, - -, - -, -
Acc. -, -, - - -, - -

2nd declension masculine 2nd declension neuter


Nom. -, -, - - - -
Gen. -, -, -, - - -, -, -, - -
Dat. - -(), - - -(), -
Acc. -, - -, - - -

3rd declension masc. and fem. 3rd declension neuter


Nom. - -, -, - -- -, -, -
Gen. -, -, - - -, -, - -
Dat. -, - -(), -() -, - -(), -()
Acc. -, -, -, - -, -, - -- -, -

7. Common Irregular Verbs:


(to be)
present imperfect participle
1st (, ) , ,
2nd () ()
3rd () (, , ) ()
subjunctive optative
1st
2nd ()
3rd (, ) () ()

(to go)
present (fut. of ) imperfect participle
1st () , ,
2nd () ()
3rd (, , ) (, , )
subjunctive optative
1st
2nd ()
3rd () ()
xv

Scansion


/ / / / / s-s-d-s-d-s
-- ---- --- -, line 6.3


/ / / / / d-d-d-s-d-s
- - -- - -- -- line 6.7

While the rhythms of English poetry are based on word-stress (stressed and unstressed
syllables), Greek poetry relies on the length of syllables (long and short syllables). Long
syllables are pronounced twice as long as short syllables, as demonstrated in the musical
notation above. To mark the length of a syllable, we place the notation (here equal to )
above a long syllable and the notation (here equal to ) above the two short syllables.

I. Epic meter: Dactylic Hexameter


A. Dactyl = finger B. Spondee = (solemn) libation

Every line of the Iliad includes six (hex) feet (metra) of dactyls and spondees. A
dactylic, fingerlike, foot is a combination of 3 syllables, long-short-short ( ),
just like the long and short segments of a finger. A spondaic foot is a combination
of 2 syllables, long-long ( ), which takes just as long to pronounce as a dactylic
foot. Slight metrical stress (Lat. ictus) is placed on the first syllable of each foot.

An epic poet uses a combination of six dactyls and spondees in every line of verse.
The combination can vary from line to line depending on the poets needs. Note in
line 6.3 above (book 6, line 3), the line has 2 dactyls and 4 spondees (s-s-d-s-d-s). In
line 6.7, the poet uses 4 dactyls and 2 spondees (d-d-d-s-d-s). Although the second
line contains more short syllables and appears visibly longer than the first line, the
second takes just as long to pronounce as the first. Every line takes an equal amount
of time to pronounce.
xvi

While the first four feet vary between dactyls and spondees, the last two feet are
dactyl-spondee in over 95% of the verses. The final syllable, called the anceps,
two-headed, may be short or long but is considered as long for metrical purposes.
You may mark a short syllable anceps with the letter x or with a long mark.
/ / X or / /
--- -, --- - 6.3

II. Dividing up Syllables in a Greek Word


A Greek word has as many syllables as vowels. Diphthongs count as one vowel.
-- ---- --- -, 6.3

When there are two or more consonants between vowels, the first is pronounced
with the preceding syllable and the rest are pronounced with the following syllable:

-- ---- --- -, 6.3

When there is one consonant between vowels, that consonant is pronounced with
the 2nd syllable. (), (), () count as 2 consonants in different syllables.

-- ---- --- -, 6.3

A consonant followed by a liquid , is considered a single consonant unit in the


second syllable and may count as one or two consonants in the rules below.

- - -- - -- -- 6.7

III. Determining the Length of a Syllable

A. A syllable is long () by nature if it contains


1. a long vowel (, , , , ), * these are unmarked in the Greek text
2. a diphthong (, , , , , )
B. A syllable is long () by position if
3. a vowel is followed by 2 consonants (not necessarily in the same word).
4. the vowel is followed by double consonants (), (), () or .
C. Any syllable that does not follow these rules is by default a short syllable ().
For convenience, I have put the number of the rule above the long syllables.
3 1 3 3 1 3 2 x
/ / / / / d-d-d-s-d-s
- - -- - -- -- 6.7
xvii

Scansion Practice (Set 1)


For many, it is easier to recite hexameter aloud than to write out the long and shorts.
There are variations to the rules, but before you learn them, use the rules on the
facing page and pencil in the long ( ) and short ( ) notations above the lines
below. Before you consult the answers on page xvi, perform the following check:
(1) Are there six dactyls and spondees? (2) Are the final two a dactyl-spondee?

1. -- --- - -- --. 6.4

2. - - ----, - --, 6.5

3. - - --, - --- -- 6.6

4. -- - -- - ----, 6.9

Scansion Practice with Variations (Set 2)

Diaeresis (Division):
A vowel with a double dot over it indicates that it is pronounced separately from the
vowel preceding it and is therefore not part of a diphthong. (e.g. - not )

5. - ---, -- - - . 6.8

Elision (cutting out):


When a short vowel (and at times final -) is followed with a word beginning with
a vowel, the short vowel is elided, cut out, from pronunciation. In our text the
editor leaves out the vowel and includes an apostrophe:

6. -- -, -- -- - 6.10

Correption (taking away):


Although diphthongs are considered long by nature, - and - at the end of a word
(e.g. , and seldom long vowels) are often considered short when followed by
a word that begins with a vowel. Scan the underlined diphthongs as short syllables.

7. - -- -- -- - 6.1

8. - - - -- - --- 6.2
xviii

2 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 Answer Key
/ / / / /
1. -- --- - -- --. 6.4
2 3 3 1 3 1 3 2 1
/ / / / /
2. - - ----, - --, 6.5
1 1 1 3 1 2 1
/ / / / / X
3. - - --, - --- -- 6.6
3 3 1 3 3 3 2 1
/ / / / /
4. -- - -- - ----, 6.9
2 3 1 2 3 1 3 3
/ / / / /
5. - ---, -- - - . 6.8
3 1 1 1 1 3 2 1
/ / / / /
6. -- -, -- -- - 6.10
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
/ / / / /
7. - -- -- -- - 6.1
3 3 3 1 1 1 2
/ / / / /
8. - - - -- - --- 6.2

Other Variations Worthy of Note


Digamma ():
The consonant digamma (pronounced w) dropped out of Greek, but it still affects
the pronunciation and scansion of many words in hexameter. As an extra consonant,
a missing digamma can change the length of preceding syllables from short to long.
() () () () ()
house wine deed to see to her
Synizesis (setting together):
At times, a group of vowels (not a diphthong) at the end of a word are run together
and pronounced as a long vowel. This is common in combinations such as , ,
and in words like , gen. sg. and the pronouns and .
/

xix

V. Pauses: Caesura and Diaeresis


In addition to the pause at the end of each line, there are natural pauses between words within
the verse which effect the rhythm of the hexameter, and it is worthwhile for you to recognize
the conventions that Homer employed regarding these pauses.
A caesura (Lat. cut) is the audible pause that occurs when a word ends within a
dactylic or spondaic foot.
A diaeresis (Grk. division) is the audible pause that occurs when a word ends at
the end of a foot.
In general, the pause after each word in a verse is either a caesura or a diaeresis, and
each hexameter line contains multiple examples of caesura and diaeresis. But, when
you are asked in a classroom setting to identify the caesurae in a line, you are
actually being asked to identify the principal or main caesurae in a line.
The principal (or main) caesura is a caesura that coincides with a major pause
in the sense or thought within the line (often the equivalent of a comma or period in
prose). Every line contains at least one principal caesura, and Homer frequently
places main caesurae in one of four places:
(A) penthemimeres (5th half-foot): in 3rd foot after the first long ||
(B) in the 3rd foot after the first short syllable ||
(C) hepthemimeres (7th half-foot): in 4th foot after the first long ||
(D) trihemimeres (3rd half-foot): in the 2nd foot (less frequent) ||

Scansion Practice (Set 3)


Scan. Then label the || as a diaeresis or as a caesura type A, B, C or D above.
||
9. , 6.51

||
10. 6.52

||
11. 6.53

|| =diphthong
12. , 6.54

|| ||
13. , , 6.55

|| correption
14. ; 6.56

|| correption
15. ; 6.57
xx

Answer Key for Scansion Practice (Set 3)


1 Dia 1 1 3 1 3 2 X
/ || / / / /
9. , 6.51
2 1 3 3 B 1 1 2 1
/ / || / / /
10. 6.52
1 2 1 3 3 Dia 3 3 1
/ / / /|| /
11. 6.53
3 1 1A 3 1 3 2 1
/ / || / / /
12. , 6.54
1 Dia 1 1 1 1 2 1
/ || / / / /
13. , , 6.55
3 1Dia 1 3 2 1 2 2 X
/ || / / / /
14. ; 6.56
3 1 1D 1 1 3 2 3 X
/ || / / / /
15. ; 6.57

VI. Oral Recitation


Finally, it is common when first reading hexameter to give stilted, mechanical
recitations that place excessive word stress (ictus) on the first long syllable of each
of the six feet in each verse at the expense of the natural accentuation. This
tendency is both useful and perhaps necessary when you first learn to recite in
meter. Both online and in classroom settings, teachers sometimes encourage this
habit because they recognize that new readers are accustomed to hearing word stress
and that stilted recitations will help students recognize the individual feet within the
verse. Many readers choose never to pass beyond this stage. Over time, however,
you should focus on natural accentuation and try to develop an ear for the rhythmic
long and short syllables of each line.

Do not be intimidated by the rules or the terminology. Since the text does not
include macrons over long vowels or indicate missing digammas, you are sure to
make the occasional mistake. But in the end you must remember the first and most
important rule when singing a song over 2700 years old: enjoy it.
xxi

Homer's Iliad 6 and 22


Core Vocabulary (10 or more times)
The following is a running list of all words that occur ten or more times in Iliad 6 and 22. These words
are not included in the commentary and therefore must be reviewed as soon as possible. The number of
occurrences, indicated at the end of the dictionary entry, were tabulated by the author. The only
exceptions are the demonstrative , , and relative , , , which were too numerous for the author
to distinguish adequately. The left column indicates the number of the page where the word first occurs.

1 , -, -: one another, 11
1 , , : a man, 39
1 : then, therefore, it seems, it turns out, 68
1 , : Achaian, 30
1 : but, and, on the other hand, 405
1 , , : spear, tree, stem, 10
1 : in, on, among. (+ dat.), 79
1 : there, thither; then, at that time, 17
1 : and; even, also, 198
1 , , : big, great, important, 35
1 , , : this, that; he, she, it, 850?
1 , , : who, which, that, 205?
1 , : a plain, 11
1 , , : much, many, 35
1 , -, -: first, earliest; foremost, 11
1 : and, both, 145
1 : to make; set, put, place, arrange, 16
1 , , : Trojan, 46
1 , -, : a son, 24
2 : but, yet, 68
2 , -, -: -self; he, she, it; the same, 41
2 , : shout, 34
2 : for, since, 47
2 : at least, at any rate; indeed, 46
2 : to be, exist, 88
2 , : heart, soul, mind, spirit, 33
2 , , : not, 56
2 , , : every, all, the whole, 31
2 , : who? which?; , , anyone, -thing, 55
2 , -, -: dear, friendly; friend, 31
3 : from, away from. (+ gen.), 18
3 : to walk, step, go, 17
3 : him, her, it (acc. reflex; gen. , dat. ) 10
3 : to, toward (acc.), near, at (dat., gen.), 42
3 : on the one hand, 58
3 , : might, force, prowess, 15
3 : with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 11
3 , : a mother, 19
3 , , , : child, boy, girl; slave, 26
3 : ever, at some time, once, 12
xxii Core Vocabulary (10 or more times)

3 , -, : armor, arms; tool, 11


3 : beget, conceive, bear, bring forth, 16
4 : to seize, take; mid. choose (aor. ) 12
4 , -, -: god-like, divine, wondrous, 24
4 , -, : spear, lance, 17
4 : then, next, secondly, 14
4 : from, at, to the side of, 12
4 : to flee, escape; defend in court, 11
5 , -, -: other, one...another, 29
5 , , : the knee, 14
5 : out of, from (+ gen.), 32
5 : to have, hold; be able; be disposed, 20
5 : to make stand, stand, 21
5 , : modal adv., (Att. ) 54
5 , : ship, 15
5 , : a father, 25
5 : very, even, indeed, just, 19
5 , : a city, 19
5 : to, towards (+ acc.), near (+ dat.), 16
5 : you, 38
6 : indeed, surely, really, certainly, just, 35
6 : to give, offer, grant, provide, 17
6 : I, 99
6 , -, : a word, 12
6 : to come, go, 23
6 : in truth, truly (begins open question) 83?
6 : or (either...or); than, 19
6 , : Ilium, Troy, 14
6 : down (acc., gen.); throughout, over (acc) 33
6 : not, lest, 29
6 : him, her, it, 36
6 : to persuade, win over; mid. obey, 16
6 : to bring, carry, bear, 10
6 : to say, claim, assert; think, 27
6 , , : hand, 24
6 : O! oh! (article introducing vocative) 10
7 : aor., said, spoke, 20
7 : to kill, slay, 12
7 : now; as it is, 40
7 , , : mind, wits, understanding, 11
7 : as, thus, so, that; when, since, 85
8 : again, this time, in turn, 16
8 : to overcome, subdue, tame, 12
8 : if, whether, 27
8 , -, : Hector, 76
8 : when, after, since, because, 34
8 : to die, be dying, perish, 12
8 , : people, 14
8 : to fight, contend, 13
Core Vocabulary (10 or more times) xxiii

8 , : gates, 13
8 : because of, from (gen.), under (dat.), 17
9 () : Athena, 24
9 , : but, yet, 23
9 : to become, come to be, be born, 15
9 , , : a woman, wife, 13
9 , : house, abode, 10
9 , -, -: my, mine, 19
9 : and, 16
9 : very, very much, exceedingly, 17
9 : to stay, wait for, await, 14
9 , -, -: your, yours, 12
10 : if, whether, 11
10 , : wife, spouse, 17
10 , : a city, town, 19
10 , : Achilles, 32
10 , : hall, chief-room, large room, 13
10 : and not, but not, nor, not even, 45
12 : on both sides, round, 14
12 : modal adv., (else ) 14
12 -, -, -: with glancing helm, 12
12 : until, while; in order that, so that, 18
13 : into, to, in regard to (+ acc.), 22
13 , -, - (, , ): his, her, its own 13
13 , , : god, goddess, 39
13 : when, at some time, 20
13 -: spoke to, addressed, 10
14 : still, besides, further, 18
15 : to be willing, wish, desire, 10
15 : to know, 10
15 , , : this, these, 13
15 -: to speak, address, accost, 11
16 , : Zeus, 17
16 , -, -: bad, base, ignoble, 16
18 : saw; pass. appear (aor. ) 20
20 , -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine, 14
21 , : battle, fight, war, 10
22 , -, : day, 11
23 , , : this, this here, 17
23 , , : a foot (dat. pl. ) 15
25 , : Priam, 18
26 : around, about, concerning (gen, dat, acc), 15
29 , / : Hades, 12
29 -, : handmaid, attendant, 12
30 : to lead, bring, carry, convey, 18
33 , -, : a wall, 16
35 , , : a dog, 15
36 -: and not, neither...nor, 12
56 : to you (); you know, to be sure, 29
xxiv

Abbreviations

abs. absolute imp. imperative pf. perfect


acc. accusative impf. imperfect pl. plural
act. active imper. impersonal plpf. pluperfect
adj. adjective indic. indicative pred. predicate
adv. adverb i.o. indirect object prep. preposition
aor. aorist inf. infinitive pres. present
app. appositive inter. interrogative pron. pronoun
comp. comparative m. masculine reflex. reflexive
dat. dative n. neuter rel. relative
dep. deponent nom. nominative seq. sequence
d.o. direct object obj. object sg. singular
f. feminine opt. optative subj. subject
fut. future pple. participle superl. superlative
gen. genitive pass. passive voc. vocative

Additional Resources: Lexica and Commentaries

Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges (1904) by Georg Autenrieth is an excellent
lexicon devoted to Homer. Translated from the original German, this work is available in
paperback, PDF (Google Books), and html formats (perseus.tufts.edu).

Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect (1924) by Richard J. Cunliffe is a well-crafted dictionary


devoted to the vocabulary in the Odyssey, Iliad, and Homeric Hymns. Each dictionary entry
displays book and line references to other occurrences of that word in the Homeric corpus.

A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect (1891) by D. B. Monro is an excellent grammar


specific to Homer and is available for free in .pdf form on Google books.

Selections from Homer's Iliad (1903) by Allen R. Benner has been a standard textbook for
students of Homer for over 100 years. Among other readings, the book includes the Greek for
6.237-529 and 22.1-515 with notes and vocabulary at the end of the volume. The book
includes a short but useful 50-page Homeric Grammar and is available in Google Books.

Homer: Iliad VI (2010) by B. Graziosi and J. Haubold is a highly recommended


commentary in the Cambridge Greek and Latin Series (Yellow and Green volumes). The
book includes a 55-page introduction for non-experts on Homeric verse, the structure of
Book 6, and its main episodes and a 22-page extensive bibliography. The commentary itself
includes the Greek text and 159 pages of notes.

Homer: Iliad XXII (2012) by Irene J. F. de Jong is in the same Cambridge series as the
Graziosi and Haubold commentary and is likewise highly recommended.The book includes a
41-page introduction and a 12-page selected bibliography. In addition to the Greek text, there
are 150 pages of notes.
The Homeric culture, in other words, is a 'shame culture.' The heroes do not distinguish
personal morality from conformity; in a world where 'what people will say' is the most
reliable guide to right and wrong, the two are practically identical.

- James Redfield, Nature and Culture in the Iliad

To make the ancients speak, we must feed them with our own blood.

- von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff
Homer's Iliad
Book 6
ILIAD 6.1-10

, 3

. 4

, , 5

, , 6

, 7

, . 8

, 9

, 10

, -, : Ajax, 2 : in the middle, between (gen), 1


, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 -, : forehead, between the eyes, 1
, -, : Acamas, 1 , : Xanthus river, 2
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 : to be left behind, be abandoned, 1
: to throw, shoot, hit, strike, 8 , : bone, 1
: inside, within; into, to within, 4 : to cross, traverse, pass through, 1
, : fence, wall, 1 : to stick, fix, 4
, (): comrade, companion, 5 : to break, burst, rend, 1
, : Essorus, 1 , : river, stream, flow, 1
, (, ): noble, good, 1 , -, : Simois river, 1
, , : Thracian, 1 , : son of Telamon, 1
: and, 3 : to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
: to guide or drive straight, direct, 1 , : phalanx, line of battle 2
: to go straight, press on, 1 , : ridge of the helmet (for a plume) 1
-, : bushy with horse-hair, 1 , : light, daylight () 1
, : helmet, 5 , -, : battle-cry, din of battle, 2
, : battle, fight, combat, 6 , -: fitted with bronze, 1

1 : ; elision, see box below : made; aor.


: was abandoned; i.e. by the gods; 7 : nom. sg. aor. pple
3rd sg. aor. dep. : who...; the antecedent is
2 : many times, often; adverbial acc. : among; , usual alternative spelling
: here and there : 3rd sg. plpf. ; this verb
: on the plain; gen. place within governs a nom. predicate
3 : each 8 : in apposition to
side driving straight; gen. absolute : bothand
5 : in apposition to 9 : him; this demonstrative, this one, is
: aor. (stem ) very often translated as a personal pronoun
6 : acc.; i.e. a hole in the phalanx line 10 : aor. (stem ); add obj.

Elision: Final short vowels are often dropped before a word beginning with a vowel and
marked with an apostrophe: (6.2).
Nota Bene: is before a consonant; often after a monosyllable, and with elision.
2 ILIAD 6.11-20

. 11

12

, 13

, 14

. 15

16

, , 17

, 18

. 19

20

, -, -: good, brave, noble, 6 , : horse, 8


, : spearpoint, 3 , : Calesius, 1
: both (dual), 2 : to conceal, cover, 5
, : human being, 6 , -, -: mournful, baneful, ruinous, 3
, : Axylus, 1 : to inhabit, dwell, live, abide, 5
-: rob (acc) from (acc), deprive of 2 , : road, way, path, journey, 3
, : Arisbe, 1 , : a house, home, dwelling, 1
: to ward off, keep away, 1 , : ruin, destruction, death, 4
, -: wealthy, rich in (gen.), 2 : (two) eyes (neuter dual), 1
, : life, livelihood, goods; property, 1 , : Opheltius, 1
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 -: before, in front, 5
, -, : Diomedes, 5 , : darkness, gloom, 1
, : Dresus, 1 , : son of Teuthras, 1
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9 : at that time, then, , at some time, 8
--: to strip from armor, 6 -: to encounter, come to meet, 1
- - -: well-built, -constructed 2 , : charioteer, 1
, : Euryalus, 1 : to love, befriend, 3
: to slay; strike, wound (aor. ) 5 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4
, - : attendant, assistant, 3

11 : this one, him; again, a demonstrative : any of those; see page 8,


which is translated as a personal pronoun partitive gen., refers to
: 3rd sg. aorist, 17 : nom. sg. aor. pple
12 : in/at the battle cry; acc. of respect : double acc. object
is common after an adj., here : -, 3rd sg. impf.
13 : who; relative clause 18 : him and; in apposition to
14 : 3rd sg. impf. : , elision before aspirated vowel
15 : used to befriend, entertain; - 19 : was; iterative impf. of , cf. l. 15
indicates iterative impf., see also line 19 : these; dual nom. pl., as ; p. 3
: on the roadway; anastrophe : went beneath; 3rd dual aor. ,
16 : him; dat. obj. of entered, i.e. to the underworld, p. 24

Note: is rarely a nom. pl. article the, instead, it is most often 3rd pers. dat sg.: to him/her.
ILIAD 6.21-30 3

, 21

. 22

23

, 24

, 25

. 26

27

. 28

29

30

, : Abarbarea, 1 , : nymph of a river or spring, 1


, -, -: noble, illustrious, 1 , : nymph, young wife, bride, 2
, : Aesepus, 1 , : Odysseus, 1
, -: blameless, noble, 9 , , , : sheep, ram, 3
, : Astyalus, 1 , : Percote, 1
, -, : Bucolion, 2 , : Pedasus, 2
: , give birth, 3 , : Pidytes, 1
, : race, family, lineage, 6 : to tend, tend sheep, 1
, : joint, limbs, 2 , : Polypoetes, 1
, -, , : twin, two, double, 1 : old, elder, 1
--: to strip from armor, 6 , -: in the dark, in secret; dark, 1
, : bed, marriage-bed, 3 : to strip off, 4
: to slay; strike, wound (aor. ) 5 -: to become pregnant, conceive, 1
, -, : Laomedon, 1 -: to loose from under, undo, 1
-, -: steadfast in battle, 1 - -: glistening, shining, bright 7
, : son of Mecisteus, 1 , -, : friendship, love, kinship 3
: to mix, mingle, have intercourse, 3 , : shoulder, 7

21 : , 3rd sg. aor. , no augment : he mingled; 3rd sg. aor. pass. dep.
: after; , i.e. in pursuit , i.e. had sexual intercourse
: acc. pl. relative pronoun : inin; dat. of respect
22 : , 3rd sg. aor. , no augment 26 : and she; this one
: to; dat. of interest ...: dual acc., see below
24 : superlative 27 : of these; demonstrative, i.e. twins
: in; dat. of respect, ...: neuter acc.
: him; 3rd sg. pronoun, acc. obj. 28 : ; acc. pl.
25 : over the sheep; dat. pl. 29 : 3rd sg. aorist,

Dual Noun Forms: There are at least 25 separate instances of dual forms in Books 6 and 22.
demonstrative 1st decl. 2nd decl. 3rd decl.
Nom./Acc. 26 these two 19 both 26 two boys
Gen./Dat. of/to these two of/to both of/to boys
4 ILIAD 6.31-40

, . 31

32

, 33

34

. 35

. 36

37

38

39

40

, : Ablerus, 1 , , : alive, living, 5


, -, -: good, brave, noble, 6 , : hero, warrior, 5
, : Agamemnon, 3 , : horse, 8
, -, -: curved, crooked, 2 , : Letus, 1
: to break, bend; shiver, 2 , : Melanthius, 1
, : Adrestus, 3 , : Menelaus, 3
, -, -: high, lofty, sheer, 1 , : tamarisk, 1
, -, : a lord, master, 4 : to inhabit, dwell, live, abide, 5
, : Antilochus, 1 , : son of Nestor, 1
, -, : Aretaon, 1 , : shoot, twig, 1
, -, : chariot, war-chariot, 1 , : bank, dyke, a rising ground, 1
: to be dazed, distraught, bewildered, 4 , : Pedasus, 2
: to hinder, mislead; hurt, 2 , : pole (of a chariot), 1
, : Elatus, 1 , -, : Satnioeis river, 1
-: to slay, kill, 2 , : Teucer, 1
--: to strip from armor, 6 , -, -: shining, beaming, radiant, 4
, -: fair-flowing, 1 , : Phylacus, 1
, : Eurypylus, 1 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4

31 : add verb from l. 30 : within the plain; gen. of place


32 : aor. within (type of partitive), see also 6.507
33 : ellipsis, add , l. 32 39 : preposition
34 : impf., Elatus is subject; suggests : hindered; dual aor. pass. pple
a change of subject from the previous line 40 : dual aor. act. pple
: gen. sg. : on the front of the pole,
35 : 3rd sg. aor. i.e. where the pole drawing the chariot
37 : in/at the battle cry; acc. of respect attaches to the harness of the horses
again with , see 6.12 : they on the one hand; dual aor.
38 : , see l. 35 above act. pple , anticipates a contrast
, , : dual nom. with in 6.42
: his; to him, dat. of possession : 3rd dual aor. ; see p. 24
ILIAD 6.41-50 5

, , 41

42

43

, . 44

45

, , 46

, 47

, 48

49

. 50

, : Adrestus, 3 : to lie down, be laid, 9


, -, -: worthy, due, 1 , : treasure, a thing stored up, 1
-, -: countless, 2 , : dust, a cloud of dust, 4
, : ransom, 4 : to take, receive, catch, grasp, 5
, : son of Atreus, Atreides, 4 , : Menelaus, 3
, , : Atreus, 1 -, -: wrought with much toil, 1
: to be dazed, distraught, bewildered, 4 , -: head-foremost, face-down, 2
, -: wealthy, rich in (gen.), 2 : to learn by hearsay or inquiry, 4
: to accept, receive; wait for, expect 5 , : iron; sword, knife, 1
, : chariot-floor, chariot, 4 , -, : the mouth, 2
, -: casting a long shadow, 4 , : wheel, 1
-: to roll out, roll from, 1 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
: t coil, roll, 2 , : copper, bronze, 9
: to take alive, take captive, 1 : to show favor, grant, gratify, 1
, , : alive, living, 5 , : gold, 4

41 : in which very place; place where : , aor. mid. imper.


42 : but he himself; see note l. 40 47 : in fathers (house)
: 3rd sg. aor. pass. - : 3rd sg. with neut. pl. subject
43 : onto; acc. place to which 49 : of which (wealth); partitive gen. or
: beside him: + dat., sg. or possibly gen. of source from which
an example of tmesis (cutting of the : to you; dat. sg. alternative to ,
compound into two words) and also frequently functions as a particle
is the obj. of a compound verb which means to be sure, or you know
: 3rd sg. aor. : he
44 : nom. sg. pres. pple would grantif he should learn; future-
45 : nom. sg. aor. pple less-vivid condition ( + opt., / +
: began to; inchoative impf. opt), here with aor. optatives, ,
: by; partitive gen. with ; the in the protasis
46 : -, note the accent: not in line 48 is unnecessary and perhaps a
3rd sg. but sg. imperative repetition of in the apodosis in line 49
: vocative direct address 50 : near the ships; dat. pl.
6 ILIAD 6.51-60

, 51

52

53

, 54

, , 55

; 56

; 57

, 58

, , 59

. 60

, : Agamemnon, 3 -: to bring back or down, 3


, -, -: steep, utter; hard, 2 : be troubled; care for (gen) 2
-, -: uncared for, unburied, 2 , : boy, young man, son, 2
: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9 : to be about to, to intend to, 4
, -, -: opposite, facing; in reply, 4 , : Menelaus, 3
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 -: and not, but not, nor, 3
: to say, speak, utter, 1 , : a house, abode, dwelling, 6
-, -: blotted out, made invisible, 1 , : ruin, destruction, death, 4
, -, : belly, stomach, 1 -: to call out, 1
--: destroy utterly; mid. perish 1 : in this way, thus, so, 2
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 14 , -: gentle, kind; ripe, mellow, 1
, -, -: our, 3 : to do, make, create, compose, 2
, - : attendant, assistant, 3 , : chest, breast, 5
: to run, rush, 5 : soon, presently; quickly, forthwith, 6
, -, -: swift, quick, nimble, 1 --: to flee, escape, 2

51 : thus vocative, used as a term of endearment


: 3rd sg. aor. mid. , see p. 40 ...: why then(or) truly?; ...
: his; to this one, dat. of possession set up a disjunctive not always expressed
with , the antecedent is Menelaus (): 2nd sg. pres. mid.
: began to persuade; inchoat. impf. 56 : 3rd sg. pf. passive ;
52 ...: and indeed, and in fact is neuter pl. subject
: fut. inf. with : at home; i.e. Sparta
53 : his; , dat. sg. 57 : by; gen. of agent
: to lead down; inf. of purpose; : of these; partitive gen.
aor. inf. - (Att., ) ...: Mayescape; aor. opt.
54 : aor. without is an optative of wish
: nom. sg. pres. pple , the gen. 58 .. : neither whomever...
pl. for god, , is nor (anyone) who; appositive to
: nom. sg. aor. pple 59 , : pres., aor. opt. ()
: began to speak; , inchoative attracted into optative by the main clause
impf. , very often inchoative : being; acc. sg. pple
55 : soft-hearted man, gentle man 60 : letperish; aor. opt., wish
ILIAD 6.61-70 7

61

62

63

, 64

. 65

66

, , 67

68

, , 69

70

, : Agamemnon, 3 : to come, arrive, reach, 4


, : brother, 2 : to command, bid, exhort (dat) 4
, : Adrestus, 3 , : ruler, lord, master, 1
, -, -: in due measure, due, fated, 2 : with a foot, 1
-: to fall back or supine, overturn 1 , : soft part of body, flank, 1
, -, -: Argive, 6 , , : long, far, distant, large, 5
, : Ares; battle, 4 , -: ashen, 2
, : son of Atreus, Atreides, 4 - : from behind, backwards, back, 4
: to call aloud, shout, 3 : to stay, remain, abide; await, 5
, : Danaans, Greeks, 2 , : Nestor, 1
, -, -: free from care, at ease, 1 : to wound, stab, thrust, 2
-: to draw out, 1 -: to talk over, win over, persuade 2
, : spoils, loot; an enemy's armor, 3 , -: most, greatest, 1
-: to throw oneself on; desire, 1 , : chest, breast, 5
, : hero, warrior, 5 : to turn, change 2
, - : attendant, assistant, 3 : to push, thrust, 1

61 : speaking thus; aor. pple 66 : reduplicated aor. mid.


62 : what is right, what is due; object : loudly; greatly, adverbial acc.
of aor. pple - : nom. sg. aor. pple.
: and he; demonstrative i.e. Menelaus 68 : let no one remain; 3rd sg.
: tmesis, aor. - pres. imperative
-: from him; is a suffix expressing : partitive gen. governed by the
place from which, is 3rd sg. pronoun pple; compare + gen. in 6.45
: dat. of means 69 : so that; purpose clause,
63 : him; this one, i.e. Adrastus + + aor. subj. ; see p. 16
64 : , 3rd sg. impf. -contract : ships
: and he; demonstrative i.e. Adrastus 70 : let us; hortatory subj.
65 : nom. sg. aor. pple : those things; i.e. the above
Noun Suffixes: - place where (locative) on the spot, here p. 9
- place from which from him p. 7
- place to which to the city p. 9
- instrumental, locative by his might p. 65
8 ILIAD 6.71-80

. 71

. 72

73

, 74

75

, 76

, 77

, 78

, 79

, 80

, : Aeneas, 2 : most of all; certainly, especially, 7


: up, upon (+ dat.); up to, on to (+ acc.), 6 , : corpse, the dead, 3
-, : lack of strength, cowardice, 1 -, : augur, one busied with birds
-, -: dear to Ares, 1 : to stir up, rouse, encourage, 3
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 : for which reason, 1
: on the very spot, here, there, 1 : by far, 1
-: to lie upon, lie on, 1 -: to stand beside, 4
--: to go up to, 1 , : work, labor, toil, 5
, -, -: each, every one, 2 , : son of Priam, 1
, : Helenus, 1 : before, in front; in place of (+ gen.), 2
: to keep, check, curb, restrain, 2 : to strip off (acc) from (acc), 4
, : a straight course; a direct attempt, 1 : to think, devise, be prudent, 6
, -, -: Lycian, 2

71 : + acc.; before a labial consonant : by; gen. of agent


such as - in epic, the preposition is : dat. pl. for 2nd pl. pronoun
: not an imperative; 2nd pl. fut. 78 : rests on + dat.; pf. pass. is
: acc. pl. pf. pple. leaned, -
72 : speaking thus; aor. pple 79 : in every attempt; i.e. in
73 , : would have every going straight-on
gone up to, if had told; past contrary- : 2nd pl. pres.
to-fact condition ( + aor. indicative, : explanatory
/ aor. indicative) aor. -- (epexegetical) infinitives, equivalent to
74 : dat. pl. of cause, - acc. of respect, which qualifies
: aor. pass. pple : bothand
75 : nom. aor. pple - 80 : aor. imperative
77 : since : here; adv. in this very place
Perhaps best translated in English as a change of pitch (italics or boldface in print), is often emphatic,
restrictive, or both at the same time.
(1) emphatic p. 13 I in particular, I in fact, I for my part
13 any of the immortals in particular
(2) restrictive ... 13 beforehand.now at least, now in fact
10 in this way at least, in this way at any rate
ILIAD 6.81-90 9

, 81

, . 82

, 83

, 84

85

, , 86

87

, 88

, 89

, 90

, -, -: topmost, top, excellent, 7 - -: holy, divine; n. temple, victim 4


, : necessity, force, constraint, 1 , - : key, bolt; oarlock, collarbone 2
, , : every, quite all, 6 -: to go after or among; pursue, 2
-: on the spot, here, there, 6 , : temple, 7
, -, -: old; ancient, elder, 4 : to open, 2
-, -: bright-eyed, grey-eyed, 5 : in every way, in every direction, 2
, : Danaans, Greeks, 2 , : robe, dress, clothing, 4
, -: hostile, destructive; enemy, 4 : to fall, fall down, drop, 5
: to seem, seem good, think, imagine, 2 : until, before, 8
: to press hard, impel, urge on, 3 -: to bring together, gather, 1
-: to go, approach, go to and fro, 2 : to wear out, distress, afflict, 4
-: to rouse, stir up, excite, incite, 2 , : phalanx, line of battle 2
: we, 2 , -, -: graceful, lovely, 4
, : door, 3 , -, : joy, delight, pleasure, 1

81 : on every side, in every way 86 : to the city; suffix - indicates


: before; + inf., here place to which
aor. inf. -(): pres. sg. imperative
: again; as a criticism : aor. sg. imperative, not 3rd sg. aor.
82 : those; acc. subject; pple 87 : Helenus is Hectors brother
: for the enemy; dat. pl. of interest and has the same mother; ,
: inf. following : let this oneplace; aor
83 : whenever; + subjunctive in a inf. is used as 3rd pers. imperative;
general temporal clause; equivalent to a infinitives in Homer are often used as
future-more-vivid ( + + aor. subj., 2nd pers. imperatives, less often 3rd pers.
fut. indicative), the subj. is future in sense : fem. pres. pple, = -
-: you rouse up; 2nd person 88 : to the temple; acc. place to which
dual aor. subjunctive 89 : with; dat. of means
84 : in contrast with in 86 90 , : robe, which; object of
85 : although; introducing a pple : to her; dat. reference 3rd pers,
concessive in sense; often 1 word, : superlative, nom. predicate
10 ILIAD 6.91-100

, 91

, 92

93

, 94

, 95

, 96

, , 97

. 98

, , 99

100

, -, -: wild, fierce, 3 - -: holy, divine; n. temple, victim 4


, : warrior, spearman, 3 , -, -: strongest, mightiest, 2
-: to hold from, keep away, 2 , -, -: strong, stout, mighty, 5
, , : cow, ox, bull; cattle, oxen, 6 : very, very much, exceedingly, 2
: fear, dread, shrink from, feel awe, 4 , -, : adviser, counsellor, 2
: twelve, 3 , : temple, 4
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9
-: it is allowed, possible; be from 1 , : leader, chief, 1
, -: untouched by the goad, 3 , : a child, 9
, : a yearling (calf), 3 , -, : Tydeus, 5
- -: of fair locks, 3 -: to promise, 5
, : goddess, 5 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
: to sacrifice, slaughter, 4 : in this way, so, thus, 5

91 : inf. aor. subj. -, Athene is the subject


: dat. of reference; 3rd pers. sg. : , modifies fem. sg.
pronoun ; intensive pronoun herself 97 : in apposition to
: by far, far; acc. of extent 98 : the very one whom; lends
: superlative, exactness and emphasis to the relative
92 : aor inf. as imperative; l. 86 pronoun, which is acc. subj. in ind. disc.
93 : to her; i.e. to Athena : I claim; he is making an assertion
: let her promise; aor. inf. as : aor. inf.
3rd pers. imperative; parallel to 99 : not even Achilles
94 : acc. plural indicated by long iota : ; elision before aspiration
: fut. inf. with : in this way; is emphatic rather
: in the hope that she take than restrictive (at least) here; it is the
pity; / + + subj. may express the equivalent to using italics, underlining, or
motive of an action and is often translated saying the preceding word emphatically
in the hope that, (p. 28); aor subj. : 1st pl. plpf.
96 : so that; purpose 100 : 3rd pl. present
clause, , unlike , governs a particle : from a goddess; gen. sg. of source
/ with the subjunctive, here 3rd sg. : inf. -
ILIAD 6.101-110 11

, . 101

, . 102

, 103

, 104

, . 105

106

, , 107

108

, . 109

110

, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 : to cease, stop, desist, 1


-, -: undying, immortal, 5 : to mad, rage, be furious, 3
: to ward or keep off, resist, 2 , , : long, far, distant, large, 5
: to leap, spring, jump, 1 : to go; depart, 4
-: to disobey (dat) 1 , -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
, -, -: Argive, 6 : to stir up, rouse, encourage, 3
, -, -: starry, star-filled, 1 , : sky, heavens, 3
: straightway, at once; presently, 3 , , : chariot, wagon, 3
: to call aloud, shout, 3 : to shake, brandish; quiver, 5
: to be able, can, be capable, 6 : in every way, in every direction, 2
: to awaken, wake up, rouse, 1 , : army, 2
: cause to turn, whirl, rally, 3 : along with, with, together (+ dat.), 6
, -, -: opposite, contrary, 4 -: to withdraw, go back, 2
: to vie with, match with (dat) 1 , : murder, slaughter, 1
-, : a brother, 5 , -, : battle-cry, din of battle, 2
-: to go down; come back, 2 : on the ground, to the ground, 1
: to command, bid, exhort (dat) 4

101 : anyone; before enclitic : 3rd pl. aorist


: dat. sg. , i.e. Diomedes, object of 107 : ; 3rd pl. aor.
a compound verb : from; gen. of separation
: in; acc. of respect, neuter sg. 108 (): they considered; pl. impf.
102 : , 3rd sg. impf. mid. (): one; acc. subject
: not at all; is an adverbial acc. 109 : future pple expressing
103 : 3rd sg. aor. mid. purpose; often translated as an infinitive
104 : through the army : aor. inf. -
: impf. : were rallied; were turned (to
105 : to fight; aor. inf of purpose the enemy); aor. pass.
106 : and they; these, demonstrative 110 : reduplicated aor.
: 3rd pl. aor. pass. : loudly; greatly, adverbial acc.
: governs a genitive when used : nom. sg. aor. pple.
with a hostile sense: facing in a fight
12 ILIAD 6.111-120

, 111

, , , 112

, 113

114

, . 115

116

, 117

. 118

119

. 120

, : might, strength ( dat.), 3 , : Hippolochus, 4


, -, -: each of two, both, 3 , -, -: dark, black, 1
, -, : edge, rim, rail, 1 : to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8
-: to go away, depart, disembark, 2 (), -, -: the middle of, 5
: to pray, invoke, vow, 3 : to remind, recall, recollect, 5
, -, : shield, 4 , -, -: embossed, 2
, -, : neck, throat, 3 : , to, toward; near, 4
, : councillor, advisor, 1 , -, -: outermost, last, hindmost, 3
, -, : elder, old man, 8 -: to clash, fight, go together, 1
, : Glaucus, 4 , : ankle, 2
, - , : god(dess), divine being 1 -, -: far-famed, 1
, -, : skin, hide, 1 , -, : Tydeus, 5
-, : an offering of 100 oxen, 1 : to beat, strike, smite, 2
-, : ally, assistant; assisting, 2 -: to promise, 5
, -, -: our, 3 -, -: high-spirited; arrogant, 1
: to run, rush, 5 : to utter, speak, 6
, -: rushing, impetuous (f. adj.), 1

111 ...: all vocative direct address governs two infinitives; aor. subj.
112 : , alternative nom. pl. 115 : dat. pl. object of the inf.
predicate, : aor. inf. -
: 2nd pl. pres. 116 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: aor. imper. + gen. : 3rd sg. aor. -
113 ...: while; general 117 : clarified by acc. direct objects
(indefinite) temporal clause; 1st sg. aor. ,
subj. , : impf., subject is
: equivalent to 118 : which; relative
: and : was running outermost of the
... embossed shield; i.e. the edge runs
: dat. pl. indirect object of round the shield; partitive gen.
; is an appositive 120 : 3rd pers dual impf
114 : I tell; a verb of commanding that : being eager; dual pf. pple
ILIAD 6.121-130 13

, 121

122

, , ; 123

124

125

, 126

. 127

, 128

. 129

, , 130

, -, -: good, brave, noble, 6 -, -, -: mortal, 1


-, -: undying, immortal, 5 , -, -: strong, stout, mighty, 5
, : human being, 6 : bringing men glory, 1
: to face, meet, encounter (dat) 1 , : Lycurgus, 2
, , : every, quite all, 6 , : battle, fight, combat, 6
, -, : Diomedes, 5 : to see, 3
, -: casting a long shadow, 4 , : sky, heavens, 3
, -, : Dryas, 1 : until, before, 8
-, -: wretched, unhappy, 3 -: to advance, step forward, 1
: I, for my part, 4 , -, -: before; sooner, earlier, 3
-, -: heavenly, 3 : near, nearly, almost, just about, 3
: to be of good heart, take courage, 2 , -, -: bravest, best, noblest, 1

121 : they; those, nom. pl. demonstrative : 2nd sg. pf.


: just when; implies exactness : either partitive gen., of all
: 3rd pl. impf. the men or separation from all men
: dual nom. pple () 126 : who; is an untranslated
: him; this one, i.e. Glaucus connective
122 : in/at the battle cry; acc. of respect : waited for; 2nd sg. aor.
123 : who then?; is often used in : the children of
questions to express surprise, e.g. just unlucky parents.; unlucky are they
who do you think you are? whose parents emphatic position
: 2nd sg. pres. , Att. 127 : my might; , dat. sg. object
: vocative, direct address : Att. , 3rd pl. pres.
124 : 1st sg. pf. 128 : as one of the gods; a
: preposition with object predicate to the subject you
125 : before; adverbial acc. : down from the sky; place
: particles in strong contrast from which; is directional
: now; now in fact, restrictive & : 2nd sg. pf.
emphatic ( p. 8) in contrast to 129 : would; potential opt.
: far; adverbial acc. (acc. of extent) : No, for not even
14 ILIAD 6.131-140

, 131

132

133

, 134

135

, 136

. 137

, 138

139

, 140

-, -: undying, immortal, 5 , : bosom, lap; hollow, 5


, -, : salt, sea, 1 , -, -: strong, stout, mighty, 5
: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9 , : Cronus, 1
-, -: man-slaying, 2 , -, : wave, swell, surge, 3
-: become hated/hateful to (dat), 2 , : Lycurgus, 2
-, -, : ox-goad, 1 : to rave, mad, rage, be furious, 3
: fear, dread, shrink from, feel awe, 4 , -, -: of Mt. Nysa, 1
: long, for a long time, for long, 2 : to hate, feel wrath toward (dat) 1
, : Dionysus, 2 , : threat, reproach, a calling-out, 1
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9 : easily, deftly, lightly, 2
-, -: heavenly, 3 : to set in motion, drive; hasten, 5
: to contend, quarrel, strive with (dat) 1 , : nurse, 4
: to live, 2 , : trembling, quaking, shivering, 2
, -, -: very holy, most divine, 1 , -: blind, 1
: to slay; strike, wound (aor. ) 5 -: to receive, welcome, 1
, : Thetis, 1 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
, : sacred tools for Bacchic orgies 1 : on the ground, on the earth, 2
-: to pour upon, pour, shed, 1

131 : 3rd sg. impf. ; i.e. lived 135 : pres. pass. pple
: who, it seems; who, and for this : aor. pass. pple
reason he did not live long, is not 136 : unaugmented 3rd sg. aor.
inferential but explains the preceding : down into; acc. place to which
statement; difficult to translate, it may 137 : acc. sg. pf. pple ,
be easier to begin the clause with since modifies missing acc., i.e. Lycurgus
: governs a dat. of association, a : partitive gen. obj. of impf.
variation of dat. of accompaniment : because of; dat. of cause
132 : i.e. the bacchantes 138 : this one; i.e. Lycurgus
133 : tried to drive away, chase, hunt; : in constrast to mortal hardships
conative impf. of , shake, drive 139 : made; aor. + double acc.
: over; extensive in sense 140 : see 6.131 above
134 : because of; + gen. of cause : impf. mid. governs a dat.
ILIAD 6.141-150 15

. 141

, 142

. 143

144

, ; 145

, . 146

, 147

, 148

. 149

, 150

, , : wind, 2 , -: blessed, happy, 1


-: to leave off, cease from, 1 -, -: great-hearted, 1
, : land, arable land, 3 , -, -: of what sort, such, as, 3
: nearer, 3 , : ruin, destruction, death, 4
, , : a mortal, human, 3 , , : end, limit, edge, 1
, : race, family, lineage, 6 : to flourish, bloom () 2
: to learn, 1 , -, -: of such kind, such sort, such 2
, , : spring, springtime, 1 , : son of Tydeus, 2
: to eat, 4 , : wood, forest, 1
-: to be born, come, 1 , - -: glistening, shining, bright, 7
: to ask, inquire, question, 2 , : leave, 2
: well, 7 : to grow, bring forth, produce, 4
, -: swifter, quicker, 1 : to the ground, 1
: to go, come, approach, arrive, 5 : to pour, shed, 5
, : Hippolochus, 4 , : season, period of time, 1
, : crop, fruit, benefit, 1

141 : I would; potential opt. 145 : why?; strengthened form of ,


: with; dat. association with inf. which is elsewhere , why truly
142 : and if any; indefinite 146 ...: what very sortsuch;
before an enclitic; parallel to 6.128 correlatives (relative & demonstrative)
: 2nd sg. pres. , Att. which can be rendered just as...such
: who; relative pronoun : supply a linking verb is
143 : sg. imperative () : supply and linking verb
(): so that; purpose cl., 147 : as for the
governs a particle / in purpose leaves, some.others; acc. respect (in
clauses; here, 2nd sg. aor. subj. respect to); ... marks a division;
: comparative adv., as often, is epic (p. ) has a generalizing force
formed as an adverbial acc. 148 : so, in this way; finishing the simile
: , elision with aspiration 149 ...: to learn this too; aor. inf.
144 : began to address; inchoative 150 : so that; purpose, pf. subj.
impf., 3rd sg. ()
16 ILIAD 6.151-160

, 151

, 152

, , 153

, 154

155

156

, 157

, , 158

. 159

, , 160

, : son of Aeolus, 1 , -, -: our, 3


, -: blameless, noble, 9 , : manhood, manly beauty, 1
, : Anteia, 1 -, -: grazed by horse, 1
, -, -: Argive, 6 , : beauty, fairness, 1
, , : Argos, 3 , -, -: most cunning, profitable 1
, : Bellerophon, 7 : to devise, plan, contrive, 2
, : race, family, lineage, 6 , : inmost part or room, recess, 2
, : Glaucus, 4 : to give, grant, 2
, : district, country, land; people, 3 , : Proetus, 5
: to drive; drive off; set in motion, 5 , : Sisyphus, 2
-: to be mad for, desire madly, 1 , : scepter, staff, 1
, -, -: fair, pleasant, lovely, 1 , -, -: stronger, more powerful, 2
, : Ephyre, 2

151 : it; i.e. his lineage 158 : who then; elision,


: 3rd pl. ; the verb is perfect : aor. , Bellerophon is
in form but present in sense the missing direct object
152 : there is : by far; adverbial acc. (acc. of
: in the recesses; dat. place where extent)
153 : was; iterative impf. of , 6.19 : was; 3rd sg. impf.
: who 159 : partitive gen.
(): aor. : his, dat. possession with
154 : , aor. mid. : aor. ; add obj
155 : was raising; i.e. rearing, impf. 160 : with him; dat. association with inf.
156 : to him; demonstrative; dat. ind. obj. : mingle/have sex with
157 : for him; dat. of interest/advantage : wife
: in; at. place where : ; nom. sg fem. adjective
Purpose/Final clauses in Homer begin with / + subj. (opt. in secondary seq.); Attic
prefers . Homer often adds / to make the clause more indefinite; Attic does not.
6 times p. 15 so that (in such a manner that) you may reach
17 times
p. 17 so that (to the end that) he might perish
* is strictly temporal (until, while) and may also occur in general temporal clauses.
ILIAD 6.161-170 17

161

, . 162

163

, , , 164

. 165

, 166

, , 167

, 168

, 169

, . 170

, -, -: good, brave, noble, 6 : Lycia, 7


: to hear, listen to, 6 : to mix, mingle, have intercourse, 3
: to avoid, shun, shrink from, 2 , -, -: of what sort, such, as, 3
, -, : a lord, master, 4 : to send, conduct, convey, dispatch, 2
: to command, order, bid, 7 , : father-in-law, 1
-: destroy, kill, slay; mid. perish, 4 , -, : tablet, board, plank, 1
, : a king, chief, 1 : to give, furnish, offer, supply, 5
, : Bellerophon, 7 , : Proetus, 5
: to write, draw, inscribe, 1 , -, -: folded, folding, 1
, - , : skilled in battle, 2 : fear, feel awe or shame for, 2
: to point out, display, show, 1 , - : sign, mark; grave-mound, 5
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 , -, : friendship, love, kinship 3
-, -: life-destroying, deadly, 1 : to think, devise, be prudent, 6
, -, -: secret, hidden, 1 , : anger, wrath, 4
: to take, receive, catch, grasp, 5 : to deceive, beguile, lie to, 1
, -, -: mournful, baneful, ruinous, 3

161 : in; dat. respect : , aor.


: pf. explanatory/epexegetical 165 () : fem. dat. sg. pple,
inf. , suggests sexual mingling which is concessive in sense (although)
: this one; below is modifies , governed by
in apposition : see line 161 above
: not at all; is an adverbial acc. 166 : thus...; 3rd sg. aor. mid.
162 : ; impf. : (at) what he heard;
: thinking noble indirect exclamation
thoughts; right thoughts, is 167 : aor. inf., object of
neuter acc. pl. obj. of the present pple of : this in particular; acc., i.e. killing
, modifying . 168 : to..; implies place to which
163 : aor. mid. 170 : aor. inf
: began to address; impf. : 1st sg plpf
164 : may you be dead; may you : to his own; , dat. sg.
lie dead, pf. opt. of wish, : purpose, opt. in secondary seq.
18 ILIAD 6.171-180

. 171

, 172

173

. 174

175

, 176

. 177

, 178

179

, , 180

: to ask, ask for, beg, 2 : to come, arrive, reach, 4


- - -: irresistible, unbeatable1 : to bid, order, command, exhort, 5
, -: blameless, noble, 9 : Lycia, 7
, -, : a lord, master, 4 , : Xanthus river, 2
, : human being, 6 : entertain a guest, receive a guest, 2
, , : cow, ox, bull; cattle, oxen, 6 (): that; because, 6
, : son-in-law, 3 -: to receive from, 2
, -, : race, family, 2 , : mission, escort, conduct, 1
, -, -: tenth, 1 -, -, , : willing, earnest, 3
: nine, 1 , : Proetus, 5
: for nine days, 1 : to flow, run, stream, 2
: to ask, inquire, question, 2 -, -: rosy-fingered, 1
, -, -: wide, broad, spacious, 6 , - : sign, mark; grave-mound, 5
, : Dawn, Daybreak, 1 : to honor, show respect (cf. ), 1
: to slay; strike, wound (aor. ) 5 : at that time, then, , at some time, 8
, -, -: divine, immortal, 1 : to show, point out; mid. appear, 4
: to sacrifice, slaughter, 4 , : Chimaera; elsewhere she-goat, 1

171 : he; demonstative 177 : whateverbrought;


: 3rd sg. aor pres. opt. in a relative clause of
: to..; implies place to which characteristic, secondary sequence
172 : just when; implies exactness : for him; dat. of interest
, : to; place to which : from; from (the side of)
: 3rd sg. aor. 179 : first; adv., see 184,
: pres. pple : aor. inf.
173 : adverb 180 : and it; i.e. Chimaera
175 : 3rd sg. aor. pass. : 3rd sg impf. , subject
176 : bothand : divine; equivalent to ,
: --, impf. parallel to
: aor. inf., : offspring; predicate noun
ILIAD 6.181-190 19

, , , 181

. 182

183

184

. 185

. 186

187

188

189

. 190

: to burn, blaze, 4 , -: glorious, renowned, 2


, -, : Amazon, 1 , -, : lion, 2
, -: blameless, noble, 9 , : an ambush, 1
-: to approach, come back, 5 : Lycia, 7
-: match or rival to men (f. adj.) 1 , : battle, fight, combat, 6
-: to breathe out or forth, 1 (), -, -: the middle of, 5
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 : to go or come back, return, 3
: again, in turn; further, moreover, 6 , : a house, abode, dwelling, 6
, : Bellerophon, 7 : behind; later (poetic for ) 1
, -, -: fearful, terrible, strange 5 : again, once more; back, backwards, 3
, -, -: second, 2 -: before, in front, 5
, : trap, trick, bait; cunning, 1 , -, -: close-packed; cunning, 1
, -, : serpent, dragon, 2 , , : fire, 9
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9 , : the Solymni, 2
: to sit; sit someone down, set, 3 , : wonder, marvel, portent, sign, 1
, -, -: wide, broad, spacious, 6 , -, -: the third, 1
, -, -: strongest, mightiest, 2 : to weave; devise, 3
-: aor. killed, slayed, 4 , , : a person, man, 1
: to pick out, choose, select, 1 , : she-goat; elsewhere Chimaera, 1

182 : adj. modifies or it may be 185 : he claimed x (to be) y; 3rd sg.
an inner acc. breathe terrible breath, impf. mid. governs a double acc.
( as appositive) or adv., terribly : quite the mightiest; acc.
: neuter acc. direct object predicate; often with superlatives
183 : this oneand again ...: this battle
: dat. pl. Homer does not say : to enter; aor. epexegetical
what is; traditionally it is Pegasus (explanatory) inf. with
: trusting in, confident in (dat); 186 : third; adv. acc. (acc. respect)
nom. sg. aor. pple 187 : for him; Bellerophon, dat. interest
184 : second; adverbial acc., cf. 179 188 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: with; dat. of 189 : set; 3rd sg. aor. active
association, common with , aor. : and these; a demonstrative
20 ILIAD 6.191-200

, 191

, , 192

193

, 194

, . 195

, 196

. 197

, 198

. 199

, 200

- - -: godlike, equal to the gods 1 -: to hinder, hold or draw back, 2


-: become hated/hateful to (dat), 2 , -, -: that, those, 2
, : land, arable land, 3 , : Laodameia, 2
: on the very spot, here, there, 2 , -, -: Lycian, 2
, -: royal, of the king (f. adj.) 1 , : counsellor, 1
, : Bellerophon, 7 : to distribute, dispense, deal out, 1
: to learn, note, realize, know, 6 -: to lie beside, lay beside, 1
, : offspring, a child, 1 , -, : Sarpedon, 1
, - , : skilled in battle, 2 , : a child, 9
-, -: standing out, jutting, 1 , : marked off land; precinct, 1
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 : to cut, cut up, 2
, -: half, 1 , : honor, privilege, prerogative, 1
, (, ): noble, good, 2 , : three, 1
, : a daughter, 7 , : orchard, planted place, 1
, : Hippolochus, 4 - -, : bronze-armed, 2
, : Isander, 2

191 : just when; suggests exactness : 3rd sg pronoun, dat. ind. obj.
: acc. sg. pple ; predicate : i.e. partioned and distributed,
192 : here; adv. in this very place 3rd pl. aor.
: impf. 195 : so that he might have a portion;
: tried to give; ()(), 2nd sg. purpose clause with pres. mid. opt; in
conative impf. secondary sequence, an opt. replaces
: he; same subject for both verbs the subjunctive; mid. allot to himself
: , possessive adj. 196 : and this one; i.e. the daughter
193 : aor. : aor.
: 3rd sg pronoun, dat. ind. obj. 198 : dat. of compound verb
: privilege; partitive gen. 200 : even that one, that one too;
194 : moreover; introducing a new i.e. Bellerophon
idea or developing an old one : impf. mid. governs a dat.
ILIAD 6.201-210 21

, 201

, 202

203

204

. 205

, 206

, , 207

, 208

, 209

. 210

(), -: insatiate, 2 , : Hippolochus, 4


, : always, forever, in every case, 5 , : Isander, 2
: to bring shame upon; feel shame, 2 -: to eat up, devour, 2
: to wander, stray, roam, 1 -: to kill, slay, 7
: to avoid, shun, shrink from, 2 , -: glorious, renowned, 2
, -, -: Aleian, 1 : Lycia, 7
, : human being, 6 : to fight, do battle; quarrel, 3
, : Ares; battle, 4 -: and not, but not, nor, 3
: to be best, be the bravest, 2 , -, -: alone, lone, only, 6
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 , : trodden path, 1
, : Artemis, 2 : to send, conduct, convey, dispatch, 2
, -, : race, family, 2 , : the Solymni, 2
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 , : Troy, 5
-: to enjoin, command, 1 -, -: prominent, distinguished, 1
, -, -: wide, broad, spacious, 6 : to become angry, 1
, : Ephyre, 2 -, -, -: gold-strapped, 1
: now surely, truly, 4

201 : over; , assimilated before - : from him; i.e. from Hippolochus


: plain, this Aleian one : I claim; the verb often makes an
: impf. assertion rather than a simple statement
202 : his; , 3rd pers. possessive adj. 207 (): impf. but the aor. is
: eating away at; nom. sg. pple more appropriate in this context
203 : his; dat. possession, 3rd sg. pronoun 208 : in
204 : with; dat. of association apposition to , pres. infinitives
governed by the pple , ,
205 : and this one; though not clear, : among; partitive gen.
the pronoun refers to Bellerophons only 209 : and not
daughter Laodameia : who; partitive gen.
: having becom angry; : by far; neuter sg. adverbial acc.
inceptive aor. mid. pple with the predicate
206 : raised; i.e. reared, impf. 210 : aor.
22 ILIAD 6.211-220

. 211

, 212

, 213

214

215

216

217

218

, 219

220

, -, -: good, brave, noble, 6 , -, -: winning, soothing, mild, 2


, - : blood, 4 , : a host's gift, 1
, -: blameless, noble, 9 : entertain a guest, receive a guest, 2
-, -: double-handled, 1 , : a guest-friend, stranger, 3
, : Bellerophon, 7 , : Oeneus, 2
, : race, family, lineage, 6 , -, -: old in years, old, aged, 1
: to rejoice, 1 , -, -: of one's father, inherited 2
, : drinking cup, cup, goblet, 1 , -, : shepherd, 2
, -, : Diomedes, 5 : to give, furnish, offer, supply, 5
: twenty, 2 , : much-nourishing, 1
: to keep, check, curb, restrain, 2 , -, -: shining, beaming, radiant, 4
: boast, vaunt, exult; pray, 6 , -, : red, blood-red, 1
, , : a warrior's belt, 1 , -, : the earth, ground, 3
-, : to stick fast, thrust firmly 1 , -, -: golden, of gold, 5

211 : from; gen. of expressing surprise and realization


source, predicative after inf. of :
: to be sure, be assured; particle : 2nd sg. pres. , Att.
212 : thus...; 3rd sg. aor. mid. 216 (): 3rd sg. aor.
: 3rd sg. aor. :
: in/at the battle cry; acc. of respect 217 : for; accusative
is common after an adj., here duration of time
213 : upon; draws down his spear and : keeping (him); nom sg. aor. pple
sticks it in the earth; dat. place where 218 : these also; is an adverb
214 : he; demonstrative : 3rd pl. aor.
: inchoative impf. 219 : (), 3rd sg. impf.
215 : truly, so it seems; particles : with crimson; dat. of cause

Independent Subjunctive is employed as a virtual imperative or future in 4 different ways:


1. Hortatory (1st sg. or pl.)13 times p.7 let us kill p.96 let me beg
2. Prohibitive ( + 2nd s. aor.) 4 times dont make/you should not make
p.7

For deliberative and anticipatory subjunctives, see p. 72


ILIAD 6.221-230 23

. 221

, 222

, . 223

224

, , . 225

226

227

, 228

. 229

, 230

: to escape, avoid, flee from, 5 : to come, arrive, reach, 4


-: destroy, kill, slay; mid. perish, 4 -: to abandon, leave behind, 2
, , : Argos, 3 : to reach, come upon, find, 6
: again, in turn; further, moreover, 6 , -, -: famed, famous, renowned, 1
, : district, country, land; people, 3 : Lycia, 7
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 8 (), -, -: the middle of, 5
: to be able, can, be capable, 6 : to remind, recall, recollect, 5
, -, : house, 6 , : a guest-friend, stranger, 3
-: to slay, kill, 2 , : crowd, assembled throng, 2
-: to exchange; comes in turn to, 2 : to give, furnish, offer, supply, 5
-, : ally, assistant; assisting, 2 , -, : Tydeus, 5
, : Thebes, 2 , -: little, small, young, 3

221 : it; i.e. the cup, :


: nom. sg. pple 227 : (there are)
222 : acc. sg. manyand (there are) many; add
: pf. mid. 228 : epexegetical/explanatory inf.
: acc. sg. pple. or an infinitive of purpose
223 : , aor. , ...: whomever; +
elision with aspiration subjunctive in a general relative clause
(): when (relative clauses of characteristic), 3rd
: aor. - sg. subj. of and 1st sg.
224 : therefore; ; because of this, 229 : and (there are) many;
dat. of cause : epexegetical inf.
: in; dat. place where : whomever; see 6.228 above,
225 : you (are a guest friend to me); (), 2nd sg. pres. mid. subj.,
ellipsis repeat as complementary inf.
: whenever...; aor. subj. 230 : Let us; ,
in a general temporal clause 1st pl. aor. hortatory subjunctive
: their; of those, i.e. the Lycians : so that these men also;
226 : Let us; 1st pl. pres. subj. to the end that purpose clause
in main clause is a hortatory subjunctive
24 ILIAD 6.231-240

. 231

, , 232

233

, 234

235

, . 236

, 237

238

239

240

: to start, spring, leap up, 4 , : horse, 8


: to reply, respond; act. exchange 4 -, : a brother, 5
: to command, order, bid, 7 , : son of Cronus, Jupiter, 2
: to learn, note, realize, know, 6 : to take, receive, catch, grasp, 5
, : Glaucus, 4 , : a guest-friend, stranger, 3
, -, : Diomedes, 5 (): that; because, 6
: to ask, enquire, question, 1 , -, -: of one's father, inherited 2
-, -, -: worth 100 oxen, 1 : pledge; make trustworthy, 1
-, -, -: worth nine oxen, 1 , -, : husband, 3
-: to take out, pick out (aor. ) 1 , : Scaean (gates), 5
, -, : kinsmen, clansmen, neighbors, 2 , : son of Tydeus, 2
: boast, vaunt, exult; pray to (dat) 6 , : oak tree (specific type: Valonia) 1
: to run, rush, 5 : to utter, speak, 6
, : a daughter, 7 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4
: to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8 , -, -: golden, of gold, 5

231 : 3rd pl. aor. subj. 235 : translate as with in our idiom
232 , : dual aor. pple 236 , : forfor; gen.
: down from; elision before of exchange
aspiration; gen. place from which , : acc. direct objects
233 : 3rd pers. dual aor. 237 : when
: 3rd dual aor. mid. 238 : 3rd pl. impf. , not , god
234 : aor. mid. (stem ) 239 : inf. of purpose,
234 : for Glaucus; dat. of interest, it 240 : 3rd declension acc. pl.
may serve as dat. possession: Glaucus : but he

12 Dual Verb Forms: Some forms are 2nd pers. (you two); others are 3rd pers. (those two).
act. mid./pass.
2nd present, past3 times - - p. 9 67 99
3rd present - -
3rd past9 times - - p.2 4 12 24
63 70 70 71 . 94
ILIAD 6.241-250 25

. 241

, 242

243

, 244

245

246

247

, 248

249

250

- -: reverent, august, venerable 2 : to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8


, : portico, colonnade, 2 , -, : trouble, care, 3
, : pen, enclosure, the court-yard, 2 : to put to sleep; mid. to fall asleep, 2
, : son-in-law, 3 , : girl, maiden, 4
: to build, construct, form, 2 , : a stone, 2
: twelve, 1 , -, -: wooed (and wedded), 1
, -, -: opposite, contrary, 4 , -, -: hewn, planed; polished, 3
-: from within, within (gen) 1 : fifty, 1
-: to sit on, 1 -, -: beautiful, fair, lovely, 2
: one after another, in order, 2 , -, -: near, close, 3
-: to be within, be in, 1 , -: near the roof, roofed, 1
-: from or on the other side, 2 : to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
-: to fix upon, lay hold upon, 1
, : room, chamber, sleeping room 7

241 : all (the Trojan women) -: sat within; 3rd pl. aor. act.
: i.e. he asks each one after another -; repeated as a preposition
: upon; dat, compound verb 245 : pf. pass. pple
: plpf. mid. -; neut. pl : there
is subject of this 3rd sg. verb 246 : beside; dat. place where
242 : just when; implies exactness : supply from l. 244
: acc. sg. 248 : 3rd pl. impf.
243 : pf. pass. pple 249 : see note for l. 245 above
: it; i.e. the
Wishes: There are 13 instances of wishes and unattainable wishes found in the commentary.
1. optative without ...p.6, 6, 17
47, 48
... ...85
, 29 83
2. (how) + opt. ... ...()
3. (if only) + opt. 100
4. (how) + + inf. ... 35 103
97 would that he had died (how he ought to have died)
5. (if only) + past ind. ...89
26 ILIAD 6.251-260

251

, 252

253

, ; 254

255

256

. 257

, , 258

259

, , . 260

-, -: undying, immortal, 5 : to leave, forsake, abandon, 7


, -, -: topmost, top, excellent, 7 : to fight, do battle; quarrel, 3
-: to hold up; suffer, endure, tolerate, 4 -, -: honey-sweet, 1
-: to release, send up, give up, 6 , : wine, 4
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 : mid. enjoy, delight; act profit, help 1
-, -: bearing ill name, hateful, 1 : to name, call by name, 4
, : appearance, form, shape, 2 : to drink, 1
-: to lead to, bring to, 1 : to pour a drink-offering, libation, 1
, -, -: opposite, contrary, 4 : to wear out, distress, afflict, 4
: here, hither, there, thither, 3 , : a child, 9
-, -: kindly giving, bountiful, 1 : why in the world? what? ( ), 2
, -, -: bold, daring, confident, 2 : to grow, bring forth, produce, 4
, : a daughter, 7
, : Laodice, 1

251 : his; dat. possession : to Zeus; dat. sg.


: aor. act. : aor. inf of purpose, -
252 -: nom. sg. pres pple - 258 : sg. imperative
: in appearance; acc. of respect ...: so that; purpose; 1st
253 : then she planted on sg. 1st aor. subj. (Att. )
him with her hand; i.e. she grabbed him; : to you; , dat. indirect object
3rd sg. impf. ; , is dat. means 259 : so that; purpose clause,
: began to speak a word 2nd sg. aor. subj.
: called (him) out by name; 260 : adverbial acc.
tmesis, impf., Hecabe is the subject : you yourself; crasis
254 : nom. sg. aor. pple (): 2nd sg. fut. mid. as
: pf. act. apodosis, future-more-vivid (/ + aor.
255 : quite truly now subj., fut. indicative)
256 : 3rd sg. aor - : if; 2nd sg. aor. subj.
257 : aor. pple with ; protasis in the condition above

Zeus17 Nom. Dat. , Hades12 Nom. , * Dat. *1st or 3rd


Gen. , Acc. , Gen. , Acc. decl.
ILIAD 6.261-270 27

, 261

. 262

263

, , 264

, 265

266

267

. 268

269

270

-, : driver of spoil, forager, 2 , - : burnt sacrifice, sacrifice, 1


: to make grow, increase; mid. grow, 1 : to be tired, be ill, be grieved, 2
: to stand in awe of, be ashamed, 1 -, -: of dark clouds, 2
, -: fiery-looking, sparkling, 1 , -, : son of Cronus, Jupiter, 1
, - : blood, 4 : escape notice; mid. forget (gen) 5
(): to take away, raise, lift up, 6 : to pour a libation, pour, 1
, : might, strength ( dat.), 3 , : defilement from blood, gore, 1
: to reply, respond; act. exchange 4 -, -: sweet to the mind, 1
: to keep off, ward off, defend, 2 , : temple, 7
-, -: unwashed, 1 , : wine, 4
: to gather together, 2 : to sprinkle, splatter, 1
-: enfeeble, deprive of limbs' use 1 : in what way?; in any way, 4
, -, -: old; ancient, elder, 4 , : mistress, queen, 8
, -, : kinsmen, clansmen, neighbors, 2 : along with, with, together (+ dat.), 6
: to pray; boast, brag, 2 : you (Doric form for 2nd sg. nom. ) 1

261 : being weary; dat. sg. pf. pple : from...; gen. of separation,
, modifies dat of interest : do (not) let me; neg.
: adverbial acc. or adj. with hortatory subj., 1st sg. aor.
262 ...: since you are weary; 266 : but; adversative
2nd sg. pf. : dat. pl.
263 : her; demonstrative, i.e. Hecuba : to Zeus; dat. sg.
264 ...: negative imperative 267 : is it possible
: vocative direct address : dat. of means
265 : you should not; or 268 : pf. pass. pple
dont enfeeble, + 2nd sg. aor. subj. modifies , the missing acc.
is a prohibitive subjunctive, equivalent subject of
to a negative command 269 (): sg. imperative
: 270 : fem. sg. aor. pple
28 ILIAD 6.271-280

, 271

, 272

, 273

274

, 275

, 276

, 277

, . 278

279

, , , 280

-, : driver of spoil, forager, 2 , -, -: strong, stout, mighty, 5


, -, -: wild, fierce, 3 -: to go among; pursue, 2
, : warrior, spearman, 3 , -, : adviser, counsellor, 2
-: to hold from, keep away, 2 , : temple, 7
, , : cow, ox, bull; cattle, oxen, 6 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9
: twelve, 3 , : Paris, 4
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 , : robe, dress, clothing, 4
, -: untouched by the goad, 3 : you, 50?
, : a yearling (calf), 3 , : a child, 9
- -: of fair locks, 3 , -, : Tydeus, 5
: to sacrifice, slaughter, 4 -: to promise, 5
- -: holy, divine; n. temple, victim 4 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
: to call, summon, invite, 6 , -, -: graceful, lovely, 4

271 : whichever; , accent comes : fut. inf. with


from enclitic , antecedent
, : superlatives : in the hope that; see box
272 : below; 3rd sg. aor subj.
: by far, far; acc. of extent 277 : in the hope that
...: to you yourself; intensive (Athena); 3rd sg. aor. subj. -
273 : this one; i.e. the : , is fem. sg.
: aor. sg. imperative 278 : in apposition to
274 : to her; i.e. to Athena 280 : sg. imperative
: promise; aor. inf. as : fut. -
imperative, see l. 93 above : so that; purpose
275 : acc. plural indicated by long iota clause with 1st sg. aor. subj.

In the hope that: / + + subj. may express the motive of an action or feeling expressed
in the apodosis. Translate as in the hope that, on the chance that, or if by chance.
6.94, 275 : in the hope that she take pity
6.277 : if by chance she keep away
6.280 : in case that she be willing
22.196 on the chance that he might ward off (secondary seq.)
ILIAD 6.281-290 29

281

282

. 283

284

. 285

, 286

. 287

, 288

289

, 290

: to hear, listen to, 6 -: to go down; come back, 2


, : Alexander (Paris), 6 , -, -: that, those, 2
: to gather together, 2 : to command, bid, exhort (dat) 4
-, -: joyless, painful, dangerous, 1 -, -, -: fragrant, full of incense 1
-: on the spot, here, there, 6 -, -: great-hearted, heroic, 3
: to come or go (aor. ) 1 , -, : woe, sorrow, grief, 1
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 , -: Olympian, 3
, -, -: old; ancient, elder, 4 -, -: richly varied, 1
: inside, within; into, to within, 4 , : robe, dress, clothing, 4
-: escape notice, forget utterly 1 , -, : suffering, misery, woe, 3
, : work, labor, deed, act, 8 : to, toward, 3
, : room, chamber, sleeping room 7 , -, -: Sidonian, of Sidon, 1
-, -: godlike, divine in form, 3 : to raise (a child), rear, 4
-: to go or come down, descend, 1 : to yawn, gape, open, 1

281 : in the hope that; see p. 28 : Hades (house); supply


3rd sg. aor. subj. the acc. object of
: gen. sg. aor. pple 285 : (my) mind; i.e. Hectors, acc.
modifies missing the obj. of the inf. subject of the inf.
: inf. + gen. of source : reduplicated aor. inf.,
...: maygape open; aor. opt. of governing a gen. object, -
wish; is uncommon and superfluous 286 : , impf. mid.
: i.e. for Paris : and she; i.e. Hecabe
282 : as a great bane; second of a : fem. sg. aor.
double acc. in the predicative position 287 : reduplicated aor.
283 ...: for; dat. of interest : these; demonstrative
: of that one; ~. gen. sg. : over; extensive in sense
284 , : if I could, I would; 288 : she herself; intensive pronoun
future-less-vivid condition ( + opt., : aor. mid.
+ opt), here with aor. opt. and 289 : where
pres. opt. : there were; + dat. possession
: aor. pple - 290 : which; relative, note absence of
30 ILIAD 6.291-300

, , 291

292

, 293

, 294

. 295

, . 296

, 297

, 298

, 299

. 300

(): to take away, raise, lift up, 6 , : door, 3


, -, -: topmost, top, excellent, 7 , : a priestess, sacrificer, 1
-, : to lead up, bring up, 1 : to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8
-: to shine, 2 -, -: horse-taming, 4
, , : star, 8 -, -: fair-cheeked, 2
, -, -: old; ancient, elder, 4 : to lie down, be laid, 9
, : gift, present; reward, 2 , : Cisseus, 1
, , : one, single, alone, 4 -: to hasten or rush along after, 1
, : Hecabe, 4 , -: last; outermost, 1
, : Helen, 6 , : temple, 7
, -, : Antenor, 1 , : road, way, path, journey, 3
-: to sail against, 1 : to open, 2
-, : daughter of noble father, 1 , : embroidery, broidered work 1
, -, -: wide, broad, spacious, 6 , : sea, 1
, : Theano, 2 -: from Sidon, 1

291 : aor. 295 : just as a star; as a star


: nom. sg. aor. pple. : impf.
292 ...: over the route over : i.e. the bottom-most, lowest
which very (route); relative pronoun; 296 : and he set out to go; common
both accusatives are inner accusative Homeric expression; 3rd sg. aor.
with or acc. of extent of space and inf. of purpose,
(common with ) 297 : 3rd pl. impf.; subj. is , these
: led up (to sea); aor - 298 : for whom; dat. pl. relative pronoun
293 : of these; i.e , partitive gen. : aor.
: acc. sg. 300 : this one; i.e. Theano
: 3rd sg. impf. : made (x)(y); governs a double
294 : in; dat. pl. of respect acc., 3rd pl. aor.
Epic : The connective (both, and) often has a second use in epic as an untranslatable
particle with actions recurring or generally true. It is common in similes and general clauses.
p. 57 just as a horse simile
.p. 62 and it is completely fitting for a youth general truth
ILIAD 6.301-310 31

301

302

, 303

304

, 305

, 306

, 307

308

, 309

. 310

: to break, bend; shiver, 2 , : Theano, 2


-: to hold up; suffer, endure, tolerate, 4 : to sacrifice, slaughter, 4
: to pray, invoke, vow, 3 -, -: fair-cheeked, 2
: straightway, at once; presently, 3 , : girl, maiden, 4
, , : cow, ox, bull; cattle, oxen, 6 , : temple, 7
, -, : Diomedes, 5 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9
: twelve, 3 : loud cry (in prayer or sacrifice) 1
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 , : robe, dress, clothing, 4
-, : protecting the city, 1 : to fall, fall down, drop, 5
: boast, vaunt, exult; pray, 6 , : mistress, queen, 8
, -: untouched by the goad, 3 , -: head-foremost, face-down, 2
, : a yearling (calf), 3 -: before, in front of (gen.) 4
- -: of fair locks, 3 , : Scaean (gates), 5
, : goddess, 5 , : a child, 9

301 : and these; i.e. Trojan women just, or now


: with; dat. of manner : i.e. Diomedes, 3rd pers. pronoun
: 3rd pl. aor. - 307 : grant that; aor. imperative
302 : i.e. Hecabe : aor. inf.
: aor. pple, , (aor stem ) : gen. pl.
303 : aor. 308 ...: so that we may
: impf. sacrifice; aor. subj. (alt. -)
: gen. sg. Zeus : , dat. sg.
305 () : voc. 309 : acc. plural indicated by long iota
direct address : fut. inf. governed by
: gen. pl.
306 : aor. imperative ; : in the hope that you; see
often lends emphasis to a command: p. 28; 2nd sg. aor. subj.

Subjunctive often uses / instead of / in 1st aorists and non-thematic 2nd aorists forms.
Act. 1st - - Mid. 1st - -
2nd - - 2nd - -
3rd -, - 3rd - -
32 ILIAD 6.311-320

, . 311

, 312

313

, 314

, 315

316

, . 317

, 318

319

, . 320

, : spearpoint, 3 , : girl, maiden, 4


, -, -: topmost, top, excellent, 7 ,: to shine, give light, radiate, 1
, : Alexander (Paris), 6 , : Pallas Athena, 3
-: to nod in refusal, nod back, 2 -: before, in front; in time past, 1
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 : to do, make, create, compose, 2
, : pen, enclosure, the court-yard, 2 , : ring, hoop (joins point to shaft), 1
, -, : house, 6 : along with, with, together (+ dat.), 6
-: near, at hand; near to (+ gen.), 2 , -, : builder, carpenter, 1
-: to come to, 3 : to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
--, -: eleven cubits long, 1 : at that time, then, , at some time, 8
- -: very fertile, of large clods1 , : Troy, 5
: boast, vaunt, exult; pray, 6 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4
, : room, chamber, sleeping room 7 , -, -: golden, of gold, 5
: to run, rush, 5

311 : thus; 3rd pl. impf. mid. 315 : 3rd pl. impf.
312 ...: while these (women) : in;
: gen. sg. Zeus 318 : who; is dat. of interest,
313 (): plpf. : to Zeus
314 : which; relative pronoun ...: dat. place where
: intensive pronoun, i.e. Paris 319 : gen. with with
: who..; relative pronoun 320 ...: impf. ; tmesis
Common Subjunctives in Subordinate Clauses
Indefinite (General) Clauses
relative , , + / + subj. whatever she does...
temporal , + / + subj. whenever she does
conditional , + / + subj. if ever she does
Purpose/Final Clausessee p. 16
, , , + (/ +) subj. so that she may do
Fearing Clauses
+ subj. lest she do
ILIAD 6.321-330 33

, 321

, 322

323

, . 324

325

, . 326

327

328

, 329

. 330

, -, -: curved, crooked, 2 , : room, chamber, sleeping room 7


, -, -: steep, utter; hard, 2 , -, : breastplace, corslet, 1
, -, -: shameful, dishonorable, 1 : to bid, order, command, exhort, 5
-: to burn or blaze around, 1 : to fight, do battle; quarrel, 3
, -, -: Argive, 6 -: let go, release; be remiss; give up, 2
, -, : shield, 4 : to quarrel, dispute; reproach, 1
, : call, cry, 1 -, -: beautiful, fair, lovely, 2
: to handle, 1 -, -, -: very famous, 1
: strange one, god-touched (voc.) 4 : where?; : somewhere, I suppose, 3
, : a female servant, 4 , : battle, fight, war, 1
, : Helen, 6 , -, : a city, 5
(): for the sake of, because of, 8 , -, -: hated, dreaded, loathed, 2
-: to put upon. store up in, 2 , : bow, 1
: to tend to, busy with; mid. follow, 2 : to waste (away), consume, 1
, : work, labor, deed, act, 8 , : anger, wrath, 4
: to find, discover, devise, invent, 3
: to sit, 2

321 : this one; i.e. Paris : in; dat. of compound verb


(): aor. 328 ...: for the sake of you; gen. sg.
: acc. pple modifies 329 : this here; neuter sg. with
322 : neuter plural, translate as singular : 3rd sg. pf. -
: acc. sg. pple ... ...: you would
modifies above fight withwhomever you should see;
323 : with; dat. of accompaniment the equivalent to a future-less-vivid
324 : was sitting; 3rd sg. plpf. mid. condition ( + opt., + opt), here with
but impf. in sense aor. opt. and aot. opt. as
325 : nom. sg. aor. pple the subordinate verb in a relative clause
: dat. means. : with another; dat. of association
326 : vocative direct address 330 : I suppose
(): aor. mid. imperative - : acc. sg. pple,
: not well at all; : from; gen. of
expresses an emphatic denial; adv. acc. separation
34 ILIAD 6.331-340

, . 331

332

, , 333

334

335

, . 336

337

338

. 339

, 340

, : lot, portion, share; fate, destiny, 6 , -: better, more profitable, 1


: to hear, listen to, 6 , , : soft, 3
, : Alexander (Paris), 6 : to quarrel, dispute; reproach, 1
, -: of Ares, of war, warlike, 1 - : resentment, righteous anger 2
, -, : anguish, distress, grief, 4 , : victory, 1
, -: hostile, destructive; enemy, 4 : to set in motion, begin, urge, 3
: to seem, seem good, think, imagine, 2 -: to talk over, win over, persuade 2
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9 -: turn to, impel; give oneself to, 1
(): for the sake of, because of, 8 , , : fire, 9
-: to exchange; come in turn to, 2 -: put together, give heed, agree, 1
-: to stay after, wait, tarry, 1 : soon, presently; quickly, forthwith, 6
: I will say or speak, 3 , -, -: so much, so many, so great, 5
: to sit, 2 : above (+ gen.); beyond (+ acc.), 4
, : room, chamber, sleeping room 7 , : anger, wrath, 4
-, -: godlike, divine in form, 3 : in this way, so, thus, 5
: to heat; mid. become hot, 1

331 : come now; before an imperative, : for the Trojans; objective gen.
it marks move from argument to appeal : for so long; adverbial acc. or
: up!; stand up, as a command acc. of extent
...: lestburn.; fearing clause ...: because of; dat. cause
: in..; gen. of place within 336 : was sitting; 1st sg. plpf. mid.
333 : since; causal but impf. in sense, see also 6.324
: in due measure; duly, rightly : dat. of compound verb
: 2nd sg. aor. : aor. inf. -
: beyond due measure 337 : dat. means.
334 : ; dat. indirect object 338 ...: and it seems to me
: fut. myself that it will be; fut. inf.
(): 2nd sg. aor. mid. - : comes in turns to; i.e.
: aor. imperative comes now here now there to
: ; gen. of source 340 : come on; preceding an imperative.
335 : you know, to be sure; particle : aor imper.; Hector at the door
ILIAD 6.341-350 35

, . 341

, 342
343

, 344

345

346

, 347

. 348

, 349

, 350

, : wife, spouse, 2 -: to go after or among; pursue, 2


, -: better, 4 , : story, word, speech, 2
, , : wind, 2 : to go; depart, 4
-: swept away (only 3rd sg. aor.), 1 : to suppose, think, imagine, 2
, : husband's brother (voc. ) 2 , -, -: chilling, horrible, 1
, : Helen, 6 , -, : a mountain, hill, 3
, : work, labor, deed, act, 8 : to owe, ought; would that 4
, : the sea, 1 : before, formerly, in former time 6
, : squall, hurricane, violent storm, 1 -, -: loud-roaring, 1
- -: mischief-devising, evil- -: to speak to, address, 8
plotting, 1 -: to carry away (forth), 1
: to reach, come upon, find, 6 : to ordain, decree, judge, 1
, -, : wave, swell, surge, 3 : in this way, so, thus, 5
, -, -: winning, soothing, mild, 2

341 (): sg. imperative () : aor.


: fut. 346 : had gone and carried off; pres.
: fut. inf., is direct obj. inf. (pf. in sense) in secondary sequence
342 ... : this one.that one; the (thus, plpf. in sense) often has a
1st demonstrative is Paris, 2nd is Hector complementary pple
: not at all; is an adverbial acc. 348 ...: wherewould have;
: impf. - past potential ( + aor. ind.) expresses
343 : ; inchoative impf an unattainable wish; here, the verb is
344 : vocative direct address assimilated to the main verb
: of me; gen. sg. : before; + aor inf.; just as ,
: bitch; i.e. shameless, dogs behave this adverb can serve as a conjunction
often in uncivilized, dishonorable ways : occur; is acc. subject
345 ...: would that; thatought 349 : since
to have gone unattainable wish, aor. 350 -: and since
, adds emphasis, see p. 25 : I ought; impf.
: that day; dat. time when with : inf.
a demonstrative
36 ILIAD 6.351-360

. 351

352

. 353

354

, 355

, 356

, 357

. 358

359

, , 360

, : shame, disgrace, 2 -, -:: steadfast, continuous 2


, : Alexander (Paris), 6 (): for the sake of, because of, 8
: to reply, respond; act. exchange 4 -: partake of; reap the benefits, 1
-: to go about or around, 1 -: to sit down, set down, 1
, : human being, 6 : most of all; certainly, especially, 7
, -: sung of, subject of song, 1 , : fate, lot, destiny; death, 2
, : reckless guilt, mischief, ruin, 1 - : resentment, righteous anger 2
, : husband's brother (voc. ) 2 : to suppose, think, imagine, 2
, : chariot-floor, chariot, 4 (): backwards; in the future, later, 6
: to sit; sit someone down, set, 3 : to be, become, 8
-: to come to, 3 , : work, labor, toil, 5
, : Helen, 6 : to love, befriend, 3

351 : 3rd sg. plpf. of ; translate as 355 : vocative direct address


a simple past : since
: reproaches; neuter pl. : pf. -
352 : this ones; dat. of possession 356 : me; gen. sg. pronoun +
: supply linking verb are : bitch; in apposition, see 6.344
: fut. deponent 357 : upon whom; anastrophe
... : neither really : aor.
nor after all ...: so that we may;
353 : therefore; , demonstrative, dat. purpose with pres. subj.
: that he; acc. subject, i.e. Paris, 358 ...: for people to
: i.e. he will receive his come; i.e. the future; fut. pple
due punishment; fut. inf. 360 ...: Dont make me sit; imper.
354 : come now; preceding an imperative : though; concessive pres. pple
(): pres. imperative sg., : 2nd sg. fut.
Apocope is the cutting off of a final vowel before a word with a consonant. The loss is not
marked off by an apostrophe. This device explains the usual variations among prepositions:
, , , ... often assimilates the consonant after apocope:
, , e.g. p.21 p.23 ()
, , , Apocope also explains why the particle is often .
ILIAD 6.361-370 37

361

, . 362

, , 363

. 364

, 365

. 366

, 367

. 368

369

, 370

: straightaway, quickly, at once, 3 : to go, come, approach, arrive, 5


-: to be away, absent, distant, 1 -: to overtake, catch, 1
-: to go away, depart, disembark, 2 : to dwell in, inhabit, 3
: back, back again, backwards, 3 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9
-: within, inside, 2 -, : housemate, family; slave, 1
-: to come to aid, defend, 1 , : a house, abode, dwelling, 6
: to press hard, impel, urge on, 3 : to stir, set in motion, rouse, 4
-: to speed to; act. put in motion, 2 , : longing, yearning, mourning, 1
: well, 7 : they, 6
: already, now, at this time, 4 -, -: returning, turning back, 2
: to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8 : to utter, speak, 6

361 : dat. of possession with 365 : for in fact; is adverbial


: poetic pres. mid. : , consonant avoids elision
: so that; purpose; 1st sg. aor. subj : fut. deponent
362 : dat. of compound verb : so that; . aor. subj. in a
: who; relative purpose clause
: greatly; neuter sg. adverbial acc. 367 :
: for me; objective gen. ...: whether; indirect question
-: gen. sg. pres. pple - with fut. mid.
363 : but you; but you in : dat. pl. 3rd pl. pronoun,
particular emphasizes : or whether; .. , the alternative in
: pres. imperative the indirect question
: let; 3rd sg. pres. mid. : hands; dat. pl. place where,
imperative ; i.e. Paris : 3rd pl. future
364 so that may; 369 : nom. sg. aor. pple
governs / in purpose clauses; : 3rd sg. aor. -
2nd sg. aor. subj. - 370 :
: gen. sg. : well-peopled, well-built
: pres. pple
38 ILIAD 6.371-380

, 371

372

. 373

, 374

, 375

, , 376

; 377

, 378

, 379

; 380

, : wife, spouse, 2 -: to stand near, stand over, 1


, -: blameless, noble, 9 : or, eitheror, 7
, : Andromache, 4 : to appease, make propitious, 2
, : husband's sister, sister-in-law, 3 -, -: white-armed, 2
: to wail, groan, weep, 5 : to say, speak of, mention, 5
, -, -: fearful, terrible, strange 5 : to flow, trickle, shed tears, 2
, : a female servant, 4 , -: unerring, infallible, 2
, : brother's wives, sisters-in-law 3 , : threshold, 2
: within, at home, 2 : in what way?; in any way, 4
-: to have gone out or come out, 2 , : wall, rampart, tower, 7
-, -: beautifully robed, 3 : along with, with, together (+ dat.), 6
-, -: with fair locks, 4 : aor. overtake, reach, find, 2
: to find, discover, devise, invent, 3 , -, -: Trojan, 4

371 : aor. condition; here before a pl. imperative


372 : she in fact; emphasizes the clause : aor. mid. plural imperative
: + dat. of accompaniment : 3rd sg. aor.
373 : had stopped upon; thus was 378 ......: eitheroror
standing upon plpf. - + dat. ...: to (the houses)
: nom. sg. fem. pres. pple of.( to the houses) of; as often when
374 : when a genitive follows the preposition
375 : 3rd sg. aor. 379 : to(the temple) of
: pres. pple : just where, the very place
: among; + dat. where; the particle intensifies the adverb
376 : now come; is likely an 380 : goddess; the noun can be feminine
interjection and does not introduce a or masculine, evident in the adj.

: This phrase precedes an imperative and hortatory subj on two separate occasions.
Monro argues that, originally thought to be short for , , if you are willing,
come now, this is more likely a temporal interjection unrelated to the conditional :
6.376 ... now come, tell me
22.381 now come, let us make trial of
ILIAD 6.381-390 39

381

, , 382

383

, 384

, 385

, 386

, . 387

, 388

. 389

, 390

: to hear, listen to, 6 -, -: with fair locks, 4


, -: true, 1 : to speak, say, 6
: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9 : to appease, make propitious, 2
: to command, order, bid, 7 , -, : strength, power, 3
-: to hasten off, rush off, 1 : to mad, rage, be furious, 3
-: to arrive at, have come to, 1 : to say, speak of, mention, 5
, : husband's sister, sister-in-law, 3 , : story, word, speech, 2
, -, -: fearful, terrible, strange 5 , -, -: busy, ready, nimble, 1
, -, : house, 6 : in what way?; in any way, 4
, : being like, seem like (dat), 3 , : wall, rampart, tower, 7
, : brother's wives, sisters-in-law 3 , : housekeeper, housewife, 2
(): for the sake of, because of, 8 : to wear out, distress, afflict, 4
-: to have gone out or come out, 2 , : nurse, 4
: to press hard, impel, urge on, 3 , -, -: Trojan, 4
-, -: beautifully robed, 3

381 : this one; i.e. Hector 386 : because, since; for


...: addressed a speech to; which sake
tmesis, verb governs two direct objects 387 : pres. pass. infinitive
382 : since : that the Trojans; acc. subject
: pf. with pres. sense : that power; acc. subject with
: the truth; true things, neut. pl. inf. ; is acc. predicate
383 ...: to (the houses) 388 : she in fact; expresses
of.( to the houses) of; see 6.378 certainty, particularly in conclusions
: to(the temple) of : urging on (the battle); true
: just where, the very place to her name
where; the particle intensifies the adverb 389 : to (one); mid. pple
385 : goddess; see 6.380 390 : spoke; 3rd sg impf. , see pg. 40
: 3rd sg. aor. : impf. mid. -
40 ILIAD 6.391-400

. 391

392

, , 393

394

, , 395

, , 396

, 397

. 398

, 399

, , 400

, : street, highway, 1 , : a daughter, 7


: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9 : to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8
: to be lord, master (dat); rule, 2 , -, : Cilician, of Cilicia, 2
, : Andromache, 4 : to go 3
: to meet, encounter, come upon, 1 , : bosom, lap; hollow, 5
-, -: tender-minded, 1 -, -: great-hearted, heroic, 3
: back, back again, backwards, 3 : to be about to, to intend to, 4
: in the same manner, just, as it is, 3 : to inhabit, dwell, live, abide, 5
--: to go out through, 1 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9
-: to go through, pass, 1 , : road, way, path, journey, 3
, -, -: opposite, contrary, 4 , : Placus, 3
- - -: well-built, -constructed 2 -, -: richly endowed, 2
: when, at the time when, 2 , : Scaean (gates), 5
, -, : Eetion, 5 , -, -: wooded, 3
: to run, rush, 5 - - -: under Mount Placus, 1
, : Thebe, 2 - -, : bronze-armed, 2

391 : over this same route; : to; dat. pl. of


inner accusative or acc. of extent of interest with the pple
space (common with ) see 6.292 398 : of this very one
393 : where; in which (place); relative : have as a wife; , pres. mid.
: inf. -- : to Hector; dat. of interest
394 : there 399 : this one; dat. obj. of
: 3rd sg. aor. : herself; i.e. Andromache +
396 : (of) Eetion; should be gen. sg. 400 :
but assimilates to the following nom. : fem. nom. sg. pple
397 : at; dat. place where : still an infant, just an infant

Imperfect Active and Middle: : to say, claim27times and : to say, speak7 times
1st
2nd * most common form
3rd ()* ** ** p. 39, 62, 82, 83, 91, 94
ILIAD 6.401-410 41

, , 401

, 402

. 403

404

, 405

406

, , 407

, 408

409

410

- -: beloved, loveable, darling1 -: to kill, slay, 7


: near, nigh, close by (gen); like (dat) 1 , -: more profitable, better, best, 3
, -, -: resembling, like, (+ dat.), 1 : to smile, grin, 1
-, -: luckless, without a share, 1 -: to be an infant, a child, 1
, : Andromache, 4 , -, -: alone, lone, only, 6
, , : star, 8 : to name, call by name, 4
, -, : Astyanax, 3 -: to stand beside, 4
: strange one, god-touched (voc.) 4 , : silence, 1
, : tear (neuter ) 5 : Scamandrius, 1
, : son of Hector, 1 , -, -: your, yours, 7
: to pity, take pity on, take pity, 2 : soon, presently; quickly, forthwith, 6
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7 : to decay, waste away; destroy, 2
-: to stir up, rouse, incite, 1 : to grow, bring forth, produce, 4
: now surely, truly, 4 : to pour, shed, 5
: to call, summon, invite, 6 , : widow, 4

402 : was accustomed to call (x) 406 : then she planted on


(y); the verb governs a double acc. (2nd him with her hand; i.e. she grabbed him;
acc. is the predicate); -- suggests an 3rd sg. impf. ; , is dat. means
iterative impf. used to call : began to speak a word
: others (were accustomed to : called (him) out by name;
call him); supply tmesis; Andromache is subject, cf. 6.253
403 : (as) such, as this sort 407 : vocative direct address
: was drawing (from danger); i.e. : this; a demonstrative adj.
was rescuing (compare Lat. ripi); 408 : who
see 22.303 for a similar use : from you; gen. of separation,
404 : nom. sg. aor. pple 409 : fut. deponent
: in; dat. of manner, which can : fut.
often be translated as an adverb 410 : aor. pass. pple
405 : him; dat. with compound verb ...: it would be; potential opt.
: poetic , translate as pl. the subject is the inf. in 411
42 ILIAD 6.411-420

411

, , 412

. 413

, 414

, 415

, 416

, , 417

418

419

, . 420

-, -: Aegis-bearing, 2 , -, : Cilician, of Cilicia, 2


, -, -: our, ours, 1 , : boy, young man, son, 2
-: to kill, slay, 2 : to dwell in, inhabit, 3
-: to miss; lose, 2 , : nymph, young wife, bride, 2
, -, : anguish, distress, grief, 4 , , : of the mountains, 1
, -: cunningly wrought, 2 : to sack, lay waste, ravage, 1
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9 , : fate, death, 3
, : armor, gear, 1 , : mistress, queen, 8
--: to strip from armor, 6 , : elm tree, 1
: well, 7 : fear, feel awe or shame for, 2
-: to pursue, drive, direct, 3 , - : sign, mark; grave-mound, 5
, -, : Eetion, 5 : along with, with, together (+ dat.), 6
: now surely, truly, 4 -, -: high-gated, of high gates, 1
: warming, comfort, consolation 1 : to plant, 1
, : Thebe, 2 , -, : the earth, ground, 3
-: to burn, burn completely, 1

411 : (from) you; abl. of separation : well-peopled, well-built


: infinitive, subject of sentence 416 ...: tmesis, aor.
...: no longer; not still 417 : that in particular, that in fact; or
412 : 3rd sg. future dep. , supply stripping Eetion of armor
: whenever...; general temporal : in his heart; dat. place where
clause + subj. (here aor. -) 418 : aor.
413 (): neut. pl. subject, parallel to 419 (): and
, supply : impf. ; tmesis with
: dat of possession with : and around about(it); i.e. the
414 : our; we expect my mound; an adverb
415 ...: he utterly laid waste; tmesis, 420 : of Zeus
the prefix - often suggests completion
ILIAD 6.421-430 43

, 421

422

423

. 424

, , 425

, 426

, 427

. 428

, 429

, 430

: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9 : seven, 1


-, -: countless, 2 , -, -: stout, rich, big; blooming, 2
-: to loose from, free; ransom, 2 : shedder of arrows, 1
, : ransom, compensation, 4 -, : a brother, 5
, -, -: white (of wool), 1 -: aor. killed, slayed, 4
, : Artemis, 2 : to go 3
: back, back again, backwards, 4 , : possessions, property, 1
: to throw, shoot, hit, strike, 8 : to take, receive, catch, grasp, 5
: to rule, reign, be king, 1 , , , : sheep, ram, 3
, , : cow, ox, bull; cattle, oxen, 6 -, : bedfellow, husband 1
: hither, here, 3 , : Placus, 3
- -: of rolling walk, rambling 1 -, -: swift-footed, 2
, , : one, single, alone, 4 , : mistress, queen, 8
: inside, within; into, to within, 4 , -, -: wooded, 3

421 : dat. of possession with 425 : who


: impf. ; to me were = I had 426 : her; repeating above
422 ... : thesebut my : to here; i.e. for ransom
mother; a contrast between As behavior : aor.
toward the brothers and to the mother 427 : he; emphasizes the clause
: variation of neut. dat. sg. , , , : nom. sg. aor. pple
modifies which is dat. time when :
: Hades (house); supply : , aor.
the acc. object of 429 : dat of possession
424 : over; Achilles killed the : 2nd sg. pres. , Att.
brothers as they tended over flocks 430 : supply

Alternate forms for , , : m. f. n.


Nom. ,
Gen. p.97 ,
Dat. , p.102 , p.43
Acc. p.30 ,
44 ILIAD 6.431-440

, 431

432

, 433

. 434

435

436

437

, 438

. 439

440

- - -: very famous, renowned 1 -, : prophecy, oracle, 1


, -, : Ajax, 2 , -, : Idomeneus, 1
, -, -: strong, stout, 4 : most of all; certainly, especially, 7
-, -: climable, (-) 1 : to stay, remain, abide; await, 5
: to command, order, bid, 7 , -, -: orphaned, fatherless, 2
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 : to attempt, try, test, 2
, : son of Atreus, Atreides, 4 : to be, become, 8
(): two, 4 : where?; : somewhere, I suppose, 9
: to pity, take pity on, take pity, 2 , : wall, rampart, tower, 7
: to tell, tell of, relate, describe, 1 : they, 6
- -: scalable, able to be overrun 1 : thrice, three times, 3
-: to rouse, stir up, excite, incite, 2 , -, : Tydeus, 5
, : wild fig-tree, 2 , : widow, 4
: well, 7

431 : come now; as often, grabbing ones (): aor. mid.


attention before an imperative 436 :
: here; in this very place : dual acc. there are two
: Greek heros named Ajax: son of Oileus
432 : dont make; you should not and son of Telamon
prohibitive subj. ( + aor. subj.) here 437 : and,
(, ) with two double acc. ...: i.e. Diomedes
433 : set up; make stand aor. active 438 ...: eitheror
imperative, : someone; followed by an enclitic
434 : impf. : aor.
435 : in this place; dat. place where 439 :
: aor. pple ...: bothand
: An adverbial form of , this enclitic (exceedingly, beyond) has two main meanings:
(1) intensive (+ pronouns p. 5 in which very place, just where
and advs) ...p. 48 in the very way, just as
(2) concessive (+ pple) p. 9 though (however much) being worn down
p. 10 though (however much) loving me
ILIAD 6.441-450 45

, 441

, 442

443

, 444

445

. 446

447

448

. 449

, 450

: be or feel ashamed of; respect, 5 - -: of good ashen spear, 1


, : always, forever, in every case, 5 - -: holy, divine; n. temple, victim 4
, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 , : glory, fame, rumor, report, 2
, : pain, distress, grief, 5 : to learn, understand, 1
: to escape, avoid, shun, 1 : to be a care or concern for (dat, gen), 4
: to command, order, bid, 7 : aloof, apart, afar, away, 3
: to strive to attain, gain, 1 : to destroy, lose, consume, kill, 7
: on the very spot, here, there, 2 (): backwards; in the future, later, 6
-, -: trailing the robe, 2 , -, -: so much, so many, so great, 5
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7 , -, : Trojan (fem. adj.), 2
: well, 7

441 : also; adv. intensive adjective which agrees with


: are a concern; neuter pl. subject, in function: gen. of possession
not impersonal, as the verb often is 447 : the following; this here,
: vocative sg. direct address anticipating the second line
443 ...: ifI avoid; along : in, within
with this protasis is a present 448 : there will be; fut. deponent
general condition (/ + / + subj., ...: when...; general (indefinite)
pres. indicative); Hector is describing a temporal clause ( + subjunctive)
general fact, not a hypothetical situation : 3rd sg. pf. subjunctive
: as a coward : , is fem. sg.
: (from); gen. separation 449 : gen. sg., -(), the
governed by the verb not the adverb -() ending is comparable to the masc.
444 : 3rd sg. pf. with pres. sense -oio gen. ending, cf. gen.
: since 450 : for the Trojans; objective gen.
: aor. qualifying just as in l. 454
inf. governs nom. predicate ...: not so much; adverbial acc.
445 : foremost, leading (acc. of extent) or inner acc. (so much a
446 : dat. of accompaniment care) rather than a neut. adj. ; the
: of my very own; supply comparison is in level of care not pain
, possession adj. (neuter) and an : is a concern; is subject
46 ILIAD 6.451-460

451

, 452

, 453

, 454

, 455

, 456

457

, 458

459

, 460

, -: against one's will, 1 -, : a brother, 5


, : necessity, force, constraint, 1 , : dust, a cloud of dust, 4
, -, : a lord, master, 4 , -, -: strong, stout, mighty, 5
-: rob (acc) from (acc), deprive of 2 , -, : Messeis, 1
, , : Argos, 3 , -, -: as much as, many as; all who, 6
: to be best, be the bravest, 2 : to fall, fall down, drop, 5
, -, -: tearful, 3 , , : water, 3
, : tear (neuter ) 5 , : Hypereia, 1
, : Hecabe, 4 : to weave; devise, 3
, -, -: free, of freedom, 2 : to carry or bear constantly, 1
-: to lie upon, be shut, set to, 1 -, -, : bronze-clad, 1
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7 : to pour, shed, 5
, : web (on a loom), loom, 3

451 ...: for; objective wouldand you would; potential opt.


genitives in apposition to : fem. nom. sg. pple.
452 ...: might fall; potential opt. : at the bidding of another;
as alternative to fut. indicative gen. place from from the side of or
: many; 3rd decl. variation for gen. of agent (bidden) by another
, nom. pl. 457 : (with)in; gen.
453 : under; place where or equivalent of place within or place from which
to under the power of, at the hands of 458 : many times, often; adv. acc.
454 : as much as (the painis a : fut., supply acc. obj.
care) for me; correlative with 459 : will say; anticipatory aor. subj.
in 6.450; adverbial acc. (acc. of extent) denotes imminent future action, see p.72
or inner acc., i.e. as much a care as: : nom. sg. aor. pple
supply from line 450 ...: pouring down; tmesis
: objective gen. of with fem pple modifies missing fem. acc.
: whenever...; general (indefinite) 460 : this here (is); supply
temporal, + pres. pass. subj. : used to, was accustomed to
455 : nom. sg. aor. be the best; -- indicates iterative impf.
456 ......: both you : at; explanatory inf.
ILIAD 6.461-470 47

, . 461

462

. 463

, 464

. 465

466

467

, , 468

, 469

. 470

, -, -: topmost, top, excellent, 7 : to lean, recline, lie down, 3


, : pain, distress, grief, 5 , : bosom, lap; hollow, 5
: to keep off, ward off, defend, 2 , : helmet, 5
-: to fight around, 1 , : plume (on a helmet), 2
: to be dazed, distraught, bewildered, 4 , -, -: young; new, novel, strange, 2
: again, in turn; further, moreover, 6 : to nod, 1
: back, back again, backwards, 4 : to notice, perceive; think, suppose, 6
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 : stretch out, reach for; hand, give 3
, -, -: fearful, terrible, strange 5 , -, : dream, vision, sight, 1
, -, -: slavish, servile, of a slave, 1 : until, before, 8
, : being dragged off, 1 : to learn by hearsay or inquiry, 4
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 : to be frightened, alarmed, terrified 1
: I will say or speak, 3 , : nurse, 4
-, -: well-girdled, 1 , -, -: such, 2
: to cry out, shout, 1 , - -: glistening, shining, bright, 7
: and, 3 , : copper, bronze, 9
-, -: shaggy with horsehair, 1 , -, : want, need (+ gen), 1
-, -: horse-taming, 4 , -, -: heapen up, mounded, 1
: to conceal, cover, 5

461 : among...; partitive 465 : before (I) hear; governs an inf.


462 ...: thus; 3rd sg. , (here aor.), which in turn governs a gen.
concluding what began in 6.459 : at least; restrictive and emphatic
: dat. of possession : at all; adverbial acc. or inner acc.
: fut. deponent 466 : his; , possessive adj.
463 : dat. sg. modifies : governs a partitive gen. object
: inf. of purpose 468 :3rd sg. aor. pass.
following closely after : at the sight of; acc. of respect
464 : acc. sg. pf. pple : nom. aor. pass. pple
...: nom. subj. 470 : terribly; inner acc. of
...: may!; opt of wish : pple modifies missing
(as often in main verbs without ) and
tmesis, is extensive: over
48 ILIAD 6.471-480

471

, 472

473

474

475

, 476

, , , 477

, 478

479

480

, -, -: good, brave, noble, 6 -: by force, by might (instrumental of )1


, -: better, 4 -: to set down, lay, put, place, 1
: to be lord, master (dat); rule, 2 , : helmet, 5
-: to approach, come back, 5 , , : the head, 3
-, -: very distinguished, stately 1 : to kiss, 1
: straightway, at once; presently, 3 : to shake, brandish; quiver, 5
, : violence, force, power, 3 , -: bright-shining, 1
, -, -: gory, 2 , : mistress, queen, 8
: to laugh, 2 , - -: glistening, shining, bright, 7
, : spoils, loot; an enemy's armor, 3 , -, : the earth, ground, 3
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 : in this way, so, thus, 5
-:, to pray, pray to, 2

471 : laughed out; tmesis, sg. translated as just grant or grant now
though the subject is plural : aor. ; is acc.
472 : , acc. sg. subject. and is acc. predicate
: aor. mid. (stem ) 477 : just as I in fact; is
473 : this; i.e. the fem. adverbial, emphasizes : in the
: aor. very way, cf.
474 : his; , possessive adj. 478 : same sense as ... above
: bounced; aor. , perhaps in : gen. with
the sense of dandle on ones knee 479 : maysay; or let opt. of wish
: dat. pl. of means, : than; gen. of comparison
475 : 3rd sg aor. : this here one (is); i.e. Astyanax
: to Zeus : by far, far; adverbial (acc. of
476 ...: vocative direct address extent) modifies comparative
: grant that; aor. imperative 480 : pple - (stem -)
: lends emphasis to the imperative, : see above, Astyanax is subj.
Anastrophe is strictly speaking the return of the accent to the penult of some prepositions
when the object precedes it. We use the term in general to denote the inversion of word order:
p. 88 ( ) 85 ( )
96
( ) 105 ( )
ILIAD 6.481-490 49

, . 481

482

483

, 484

485

, 486

487

, 488

, , . 489

, 490

, : lot, portion, share; fate, destiny, 6 -, -: fragrant, smelling of incense 1


: to distress, grieve, 1 , : bosom, lap; hollow, 5
: to laugh, 2 : to take care of, attend; receive, 2
, -: strange one, god-touched (voc) 4 : very, very much, exceedingly, 2
, -, -: tearful, 3 , : lot, portion, part; fate, destiny, 4
: to accept, receive; wait for, expect 5 : to notice, perceive; think, suppose, 6
, -: hostile, destructive; enemy, 4 , : a house, abode, dwelling, 6
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 : to name, call by name, 4
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 14 , -, : husband, 3
: , when, whenever, 1 -: to send forth, throw forth, 1
, : work, labor, deed, act, 8 : above (+ gen.); beyond (+ acc.), 4
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7 : to rejoice, be glad; fare well, 2
-: pat with hand, stroke, caress 1

481 : nom. sg. aor. pple 486 : vocative direct address


: may; 3rd sg. aor. opt. pass. ......(): dont at all
deponent negative command; mid. imperative
: in her; acc. of respect : in; dat. place where
482 : thus 487 : any; before enclitic
: dat. pl. : beyond what is due; 6.333
: 3rd sg. aor. : fut. - + dat. of
483 : and she; and this one compound verb
: 3rd sg. aor. mid. 488 : periphrastic for
: in; dat. place where pf. mid inf. (pf. mid. pple + inf.
484 : acc. sg. modifies ), is acc. subj. and
, aor. pple modifies ; a beautiful line is obj.. positioned for emphasis
depicting the emotions of all three 489 , : modify
485 : dat. of means : is an emphatic negative
: aor. : first; adverbial acc.
: began to speak a word : is born; comes to be aor.
: called (him) out by name; subj. in a general temporal clause
tmesis; Hector is subject 490 : your very own; fem. sg.
50 ILIAD 6.491-500

, 491

492

, , . 493

494

495

, . 496

497

, 498

, . 499

500

: straightaway, quickly, at once, 3 , -, -: stout, rich, big; blooming, 2


-, -: man-slaying, 2 : to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8
: to wail, groan, weep, 5 , -, , : horse-tailed, 1
, : weeping, wailing, groaning, 2 , : web (on a loom), loom, 3
, : tear (neuter ) 5 : to bid, order, command, exhort, 5
-: to be born in, 1 : to reach, come upon, find, 6
-: within, at home, 2 , : helmet, 5
-: to awaken; break out among, 1 : most of all; certainly, especially, 7
: to keep turning round, 1 : to be a care or concern for (dat, gen), 4
-: to go, approach, go to and fro, 2 : to dwell in, inhabit, 3
, : work, labor, deed, act, 8 , : a house, abode, dwelling, 6
: well, 7 , - -: glistening, shining, bright, 7
, , : alive, living, 5 : to utter, speak, 6
, : distaff, 1 : to pour, shed, 5

491 ...: bothand fem pple modifies missing


: object of 497 :
492 : will be a care for; + dat. : well-peopled, well-built
493 : dat. pl. 498 : aor. mid.
: who; relative 499 ...: in all of whom; lit. in
: 3rd pl. pf. - whom all relative, dat. compound verb
494 : nom. sg. aor. pple : aor. -
: aor. mid. (stem -) 500 ...: whowailed for; 3rd pl. impf.
495 : plpf. or possibly aor. of the verb
496 ...: pouring down; tmesis : his own; , dat. sg. possessive

and -: The word , associated perhaps with , is a fair share, lot or


portion. In regard to death, ones lot becomes ones fate or destiny.61,72, 102
p.34 in due measure, duly, rightly (according to ones fair share)
34, 49 beyond due measure, unduly, not rightly (beyond ones fair share)
52 in due/suitable/the right time (within a duly allotted time, adv. acc.)
53 a righteous/reasonable/suitable man (man living within his share)
ILIAD 6.501-510 51

501

, . 502

, 503

, , , 504

, . 505

, , 506

, 507

, 508

, 509

, 510

, : splendor, glory, beauty, 1 : to stomp, strike with a hood, 1


: to start, spring, leap up, 4 : to exult in, bear oneself proudly, 1
: to be well-fed (only as aor. pple) 1 : to wash, bathe, 1
: up, upon (+ dat.); up to, on to (+ acc.), 6 , : Paris, 4
-: to break off, break away, 1 , -, -: varied, many-colored, 2
, : chains, bindings, bonds, 1 , : river, stream, 1
: to delay, linger, be long, 2 -: to flee away, escape, avoid, 1
: to be accustomed (pf. ), 1 : to set in motion, drive; hasten, 5
, -: fair-flowing, 1 , -, -: stalled, standing, placed, 1
, -, -: divine, immortal, 1 -, -: returning, turning back, 2
: to go, come, approach, arrive, 5 -, -, -: high, lofty, tall, 2
, : horse, 8 : aloft, on high, 1
, - : head, 6 , : manger, 1
-: to put on (clothing), go into, 1 , : hair, 2
- -: famous, renowned, heard of, 3 , : copper, bronze, 9
, -, -: swift, rapid, rushing, 2 , : shoulder, 7

501 ...: no longer; modifies Homer is often in the subj., see 22.93
: thought; 3rd pl. aor. mid. : over the plain; gen. of place
502 : fut. inf. in indirect within (type of partitive), see also 6.38
discourse; is acc. subject 508 : nom. sg. pf. pple
: 2nd aor. pple with : in the; gen. place
504 : this one; i.e. Paris within (type of partitive), see also 6.507
505 : aor. mid. 509 : holds; is neut. acc. direct obj.
: dat. pl., : tmesis, interpret with verb
: being confident in, trusting in 510 : dat. place where or dat. of
+ dat.; pf. describes the state (having compound verb: around his shoulders
entered and now enduring), nom. sg. pf. -: equivalent to a dat singular,
pple here the obj. of the pple; - often is
506 : just as when; a simile instrumental or locative in force, but
: stalled; i.e. stabled may substitute as a general dative
507 : nom. sg. aor. pple : see line 505
: 3rd sg. pres. subj. ; a simile in
52 ILIAD 6.511-520

511

512

513

, 514

, 515

. 516

517

, 518

, ; 519

520

, : brother, 2 : to bid, order, command, exhort, 5


: straightaway, quickly, at once, 3 : to be about to, to intend to, 4
, : summit, mountain-top, 2 , : place of pasture; pasture, 1
, : Alexander (Paris), 6 : to chat with, converse with (dat), 3
-: to reply, answer, 2 -: where, 2
: to delay, linger, be long, 2 -: to shine or show brightly 2
-, -: fateful, proper, due 2 , : Paris, 4
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 , : Pergamum (citadel of Troy) 1
: when, at the time when, 2 -: to speak to, address, 8
, -: honored (one) 3 , -, -: before; sooner, earlier, 3
, -, : accustomed place, haunt, 1 : swiftly, quickly, fleetingly, 2
, -, : the beaming sun, 1 : to set in motion, drive; hasten, 5
-, -: godlike, divine in form, 3 : to turn, whirl, 1
, : horse, 8 , , : quick, swift, hastily, 6
: to rejoice, exult, 1 : aor. overtake, reach, find, 2
-: to hinder, hold or draw back, 2 , : place, region, 1

511 : him; acc. sg. 3rd pers. pronoun : first; comparative degree
: neut. pl. subject agrees with 3rd 518 : vocative direct address
sg. verb : now quite truly; introducing
512 : so; ending the simile from 6.506 a yes/no question
: down from; gen. place from : even (though) being in
which haste; pf. mid. pple ; is an adv.
513 : dat. pl. of means that makes the pple concessive in sense
: just as; epic (cf. ) : am I hindering; 1st sg. pres.
: plpf. progressive, alternative to -
514 : impf. , supply Paris as obj. 519 : 3rd pl. aor.
516 : governs a future : duly, at a proper time; i.e. in
inf., in this case fut. mid. inf. in the alloted time, adverbial acc.
: his own; , fem. dat. sg. of : just as
517 : i.e. Hector
ILIAD 6.521-529 53

, , , 521

, 522

523

, 524

, . 525

, 526

527

, 528

. 529

-, -: ever-lasting, immortal, 1 -, -: heavenly, 3


, : shame, disgrace, 2 , : work, labor, deed, act, 8
: to hear, listen to, 6 -, -: well-greaved, 1
, -, -: strong, stout, 4 , : heart; soul, mind, 2
: to make amends for, appease, 1 , -, : mixing bowl or vessel, 1
-: to dishonor, disdain, 1 , : battle, fight, combat, 6
: to grieve, vex, annoy, 2 -: let go, release; be remiss; give up, 2
, -: good sir, lady, marvel (voc.), 4 : behind; in the future, later, 2
, , : willing, on purpose, 1 -: where; -, anywhere, 1
: to drive; drive off; set in motion, 5 , : work, labor, toil, 5
, -, -: free, of freedom, 2 , : Troy, 5
-, -: fateful, proper, due 2 : above (+ gen.); beyond (+ acc.), 4
(): for the sake of, because of, 8

521 : vocative direct address 525 : at the hands of; gen.


: you know, to be sure; particle place from which from the side of
: any; gains accent from enclitic : , gen. of
: a proper fellow; compare 519 526 : let us; 1st pl. hortatory subj. of
: was; relative clause of characteristic, (stem -), see p. 31
opt. replaces subj. in secondary seq. : these things; i.e. the trouble
522 ...: would dishonor; potential between the brothers, neut. pl. acc.
aor. opt. : fut. mid.
: your work in war; Hector ...: in the hope that grant
draws attention to Paris fighting skills (that the Trojans); 3rd sg. aor. subj.
: 2nd sg. pres. , Att. , see pg. 28
523 : 2nd sg. pres. - 527 : for; dat. pl. of interest governed
: i.e. does not have the will by the aor. inf.
524 : 3rd sg. pres. pass. 528 : to set up; aor. inf.; supply
...: whenever I hear; , a the Trojans as the subject
general temporal clause: + 1st sg subj : mixing bowl of
-: , - indicates freedom; add. direct obj. of the inf.
gen. place from which and at times, as 528 : aor. pple , modifies
here, a genitive in general the missing acc. subject of ,
: reproaches; acc. direct object i.e. the Trojans
Homer's Iliad
Book 22
Iliad 22.01-10 55

, 2

, . 4

. 6

, , , 8

; 9

, . 10

: to heal, cure; quench, 1 , : lot, portion, part; fate, destiny, 4


-, -, -: immortal, divine, 1 , : fawn, young deer, 2
-: to cool off, grow cold; faint, 1 , -, -: deadly, destructive, 4
-: unceasingly, vehemently, (adv) 2 : to bind fast, shackle, 1
, : Apollo, 5 , -, : son of Peleus, Achilles, 5
: nearer, 3 , -, : Peleus, 3
: to learn, note, realize, know, 6 : to drink, 1
, -, : thirst, 1 -: before, in front of (gen.) 4
: to pursue, follow; prosecute, 8 : yet, up to this time, 3
, : battlement, 1 , : a shield, 5
: as, like as, just as, 2 , : Scaean (gates), 5
, -: mortal, liable to die, 2 , , : quick, swift, hastily, 6
, - () : sweat, 1 : why in the world? what? ( ), 2
: to lean, recline, lie down, 3 , : Phoebus Apollo, 3
: to become angry, rage, 1 , : shoulder, 6

1 : thus they; demonstrative 5 : there; in this very place


: throughout; in extensive in sense : aor. inf.
: pf. act. pple :
2 : (), acc. sg.; cooled off the 6 : and
sweat, verb is impf. 7 : began to address; inchoative
: 3rd pl. aor. impf.
3 : pf. mid. 8 : vocative, direct address
: dat. place where : dat. pl. of means,
4 : governs a gen. object 9 : (you) yourself; intensive, 2nd sg.
: 3rd pl. impf. : though; nom. sg. pple , the pple
: , neut. pl. acc. is concessive in sense
: dat. of place where 10 : 2nd sg. aor.
4 : aor. pple : that
and : Just as (p. 50), p.49, 55, 85, 98, denotes a distributed part, lot, portion or
due measure, is also used with and , and in regard to death can denote ones fate
or destiny. p.75,91 (cf. (), heart) is specific to ones lot in death: fate, or destiny.
56 Iliad 22.11-20

, , 11

, . 12

, . 13

14
, , , 15

16

. 17

, 18

, . 19

, . 20

-: to take away from, remove, 2 , -, -: deadly, destructive, 4


: to hinder, mislead; hurt, 2 (): backwards; in the future, later, 6
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 : to be sorely angered, very angry, 2
: fear, dread, shrink from, feel awe, 4 -: to be at hand, be present, 2
: hither, here, 3 , : work, labor, toil, 5
, -, : power, wealth, strength, 1 : until, before, 8
: hem in, confine; pin down (aor. ) 3 -: to speak to, address, 8
- come to, arrive at, 1 : easily, 2
-, : far-darter, 2 (): to save, rescue, keep, 3
: here, hither, there, thither, 3 : to pay a price; mid. make pay, punish 1
, -, : glory, majesty, 6 , : revenge, vengeance, payback, 1
: to bend, incline; withdraw, 1 : to turn, change 2
: to be a care or concern for (dat, gen), 4 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
, -: fated, alloted, destined, 1 , -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7
: (by biting) with teeth, 1

11 : action in the past; 3rd pl. aor. ()


: for you; with 17 : before; governs an inf., translate as
: not at all; is an inner acc.: any a finite verb
care 18 : but as it is; but now, commonly
: relative, acc. pl. follows past potential and contrafactual
12 : you know, in fact conditions to return the reader to what is
: 3rd pl. aor. pass. in fact true
: 2nd sg. aor. pass. (): 2nd sg. aor. mid - as
13 : not; emphatic denial in line 17, the 2nd aor. stem is
: fut. : and these; relative
: : 2nd sg. aor. (not a pple)
14 : becoming; inceptive aor. pple 19 : not at all; is inner acc.: any
: in foot; acc. of respect fear
15 : superlative adj., vocative : since; causal
16 : nom. sg. aor. pple 20 : would should;
: many would have; past future-less-vivid condition ( + opt.,
potential ( + aor. ind) is an unrealized + opt), here opt. and -:
Iliad 22.21-30 57

, 21

, 22

23

. 24

, 25

, 26

, 27

28

. 29

, , 30

, -: prize-bearing, victorious 2 , : harvest-time, time between Siris


, : dead of darkness (of night), 2 and Acturus, 2
-, -: conspicuous, clear, 1 , : the eye, 4
, , : star, 8 , , : chariot, wagon, 3
, : sunlight, sun rays, glare, 2 -: to shine or show brightly 2
, -, : elder, old man, 8 : , to, toward; near, 4
-, : surname, name, 2 : easily, deftly, lightly, 2
-: to speed to; act. put in motion, 2 : to set in motion, drive; hasten, 5
: to run, rush, 5 , - : sign, mark; grave-mound, 5
, : horse, 8 : along with, with, together (+ dat.), 6
: to call, summon, invite, 6 : to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
, -, -: light, nimble, swift, 3 : to stretch out, draw out, extend, 2
, -, -: bright, radiant, 1 : to show, point out; mid. appear, 4
, -, : night, 5 : to think, devise, be prudent, 6
: to handle, ply; distribute, 2 , , : Orion, 1

21 : speaking thus; aor. pple : just as; begins a simile, see l. 21


: thinking proud thoughts : pf. mid. pple -
: plpf. : on the plain; see l. 23
22 : just as; epic , a simile 27 : duringgen. of time within
-: typically instrument, : 3rd sg. ()
indicates a general dative : to him; dat. of reference +
23 : who 28 : in; dat. of time when
: 29 ...: which; i.e. the star,
: epic , leave untranslated : epic , leave untranslated
: 3rd sg. pres. subj. (): acc. predicate, i.e. the star Sirius,
: on/within the plain; gen. of place known as the Dog star
within (type of partitive) : call (x) (y); with a double acc.
24 : so Achilles..; ends the simile 30 : superlative adj.
: this one; i.e. Achilles : which; emphasizes the clause
: aor. unaugmented (aor ) : epic , leave untranslated
25 : dat. of means : is made; is wrought + nom.
26 : acc. sg. pple pred. (here neuter); pf. pass.
58 Iliad 22.31-40

31

. 32

, 33

, 34

35

, 36

37

, , 38

, 39

, , 40

: adv. insatiably, continually, 1 : to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8


-: without, free from; adv. far away, 5 : to stay, remain, abide; await, 5
-: to hold up; suffer, endure, tolerate, 4 : to cry out in grief, 3
, , : a mortal, human, 3 , -, -: alone, lone, only, 6
: to cry out, shout, 1 : to stretch out, reach for, 1
, -, : elder, old man, 8 , -, : son of Peleus, 5
, -, -: wretched, poor, miserable, 3 , : fate, death, 3
, -, -: pitiable, piteous, 2 -: before, in front of (gen.) 4
-: to pursue, drive, direct, 3 , : burning heat; fever, 1
: to run, rush, 5 , : chest, breast, 5
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 3 : soon, presently; quickly, forthwith, 6
, : the head, 3 , -, : a child, 5
: to strike, smite, 1 : upward, aloft, on high, 1
,: to shine, give light, radiate, 2 , -, -: stronger, more powerful, 2
: to beg, pray, entreat, supplicate, 6 , : copper, bronze, 9

31 : so; ending the simile from 22.26 common with


: this ones; demonstrative 37 : began to address (acc) to
: (while) running; or as he was (acc.); inchoative impf. with double acc.
running, cirumstantial pple. : neuter pl. object of
32 : aor. : nom. sg. pres. pple
: still Priam ...: dont wait for; neg. imperative,
: dat. pl. of means, the verb is transitive
33 : aor. mid. pple - 38 : vocative direct object
34 : loudly; greatly, adverbial acc. : acc. sg.
: aor. pple 39 : so thatmay not; purpose, 2nd sg.
: impf. aor. subj. -
36 : had stopped; had stood still, 40 : by; dat. of agent
thus was standing plpf. : nom. aor. passive pple
: pf. act. pple : since
: with; dat. of association is : by far, far; acc. of extent
Iliad 22.41-50 59

41

42

43

, 44

. 45

, , 46

, 47

, . 48

, 49

, 50

: would that, 1 , : Laothoe, 1


, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 , -, : Lycaon, 1
-: to loose from; mid. ransom 2 , : an island, 1
, -, : anguish, distress, grief, 4 , -, -: as much as, many as; all who, 6
, , : vulture, 1 : to sell, come to sell, 1
: to be able, can, be capable, 6 , : Polydorus, 1
(): two, 4 , : mind, gut, midriff, 1
: to eat, 4 , : army, 2
: hem in, confine; pin down (aor. ) 3 , -, -: hard-hearted, cruel, 2
: within, at home, 2 : soon, presently; quickly, forthwith, 6
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7 -, -, -: far off, distant, 1
: bereft of (+ gen.), 1 -, -, -: so very, so much, 1
: to live, 2 , : copper, bronze, 9
: to lie down, be laid, 9 , : gold, 4
, , : ruler, lord, master, 1

41 : would that; introduces 47 : aor. inf.


an opt. of wish; aor. opt. , p. 25 : being hemed in; aor. pass. pple
...: so as; so muchas in a gen. abs.
much as, correlatives; acc. of extent 48 : whom; relative
which modifies : dat. of interest
42 : supply : aor. mid.
: 3rd sg. pronoun, acc. 49 : truly; is not copulative; it may be
...: would; potential opt. emphatic and is most likely superfluous.
43 : lying (dead); pres. mid. pple ...: we will perhaps
: dat. of possession ransom; fut. mid. indicative with ,
...: would go; i.e. depart not untranslated, has conditional force; or
arrive, potential opt possibly an anticipatory aor. subjunctive
44 : made (x) (y); aor. often has describing an imminent future action,
this meaning with a double accusative often with passion or feeling
45 : nom. sg. aor. pple 50 ...: for; gen. of price
: upon + gen. : it is; i.e. the gold and bronze
46 : dual acc.
60 Iliad 22.51-60

. 51

, 52

, 53

54

, . 55

, , 56

, 57

, . 58

59

, 60

, -, : ones lifetime, life; soul, 1 , -, : glory, majesty, 6


, : pain, distress, grief, 5 , -, -: short-lived, 1
, : Altes, 1 , -: of famous name 1
: to deprive from (gen), 1 : to give, grant, 2
, -, : elder, old man, 8 : stretch out, reach for; hand, give 3
, , : old age, 2 , : threshold, 2
-, -: ill-fated, unlucky, 2 , : son of Peleus, 4
-, -: wretched, unhappy, 3 : easily, (') 1
-: to come to, 3 (): to save, rescue, keep, 3
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 , -, : a child, 3
: already, now, at this time, 4 , -, -: Trojan, 4
: ( ) if, 3 : to think, devise, be prudent, 6
, : son of Cronus, Jupiter, 2

51 : many (gifts); i.e. large dowry : so that; purpose; aor. subj.


: to his daughter; fem. dat. indirect 57 : masc. and fem.: 3rd
object decl. masc. ( core vocab., ,
52 : but if; compare in l. 49 ) and 1st decl. fem. adj. ( - -)
: 3rd pl. pf. ...: do not; you should not
: prohibit subjunctive ( + 2nd sg. aor.
: gen. sg., see pg. 26 subj.)
53 : in my heart and 58 : for.; dat. of interest
to your mother; a lack of parallelism, dat. : of your dear life; from
place where, dat. of interest, and () your dear life, gen. of separation
is dat. of possession : you should not; supply , 2nd
: aor. mid. prohibitive subj.; aor. subj.
54 : for; dat. of interest 59 : and in addition; and besides
55 , ...: future-more-vivid : me, this wretched man
condition ( + + aor. subj., fut. ind.), : being conscious, being
fut. mid. ; = , aor. subj. mindful; i.e. having
: nom. aor. pass. pple : aor. act. imperative
here with dat. of agent, compare line 40 60 : whom; relative
56 (): sg. imperative
Iliad 22.61-70 61

, , 61

, 62

, 63

, 64

. 65

66

, 67

, 68

, 69

70

, - : blood, 4 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9


, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 , : daughter-in-law, 1
, : lot, portion, share; fate, destiny, 6 : to destroy, lose, consume, kill, 7
: to be restless, uneasy, distressed, 2 , -, -: deadly, destructive, 4
, -, -: painful, burdensome, 1 , -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
: to throw, shoot, hit, strike, 8 : to drink, 2
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 : , to, toward; near, 4
, -, : battle, strife, warfare, 1 , -, -: last, hindmost, 3
: to drag, drag away, 7 , -, : limb, 2
-: to look upon, 2 , : a child, 9
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7 , : of or at the table, 1
: or, eitheror, 7 : to raise (a child), rear, 4
, : room, chamber, sleeping room 7 : , to, toward, near, 4
, : a daughter, 7 : to beat, strike, smite, 2
, : door, 3 : to decay, waste away; destroy, 2
, -: (guard) of the gate, 1 , : copper, bronze, 9
: to ravage, plunder, sack, 1 , : eating raw flesh, ravenous, 1

61 : anastrophe conditional force; see 22.49;


: evils; object of , l. 62 and : in; dat. place where
following is in apposition to 67 ...: whenever; general
: acc. sg. aor. pple - temporal clause; aor. mid. subj.
62 : aor. pass. pple () 68 , : nom. sg. aor. act. pple.
64 : pres. pass. pple ,
: against, near + dat. place where :
65 : modifies fem. dat. pl. 69 : which; i.e. dogs
: under (the power of) 70 : these; demonstrative
66 : me myself; intensive pronoun ()...: see line 66 above
...: (perhaps) will drag. fut. : aor. pple
indicative + ; , untranslated, has
62 Iliad 22.71-80

. 71

, , 72

73

74

, 75

. 76

, 77

. 78

79

, 80

, -, : shame, respect, 2 , - : head, 6


: to bring shame upon; feel shame, 2 : to lie down, be laid, 9
-: to hold up; suffer, endure, tolerate, 4 , : the head, 3
-: to release, send up, give up, 6 , : bosom, lap; hollow, 5
: up, upon (+ dat.); up to, on to (+ acc.), 6 , : breast, 2
, : Ares; battle, 4 , -, -: young; new, novel, strange, 2
, , : a mortal, human, 3 : to lament, weep, bewail, 2
, : beard, chin, 1 , , : most pitiable, lamentable, 1
, -, : elder, old man, 8 , -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
: to tear, rend, slay, 1 (): that; because, 6
, : tear (neuter ) 5 : to be, become, 8
, -, -: wretched, poor, miserable, 3 , -, -: grizzled, grey, grisly, 3
: to drag, drag away, 7 -, : front gateway; doorway, 1
-: be fitting, suitable, right, seemly, 1 : to pull out, pluck, 2
, -, -: one of two, onethe other, 3 : to show, point out; mid. appear, 4
-: from or on the other side, 2 , : copper, bronze, 9
: to speak, say, 6 : to pour, shed, 5
, , : hair, hairs, 1

71 : for the young; dat. interest; epic whatever is seen, relative clause of
: it is completely fitting; characteristic; 3rd sg. aor. pass.
adv. acc. or acc. respect: in all things 74 : neut. sg. modified by neut.
72 : in war; dat. place where; if 75 : nakedness; i.e. the shameful parts;
personified, then dat. of agent by Ares acc. sg. equivalent to
: killed; aor. mid. pple with pass. : gen. absolute;
sense, being killed, aor. pple
: pf. pass. pple 76 : this very thing; subject
: dat. of means 77 : spoke; 3rd sg impf.
73 : to lie (dead) ...: pulled up (and out); tmesis
: subject; supply 3rd sg. 78 : impf.
: though; dat., aor. pple 79 ...: pouring down; tmesis
; suggests pple is concessive 80 : undoing; pres. mid. -
() : whatever appears; i.e. -: with the other (hand); = dat.
Iliad 22.81-90 63

81

, , 82

, 83

, , 84

, , 85

, 86

, , , 87

88

. 89

, 90

: be or feel ashamed of; respect, 5 : to weep, lament, wail, 6


: to keep off, ward off, defend, 2 -, -: banishing care, 1
-: without, free from; adv. far away, 5 , : bed, couch; burial couch, bier, 2
, -, -: Argive, 6 , : breast, 2
, : tear (neuter ) 5 : to remind, recall, recollect, 5
, -: hostile, destructive; enemy, 4 : we two ( acc., gen. and dat.), 3
: I, for my part, 4 -, -: richly endowed, 2
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 , : champion, leading man, 1
: within, inside, 2 , -: feathered, winged, 4
-: to extend, present, 2 , -, -: hard-hearted, cruel, 2
, : young shoot, young person, 2 , , : quick, swift, hastily, 6
-: to eat up, devour, 2 , : a child, 9
-: to kill, slay, 7 : to pour, shed, 5

81 : him; i.e. Hector compound adj () or dat. of association


: neuter acc. pl. (i.e. to fight with this one)
: began to address (x) to (y); 86 : even if
, 3rd sg. inchoative impf. : () , 2nd sg.
-contract verb, with a double acc. fut. mid. -
82 : these; i.e. her breasts, acc. obj. ...: no longer; not still
(): pres. mid. imperative 87 : whom; relative
: aor. act. imperative : aor.
83 : intensive pronoun with 88 : supply from above
: , dat. of compound verb ... : very far from us two;
: aor. greatly, is an adv. acc.; is a
84 : these things; verbs of remembering 1st pers. pronoun, dual gen. obj. of
and forgetting often govern a gen. object 89 : ships; dat. pl.
: aor. mid. imperative 90 : thus
85 : nom. pple : these
...: pres. mid. imperative two; dual demonstrative, dual nom.
: against this one; or before this pple, and dual 3rd pers. impf.
one; () governs a dat., : (their) dear son; carries
which may be construed as a dat. of the sense of a possessive: their own
64 Iliad 22.91-100

, 91

. 92

, 93

, , 94

95

96

97

98

, , 99

, 100

, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 : to stay, remain, abide; await, 5


-: to impose, put upon, 1 , -, -: of the mountain, 1
, -: unquenchable, unceasing, 1 : to be sorely angered, very angry, 2
, -, : shield, 4 , -: mighty, huge, 1
: nearer, 3 , : Polydamas, 1
: to eat, eat up, 1 -: to project, jut out, hold before, 1
: to look, see, 1 , : wall, rampart, tower, 7
, -, : serpent, dragon, 2 , -, -: terrible, fearful, dread, 1
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9 -: to withdraw, go back, 2
, : disgrace, reproach, 1 , -, -: shining, beaming, radiant, 4
: t coil, roll, 2 , : drug, poison, 1
: to lean, prop; press, 3 , : hole, 2
: to beg, pray, entreat, supplicate, 6 , : anger, wrath, 4
-, -: great-hearted, heroic, 3

91 : dual nom. pple : around in his hole; place where


: dat. object of impf. 96 : so;
: in; acc. of respect; 97 : anastrophe
92 : but he in fact : dat. pres. pple -
: awaited for; , transitive : nom. sg. aor. pple
: acc. sg. pple (stem ) 98 : becoming; inceptive aor.
93 : just as; introducing a simile nom. sg. pple
: over, near; dat. of place where : his; , possessive adj., thus is
: 3rd sg. pres. subj. ; a simile the obj. of : Hector is debating the
in Homer is often in the subj. but in Attic matter with himself
is more often in the indicative; see 6.507 99 : Ah me!; exclamatory
94 : nom. pf. pple : final - avoids elision
: i.e. the belief that snake venom ......, : if I enter..., will
comes from consuming poisonous plants say; future-more-vivid condition ( +
: 3rd sg. impf. indicative + subj., fut. indicative); is pres. subj.
95 : inner acc. look a terrible and (stem /) is fut. ind.
look, often translated as an adv.terribly 100 : as often, translate as an adverb
: pf. act.
Iliad 22.101-110 65

101

, . 102

. 103

, 104

, 105

106

. 107

108

, 109

. 110

: be or feel ashamed of; respect, 5 , -: more profitable, better, best, 3


: face to face, facing, 1 : to go or come back, return, 3
, : recklessness, rashness, 1 , -, : night, 5
, : violence, force, power, 3 : to destroy, lose, consume, kill, 7
-, -: trailing the robe, 2 , -, -: deadly, destructive, 4
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 : to stir, set in motion, rouse, 4
: I will say or speak, 3 : to, toward, 3
-, -: glorious, famous, 1 : before, in front; in place of (+ gen.), 2
: to lead, guide; consider, think, 2 , -, : a city, 5
: or, eitheror, 7 : at that time, then, , at some time, 8
-: to kill, slay, 7 , -, : Trojan (fem. adj.), 2
: to bid, order, command, exhort, 5

101 : who; relative : comparative


: kept urging, kept bidding; an : than me; gen. of comparison
iterative impf. is appropriate here 107 - -: the suffix - is instrumental
: dat. obj. of but can be equivalent to any dat., in this
102 : during...; anastrophe, , case the dat. obj. of the aor. pple
acc. sg. elision before aspirated vowel : aor.
: aor. mid. 108 : they will say; i.e. people in
103 : aor. mid. general
...: it would be; + impf. ind. is ...: it would be; potential opt. ( +
present potential, unrealized, opt.) , compare with line 103 above
: by far; acc. of extent : by far; acc. of extent
104 : but as it is; commonly follows 109 ...: eitheror
contrafactuals and unrealized potential : aor. pple modifies a
: 1st sg. aor. missing the acc. subject of
: because of my; 110 : superfluous repetition of above
dat. of cause : by; dat. of agent
105 : I feel shame before : to perish; aor. mid. inf.
106 ...: lestsay; clause of fearing; : gen. , see pg. 77
+ subj., here 3rd sg aor. subj.
66 Iliad 22.111-120

111

, 112

113

, 114

115

, , 116

, 117

, 118

119

, 120

, : Alexander (Paris), 6 -: to cover over, conceal; hide 1


: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9 -: to set down, lay, put, place, 2
, -: blameless, noble, 9 : to cover, hide, conceal, 1
: apart; round, about, 1 , -, -: hollow, hollowed, 2
-: asunder, apart; in two, 1 , : helmet, 5
, -, -: opposite, facing; in reply, 4 , -, : possessions, land, goods, 1
-: to distribute, apportion out, 1 - : from behind, backwards, back, 4
, : beginning, origin, 1 , : a quarrel, dispute, strife, 1
, -, : shield, 4 , -, -: embossed, 2
, : son of Atreus, Atreides, 4 , : oath, 1
: again, in turn; further, moreover, 6 , -, -: as much as, many as; all who, 6
, -, -: strong, 1 : to be, become, 8
, -, -: of the elders, 1 , -, : a city, 5
: to divide, distribute, 2 -: to Troy, 1
, : Helen, 6 -: to promise, 5
: to lean, prop; press, 3

111 , , , 116 : aor. mid.


: if; protasis of a long future- : which; no specific antecedent, this
more-vivid that breaks off without an relative takes its gender from the pred.
apodosis in l. 121; all aorist subj.: : beginning; predicate nominative
, , 117 : to give; fut. inf. is governed by
112 : on the side of above and in turn governs
113 : I myself; intensive pronoun ..; as a direct object
: nom. sg. pres. pple : dat. indirect object
: governs a gen. : to carry off; inf. of purpose
114 : dat. sg. 3rd pers. pronoun : an adverb, not a preposition
: governs infs. : apart from (this)
: 118 : , neuter acc. d.o.
: intensive pronoun, i.e. Helen : fut., parallel to
115 ...: quite all, as much as..; : pf.
the governing verb is in 117 120 : acc. sg. modifies
: ships : aor. inf.
Iliad 22.121-130 67

121

; 122

, 123

, 124

, . 125

126

, 127

. 128

129

. 130

: be or feel ashamed of; respect, 5 : to go, come, approach, arrive, 5


: in the same manner, just, as it is, 3 , : possessions, land, goods, 1
, -, -: better, 1 : to chat with, converse (dat), 3
, -, -: naked, unclad, unarmed, 2 , -: Olympian; Zeus, 2
-: to converse, debate, talk, 2 , -, -: which of two, 1
, , : oak tree, 1 : stretch out, reach for; hand, give 3
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9 , -, -: as much as, many as; all who, 6
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 (): that; because, 6
: within, inside, 2 , : maiden, virgin, girl, 2
-, -:, lovely, beloved, 1 , : rock, ledge, cliff, 1
: to shut up, shut in; keep, bar, 1 , : city; citadel, 1
, -, : strife, quarrel, contention, 1 : how?; : somehow, in any way, 5
, : answer to a prayer; boast, 1 -: drive together, 1
, -: unmarried, 2 : very quickly, very swifty, 1

121 : acc. obj. modifed by 126 : it is notpossible;


: as much as suggests an emphatic denial
122 : why truly; Hector breaks the future- 127 : with this one; to this, i.e. Achilles
more-vivid condition off without an : inf. subj.; see use in 6.516
apodosis and poses a question 128 : just as; in respect to which things
: my own; adj. used as a possessive relative is an acc. of respect; epic
123 ...: (I fear) lest...; fearing or : a maiden and a
possibly hortatory; aor. subj. young man; repeated for emphasis
: him; i.e. Achilles : dual 3rd pers. pres.
: nom. sg. pres. pple : dual dat., see l. 127
: but he; i.e. Achilles 129 : (it is) better; supply
124 : nor at all; inner acc. : in; dat. of respect
: fut. () : as quickly as possible
: acc. sg. pres. pple 130 : let us know; hortatory subj
125 : in the same way as; epic : to whichever one...;
: whenever; general temporal ...: will hold out; anticipatory
clause; + subj. (pres. subj. ) subj. (equal to fut. with anticipation)
...: take off; tmesis : neuter acc. object
68 Iliad 22.131-40

, 131

, , 132

133

134

. 135

, , 136

, , 137

. 138

, , 139

, 140

: to burn, blaze, 4 : to swoop, pounce, 3


-: to go up, approach, 5 (): backwards; in the future, later, 6
, : sunlight, sun rays, glare, 2 : to ponder, deliberate, 1
-: on the spot, here, here, there, 6 , -, : a mountain, hill, 3
, -, -: fearful, terrible, strange 5 , : dove, pigeon, 1
, -, -: right, right hand, 1 - -: full-fledged, winged (bird) 1
, -, -: like (dat) 1 , : son of Peleus, 4
, -, -: light, nimble, 2 -, : of Mount Pelias, Pelian, 1
, : Enyalus (person) 1 , -, : warrior, 3
-: to spring at, 1 , , : fire, 9
, : sun, 1 : easily, 2
: as when, just as, 2 : to brandish, shake, move to and fro 1
, -, -: equal to; peer to; like (dat) 2 : near, nearly, almost, just about, 3
, : hawk, falcon, 1 : to bear, endure, suffer, undergo, 3
, -: helmet-wavering, 1 , -, , : timid, 1
, -, -: swift, rapid, rushing, 2 , -, -: trembling, unsteady, 2
,: to shine, give light, radiate, 1 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
: to leave, forsake, abandon, 7 , : copper, bronze, 9
, : ashen (spear), ash tree, 3 , : shoulder, 7
: to notice, perceive; think, suppose, 6

131 : thus 136 : as, when


...: but this one, Achilles; : aor. (stem -)
name is in apposition to demonstrative ...: and no longer; not still
: dat. sg. 3rd person pronoun : , aor.
: aor. 137 : aor.
132 : nom. sg. pple : aor.
: of Mount Pelias; not Achilles : nom. sg. aor. pass. pple
133 : over; extensive in sense 138 : dat. pl.,
134 : around about; adv. or tmesis : being confident in; pf.
135 ...: eitheror 139 : in the mountains; dat. where
...: gen. nouns + pples 140 : pounces; gnomic aor. in a simile
modifying ; pple - (-) : after, behind; acc. place to which
Iliad 22.141-150 69

, 141

, 142

, 143

, . 144

145

, 146

147

. 148

, 149

150

, : always, forever, in every case, 5 : to screech, scream; howl, 1


: to burn, blaze, 4 , -, -: warm, 1
, -: traversed by wagons, 1 : to handle, ply; distribute, 2
-: to spring up, leap up, dart up, 1 , -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
: to command, order, bid, 7 : to fly, flutter, 4
, -: whirling, eddying, 1 , : spring, source, 1
, -, -: twofold, two; both, 1 , , : fire, 9
-: from near, from close at hand, 3 : to flow, run, stream, 2
, -, -: being eager, striving, 1 : to set in motion, drive; hasten, 5
-: to rush upon, spring, leap to, 1 , : Scamander river, 1
, : wild fig-tree, 2 , : lookout-place, height, 1
, -, -: windy, wind-blown, 1 , -, : thicket, 1
, -, -: straight (on), forthwith, 3 : flee from fear, retreat, shrink away, 1
: to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8 , , : water, 3
-, -: beautiful-, fair-flowing, 1 : out from under, under and away, 1
, : smoke, 1 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
, : spring, fountain (dual -), 2
, -, -: light, nimble, swift, 3

141 : and that one; dove, wall; gen. place from which, the road
: and this one; hawk, was not close enough for arrows to
: sharply; neut. sg, adverbial acc. strike Achilles
: nom. sg. pf. pple : over; acc. place to which
142 : ; neut. pl. : impf. mid.
: aor. inf. 147 ...: dual acc.
: and : 3rd pl. impf.
143 : so; ending the simile from l. 139 149 ... : one (spring)other (spring)
: this one; i.e. Achilles : and round about; adv. or tmesis
: began to; inchoative impf. : i.e. steam
144 : ; place to which 150 : from (the spring) itself
145 : and these : as if
146 ... : out from under the : supply ; gen. place from which
70 Iliad 22.151-160

, 151

, . 152

153

, 154

155

, . 156

, , 157

, 158

, 159

, , 160

, : prize (for a contest), 1 , : ice, 1


, -: better, 4 , -: made of stone, 1
: to strive to attain, gain, 1 -: where, 2
, : ox-hide, ox-hide shield, 1 : behind; in the future, later, 2
: to pursue, follow; prosecute, 8 -: to run by (aor. ), 1
: near (+ gen.); adv. nearby, 2 , : a washing-trough, washing-tank 1
, : be like, seem like (dat), 3 : to wash, clean, 1
, -, : a garment, clothing, 2 : until, before, 8
, : peace, 1 -: to flow forth, 1
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7 -: before, in front, 5
, -, -: one of two, onethe other, 3 , -: shining, glittering, 2
, -, -: wide, broad, spacious, 6 , , : water, 3
, - : summer, 1 , : hail, 1
, : a daughter, 7 , -, : snow, 1
, : sacrificial victim, 1 , -, -: cold, chill, frigid, 1
, -: swift, 2

151 : the other (spring) : acc. pl. subject of inf. (here 3rd
: in; dat. of time when decl. acc. pl.)
152 ...: oror 157 : in this (place); dat. of place where
153 : and there : dual 3rd pers. aor.
...: near by them
: there are; 3rd pl. pres. epic ( ) : (the one) fleeing,
() the other
155 : were accustomed to wash; 158 : far, by far; adverbial acc.
indicates an iterative impf. 160 : were trying to win; dual 3rd
: and pers. mid. conative impf. (Lat. conor try)
156 : formerly; adverb ...: which prizes; relative
: during; gen. of time within adj., nom. subj. with an epic
: before; governs an acc. + : by the feet of men; dat.
inf. construction; aor. inf. of means, ; i.e. in a foot race
Iliad 22.161-170 71

' . 161

162

, 163

, 164

165

166

167

, 168

169

, 170

, : prize (for a contest), 1 , : thigh-bones, 1


, -: prize-bearing, victorious 2 : to say, speak of, mention, 5
: to begin; rule, be leader of, 1 , -: single-hooved, 1
, , : cow, ox, bull; cattle, oxen, 6 : to lament, mourn, pity (gen), 1
: turn, 1 : to see, 3
: to pursue, follow; prosecute, 8 , : the eye, 4
: or, eitheror, 7 : alas!, 3
, : heart, soul, mind, spirit, 2 : swiftly, quickly, fleetingly, 2
-, -: horse-taming, 4 , -, : an end, boundary, limit, 1
, : horse, 8 -, -, : tripod, three-footed, 2
: to burn, kindle, 1 : thrice, three times, 3
, -: swift, 2 : to run, gallop, 1
-: to die, 2 , : soul, life, breath, spirit, 6
: to lie down, be laid, 9

161 : for the life; about the life, about; 3rd pers. dual aor. pass. pres. epic
i.e. the prize for this race is Hector's life
: 3rd pl. impf. 166 : dat. of mean (else )
162 : just as when; begins simile : and at (them); i.e. at the two men
: acc. place to which; i.e. the : 3rd pl. impf. mid.
turning points in a race, likely boundary 167 : and to these (gods); dat. ind.
stones or landmarks such as trees object
163 ...: this great prize; i.e. ...: bothand
the following 169 : dat. of means
: lies at hand : , pres. indicative
164 , : either, or; in apposition to 170 : who; relative
: gen. sg. pf. act. pple ...: for me; anastrophe
165 : so; ending the simile from 162 : gen. pl.
: these (two); dual nom. : ; neut. pl.
: whirled about, roamed : aor.
72 Iliad 22.171-180

, 171

172

. 173

, , 174

, 175

. 176

177

, , 178

, , 179

; 180

, : lot, portion, share; fate, destiny, 6 , -: mortal, liable to die, 2


, -, -: topmost, top, excellent, 7 , : Mount Ida, 1
-: at another time, at other times, 1 -, -: of dark clouds, 2
-, -: with bright lightning, 1 , : summit, crest, 1
: back, back again, backwards, 4 : to meditate, deliberate; devise, 1
-, -: bright-eyed, grey-eyed, 5 , -, -: of what sort, such, as, 3
: to pursue, follow; prosecute, 8 : long ago, 2
-, -: ill-sounding, 1 , : son of Peleus, 4
--: to set utterly free, 1 -, -: many-valleyed, -folded, 1
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7 : to give, furnish, offer, supply, 5
: already, now, at this time, 4 (): to save, rescue, keep, 3
: or, eitheror, 7 , , : quick, swift, hastily, 6
, : death, 8 : to consider, think; show, indicate, 2
, : goddess, 5

173 : , anastrophe : though; concessive pple


: dat. pl. of means 177 : i.e. Zeus
174 : come now; introduces two 178 : what sort of thing you speak
pres. mid. pl. imperatives of!, an indirect (not direct) interrogative
175 ...: whetheror; two indirect which may be used in main sentences to
questions governed by express surprise; compare this to Hera's
, : we are towe words at the death of Sarpedon 16.441-2
are to; deliberative. 1st pl. subj. 179 : destined; given over '
retained in ind. question; 1st pl. aor. common meaning for pf.
subj. , : to his lot; i.e. to death, ind. obj.
176 : for Achilles; dat. of interest 180 : aor. inf.

Independent Subjunctive is employed 4 ways in Books 6 and 22. See p. 22 for the first two.
3. Deliberative (direct question)1 time p.72 are we to save him or are we to kill
4. Anticipatory ( + subj.) 6 times p.105 he will suffer p.46 one will say
#4 is not used in Attic Greek. It expresses passionate expectation of an imminent future action.
Iliad 22.181-190 73

. 181

182

, , 183

, 184

, . 185

186

. 187

. 188

, 189

, 190

, -, : glen, hollow, bend, 1 : to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8


: to start, spring, leap up, 4 : to say, speak of, mention, 5
-: to reply, answer, 2 , : fawn, young deer, 2
-: unceasingly, vehemently, (adv) 2 : cloud-gatherer, -gathering, 1
, : glen, 1 , : mind, thought, reason, attention, 4
-: to drive off, 2 , -: Olympian; Zeus, 2
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 8 : in what way, in what direction, 2
, , : deer, 1 : to stir, set in motion, rouse, 4
-: to approve, praise (dat) 1 , -, : a mountain, hill, 3
: to do, perform, 2 : to stir up, rouse, encourage, 3
to draw back, rest from, leave off, 1 : before, formerly, in former time 6
, : bed, marriage-bed, 3 : to be, become, 8
-: to pursue, drive, direct, 3 -: to speak to, address, 8
, -, -: mild, gentle, 1 -, -, , : willing, earnest, 3
: to be of good heart, take courage, 2 , -, : a child, 5
, : head, 1 , : Tritogeneia (Athena), 1
: to drive into confusion, 1 , -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7

181 (): 3rd sg. impf. : no longer


: ; dat. sg. : -; neg. pres. imperative
: 1st pl. fut. 186 : he began to; inchoative impf.
182 : began to address; inchoative : fem. acc. sg. pf. pple
impf. 187 : aor.
183 : -; sg. pres. imperative : down from; gen place from which
...: not at all; inner acc. : fem. sg. aor. pple
: with; dat. of manner 188 : kept following after; , 3rd
equivalent to adverb sg. iterative impf.
: ; dat. sg. 189 : just as when; simile
184 : inf. -: in the mountains; , dat. where
185 : aor. act. imperative () 190 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: precisely, exactly : through; + acc. (Att. + gen.)
: your; ; dat. of possession
74 Iliad 22.191-200

, 191

, 192

. 193

194

, 195

, 196

197

. 198

199

200

, : always, forever, in every case, 5 -: to cower beneath, crouch, 1


: to start, spring, leap up, 4 : to escape notice of, forget (gen) 5
: to ward off (acc) from (dat), 1 , : dream, vision at sleep, 1
-: to track, search out, 1 : to set in motion, begin, urge, 3
, -, -: opposite, facing; in reply, 4 : as many times as, as often as, 1
-: to turn back, 1 -: to overtake, outstrip, 1
, -, : a arrow, missle, dart, 2 : to fly, flutter, 4
, -, -: Dardanian, Trojan, 2 , -, : son of Peleus, 5
: to pursue, follow; prosecute, 8 -, -: swift of foot, 1
: to be able, can, be capable, 6 : to, toward, 3
-, -: steadfast, continuous 2 -: before, in front of (gen.) 4
-, -: well-built, well-constructed 1 , -, : a city, 5
: to find, discover, devise, invent, 3 , : wall, rampart, tower, 7
, : a bush, shrub, 1 : how?; : somehow, in any way, 5
: to run, rush, 5 : so many times, so often, 1
-: down from above, 1 -: to flee out from under, escape, 1

191 : this one; i.e. the dog 195 : to dart; inf. of purpose
: even if; concessive : beneath; acc. place to which
...: bothand 196 ...: in the hope that he
: 3rd sg. aor. might; expresses the motive in
192 : yet secondary seq. (for + subj., see p. 28)
: until; 3rd sg. aor. subj. : from him
; add dog, hare as subj. and obj. : dat. pl. of means
193 : so..; ending the simile from l. 189 197 : beforehand; temporal
: impf. (alternate ) : would/used to/kept/was
194 : set out for (+ gen); 3rd sg. aor. accustomed to; iterative impf. -
opt. in general temporal clause in suggests customary action
secondary sequence ( + subj. in : nom. sg. aor. pple
primary sequence) 198 : on the side of the city
: for; obj. of 199 : just as; beginning a simile
verb, a variation of partitive gen. : (one) is able; add
depicting the desired end 200 ...: this onethat onethat one..
Iliad 22.201-210 75

, . 201

, 202

203

, ; 204

, 205

, 206

, . 207

, 208

, 209

, 210

(): to take away, raise, lift up, 6 , , : doom, death, bane, 3


: to escape, avoid, shun, 1 , : spring, fountain (dual -), 2
-: to nod in refusal, nod back, 2 , -, : glory, majesty, 6
: to face (opposite), meet, 1 , -, -: light, nimble, swift, 3
, : Apollo, 5 : to seize, clasp, lay hold of, 1
-: to arrive at, come, arrive, 1 , -: pointed, sharp, 1
: to throw, shoot, hit, strike, 8 , -, -: last, hindmost, 3
, : arrow, javelin (cf. ) 1 : how?; : somehow, in any way, 5
, -, -: second, 2 , : a scale (to weigh); talent, 1
: to be able, can, be capable, 6 , -: bringing long woe, 1
(): two, 4 , -, -: fourth, 1
: to allow, permit, let be, suffer, 4 : to stretch, draw, extend, 2
-: from near, from close at hand, 3 : at that time, then, , at some time, 8
-: to stir up, arouse, set in motion, 1 --: to flee, escape, 2
, : death, 8 , -, -: last, latter, 1
: to send forth, throw; let go, release, 2 , -, -: golden, of gold, 5
, - : head, 6

201 : so; ending simile from l. 199 205 : to his people; i.e. Achaians
: this onethat one : dat. sg. of means,
: impf; aor inf. 206 : , 3rd sg. impf. + inf.
: dat. of means : to send forth; shoot, inf.
: that one..; add 207 ...: lestwin; clause of fearing
: aor. inf.. governs opt. (aor. opt. ) in
202 ...... ...: could secondary sequence (subj. in primary)
have escaped, ifwere not drawing : nom. sg. aor. pple
near; equivalent to a mixed contrary-to- : and he; Apollo
fact ( + impf. ind, / + aor. ind.); : same construction as above, here
/ + aor. ind. alone is past potential an aor. opt.
203 ...: both adverbial acc. 208 : just when; implies exactness
204 : who; relative, i.e. Apollo : the fourth time; adv. acc.
: his; i.e. Hector, dat. of possession 209 : i.e. Zeus
: 3rd sg. aor. 210 : and thereon; and on (it)
76 Iliad 22.211-220

, , 211

, 212

, . 213

, 214

215

, , 216

217

. 218

, 219

220

(), -: insatiate (gen) 2 : to take, receive, catch, grasp, 5


: near, nigh, close by, 2 : to leave, forsake, abandon, 7
, -, -: in due measure, due, fated, 2 , : battle, fight, combat, 6
, : Apollo, 5 (), -, -: the middle of, 5
-, -: bright-eyed, grey-eyed, 5 : we two ( acc., gen. and dat.), 3
: to cut down, slay; tear, 1 : to go; depart, 4
-, : far-darter, 2 : to suffer, experience, 3
: to drag, drag away, 7 , -, : son of Peleus, 5
: to hope; expect, think, 1 : , to, toward; near, 4
: we, 2 , -: feathered, winged, 4
, : goddess, 5 : to sink, fall, incline downward, 1
: to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8 - -: glistening, shining, bright 7
-, -: horse-taming, 4 , : Phoebus Apollo, 3
, -, : glory, majesty, 6

211 ... `: one fateanother fate; for the Achaians, dat. of reference
+ , in apposition to dual : ships
212 (): the middle of the 218 : dual. nom. aor. pple
balances; i.e. scales : though being; concessive
: nom. sg. i.e. Zeus acc. sg. pres. pple governs acc. pred.
held the middle of the scales 219 ... : no longer, at any rate; or at
213 : impf. least, is restrictive and emphatic
: to Hades (house); add ...: is it possible for him; impers.
215 : aor. ...: periphrastic for
: pres. mid. pple perfect mid inf. (pf. mid. pple +
216 : at this very moment; just now aor. inf. ); subj. of ; see
: dual 1st pl. acc. pronoun; acc. subj. 6.488 for another example
of fut. inf. of : acc. pl. 1st pl. pronoun; Att.
st
: 1 sg. pf. 220 : not even if
: to Zeus; dat. sg. with vocative ...: should; potential opt., aor.
217 : fut. inf. ; is acc subj. opt.
: in the eyes of the Achaians; : many troubles; many things
Iliad 22.221-230 77

. 221

, 222

. 223

, , , 224

. 225

, 226

227

228

, , 229

230

: near, nigh, close by, 2 : to reach, come upon, find, 6


-, -: Aegis-bearing, 2 : to leave, forsake, abandon, 7
-: to take or draw breath, 1 , : ashen (spear), ash tree, 3
-, -: unyielding; stubborn, 1 : to go; depart, 4
: to overpower, use force, constrain, 1 -: to keep rolling before, 1
, : Dephobus, 4 , -: feathered, winged, 4
, : bodily frame, build, 1 , , : quick, swift, hastily, 6
: to pursue, follow; prosecute, 8 , : sound, speech, voice, 1
, : be like, seem like (dat), 3 : to rejoice, be glad; fare well, 1
- -: face-to-face, opposite (dat) 1 -, -: with bronze point, 1
: to lean, prop; press, 3 , -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7
, -: honored (one), 3

221 : + gen., i.e. keep 225 : 3rd sg. aor., see l. 222
coming as a suppliant making requests : upon
: Zeus : leaning; aor. pass. pple
222 : stop!; stand still!aor. act. 226 aor. mid.
imperative 227 ...: in and in; both are
: imperative - acc. of respect
223 : ; dat. with adj. - : began to; inchoative impf.
: let me; hortatory subj. (1st 228 : pres. mid. pple.
sg. reduplicated aor. subj. ) 229 (): vocative direct address
224 : and this one; Achilles : quite truly now
: 3rd sg. impf. 230 : , anastrophe
: in his heart : dat. pl. of means
Irregular Forms: city () much/many (adj. masc.) ship () temple ()
Sg. Nom.
Gen. , - ,
Dat. , ---
Acc. ,
Pl. Nom. , ,
Gen. ,
Dat. , ,
Acc. , ,
78 Iliad 22.231-240

. 231

232

233

, 234

, 235

, , 236

, . 237

238

, 239

, , 240

: to ward or keep off, resist, 2 , -: honored (one), 3


-, -: bright-eyed, grey-eyed, 5 , : goddess, 5
, , : relative, kinsman, -woman, 1 : to beg, pray, entreat, supplicate, 6
: grasp knees, implore, entreat, 1 : more, rather, much, 1
, : Dephobus, 4 : to notice, perceive; think, suppose, 6
, : Hecabe, 4 , : the eye, 4
(): for the sake of, because of, 8 : befor, formerly, in former time 6
-: within, inside, 2 , : mistress, queen, 8
: one after another, in order, 2 : to honor, pay honor, revere, 1
-: to come or come out, 3 : to bear, endure, suffer, undergo, 3
, (): comrade, companion, 5

231 : come on now : I have in mind; dat. pl.


, : let uslet us; place where,
hortatory aor. subj (one expects : supply acc.
, tt. ) 236 : you who; relative, 2nd pers. sg.
232 : this one; Athena : 2nd sg. aor.
233 : vocative direct address : aor.
: previously : dat. pl. of means
: far; adv. acc. (acc. of extent) 237 : from; gen. of separation
: 2nd sg. impf. : inf.
234 : among; i.e. brothers 238 : this one; i.e. Hector
partitive gen. 239 (): vocative direct address
...: which ; relative adj. : many times, often; adv. acc.
: 3rd sg. aor. but subj. plural 240 : , 3rd pl. pres.
235 : even more; adverbial : and around (me); adverbial
Type of Condition Protasis (if-clause) Apodosis (then-clause)
Simple + any indicative any indicative
Present General (Indefinite) + / + subj. (if ever) present indicative
Past General (Indefinite) + optative (if ever) past indicative
Future More Vivid + / + subjunctive future indicative
Future Less Vivid + optative (should) / + optative (would)
Contrary to Fact + past ind. (were/had) / + past (would/would have)
Iliad 22.241-250 79

241

. 242

, 243

, 244

245

, . 246

247

, 248

249

, , , 250

, , : every, quite all, 6 : we two ( acc., gen. and dat.), 3


-: on the spot, here, here, there, 6 : before, formerly, in former time 6
, -, -: gory, 2 , : grief, sadness, sorrow, 2
, -, -: hollow, hollowed, 3 , -, : Peleus, 3
, : spoils, loot; an enemy's armor, 3 , -, -: before; sooner, earlier, 3
-: within, at home, 2 , -, -: your, yours, 7
: to lead, guide; consider, think, 2 : near, nearly, almost, just about, 3
, -, -: straight (on), forthwith, 3 : to wear out, distress, afflict, 4
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 3 , -, -: of such kind, such sort, such 2
-: to kill, slay, 7 -: to tremble with fear or before, 1
, : cunning, craft, opportunism, 1 , : sparing, gruding use, 1
, -, -: mournful, baneful, ruinous, 3 : to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
: to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8

241 : such (trembling)!; inner acc. 247 : so


: impf. : pres. mid. pple.
242 : straightaway; adverb : in fact; adverbial
: dual nom. pf. pple : with cunning; dat. of manner
: let us..; hortatory subj. 248 : these (two)
...: let there not be at all sparing : just when
use of spears; neg. 3rd pers. imper. : 3rd pl. impf.
244 : so that; purpose, pf. subj. : against one another
: pple
...: whetheror; indirect question 249 : first; earlier adj. as adverb
: nom. sg. aor. pple 250 ...: no longer; not still
...: he will carry away; ...: just as; in the very manner
anticipatory subj. describes passionately as equivalent to ; here, just as Att.
an imminent future action, see. pg. 72
246 ...: he will be overcome; again, : previously
anticipatory subj.; aor. pass.
80 Iliad 22.251-260

, 251

252

, . 253

254

255

, 256

, 257

, , 258

. 259

260

-: to treat unseemly, dishonor, 2 , : endurance, steadfastness, 1


: to be taken or captured (aor ) 1 - -: famous, renowned, heard of, 3
-: to release, send up, give up, 6 , : witness, 1
, -, -: opposite, facing; in reply, 4 , : corpse, the dead, 3
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9 : again, once more; back, backwards, 3
, : agreement, pact; harmony, 1 -: to speak to, address, 8
-: to take away from, remove, 2 : to do accomplish, make, perform, 3
: hither, here, 3 : to strip off, 4
-, -: violent, vehement, terrible, 1 : to bear, endure, suffer, undergo, 3
-: to look upon, 2 : thrice, three times, 3
-: to come to, arrive at, reach, 1 : from under (his brow), 2
-: to give (besides), increase, 2 , : soul, life, breath, spirit, 6
-, : guardian, overseer, 1 , -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7
, : Zeus, 11

251 : 1st sg. more-vivid condition ( + + subj.,


252 : to wait for (you) attacking; aor. fut. ind.); fut. , 3rd sg. aor. subj.
inf. and 1st sg. aor. mid. -
: urged; sent forth; aor. - 258 ......, : whenever;
253 : aor. inf. general temporal clause (equivalent to a
...: I might take (you) or I future-more-vivid), aor. subj. ,
might be taken; i.e. kill or be killed; and 1st sg. fut. indicative
potential aor. opt. , : governs a double acc.: strip
254 : come now (acc) from (acc.)
: let us give (to one another) 259 : and thus, and in this way; i.e. in
our gods; hortatory aor. mid. ; the same way
i.e. let us take an oath : infinitive as imperative
: these; i.e. gods 260 : looking; nom. aor. pple.
255 : fut. dep. : 3rd sg. impf.
256 : adverbial acc. : in; acc. pl. of respect,
, ......: future-
Iliad 22.261-270 81

, , , 261

, 262

, 263

, 264

, 265

, 266

, . 267

268

. 269

, 270

: to speak in assembly, declare, 2 : we two ( acc., gen. and dat.), 3


, - : blood, 4 - -: of the same mind, united 1
, : warrior, spearman, 3 , : oath, 2
-, -: not to be forgotten, 1 , : Pallas Athena, 3
, : excellence; virtue, 1 , -, -: of every sort or kind, 1
, : Ares; battle, 4 : to fall, fall down, drop, 5
, , : lamb, sheep, (no nom.), 2 , -, -: trustworthy, faithful, 1
: straightway, at once, quickly, soon, 1 , -, : warrior, 3
: statiatewith (gen), give fill of (gen), 1 : until, before, 8
-: right through, continuously, 1 -, : agreement, covenant, 1
, -, -: one of two, onethe other, 3 -: bearing a bull's hide shield 1
, -, -: bold, courageous, stout 1 , : escape, means of avoiding, 1
, -, : lion, 2 : to love, befriend, 3
, : wolf, 1 : to think, devise, be prudent, 6
: to remind, recall, recollect, 5 : it is necessary, 1

261 : voc. direct address 266 : fut. mid.


...: negative imperative ......: until one (of us
: voc. direct address; i.e. not to two); acc. subj. and aor. inf. +
be forgiven or forgotten by Achilles partitive gen.
262 : just as : acc. sg. aor. pple
: there does exist; is neut. pl. subj. 267 : acc. obj. of inf.
, : between; for 268 (): pres. mid. imperative; as
dat. interest or possession: lions and often, verbs of remembering and
humans do not have forgetting govern a genitive
264 : they devise; is acc. obj. 269 ...: bothand; joining two acc.
265 : so; ending the simile predicates of the inf.
: it ispossible that; acc. subj. + inf. : inf.
: to be friends; inf. 270 ...: no longer
: nor at all; acc. of extent : ; dat. sg.
: dat. of possession :
82 Iliad 22.271-280

271

, . 272

, 273

274

, , 275

, 276

, , . 277

278

, , , 279

, 280

, -: in heaps, in masses, 1 : to speak, say, 6


: to escape, avoid, flee from, 5 : to seethe, rage, 1
: miss, fail, be deprived of (gen) 2 , -, : trouble, care, 3
, -: blameless, noble, 9 : escape notice; mid. forget (gen) 5
: up, upon (+ dat.); up to, on to (+ acc.), 6 , : fate, lot, destiny; death, 2
-: to poise and sway, 2 , : Pallas Athena, 3
-: take up, carry off, kidnap, 1 : to stick, fix, 4
: face to face, facing, before, 1 , -, : son of Peleus, 5
-: to pay back, pay for, atone for, 1 , -, : shepherd, 2
: back, back again, backwards, 4 -: look forth, catch sight of before 1
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 -: to send forth, throw, launch, 2
, -: casting a long shadow, 4 : yet, up to this time, 3
: to sit; sit someone down, set, 3 -: to fly over, fly past, 1
-, -: like, resembling (dat) 1 - -: glistening, shining, bright 7
, (): comrade, companion, 5 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4

271 : dat. of means 276 : 3rd sg. aor. pass.


: 3rd sg. fut. 277 : tmesis, aor. -
272 : whom; relative 278 : dat. indirect object.
: aor. : -, 3rd sg. impf.
: circumstantial pres. pple : impf. (, )
273 : he spoke; 3rd sg. impf. 279 : 2nd sg. epic aor.
: nom. sg reduplicated aor. : , voc. direct address
pple - : voc. direct address
: -, 3rd sg. impf. 280 : from Zeus; gen. of source
274 ... : but; a strong contrast, : did you know; 2nd sg. plpf.
which may be left untranslated; lit. in with simple past sense (- is a temporal
this respect on the one handin that augment)
respect on the other hand; acc. respect : truly to be sure, truly you know;
: looking face-to-face; i.e. is a particle
straight on without flight; aor. : you thought at least (that you
275 : aor. knew my fate); impf.
276 : crouched; sat
Iliad 22.281-290 83

, 281

. 282

, 283

, 284

285

. 286

287

. 288

, , 289

290

: to escape, avoid, flee from, 5 : to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8


, : might, strength ( dat.), 3 (), -, -: the middle of, 5
-: to poise and sway, 2 -, : the back (behind midriff), 1
-, -: quick of speech, glib, 1 , : story, word, speech, 2
-: to miss; lose, 2 : to be, become, 8
: to throw, shoot, hit, strike, 8 : to stick, fix, 4
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 8 , : son of Peleus, 4
, -: casting a long shadow, 4 , -, : suffering, misery, woe, 3
, -: less, smaller, 1 -: to send forth, throw, launch, 2
, -, -: easy, light, nimble, 2 , : a shield, 5
-, -: thievish, wily, cunning, 1 , : chest, breast, 5
: to speak, say, 6 : they, 6
, -, -: straight (on), forthwith, 3 -: to cower under, fear utterly, 1
-: to waste away, perish, 1 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4
: to take care of, attend; receive, 2 , -, : skin, body (: dat. sg.) 3
: escape notice; mid. forget (gen) 5

281 : someone; predicate of (): aor. imperative


...: cunning in words; : , dat. ind. object
adj. governs gen. of explanation 285 : aor.
(): 2nd sg. impf. : aor. mid. imperative
282 ...: so that I may; 286 ...(): would that you receive;
purpose, subj. (, ) aor. mid. opt. of wish.
: gen. obj. of : it entire(ly); refers to neuter
283 : not; emphatic denial ; is neuter: translate as adverb
... : not to 287 ...: would; potential opt.
me fleeing but to me pressing straight on : comparative, pred. adj.
: anastrophe : gen. absolute; aor.
: 2nd sg. fut. 288 : you (are); supply linking verb
284 : straight on; adverb 289 : he spoke; 3rd sg. impf.
: pf. pple; supply dat. sg. : nom. sg reduplicated aor.
-: expecting gen. obj. of , : -, 3rd sg. impf.
but - is place where: through in 290 , -: 3rd sg. aor. indicative
84 Iliad 22.291-300

291

, 292

, . 293

294

. 295

296

297

298

, . 299

, , 300

: to ask, ask for, beg, 2 , : death, 8


-: without, free from; adv. far away, 5 : to call, summon, invite, 6
-: to make glance off or wander, 1 -: to be downcast, be mute, 1
: to call aloud, shout, 3 -, -, , : white-shielded, 1
, -, : a arrow, missle, dart, 2 , , : long, far, distant, large, 5
: to learn, note, realize, know, 6 , -: ashen, 2
, : Dephobus, 4 (): that; because, 6
-: from near, from close at hand, 3 -: to be at hand, be present, 2
-: near, at hand; near to (+ gen.), 2 : alas!, 3
: I, for my part, 4 , : a shield, 5
-: to flee out away, escape, 1 : at a distance, far off, 3
-: to deceive, 1 : to utter, speak, 6
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 : to be angry, become angry, 1
, -: to no purpose, fruitless, 1 , -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7
, : hero, warrior, 5

291 : 3rd sg. aor. pass. : 3rd sg. impf.


: off/from; gen. of separation 296 : 3rd sg. aor.
: became; inceptive aorist : her own; , fem. dat. pl.
292 (): because :
: his; dat. of possession : and
293 : 3rd sg. aor. 297 : quite truly now
: other; : to death; place to which
294 : he called (by name) 298 : I thought; 1st sg. impf.
: loudly; adverbial acc. : acc. subject of inf.
295 : impf. with a double acc.: : inf. -
asked (acc) for (acc) 299 : this one (is); supply
: but this one; i.e. Deiphobus : within
: not at all 300 : my; dat. of possession
Iliad 22.301-310 85

301

, 302

. 303

, 304

. 305

, 306

, 307

, 308

309

310

, : eagle, 1 (Att. ): indeed, in truth 1


-, -: ingloriously, without glory, 1 , : lot, portion, part; fate, destiny, 4
, : avoiding, escape, 1 , -, : a cloud, mass of clouds, 1
, -, -: soft, weak, feeble, 1 : to swoop, pounce, 3
-: destroy, kill, slay; mid. perish, 4 , -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
, , : lamb, sheep, (no nom.), 2 : long ago, 2
: seize, carry off, kidnap, 2 : before, formerly, in former time 6
-: without effort, without a struggle 1 -, -, , : willing, earnest, 3
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 8 , , : cowering (animal), 1
: hem in, confine; pin down (aor. ) 3 : to learn by hearsay or inquiry, 4
-, -: attaining his aim, 1 : to do accomplish, make, perform, 3
, -, -: dark, gloomy, 2 , -, -: thick, stout, strong, 1
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7 : to stretch out, extend, 1
: to reach, come upon, find, 6 -, -, -: high-flying, 1
, : hare, rabbit, 1 , : sword, 2
, : soft part of body, flank, 1 : to utter, speak, 6

301 : nom. subject, add linking force of , and often follows negative
...: since indeed, it statements
seems, this has long since been; 305 : nom. sg. aor. pple , this line
+ impf. () indicates a truth just is in direct contrast to above
realized: true in the past and now true, : something; acc. obj., modifies
translated in the pres.; + pres. : for (those) to come; i.e.
suggests an act lasting to the present people in the future; fut. pple ; see
: this; i.e. Hectors death 6.358 for Helens similar awareness
: dearer; comparative : aor. inf. of purpose
302 ...: to Zeus and the son 306 : aor. mid.
: previously at least; see 301 307 : which; relative pronoun
303 : had drawn(from danger); : plpf. mid.
i.e. had rescued (compare Lat. ripi); 308 : gathering himself; shut in nom.
plpf. ; see 6.403 for a similar use aor. pass. pple , here as a deponent
304 ...: Truly may I not : just as; epic
perish;. aor. opt. of wish; has the 309 : 3rd sg. pres.
86 Iliad 22.311-320

. 311

, 312

, 313

, 314

315

, . 316

317

, , 318

, 319

320

, -, -: wild, fierce, 3 , -, : night, 5


, : spearpoint, 3 : to swoop, pounce, 3
, : dead of darkness (of night), 2 , -, -: of what sort, such, as, 3
-: to shine, 2 , -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
, , : star, 8 : to set in motion, begin, urge, 3
, -: cunningly wrought, 2 , : sky, heavens, 3
, -, -: right hand (of two), 1 : to shake, brandish; quiver, 5
, : hair; mane, quills, 1 -: to be shaken around, 1
-: to fill, fill (acc) full of (gen), 2 -: before, in front, 5
-: to nod to, nod forward, 1 , : a shield, 5
, : evening-star; evening; western, 1 , : breast, chest, 1
-, -: well-pointed, 1 -, -: of four horns, 1
, : Hephaestus, 1 : to shake, brandish, 1
, : thick and fast, set together, 1 , -, -: shining, beaming, radiant, 4
: to send forth, throw; let go, release, 2 , : sword, 2
: to conceal, cover, 5 : to think, devise, be prudent, 6
, : helmet, 5 , -, -: golden, of gold, 5
, : plume (on a helmet), 2

311 : so; ending simile from l. 308 the planet Venus appearing low in the
312 : was set in motion; aor. pass. western sky at sunset
: partitive gen. with verb : 3rd sg. pres.
: aor. - : among; with
313 : governs the gen. : in; dat. time when
314 : dat. of compound verb 318 : superlative
315 : impf. pass. : 3rd sg. pres. mid.
316 : relative, antecedent is 319 : from; gen. source,
: -, 3rd sg. impf. implicit in the prefix -
: , anastrophe : it shined; impers.
317 : just asso; which sort : which; relative, antecedent
as so a simile 320 : dat. of means
: the evening star; i.e. : for; dat. of interest
Iliad 22.321-330 87

, . 321

322

, 323

, 324

, 325

, 326

327

, 328

. 329

330

, : point, 1 , : dust, a cloud of dust, 4


: to reply, respond; act. exchange 4 , : throat, 1
: opposite, straight on, 1 : most of all; certainly, especially, 7
, -, -: tender, soft to the touch, 1 , : ashen (spear), ash tree, 3
, : windpipe () 1 : to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8
, -, : neck, throat, 3 , : ruin, destruction, death, 4
, : violence, force, power, 3 : in what way, in what direction, 2
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 8 , : Patroclus, 3
: to yield to, give way, retire, (dat) 2 : to cut, cut up, 2
-: to look upon, view, behold, 1 , -, -: so much, so many, so great, 5
: to drive; drive off; set in motion, 5 : to show, point out; mid. appear, 4
-: to strip of armor, 1 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4
-:, to pray, pray to, 2 -, -: heavy with bronze, 1
: to throw down, fall down, 2 , -, : skin, body (: dat. sg.) 3
: where, in which place, 1 , : soul, life, breath, spirit, 6
: in order that (+ subj.); where (+ ind.), 3 , -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7
-: to kill, slay, 7 , : shoulder, 7
, - : key, bolt; oarlock, collarbone 2

321 : nom. sg. pple, 324 : there appeared; was shown


: body; acc. sg., Hectors body : where; in which place dat. where
: (it) might give way; i.e. body be ...: collarbone separates;
pierced; aor. opt., relative characteristic : ; acc. sg. obj.
322 : of this one; of Hector; + 325 : and where(is); connective
: in respect to so : superlative
much else (of the body) in fact; in 326 : in this (place); dat. of place where
regard to... acc. respect; is adverbial : (Hector) rushing upon
: protected, covered; neut. pl. subject him; i.e. upon Achilles; pf. pple. acc. sg.
323 : relative, acc. obj. : aor.
: gen. modifies 327 : aor.
: stripped (acc) from (acc); this 328 ...: cut off; tmesis, aor.
verb governs a double acc. 329 -: so that; purpose
: nom. aor. pple 330 : aor.
88 Iliad 22.331-340

, 331

, , 332

333

, 334

335

, . 336

337

, 338

, 339

, 340

(): shamefully, in an unseemly way, 1 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9


: enough, in heaps, in abundance, 2 : aloof, apart, afar, away, 3
, -: better, 4 , : bird, 2
-: without, free from; far from, 5 -: able to do little, feeble, 1
, -, : assistant, helper, 1 : to regard with awe and dread, 1
, -, -: hollow, hollowed, 3 -, -, -: no one, nothing, 3
: to accept, receive; wait for, expect 5 , : Patroclus, 3
: to allow, permit, let be, suffer, 4 : where?; : somewhere, I suppose, 3
: to drag, drag away, 2 -: to speak to, address, 8
--: to strip from armor, 6 , , : safe, sound, 1
-: to devour, consume, 1 , , : parent, 3
: to pay or honor funeral rites, 1 : above (+ gen.); beyond (+ acc.), 4
: to leave, forsake, abandon, 7 , : copper, bronze, 9
: to beg, pray, entreat, supplicate, 6 , : gold, 4
: to loosen, undo, unfasten, untie, 1 , : soul, life, breath, spirit, 6
- : from behind, backwards, back, 4

331 : vocative direct address : far, by far; greatly, adv. acc. 334
: I suppose : beside; anastrophe
: you thought that (you); impf. : plpf. pass.
+ ind. discourse, supply an acc. subject 335 : I who; relative, 1st sg. antecedent
: acc. obj. of pple : your; , dat. of possession
332 : nominative pred. of 336 : but this one; i.e. Patroclus, in
: fut. deponent inf. contrast with
: not at all; no regardfor an : fut.
inner acc. 338 :
(): 2nd sg. impf. : by (your) life; soul
: pple 339 : dont allow; , neg. command
333 : from him; , gen. with sg. imperative
: Achilles is referring to how : aor. inf. -
he stayed by the ships as Patroclus 340 : , pf. mid. imperative
fought and died in battle
Iliad 22.341-350 89

, 341

, 342

. 343

344

, , 345

346

, , 347

, 348

349

, , 350

-: to release, send up, give up, 6 -: to home, homeward, 1


-: ward off, keep off, 1 , -, -: of what sort, such, as, 3
, : ransom, compensation, 4 : again, once more; back, backwards, 3
-: to cut off, 1 , : mistress, queen, 8
: grab, clasp (in supplication), 1 -: to speak to, address, 8
-: ten-times, 1 , , : fire, 9
, : gift, present; reward, 2 : how?; : somehow, in any way, 5
: to eat, 4 , , : body, 1
, -: twenty-times, 1 , , : parent, 3
: here, hither, there, thither, 3 -: to promise, 5
: to do, perform, 2 : from under (his brow), 2
, : the head, 3 , -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7
, : flesh, meat, piece of meat, 2 , -, -: raw, uncooked, 1
: to obtain by lot (aor. ) 1

341 : in apposition to , -) see p. 25 and also l. 6.345


: which; relative : intensive with , obj. of
342 : aor. inf. as imperative 347 : , neuter modifies
: so that; purpose, : such things!; exclamation set off
reduplicated aor. subj. by commas because it is parenthetical
343 : acc. sg. aor. pple : 2nd sg. pf.
344 : looking; nom. aor. pple. 348 : as there is not (anyone)
: 3rd sg. impf. who; used for statements
: in; acc. pl. of respect, regarding the fut., often with fut. ind., it
345 (): neg. mid. imperative also governs potential opt. without
: vocative direct address : gen. of separation
: by the knees; partitive gen., : could; potential opt.
often with verbs of grabbing and taking without
: (on behalf of your) parents; a 349 : not
response to 338, supply even if they weighpromise; protasis of
346 ...: would thatdrove me; future-more-vivid: 3rd pl. aor. subj.
if only, unattainable wish, 3rd sg (set on a scale) and
impf. ind. -, (elsewhere in Homer: 350 : other things also; as adv.
90 Iliad 22.351-360

351

352

, 353

. 354

355
, 356

. 357

, 358

359

. 360

: to command, order, bid, 7 , -, : cause of wrath () 1


, : Apollo, 5 , : bird, 2
: to learn, note, realize, know, 6 : to destroy, lose, consume, kill, 7
: to wail, groan, weep, 5 , : Paris, 4
, : son of Dardanus, 1 , : mistress, queen, 8
: to divide, distribute, 2 -: to speak to, address, 8
-: to put upon. store up in, 2 -: to gaze at, direct eyes to, 1
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7 , -, -: made of iron, iron, 1
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7 , : Scaean (gates), 5
: well, 7 , : Phoebus Apollo, 3
-: to die, 2 : to consider, think; show, indicate, 2
, : bed, couch; burial couch, bier, 2 , : gold, 4
: to be about to, to intend to, 4

351 : not even if should impf. indicates a truth just realized:


bid; apodosis now of future-less-vivid true in the past and true now: translate
(note more-vivid in l. 349) in the present tense, see also 22.301
: dat. of means : governs a fut. inf.
: to be weighed out; to be : your; emphasizes the clause
pulled, see in line 350, : (is) of iron; nom. predicate,
i.e. pay Hectors weight in gold supply
352 : not even so 358 (): pres. mid. imperative
353 : nom. sg. aor. mid. : lest I become; clause
: on; dat. pl. compound verb of fearing, aor. subj.
: whom; relative : against you; , dat. of interest
: aor. : for the gods; subjective gen. (gods
: she herself; intensive grow angry against you)
354 : will divide up; tmesis 359 : on that day; dat. time when
() : (you) completely; modifies : when; general
a missing acc., translate as an adverb temporal clause; aor. subj.
355 : this one; i.e Achilles 360 : though being; concessive pple
356 : as it seems, I am not going; +
Iliad 22.361-370 91

, 361

362

, . 363

364

, 365

. 366

, , 367

, 368

, 369

370

, -, -: marvelous, wonderful, 1 : to leave, forsake, abandon, 7


-, -: undying, immortal, 5 , : corpse, the dead, 3
, -, -: bloody, full of blood 1 : when, by what time, 1
, : manhood, manliness, courage 1 -: to run around, 1
-: without, free from; far from, 5 : to fly, flutter, 4
: to wail, groan, weep, 5 , : fate, death, 3
: to accept, receive; wait for, expect 5 , -, : limb, 2
, : appearance, form, shape, 2 : to strip off, 4
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 : to complete, fulfill, accomplish, 1
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7 , -, : end, result, 1
, : youth, youthful prime, 1 : at that time, then, , at some time, 8
: to speak, say, 6 , : stature, growth, 1
, : death, 8 , -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4
: to see, watch, look at; consider, 1 , : soul, life, breath, spirit, 6
: to conceal, cover, 5 , : shoulder, 7
, , : doom, death, bane, 3

361 : thus increases the indefiniteness of this


362 : nom. sg. aor. mid. general temporal clause; 3rd sg. pres.
-: to Hades (house) subj.
: plpf. 366 : aor. inf.
363 : his own; , possessive adj. (): and; joining the nominatives
, : pres. and aor. pple 367 : he spoke; 3rd sg. impf.
modifying fem. 368 : and this; i.e. the neuter sg.
364 : him; i.e. Hector : aside, far away; adverbial
: although; begins a : , aor.
concessive pple, here pf. : i.e. Achilles
365 : pf. imperative suggests 369 : aor.
a state of completed action: be dead 370 : who; relative
: whenever at all; : bothand
92 Iliad 22.371-380

. 371

372

, 373

. 374

. 375

, 376

377

, , 378

, 379

, , 380

: to speak in assembly, declare, 2 : to wound, stab, thrust, 2


-: to handle, put hands around, 1 -: to stand beside, 4
-: without inflicting a wound, 1 , -, -: near, close, 3
, -, -: Argive, 6 -, -: swift-footed, 2
-: to set on fire, kindle, 1 : alas!, 3
--: to strip from armor, 6 , -: feathered, winged, 4
, -, : leader, chief, 1 , , : fire, 9
, -: burning, 2 : to do accomplish, make, perform, 3
, , : soft, 3 -, -, -: every, all, whole, 1
, -, : ruler, lord , commander, 2 : in this way, so, thus, 5
, -, -: as much as, many as; all who, 6

371 : beside him; dat. of compound verb accustomed to speak - indicates an


: many a man; someone iterative impf.; suggests not just one
: 3rd sg. aor. person but many on different occasions:
372 : many a man would say; many a man would speak
- indicates an iterative aor.; with : (each) would stab; wound,
the verb suggests a train of Greeks - indicates iterative action but here
speaking one after another with the aor.
: nom. sg. aor. pple : aor. pple
: at 377 : nom. sg. aor. pple.
373 : quite truly now : neuter acc. pl.
: comparative, predicate 379 : since in fact
: explanatory/epexegetical : i.e. allowed; 3rd pl. aor.
mid. inf. modifying ; 380 : relative
equivalent to an acc. of respect : more evils than...
374 : supply a linking verb many evils, not as many as (but in fact
: than; following ; more than)
375 : impf. - (): aor.
: dat. of means : others (performed); add verb
376 : one would speak; one was
Iliad 22.381-390 93

, 381

, , 382

, 383

. 384

; 385

386

, 387

388

, 389

. 390

-, -: unburied, 1 : to lie down, be laid, 9


-, -: unlamented, 1 : to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8
, -, -: topmost, top, excellent, 7 -: to be among, have a part in, 2
: to learn, note, realize, know, 6 : to remind, recall, recollect (gen) 5
-: to converse, debate, talk, 2 , : corpse; the dead, 1
: I, for my part, 4 , : mind, thought, reason, attention, 4
-: to forget utterly, 1 : to stir, set in motion, rouse, 4
, (): comrade, companion, 5 -: no more, no longer, no further, 1
, , : alive, living, 5 , : Patroclus, 3
-: to abandon, leave behind, 2 : to attempt, try, test, 2
-: to forget completely, 1 : to fall, fall down, drop, 5
- (-): there, in that place, 1 : along with, with, together (+ gen.), 6

381 : now come; is likely an : my own; my dear, as often, this


interjection and does not introduce a adj. carries the meaning of a possessive
condition; see p. 38 and also 6.376 386 : beside the ships; dat. where
: let us make trial of; : him; i.e. Patroclus
attack, hortatory subj., aor. pass. with 387 : fut. (-)
mid. sense. verbs of forgetting often govern a gen.
382 : so that we may; : as long as; general temporal
purpose; aor. subj. clause + subj. (1st sg. pres. subj.
: proleptic use of and 3rd sg. aor. subj. )
: the intent of the Trojans 388 : among the living; dat. of
whatever they have whereas we compound verb
prefer what intent the Trojans have : neuter pl. subj., 3rd sg. verb
383 : whether.or; in appositon 389 : even if.nevertheless
: gen. abs.; refers : the dead; gen. pl. aor. pple
to Hector, aor. pple obj. of verb of forgetting
384 : they are eager; 3rd pl. pf. (): (they) forget; 3rd pl.
: although; gen. absolute, pres. mid.
concessive in force; gen. pple. : in Hades (house)
385 : why indeed?; same line: 22.122 390 : even there; i.e. when A. is dead
: with me : will remember +gen; fut. pf
94 Iliad 22.391-400

391

, . 392

, 393

. 394

, . 395

396

, , 397

, 398

399

, . 400

: to sing, 1 : to slay; strike, wound (aor. ) 5


-, -: unseemly, shameful, 1 , -, : leather strap, 1
-, -, -: unwilling, 1 , - : head, 6
(): to take away, raise, lift up, 6 - -: famous, renowned, heard of, 3
, -, -: each of two, both, 3 , : boy, young man, son, 2
-: to go up, climb, mount, spread, 1 , -, : glory, majesty, 6
: up, upon (+ dat.); up to, on to (+ acc.), 6 : to whip, flog, 1
, -, -: of an ox; of bulls hide 1 - : from behind, backwards, back, 4
, -, -: hollow, hollowed, 3 : to devise, plan, contrive, 2
: to tie, bind, 1 : to go or come back, return, 3
, : chariot-floor, chariot, 4 , -, : paean, song of triumph, 1
: to allow, permit, let be, suffer, 4 : to fly, flutter, 4
: to drive; drive off; set in motion, 5 , : heel, 1
: to drag, drag away, 7 , : ankle, 2
-: to fasten from, fasten to, 1 , -, : tendon, sinew, 1
: to pray; boast, brag, 2 : to pierce, perforate, 1
: to speak, say, 6

391 : come; as often, before an a double acc.; impf.


imperative or hortatory subjunctive 396 : aor.
392 : let; hortatory pres. subj. : dual acc.
397 : impf. -
: let us bring 399 : nom. sg. aor. pple
393 : we have carried off; i.e. we : tmesis, aor. pple.
have won, aor. mid. often meansup and off or off
: aor. 400 : supply two horses as object
394 : to whom : pres. inf. , here an inf. of
: throughout, over; extensive purpose
: just as : these two (horses);
395 : he spoke; 3rd sg. impf. dual nom.
: devised (acc) for (acc); governs : 3rd pers. dual impf.
Iliad 22.401-410 95

, 401

, 402

403

. 404

405

, 406

, 407

, 408

. 409

, 410

-: to treat unseemly, dishonor, 2 , -, -: blue, dark-blue, 1


, , : every, quite all, entire 6 , : cry of grief or distress, 2
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 : to shriek, cry, wail, 1
-, -: bearing ill-will; sub. enemy, 2 , -, -: shining or sleek with oil, 1
-: to look upon, look to, 1 : most of all; certainly, especially, 7
, -, -: pitiable, piteous, 2 , : wailing, lamentation, 2
: to drag, drag away, 7 : to cry out in grief, 3
-, -: like, resembling (dat.), 1 : before, formerly, in former time 6
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 , -, : of one's father, country, 1
, : a woman's veil or covering, 1 : to spread out, stretch out, 1
, - : head, 6 : to throw, cast, hurl, 1
: to lie down, be laid, 9 : to a distance, far away, 1
, : hair, hair of the head, 1 : to pull out, pluck, 2
, : dust, a cloud of dust, 4 : at that time, then, , at some time, 8
, : a cloud of dust, 1 , : hair, 2
: to make dusty, cover with dust, 1 , -, -: graceful, lovely, 4

401 : gen. abs.; the tmesis, aor.


demonstrative is Hector 407 : very loudly; adverbial acc.
: there was; impf. : , acc. sg.
402 : and round (about); adverbial : aor. pple -
: impf. 408 : aor.
, : modify neuter : neuter pl. adverbial acc.
403 : impf. : his; translate as a possessive
: gave (him) to those : and around them
intending ill; dat. ind. obj., aor. 409 : by; dat. of means;
404 : inf. of purpose, aor. pass. is a form of mourning for
: his; i.e. Hectors, possessive , women; , for men
though grammatically it should be Zeus : were gripped; impf. pass.
405 : plpf. pass. : throughout, over; extensive use
: nom. sg. aor. pple. 410 : similar to this
: but this one, his mother (namely) as if
406 : from (herself); or : (the mourning) was; impf.
96 Iliad 22.411-420

. 411

, 412

. 413

, 414

415

, , 416

. 417

, 418

419

420

: be or feel ashamed of; respect, 5 , : dung, manure, 1


, : summit, mountain-top, 2 : to roll, roll along, 1
: to be grieved, distressed, 1 : to beg, pray, entreat, supplicate, 6
- -: reckless, presumptuous 1 : to pray, implore, 1
, -, : elder, old man, 8 : to strive, be eager, press on, yearn, 8
, : old age, 2 : with difficulty; hardly, scarcely, 1
, -, -: Dardanian, Trojan, 2 , -, -: doing mighty deeds, 1
: to allow, permit, let be, suffer, 4 , -, -: alone, lone, lonely, 6
, -, -: each, every one, 2 : to name, call by name, 4
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 , -, -: on the brow (of a hill),
-: to come or come out, 3 on the edge of a hill, 1
--: (calling out) by name, 1 , , : fire, 9
, , : age, time of life, 1 : how?; : somehow, in any way, 5
: ( ) if, 3 : to smoulder away, burn slowly, 1
: to go, come, approach, arrive, 5 : to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
: be troubled; care for (gen) 2 , -, -: such, this sort, 2

411 : dat. of means : aor. mid. inf.


: were smoldering; pres. opt. 418 (): let; 1st sg hortatory subj.
replaces an impf. ind. : acc. sg. ; Att.
: down from; gen. from which 419 : if perhaps; = ;
412 : hold backfrom going + fut. indicative is unusual but not
out; impf. ; verbs of hindering uncommon in Homer; is conditional
govern a simple inf. (aor. ) in force and here translated as perhaps
413 : acc. sg. pf. pple or maybe; see also 22.49, 22.66
: gen. place from which : pities; 3rd sg. aor. subj.; Priam
414 : through, in; extensive shifts from + fut. ind. to () + subj.;
416 : hold back; aor. mid. imper. more conditional and less vivid than fut.
() : me alone 420 : and in fact even this ones;
: aor. pl. imperative is adverbial; provides emphasis
: although; makes pple concessive : this sort (as I); pred. nom
417 : acc. aor. pple : has been made; has become
: gen. place from which, pf. pass. used as a linking verb
Iliad 22.421-430 97

, 421

. 422

423

424

, , 425

426

427

, , . 428

, 429

430

, -, -: thick-falling, crowded, loud 1 : to sate, satisfy; have ones fill of 2


, : pain, distress, grief, 5 : most of all; certainly, especially, 7
-: to kill, slay, 2 : to flow, trickle, shed tears, 2
: to grieve, vex, annoy, 2 : to lament for, weep for, bewail, 2
, -, : anguish, distress, grief, 4 , -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
, : weeping, wailing, groaning, 2 : to owe, ought; would that 4
-, -: ill-fated, unlucky, 2 , -, : Peleus, 3
, , : one, single, alone, 4 , -, : suffering, misery, woe, 3
: inside, within; into, to within, 4 , : dweller of a city, citizen, 1
, : Hecabe, 4 : to groan, moan, wail, mourn, 1
-: to begin, lead out, initiate, (gen) 1 : to flourish, bloom () 2
-: to bring down, carry down, 1 , -, -: so much, so many, so great, 5
: to weep, lament, wail, 6 : to raise (a child), rear, 4

421 : (so as) to become; inf. of the acc. object of


result; is an acc. predicate 426 : in apposition to
422 : dat. of interest : would that he; how he
: beyond all others ought to have died...! unattainable wish,
: aor. aor. , is exclamatory
423 : aor. : aor. inf.
: my; dat. of possession 427 : therefore; , by this (cause)
424 : for all these; referring to : we two would have had
; verb governs a gen. our fill (+ pple); / + aor. ind.
...: so much as; adverbial expresses past unrealized potential
acc. (acc. of extent) , : dual nom. pres.
: pres. pass. pple complementary pples, modifying the
: although; pple. is concessive missing 1st pers. dual subj.: we two
425 : for (this) one; gen. sg. , object 428 : subject of
of missing through ellipsis : who; relative
: for whom; relative, objective gen. : modifies fem. nom. sg.
of (I grieve for whom) : so; impf.
: fut. mid. - 429 : and in addition; adverbial; l. 515
: Hades (house); supply 430 : for; dat. fem. pl. of interest
98 Iliad 22.431-440

, 431

; 432

, 433

, 434

435

. 436

, 437

438

, 439

440

: to announce, proclaim, report, 1 , -, : glory, majesty, 6


, : a messenger, envoy, 1 : to stay, remain, abide; await, 5
, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 , : lot, portion, part; fate, destiny, 4
-: to die, be dying, perish, 1 , : inmost part or room, recess, 2
: again, in turn; further, moreover, 6 , -, : night, 5
: I will live (fut.) 1 , -, : aid, benefit, help, 2
, -, -: wretched, poor, miserable, 3 (): that; because, 6
: to accept, receive; wait for, expect 5 : to suffer, experience, 3
-: outside of; outside, out of (gen), 1 : to be, become, 8
, -: true, genuine, real, 1 , -, : husband, 3
, : boast, prayer, vow, 1 , -, : a city, 5
, , : alive, living, 5 : to learn by hearsay or inquiry, 4
, : death, 8 : they, 6
, : web (on a loom), loom, 3 , : a child, 9
: to reach, come upon, find, 6 : to weave; devise, 3
: to weep, lament, wail, 6 -, -, -: high, lofty, tall, 2

431 : predicate, supply linking 434 , : both male and female


: what (life) will I live; : relative
the interrogative is an inner acc. : just as a god
: terrible things; neut. pl. acc. obj. 435 : pf. (or plpf.) mid.
: nom. sg. aor. pple : to them also; dat. parallel to
432 : gen. abs., gen. sg : 2nd sg. impf.
() and pf. act. pple; pf. suggests a 436 : while..; pple circumstantial in force
state of completed action: being dead 437 : nom. fem. pple
: (you) who; relative, 2nd person : anything; acc. object
: for me; dat. of interest : plpf. mid.
: acc. of duration of time 438 : (about) Hector; of Hector
433 : in the city : to her; ind. object of
(): used to be; iterative impf. 439 : 3rd sg aor.
: to everyone; dat. of interest, the : that ; , indirect discourse
datives that follow are in apposition : her; dat. of possession
: predicate, supply 440 : in an inner room; place where
Iliad 22.441-450 99

, . 441

442

, 443

, 444

, 445

. 446

447

, 448

449

, , . 450

: to hear, listen to, 6 , : bath, bathing-place, 2


: back, back again, backwards, 3 , : battle, fight, combat, 6
-, -: bright-eyed, grey-eyed, 5 -: to speak among, 1
, : joint, limbs, 2 , -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9
: hither, here, 1 : to notice, perceive; think, suppose, 6
, -, , : in double folds, 1 : to return, to come back, 1
, : a female servant, 4 , : wailing, lamentation, 2
(): two, 4 , , : whoever, whichever, 1
, -, : house, 6 : to sprinkle; lay upon, 1
-: to fall, fall out from, 1 : to be, become, 8
: cause to turn, whirl, rally, 3 , -, -: varied, many-colored, 2
: to tend to, busy with; mid. follow, 2 , -, -: dark red, purple, 1
, : work, labor, deed, act, 8 , , : fire, 9
-, -: with fair locks, 4 , : wall, rampart, tower, 7
, -, -: hot, warm, 1 : to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
, : flowers embroidered on cloth, 1 : at a distance, far off from (gen) 3
: to command, bid, exhort, 4 -, -, : tripod, three-footed, 2
, : shuttle (on a loom), 1 : on the ground, on the earth, 2
, : cry of grief or distress, 2

441 : and thereon governs a gen.; see also 22.409


442 : reduplicated aor. 448 : and this ones
443 : about the fire; place where : 3rd sg. aor. pass., plural subj.
: aor. inf. (transitive) : from her; dat. of compound verb
: so that she might; purpose, : aor.
opt. mid. in secondary sequence 449 : and this one; Andromache
444 : for Hector; dat. of interest : among; dat. ind. obj. or of
: compound verb (- = among)
445 : that; equiv. to , ind. discourse; : , impf.
: gen. separation with 450 : you two follow; dual 2nd pl
446 : dat. pl. of means imperative, is voc. direct address
447 : but she began to hear; strong : let; 1st sg. hortatory subj.
adversative, perhaps an inceptive aorist : have been done; pf. pass.
100 Iliad 22.451-460

, 451

, 452

. 453

454

455

, 456

, 457

, , 458

, . 459

, 460

, : manliness, courage, 1 -: to cease, stop, 1


- -: reverent, august, venerable 2 : to hear, 1
, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8 , -, : Maenad, Bacchante, 1
, -, -: pain-causing, grievous, 1 , -, -: alone () 1
: up, upon (+ dat.); up to, on to (+ acc.), 6 : below, from beneath, lower () 1
-: to cut off, cut away, 1 -, -, -: no one, nothing, 3
: fear, dread, shrink from, feel awe, 4 , , : ear, 1
-: to dart through, rush across, 1 , , : voice, 1
-: to drive off, 2 : to shake, brandish; quiver, 5
: near (+ gen.); adv. nearby, 2 : to stick, fix, 4
: to yield to, give way, retire, (dat) 2 , -, : mass, crowd, throng, 1
, : mother-in-law, 1 -: to run ahead, run before, 1
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 , : chest, breast, 5
, : heart, soul, mind, spirit, 2 , -, : the mouth, 2
, -, -: bold, daring, confident, 2 , -, : a child, 5
, -, -: equal to; like (dat) 2

451 : voice; gen. obj. of verb fearing; aor. mid. subj. -


: 1st sg. aor., + gen. of source 456 : nom. sg. aor. pple
: my own; dat. of possession : from; gen. of separation
452 : heart leaps : pres. mid. -
453 : i.e. freezes, are numb, 457 : and indeed (also); equivalent to
is the neuter pl. subject, pres. mid. , and especially
: some evil (is) quite : made him cease: + gen.
near for the children of Priam; with of separation; same clause of fearing; 3rd
an adv.; otherwise can precede an sg. aor. subj., Achilles is still subject
indefinite that it qualifies and makes it 458 : which; relative, i.e.
more indefinite: some evil or other : iterative impf.
454 : would thatbe; opt. of : (I say this) since
wish, typically introduced by 459 : often; much, adverbial acc.
: from my ear : in this might of his; respect
: news; the latest word, nom. subj. : nom. sg. pres. pple + dat.
455 : lestdrivesoff; clause of 460 : from.; impf.
Iliad 22.461-470 101

. 461

, 462

, 463

464

. 465

, 466

, . 467

, 468

469

, 470

-, -: uncared for, unburied, 2 : to go, 3


: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9 , -, -: hollow, hollowed, 2
- : woman's diadem, headband 1 , , : the head, 3
, : head-band for women's hair, 1 , : head-covering, veil, 1
, : Aphrodite, 1 : to notice, perceive; think, suppose, 6
: to throw, shoot, hit, strike, 8 , -, : night, 5
, -, : a bond, fetter, binding, 1 , : crowd, assembled throng, 2
: to drag, drag away, 7 , : the eye, 4
-: backwards, back again, 1 : to shake, brandish; quiver, 5
, -, -: dark, gloomy, 2 : to peer around, look about, 1
: to throw down, fall down, 2 , -, -: braided, twisted, 1
: and, 3 -: before, in front, 5
: to come, arrive, reach, 4 , : wall, rampart, tower, 7
, : horse, 8 , -, -: shining, glittering, 2
: to conceal, cover, 5 , , : quick, swift, hastily, 6
: to breathe forth, 1 : at a distance, far off, 3
, : heart () 1 , : gold, 4
, : woman's hair-net, head-dress , : soul, life, breath, spirit, 6

461 : in her heart; acc. of respect : and away, and from (her); adv.
: along with (her) herself or tmesis
462 : aor. 468 : aor.
463 : 3rd sg. aor. 469 : bothand
: and this one; i.e. Hector 470 : and;
464 : gen. obj. of : which; neuter acc. sg.
466 : down over her eyes : dat. sg. ind. obj.; 3rd pers. pronoun
467 : aor. : aor.
102 Iliad 22.471-480

471

, . 472

, 473

. 474

475

476

, 477

, , 478

479

, 480

: to bring together, gather together, 1 , , : one, single, alone, 4


, : lot, portion, share; fate, destiny, 6 -: to breathe in, breathe upon, inhale 1
: enough, in heaps, in abundance, 2 , -, : Eetion, 5
: with sudden bursts, 1 , : Thebe, 2
, -, -: each of two, both, 3 , -, -: countless, endless, infinite, 1
-: destroy, kill, slay; mid. perish, 4 : and so, then; at all events, 1
: to be dazed, distraught, bewildered, 4 , : Placus, 3
, : husband's sister, sister-in-law, 3 : to give, furnish, offer, supply, 5
: , give birth, 3 : they, 6
: to wail, groan, weep, 5 : to raise (a child), rear, 4
-, -: wretched, unhappy, 3 , : Troy, 5
, -, : house, 6 , -, -: Trojan, 4
, : bride-price, bride-gift, dowry, 1 , -: little, small, young, 3
, : brother's wives, sisters-in-law 3 , -, -: wooded, 3

471 : dat. time when linked with a revival of consciousness


: i.e. Andromache : 3rd sg. aor. pass.
: led her (in matrimony); aor. 477 : predicate, supply
mid. (); the verb is often : it turns out, we were
used to describe when a male marries a born; + impf. indicates a truth just
female, cf. Lat. in matrimnium dcere realized: true in the past and true now:
472 : aor. often translated in the pres.; cf. 301, 356
473 : aor. .: for one (and the same) lot;
474 : who; relative for a single fate, dat. of purpose or dat.
: dat. pl. 3rd pers. pronoun of place where; () is fem. dat. sg. of
: were holding , , :
: (so as) to perish; possibly 478 : youbut I; supply
an inf. of purpose (in order to) but form of
more likely inf. of result: she is so faint : in
and stunned that she appears as if dead 479 : in Thebe; dat. place where, in
475 : she began to breath in; she plural or singular
revived, aor.; fainting is linked with 480 : who; masc. sg. relative
loss of breath, thus regaining breath is : pres. pple
Iliad 22.481-490 103

. 481

482

, 483

, 484

485

, , , , . 486

, 487

488

. 489

490

, : always, forever, in every case, 5 , -, : aid, benefit, help, 2


-, -: dire-fated, doomed, 1 (): backwards; in the future, later, 6
-: to mark off (boundaries), 1 , -, -: orphaned, fatherless, 2
, : land, arable land, 3 : to owe, ought; would that 4
: in the same manner, just, as it is, 3 --, - , : completely severed
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8 from peers/friends, 1
-, -: most miserable, 2 , : grief, sadness, sorrow, 2
-, -: ill-fated, unlucky, 2 -, -: much-wept, of many tears 1
: ( ) if, 3 , : work, labor, toil, 5
, -, : the depths, 1 , -, -: hated, dreaded, loathed, 2
, -, : trouble, care, 3 , : flight, 1
: to leave, forsake, abandon, 7 , : widow, 4
, -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9

481 : would that he; how he : neut. sg. nom. predicate


ought not to unattainable wish; impf. : since
and, as often, aor. inf. () : aor.
is exclamatory 487 , : even if.(he)
482 : but as it is escapes; = , future-more-vivid
: to; place to which condition ( / + subj., fut. ind.);
483 (): 2nd sg. pres. aor. subj. (Astyanax subj.) and
484 : as a widow; predicative of fut. mid.
: just an infant; see 6.400 488 : to be sure, you know; particle
485 : whom 489 : (there) will be
: aor. : for him; dat. of interest
: bothand : fut.
: dat. of interest; i.e. Astyanax 490 : makes (x) (y); double acc.
486 (): 2nd sg. fut. mid.
104 Iliad 22.491-500

, , 491

, 492

, 493

494

, . 495

496

497

. 498

, 499

, 500

-: blooming from both parents 1 , : cup, small vessel, 1


-: to go up, approach, 5 -: to share the feast, 1
, -, : Astyanax, 3 , -: reproachful, chiding, 1
, -, : meal, 1 : in this way, thus, so, 2
, -, -: tearful, 3 , : cheek, 1
: to shed tears, weep upon, wet, 1 : to strike, smite, 1
: to lack, be without, want (+ gen.), 1 : until, before, 8
: to wet, moisten, 2 : to strike hard, thrust away, 1
: to pity, have compassion for, 9 , -: little, small, young, 3
- (): to attack, reproach, 2 , : upper part of the mouth, palate, 1
, -, -: his own, her own, its own, 13 -: hang one's head down (in pf.), 1
-: to extend, present, 2 , -, : lip, 1
: to go (away), 1 , : widow, 4
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7 , -, : tunic, 1
, (): comrade, companion, 5 , : mantle, cloak, outer garment, 1

491 : completely; adverbial acc. : aor.


: pf. - indicates the 496 : this one; i.e. Astyanax
state of a completed action, the present : even; adverb
tense suffices: he holds down his head : (someone) with both parents
: pf. pass. 497 : dat. pl. of means.
492 : i.e. being in need, destitute : nom. sg. reduplicated aor.
: 3rd sg. fut. - pple
493 : oneanother : dat. means; used as a
: by the; partitive gen. is substantive: reproaches
common with verbs of grabbing 498 : pres. imper.; as (you are)
: nom. sg. pres. pple : your father; emphatic
: by the; partitive gen. : among us; dat. of compound verb
494 : these; gen. absolute 499 : 3rd sg. fut. -
: aor. 500 : previously; adverbial

Variant of Gnomic Aorist (General Truth): Translate aorists in 494-6 in future tense. An
aorist may replace a future so vividly represented as having actually occurred (Smyth 1934)
Iliad 22.501-510 105

501

, , 502

, , 503

, 504

, , 505

, 506

. 507

508

, 509

510

, : bent arm, folded arms (pl.) 1 : to sate, satisfy; have ones fill of 2
, -, -: quick-moving, nimble, 1 , -, : curved, crooked, (f. adj), 1
: miss, fail, be deprived of (gen) 2 , : couch, bed, 1
, -, : Astyanax, 3 , , : long, far, distant, large, 5
, -, -: naked, unclad, unarmed, 2 , , : soft, 3
, : fat, 1 , : marrow, 1
: to eat, 4 -: to play, be a child, 1
, -, : a garment, clothing, 2 : aloof, apart, afar, away, 3
-: to fill, fill (acc) full of (gen), 2 , -, -: alone, lone, only, 6
-, : surname, name, 2 , , , : sheep, ram, 3
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7 : to suffer, experience, 3
: to sleep, lie down to sleep, 1 : to stop, make cease, 1
, : worm, maggot, 1 , -: rich, fertile, plentiful, 3
, : bed, marriage-bed, 3 : they, 6
, : good cheer, happy thoughts, 1 , : nurse, 4
: to call, summon, invite, 6 , , : parent, 3
: to lie down, be laid, 9 , : sleep, slumber, 1
, : heart; soul, mind, 2

501 : only; modifies : aor. mid. governs a


: would/used to; - indicates partitive gen., in English vernacular we
an iterative impf., customary action say filling (acc) with (gen)
: of sheep; accent may be on penult : in his; acc. of respect; do not
or ultima; gen. pl. either or confuse with the word death
: fat; is district, people 505 ...: he will suffer; anticipatory
502 : whenever; + opt. in a general subj. (a fut. with anxious anticipation);
temporal clause in secondary sequence aor. , see p.72, ll. 130, 244, 246
: aor. opt. (stem ); supply : nom. sg. aor. pple
Astyanax as missing direct object 507 : for you alone drew
: aor. opt. in same temporal their gates (from danger); aor. mid.
clause; governs a complementary pple. 509 : anticipatory, see l. 504
503 : would/used to; iterative impf. 510 : , dat. of possession or interest
504 : , anastrophe : pres. 3rd pl.
106 Iliad 22.511-515

, . 511

, 512

, , 513

. 514

, . 515

-: to lie on, lie in, be wrapped in, 1 -, -, -: no one, nothing, 3


: now surely, truly, 4 , : benefit, profit, advantage, help, 1
-: to burn up, consume, 1 , , : fire, 9
, -: burning, 2 : to groan, moan, wail, mourn, 1
: to weep, lament, wail, 6 : to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
, : glory, fame, rumor, report, 2 , -, : Trojan (fem. adj.), 1
, -, -: fine, thin; narrow, 1 , -, -: graceful, lovely, 4

511 : pf. pass. pple 514 : to be glory; i.e. that there


: dat. pl. of means be glory (for you), inf. of purpose, in
512 : dat. of means or place where contrast to , these words
513 : neut. sg. acc. in describe the intent behind the burning of
apposition to all of l. 512; i.e. the ritual the clothing
burning will serve no benefit to Hector, : in the eyes of/before; + gen.
who will remain without a funeral pyre expresses the point of view of a person
: since 515 : impf. mid.
(): 2nd sg. fut. - : , pres. pple
: in; i.e. the clothing; dat. of : and in addition; adverbial, l. 429
compound verb, 3rd pers. pronoun
Homer's Iliad
Books 6 and 22

Greek-only pages
for classroom review
6.1-30 109

, 3

. 4

, , 5

, , 6

, 7

, . 8

, 9

, 10

. 11

12

, 13

, 14

. 15

16

, , 17

, 18

. 19

20

, 21

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23

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27

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29

30
110 6.31-60

, . 31

32

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34

. 35

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37

38

39

40

, , 41

42

43

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45

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, 47

, 48

49

. 50

, 51

52

53

, 54

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; 56

; 57

, 58

, , 59

. 60
6.61-90 111

61

62

63

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68

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70

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73

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75

, 76

, 77

, 78

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, 80

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, . 82

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85

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87

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112 6.91-120

, 91

, 92

93

, 94

, 95

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, , 97

. 98

, , 99

100

, . 101

, . 102

, 103

, 104

, . 105

106

, , 107

108

, . 109

110

, 111

, , , 112

, 113

114

, . 115

116

, 117

. 118

119

. 120
6.121-150 113

, 121

122

, , ; 123

124

125

, 126

. 127

, 128

. 129

, , 130

, 131

132

133

, 134

135

, 136

. 137

, 138

139

, 140

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144

, ; 145

, . 146

, 147

, 148

. 149

, 150
114 6.151-180

, 151

, 152

, , 153

, 154

155

156

, 157

, , 158

. 159

, , 160

161

, . 162

163

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, 168

, 169

, . 170

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, 172

173

. 174

175

, 176

. 177

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179

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6.181-210 115

, , , 181

. 182

183

184

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187

188

189

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193

, 194

, . 195

, 196

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, 198

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, 200

, 201

, 202

203

204

. 205

, 206

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, 208

, 209

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116 6.211-240

. 211

, 212

, 213

214

215

216

217

218

, 219

220

. 221

, 222

, . 223

224

, , . 225

226

227

, 228

. 229

, 230

. 231

, , 232

233

, 234

235

, . 236

, 237

238

239

240
6.241-270 117

. 241

, 242

243

, 244

245

246

247

, 248

249

250

251

, 252

253

, ; 254

255

256

. 257

, , 258

259

, , . 260

, 261

. 262

263

, , 264

, 265

266

267

. 268

269

270
118 6.271-300

, 271

, 272

, 273

274

, 275

, 276

, 277

, . 278

279

, , , 280

281

282

. 283

284

. 285

, 286

. 287

, 288

289

, 290

, , 291

292

, 293

, 294

. 295

, . 296

, 297

, 298

, 299

. 300
6.301-330 119

301

302

, 303

304

, 305

, 306

, 307

308

, 309

. 310

, . 311

, 312

313

, 314

, 315

316

, . 317

, 318

319

, . 320

, 321

, 322

323

, . 324

325

, . 326

327

328

, 329

. 330
120 6.331-360

, . 331

332

, , 333

334

335

, . 336

337

338

. 339

, 340

, . 341

, 342

343

, 344

345

346

, 347

. 348

, 349

, 350

. 351

352

. 353

354

, 355

, 356

, 357

. 358

359

, , 360
6.361-390 121

361

, . 362

, , 363

. 364

, 365

. 366

, 367

. 368

369

, 370

, 371

372

. 373

, 374

, 375

, , 376

; 377

, 378

, 379

; 380

381

, , 382

383

, 384

, 385

, 386

, . 387

, 388

. 389

, 390
122 6.391-420

. 391

392

, , 393

394

, , 395

, , 396

, 397

. 398

, 399

, , 400

, , 401

, 402

. 403

404

, 405

406

, , 407

, 408

409

410

411

, , 412

. 413

, 414

, 415

, 416

, , 417

418

419

, . 420
6.421-450 123

, 421

422

423

. 424

, , 425

, 426

, 427

. 428

, 429

, 430

, 431

432

, 433

. 434

435

436

437

, 438

. 439

440

, 441

, 442

443

, 444

445

. 446

447

448

. 449

, 450
124 6.451-480

451

, 452

, 453

, 454

, 455

, 456

457

, 458

459

, 460

, . 461

462

. 463

, 464

. 465

466

467

, , 468

, 469

. 470

471

, 472

473

474

475

, 476

, , , 477

, 478

479

480
6.480-510 125

, . 481

482

483

, 484

485

, 486

487

, 488

, , . 489

, 490

, 491

492

, , . 493

494

495

, . 496

497

, 498

, . 499

500

501

, . 502

, 503

, , , 504

, . 505

, , 506

, 507

, 508

, 509

, 510
126 6.511-529

511

512

513

, 514

, 515

. 516

517

, 518

, ; 519

520

, , , 521

, 522

523

, 524

, . 525

, 526

527

, 528

. 529
22.1-30 127

, 2

, . 4

. 6

, , , 8

; 9

, . 10

, , 11

, . 12

, . 13

14

, , , 15

16

. 17

, 18

, . 19

, . 20

, 21

, 22

23

. 24

, 25

, 26

, 27

28

. 29

, , 30
128 22.31-60

31

. 32

, 33

, 34

35

, 36

37

, , 38

, 39

, , 40

41

42

43

, 44

. 45

, , 46

, 47

, . 48

, 49

, 50

. 51

, 52

, 53

54

, . 55

, , 56

, 57

, . 58

59

, 60
22.61-90 129

, , 61

, 62

, 63

, 64

. 65

66

, 67

, 68

, 69

70

. 71

, , 72

73

74

, 75

. 76

, 77

. 78

79

, 80

81

, , 82

, 83

, , 84

, , 85

, 86

, , , 87

88

. 89

, 90
130 22.91-120

, 91

. 92

, 93

, , 94

95

96

97

98

, , 99

, 100

101

, . 102

. 103

, 104

, 105

106

. 107

108

, 109

. 110

111

, 112

113

, 114

115

, , 116

, 117

, 118

119

, 120
22.121-150 131

121

; 122

, 123

, 124

, . 125

126

, 127

. 128

129

. 130

, 131

, , 132

133

134

. 135

, , 136

, , 137

. 138

, , 139

, 140

, 141

, 142

, 143

, . 144

145

, 146

147

. 148

, 149

150
132 22.151-180

, 151

, . 152

153

, 154

155

, . 156

, , 157

, 158

, 159

, , 160

. 161

162

, 163

, 164

165

166

167

, 168

169

, 170

, 171

172

. 173

, , 174

, 175

. 176

177

, , 178

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; 180
22.181-210 133

. 181

182

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, 184

, . 185

186

. 187

. 188

, 189

, 190

, 191

, 192

. 193

194

, 195

, 196

197

. 198

199

200

, . 201

, 202

203

, ; 204

, 205

, 206

, . 207

, 208

, 209

, 210
134 22.211-240

, , 211

, 212

, . 213

, 214

215

, , 216

217

. 218

, 219

220

. 221

, 222

. 223

, , , 224

. 225

, 226

227

228

, , 229

230

. 231

232

233

, 234

, 235

, , 236

, . 237

238

, 239

, , 240
22.241-270 135

241

. 242

, 243

, 244

245

, . 246

247

, 248

249

, , , 250

, 251

252

, . 253

254

255

, 256

, 257

, , 258

. 259

260
, , , 261

, 262

, 263

, 264

, 265

, 266

, . 267

268

. 269

, 270
136 22.271-300

271

, . 272

, 273

274

, , 275

, 276

, , . 277

278

, , , 279

, 280

, 281

. 282

, 283

, 284

285

. 286

287

. 288

, , 289

290

291

, 292

, . 293

294

. 295

296

297

298

, . 299

, , 300
22.301-330 137

301

, 302

. 303

, 304

. 305

, 306

, 307

, 308

309

310

. 311

, 312

, 313

, 314

315

, . 316

317

, , 318

, 319

320

, . 321

322

, 323

, 324

, 325

, 326

327

, 328

. 329

330
138 22.331-360

, 331

, , 332

333

, 334

335

, . 336

337

, 338

, 339

, 340

, 341

, 342

. 343

344
, , 345

346

, , 347

, 348

349

, , 350

351

352

, 353

. 354

355

, 356

. 357

, 358

359

. 360
22.361-390 139

, 361

362

, . 363

364

, 365

. 366

, , 367

, 368

, 369

370

. 371

372

, 373

. 374

. 375

, 376

377

, , 378

, 379

, , 380

, 381

, , 382

, 383

. 384

; 385

386

, 387

388

, 389

. 390
140 22.391-420

391

, . 392

, 393

. 394

, . 395

396

, , 397

, 398

399

, . 400

, 401

, 402

403

. 404

405

, 406

, 407

, 408

. 409

, 410

. 411

, 412

. 413

, 414

415

, , 416

. 417

, 418

419

420
22.421-450 141

, 421

. 422

423

424

, , 425

426

427

, , . 428

, 429

430

, 431

; 432

, 433

, 434

435

. 436

, 437

438

, 439

440

, . 441

442

, 443

, 444

, 445

. 446

447

, 448

449

, , . 450
142 22.451-480

, 451

, 452

. 453

454

455

, 456

, 457

, , 458

, . 459

, 460

. 461

, 462

, 463

464

. 465

, 466

, . 467

, 468

469

, 470

471

, . 472

, 473

. 474

475

476

, 477

, , 478

479

, 480
22.481-510 143

. 481

482

, 483

, 484

485

, , , , . 486

, 487

488

. 489

490

, , 491

, 492

, 493

494

, . 495

496

497

. 498

, 499

, 500

501

, , 502

, , 503

, 504

, , 505

, 506

. 507

508

, 509

510
144 22.511-515

, . 511

, 512

, , 513

. 514

, . 515
Glossary
146 Verb Synopsis (Attic)

, , , , , : loosen, ransom

PRESENT FUTURE
Active Middle/Pass. Active Middle Passive


Primary Indiative

() () ()



() ()


()
Secondary
Indicative

()




Subjunctive




()



Optative

()
Imp

, , , , ,
Pple

, , , , ,


Inf.

2nd sg. mid/pass - is often dropped except in pf. and plpf. tenses: () , ()
Verb Synopsis (Attic) 147

AORIST PERFECT
Active Middle Passive Middle Passive

Primary Indiative




()

Secondary Indiative
()
()


Subjunctive



() () ()



Optative


Imp

, , , , ,
Pple

, , ,


Inf.

Adapted from a handout by Dr. Helma Dik (http://classics.uchicago.edu/faculty/dik/niftygreek)


148 Synopses: - verbs (Attic)

, , , , , : send, release, let go8 times


Present Imperfect Aorist


Active


86, 89 26,80
Imp
Pple , , , , 33, 53
, , , ,
75
Inf. , epic

Middle



Imp
Pple , , 62 , ,
Inf.

, 89, , , , : stand (still), stop25 times


Present 1st Aorist (transitive) Aorist (intransitive)


Active


7 times
()11 102
Imp 44 77 8
75 92
Pple , , , , , ,
, ,
99
Inf. , 80

Middle



86
Imp 63
Pple , , 76 77 , ,
Inf. 53
impf. act. , , and mid. , , 41
plpf. 38 58 I had stood = I was standing
pres. subj. 78
Synopses: - verbs (Attic) 149

, 6 66 80, , , , : give
Present Imperfect Aorist


Active


20,22 82 4 times
Imp 31 48
Pple , , , ,
, -, - , ,
Inf. , 89

Middle



Imp
Pple , , , ,
Inf.
53,80 80
Aor. subjunctive Aor. mid. subj.

, 64, , , , : put, place; make


Present Imperfect Aorist


Active


103 75 10 times
Imp 28
Pple , , , ,
, -, - , ,
Inf. 9, 10

Middle



Imp 33,34
Pple , , , , 90
Inf.
44 66
Aor. subjunctive Aor. subj.
150

Alphabatized List of Core Vocabulary


In Homer's Iliad 6 and 22

The following alphabetized list is a running list of words that occur five or more times in Iliad 6 and 22.
In addition to the core vocabulary (10 or more) in the introduction, the list below includes all words
occurring between 5 and 9 times. A running list of these same words is available on the website as a
separate file. The number of occurrences, indicated at the end of the dictionary entry, were tabulated by
the author.
Digital flashcards are available on the website in PowerPoint (unicode Greek) and .jpg formats.

, -, -: good, brave, noble, 6


: to lead, bring, carry, convey, 18
-, -: undying, immortal, 5
() : Athena, 24
: if, whether, 11
: be or feel ashamed of; respect, 5
, : Hades, 12
, : always, forever, in every case, 5
, -, -: terrible, dire, dread, grim, 8
: to seize, take; mid. choose (aor. ) 12
(): to take away, raise, lift up, 6
, : fate, lot, portion, destiny, 6
: to hear, listen to, 6
, : summit, mountain-top, 7
, : pain, distress, grief, 5
, : Alexander (Paris), 6
: to escape, avoid, flee from, 5
: but, yet, 68
, -, -: one another, 11
, -, -: other, one...another, 29
, : wife, spouse, 17
: at the same time; along with (+ dat.), 9
, -: blameless, noble, 9
-, : handmaid, attendant, 12
: on both sides, round, 14
: modal adv., (else ) 14
: up, upon (+ dat.); up to, on to (+ acc.), 6
-: to approach, come back, 5
-: without, free from; adv. far away, 5
, , : a man, 39
, : human being, 6
-: to release, send up, give up, 6
: to command, order, bid, 7
, , : every, quite all, 6
: from, away from. (+ gen.), 18
, : Apollo, 5
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary 151

: then, therefore, it seems, it turns out, 68


, -, -: Argive, 6
, -, -: best, most excellent, 9
, , : star, 8
, : a city, town, 19
: again, in turn; further, moreover, 6
-: on the spot, here, here, there, 6
, : but, yet, 23
: again, this time, in turn, 16
, -, -: -self; he, she, it; the same, 41
, : Achaian, 30
, : Achilles, 32
: to walk, step, go, 17
: to throw, shoot, hit, strike, 8
, : Bellerophon, 7
, : shout, 34
, , : cow, ox, bull; cattle, oxen, 6
, : earth, ground, land, country, 8
: for, since, 47
: at least, at any rate; indeed, 46
, : race, family, lineage, 6
, -, : elder, old man, 8
: to become, come to be, be born, 15
: to learn, note, realize, know, 6
-, -: bright-eyed, grey-eyed, 5
: to wail, groan, weep, 5
, , : the knee, 14
, , : a woman, wife, 13
, : tear (neuter ) 5
: to overcome, subdue, tame, 12
: but, and, on the other hand, 405
, -, -: fearful, terrible, strange 5
: to accept, receive; wait for, expect 5
: indeed, surely, really, certainly, just, 35
: through (gen.) on account of (acc.), 8
: to give, offer, grant, provide, 17
, -, : Diomedes, 5
, -, -: god-like, divine, wondrous, 24
: to pursue, follow; prosecute, 8
, : house, abode, 10
, , : spear, tree, stem, 10
: to be able, can, be capable, 6
: come, go; go into, put on (garments) 9
, -, : house, 6
: him, her, it (acc. reflex; gen. , dat. ) 10
152 Alphabetized Core Vocabulary

, -, : spear, lance, 17
: I, 99
: to be willing, wish, desire, 10
: if, whether, 27
: saw; pass. appear (aor. ) 20
: to be, exist, 88
: aor., said, spoke, 20
: into, to, in regard to (+ acc.), 22
: out of, from (+ gen.), 32
, -, : Hector, 76
: to drive; drive off; set in motion, 5
: to pity, have compassion for, 9
, : Helen, 6
: to drag, drag away, 7
, -, -: my, mine, 19
: in, on, among. (+ dat.), 79
(): for the sake of, because of, 8
: there, thither; then, at that time, 17
--: to strip from armor, 6
, -, - (, , ): his, her, its own 13
: when, after, since, because, 34
: then, next, secondly, 14
: to, toward (acc.), near, at (dat., gen.), 42
, -, : a word, 12
, : work, labor, deed, act, 8
: to drag, haul, pull, draw, 7
: to come, go, 23
, -, -: good, well-born, noble, 7
, : comrade, companion, 5
: still, besides, further, 18
: well, 7
, -, -: wide, broad, spacious, 6
: boast, vaunt, exult; pray to (dat) 6
: to have, hold; be able; be disposed, 20
, : Zeus, 11
, : Zeus, 17
, , : alive, living, 5
: in truth, truly (begins open question) 83
: or (either...or); than, 19
: and, 16
: or, eitheror, 7
, -, : Eetion, 5
, -, : day, 11
: to speak, say, 6
, : hero, warrior, 5
: now surely, truly, 4
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary 153

, : room, chamber, sleeping room 7


, : death, 8
, : goddess, 5
: to slay; strike, wound (aor. ) 5
, , : god, goddess, 39
: to run, rush, 5
: to die, be dying, perish, 12
, : a daughter, 7
, : heart, soul, mind, spirit, 33
: to approach, come, arrive, reach, 8
: to go, come, approach, arrive, 5
, : Ilium, Troy, 14
, : horse, 8
: to make stand, stand, 21
: and; even, also, 198
, -, -: bad, base, ignoble, 16
: to call, summon, invite, 6
, -, -: beautiful, fair, noble, fine, 14
: to conceal, cover, 5
, - : head, 6
-, : a brother, 5
-: to kill, slay, 7
: down (acc., gen.); throughout, over (acc) 33
, : modal adv., (Att. ) 54
: to lie down, be laid, 9
: to bid, order, command, exhort, 5
: to reach, come upon, find, 6
: to weep, lament, wail, 6
, : bosom, lap; hollow, 5
, : dust, a cloud of dust, 4
-, -, -: with glancing helm, 12
, : helmet, 5
, -, -: strong, stout, mighty, 5
: to kill, slay, 12
, -, : glory, majesty, 6
, , : a dog, 15
: to take, receive, catch, grasp, 5
: to escape notice of, forget (gen) 5
, : people, 14
: to leave, forsake, abandon, 7
: to beg, pray, entreat, supplicate, 6
: Lycia, 7
, , : long, far, distant, large, 5
: very, very much, exceedingly, 17
154 Alphabetized Core Vocabulary

: most of all; certainly, especially, 7


, : battle, fight, combat, 6
: to fight, contend, 13
, : hall, chief-room, large room, 13
, , : big, great, important, 35
: to strive, yearn, be eager, 8
: on the one hand, 58
, : might, force, prowess, 15
: to stay, wait for, await, 14
(), -, -: the middle of, 5
: with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.), 11
: not, lest, 29
, : a mother, 19
: to remind, recall, recollect (gen) 5
: to stay, remain, abide; await, 5
: him, her, it, 36
: to say, speak of, mention, 5
: to inhabit, dwell,, live, abide, 5
, : ship, 15
, : temple, 7
, -, -: young; childish, foolish, 9
: to notice, perceive; think, suppose, 6
: now; as it is, 40
, -, : night, 5
, , : this, that; he, she, it, 850?
, , : this, this here, 17
: to know, 10
, : a house, abode, dwelling, 6
, -, -: alone, lone, only, 6
: to destroy, lose, consume, kill, 7
, -, -: sharp, piercing; keen, 7
(): backwards; in the future, later, 6
, , : who, which, that, 205?
, -, -: as much as, many as; all who, 6
: when, at some time, 20
(): that; because, 6
, , : not, 56
: and not, but not, nor, not even, 45
-: and not, neither...nor, 12
, , : this, these, 13
: till, until; in order that, so that, 18
, , , : child, boy, girl; slave, 26
: to shake, brandish; quiver, 5
: from, at, to the side of, 12
: before, formerly, in former time 6
Alphabetized Core Vocabulary 155

, , : every, all, the whole, 31


, : a father, 25
, : a plain, 11
: to persuade, win over; mid. obey, 16
: to be, become, 8
: very, even, indeed, just, 19
: around, about, concerning (gen, dat, acc), 15
: in what way?; in any way, 4
, -, : son of Peleus, 5
: to fall, fall down, drop, 5
, : battle, fight, war, 10
, : a city, 19
, , : much, many, 35
, : work, labor, toil, 5
: to give, furnish, offer, supply, 5
: ever, at some time, once, 12
, : mistress, queen, 8
: where?; : somewhere, I suppose, 9
, , : a foot (dat. pl. ) 15
, : Priam, 18
: until, before, 8
, : Proetus, 5
: to, towards (+ acc.), near (+ dat.), 16
-: to speak, address, accost, 11
-: spoke to, addressed, 10
-: before, in front, 5
-: to speak to, address, 8
, -, -: first, earliest; foremost, 11
, -, : a city, 5
, : gates, 13
, , : fire, 9
, : wall, rampart, tower, 7
: how?; : somehow, in any way, 5
, : a shield, 5
: to set in motion, drive; hasten, 5
, - : sign, mark; grave-mound, 5
, : Scaean (gates), 5
, -, -: your, yours, 12
, : chest, breast, 5
: you, 38
: along with, with, together (+ dat.), 6
: they, 6
: soon, presently; quickly, forthwith, 6
, , : quick, swift, hastily, 6
: and, both, 145
, -, : a wall, 16
156 Alphabetized Core Vocabulary

, : a child, 9
, -, : a child, 5
, -, : armor, arms; tool, 11
: to make, build, construct, prepare, 7
: to make; set, put, place, arrange, 16
: beget, conceive, bear, bring forth, 16
, : who? which?; , , anyone, -thing, 55
: to you (); you know, to be sure, 29
, -, -: so much, so many, so great, 5
: at that time, then, , at some time, 8
, : Troy, 5
, , : Trojan, 46
, -, : Tydeus, 5
, -, : a son, 24
-: to promise, 5
: because of, from (gen.), under (dat.), 17
- -: glistening, shining, bright 7
: to bring, carry, bear, 10
: to flee, escape; defend in court, 11
: to say, claim, assert; think, 27
, -, -: dear, friendly; friend, 31
: to put to flight, terrify, frighten, 8
, , : mind, wits, understanding, 11
: to think, devise, be prudent, 6
: to utter, speak, 6
, -, -: bronze, brazen, copper, 4
, : copper, bronze, 9
, , : hand, 24
: to pour, shed, 5
, -, -: golden, of gold, 5
, : soul, life, breath, life, spirit, 6
: O! oh! (article introducing vocative) 10
: in this way, so, thus, 5
, -, -: quick, swift, fleet, 7
, : shoulder, 7
: as, thus, so, that; when, since, 85