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PISARENKO A.N.

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BRITISH STUDIES





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GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland,
England, Northern Ireland, Great Britain, Ireland, the British Isles, the Atlantic
Ocean, the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel, Strait of Dover, Orkney


Islands, Shetland Islands, Caledonian Canal, Loch Ness, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Belfast.



Search the information to fill the table.



Country



Capital

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Flag

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Language


Symbol



Currency
Patron Saint
The people



Mark the following objects on the map.




Atlantic Ocean - the body of water in which the British Isles are located
Belfast - the capital of Northern Ireland

Cardiff - the capital of Wales


Celtic Sea - the sea south of Ireland


England - the largest area in the United Kingdom; it is attached to Scotland and

Wales

Edinburgh - the capital of Scotland


English Channel - the body of water off southern England which separates it from

France

Ireland - (the Republic of Ireland) - a country west of England across the Irish Sea

(not part of the United Kingdom)


Irish Sea - the body of water that separates England and Ireland

London - the capital of England (and the capital of the United Kingdom)

North Sea - the body of water northeast of the British Isles separating it from

northwestern Europe

Northern Ireland - a part of the United Kingdom bordering the Republic of Ireland
on the northeast
Scotland - a part of the United Kingdom bordering England on the north
Wales - a part of the United Kingdom bordering England on the southwest

Solve the crossword.








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Across: Down:


2. A London football team. 1. Left-wing political party.


4. Most famous playwright. 3. The water between Britain and


6. The area represented by an MP. Holland.


8. The state television channel. 5. He's heir to the throne.


9. The most westerly point of English 7. Capital of Scotland.


mainland. 8. Highest mountain in Britain.


11. London stands on the river ...... 10. Capital of England.


13. Unit of currency. 12. A channel port.


14. Large county in northern England. 15. The Queen.


16. The water between England and France. 17. City on the Mersey.

18. Right-wing political party. 18. Capital of Wales.

21. Prince William's wife. 19. There are 100 of them in a pound.

22. South-eastern county. 20. City on the Tay.


24. One of London's airports. 23. River at Newcastle.
25. Capital of Northern Ireland.
26. Glasgow's river.

THE UK SYMBOLS
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Union Flag Union Jack, British Emblem, British Motto, British Anthem,
Buckingham Palace, Stonehenge, Tower Bridge, Red Double Decker, Westminster
Abbey, Palace of Westminster, Big Ben, St Paul's Cathedral, The Millenium Dome,
The London Eye, The Monument, Scotland Yard, Trafalgar Square, Afternoon Tea
(The traditional 4 o'clock tea), Fish and chips, Traditional English Breakfast, British
Pub, Bulldog, London Underground, The Loch Ness Monster.




Find more UK symbols on this teacosy and picture on the next page.





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RELIGION IN THE UK
The official religion in Great Britain is Anglicanism. The Queen is the head of the
Church of England.
But in the past, until 1534, the official religion was Roman Catholicism.

Study RELIGIOUS TIMELINE and get ready to discuss the questions below.






1509 Henry marries a Spanish 1530 King Henry needs a
Henry VIII is the new Princess: Queen Katherine. son , as an heir to the


king of England. They have daughter, Mary, throne, he decides to ask to


He is 18 years old. but no sons the Pope the divorce from
Queen Katherine, to marry a

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girl, Anne Boleyn

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1533 The Pope refuses 1534 king Henry put himself to the King Henry closes



the divorce, and King head of the Church of England, he Monasteries and
Henry is very angry with divorces from Queen Katherine, and Churches and
him he marries Queen Anne persecutes priests.
Henry had 6 wives and

he had 2 daughters

(Mary and Elizabeth)


and 1 son( Edward)


1553 1558

After the death of young King Edward, Queen Mary died. Her sister Elizabeth

Henrys son, Mary becomes Queen of becomes Queen. Elizabeth is Anglican,


England. She is Catholic, so she put and like her father, she makes herself
Catholicism as official religion in the U.K. Head of the Church of England. BUT, she

She tortures and kills Anglican people. wants no more wars, so she becomes

She is named BLOODY Mary tolerant towards Catholics. She writes the

Book of the common Prayer.




America is founded by English and Irish


Elizabeth I is the most famous English


Catholics , they go in the new Country with

queen. She reigns till 1603.


the ship Mayflower. They are called Pilgrims.
1603 James I is the new king. People

Thats why in America, people speaks


are afraid he persecutes catholics.
English.

Catholic people, in UK starts to suffer


persecutions and they decides to move

in a new Country: America

1. What is the official religion in Great Britain?


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2. Who is the head of the Church of England?
3. What did Henry VIII do in 1509?
4. Why did Henry VIII want to divorce with Queen Catherine?
5. What happened in 1534 ?
6. Who was Bloody Mary?
7. What did Queen Elizabeth write?
8. What happened to Catholics during the reign of James I?


9. Why do people in America speak English?




LEGAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN



1 Magistrates court


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- hears serious cases for the first time


and decides if there is enough evidence

to send the case to a higher court


- tries people accused of minor crimes


such as theft, drunkenness, speeding

etc.

- hears applications for licenses to run


pubs, betting shops, other public places



- 400 of them are in England and Wales


- 30 000 unpaid lay magistrates or Justices of the Piece (JPs) deal with

minor crimes

- 3 JPs serve one court. But being just ordinary citizens chosen by the local

community because of their good reputation and appointed by the Lord


Chancellor on the recommendation of advisory committees, they are

advised on points of law by a legally qualified clerk.


- 5000 fine and 6 month of imprisonment are the maximum JPs can

sentence to.

- 600 years they exist.

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2
Crown court

- Is presided over by the judge who must


make sure that the trial is properly


conducted, that the counsels for the


prosecution and defense comply with the


rules. The judge also summarizes the


evidences presented by both sides. BUT


- the verdict is reached by the jury of


12 citizens randomly selected from the


local electoral rolls.

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- Deals with serious criminal cases.
- Accepts appeals from the courts of first

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instance.






County court




1. Deals with civil cases like:



- consumer disputes, for example, faulty goods or


services

- personal injury claims (injuries caused by


negligence), for example, traffic accidents, falling

into holes in the pavement, accidents at work


- some domestic violence cases, but these may also


be heard in the magistrates court


- race, sex and disability discrimination cases


- discrimination cases

- debt problems, for example, a creditor seeking


payment

- employment problems, for example, wages or


salary owing or pay in lieu of notice.

2. Most matters are decided by a District Judge

sitting alone.

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3 High court








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Queen's Bench The Family Division The Chancery

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Division Division

It hears a wide range of deals with matters deals with business


contract law and personal such as divorce, law, trusts law,


injury/general negligence children, probate and probate law, and land


cases, but also has special medical treatment. law in relation to


responsibility as a issues of equity.


supervisory court.


4 Court of Appeal



Established in 1875, the Court and its staff


of 37 Lords Justices of Appeal


Criminal Division Civil Division

hears criminal appeals. hears civil appeals.

Is led by the Lord Chief Is led by the Master of the


Justice Rolls

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5 Supreme Court








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The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the

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supreme court in all matters under English law,


Northern Irish law and Scottish law. It is the court of


last resort and highest appellate court in the United


Kingdom. The Supreme Court is the highest appeal
court in almost all cases in England and Wales.


The Supreme Court is also the highest court of

appeal for devolution matters, a role previously held


by the Privy Council.


The Supreme Court was established by Part 3 of


the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and started work


on 1 October 2009. It assumed the judicial functions



of the House of Lords, which were exercised by the


Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (commonly called "Law


Lords"), the 12 professional judges appointed as


members of the House of Lords to carry out its


judicial business.

The first substantive case was heard on 5 October


2009 by President Lord Phillips, accompanied by


Lords Hope and Rodger, Baroness Hale, and Lords


Brown and Mance.



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POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE UK

...........................................



......official head of state....


(parliamentary sovereignty



since 1689: Bill of Rights)


...........................................


has a right to call officially chooses

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and dissolve parliament Government realistically: appoints PM

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...........................................
...Gordon Brown, Labour.


...Prime Minister since...

...June 2008 (after Blair)



Cabinet Ministers Non-Cabinet Ministers


meet every Tuesday about a dozen more


in Downing Street, 22 Min. ministers

Civil Service

carries out work of the


government

Parliament

House of LORDS House of COMMONS


92 hereditary lords 1 MP per constituency



26 Lords Spiritual currently 646 (shall be 650


all in all 738 Lords in next election)

Westminster Westminster

elects

Local Councils Regional directly

parliaments

first-past-the post system

Electorate:
everybody > 18 years old

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Reading task. British Parliament.
The UK Parliament has sometimes been referred to as the mother of
parliaments because some of the countries that used to be part of the British Empire
have political systems modelled on it. The UK Parliament building, which is situated
by the river Thames in central London, is perhaps the most famous in the world. This
is mainly due to its distinctive architecture, including the impressive clock tower
popularly known as Big Ben. What most people dont know is that the name


doesnt actually refer to the whole tower, but only to the huge bell inside the top of



the tower.


The current Parliament building was constructed in the 19th century, but


one of the very first English Parliaments actually met on the same site in 1265. In


those days only a very small number of people had any say in how the country was
run. Democracy in the modern sense of the word is a recent phenomenon; it wasnt


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until 1918 that all men over the age of 21 in the UK got the right to vote in elections,
and it was in 1928 that the same right was given to women.

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The Parliament building is usually referred to as the Houses of Parliament


because it contains the two assemblies at the heart of the UKs political system: the



House of Commons and the House of Lords. Most of the power lies with the House

of Commons, which consists of 646 democratically elected Members of Parliament
or MPs, each of whom represents a small area of the UK known as a constituency.

The members of the House of Lords are not elected most of them have been

appointed by the current or previous governments.


The UK Prime Minister is the leader of the political party with the most

MPs in the House of Commons. The current Prime Minister is Gordon Brown, the

leader of the Labour party. Due to the UK voting system, the number of MPs a party
has in the House of Commons is not necessarily proportional to the total number of

votes the party gets in a general election. This means that one party usually gets a

majority in the House of Commons, meaning it has more MPs than all the other

parties put together. As with most things in politics, this causes a lot of disagreement.

Some people think it is good that the party that wins a general election can usually

form a government without having to enter into a messy coalition with any other

party. However others think the system is unfair, particularly because the smaller

parties end up with fewer seats in Parliament than they would have under a
proportional system.

Can you find the words in the text that mean the same as the following?

1. unusual, individual 6. to be given a job or position


2. centre, core 7. existing or happening now

3. extremely big 8. build, establish

4. organised political group 9. location, place

5. untidy 10. person belonging to a group

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Exercise Now decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false
(F), or if the text doesnt say (D).

1. England was the first country in the world to have a parliament.


2. The UK Prime Minister is the leader of one of the political parties in the
House of Commons.


3. The members of the House of Commons are not elected.



4. The House of Commons has more members than the House of Lords.
5. A lot of people think that Big Ben is the name of the clock tower that is part



of the UK Parliament building.


6. The current UK Parliament building was built in the 19th century.
7. Unlike the UK, most countries in the world have a proportional voting


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system.
8. The Labour party currently has the most MPs in the House of Commons.

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Exercise Below are some excerpts from the text, but not all of them have



been copied correctly. Can you identify which of them now contain mistakes,
and then make the necessary corrections?

1. The members of the House of Lords are not elected ...

2. The UK Parliament has sometimes been referred as the mother of


parliaments ...

3. ... only a very small number of people had any sayings in how the country was

run ...
4. ... the UK Parliament building ... is perhaps the most famous in the world ...

5. ... the House of Commons ... consists of 646 democratically elected Members

of Parliament ...

6. Democracy ... is a recent phenomene ...


7. ... one party usually gets a major in the House of Commons ...

8. the smaller parties end up with few seats in Parliament ...



Exercise. Just-for-fun Quiz. What kind of political animal are you?


1 At what age can you vote?


A) Middle age B) 21 C) 18 D) No idea


2 What are the three parts of Parliament?

A) The librar y, Big Ben, the dining room B) MPs, the Speaker, the Queen

C) The House of Commons, the Prime Minister, the Cabinet

D) The House of Commons, the House of Lords, the monarch


3 How often do general elections take place?
A) When number 10 Downing Street needs redecorating
B) Every leap year
C) At least ever y five years, although not all Parliaments run the whole five years
D) When the MPs want to go on holiday
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4 How does Parliament make a law?
A) By paying all its bills
B) The Prime Minister decides what the laws should be and thats that
C) The government chooses a panel of experts to discuss and pass each law
D) Members of the Commons and Lords get a chance to have a say and vote on
good ideas
5 What does the Speaker do in the House of Commons?


A) Speaks in debates B) Repor ts whats going on in Parliament to the Queen



C) Chairs debates in the Commons Chamber D) Answers the phone in the Prime
Ministers office


6 When and where is Prime Ministers question time?



A) At Buckingham Palace ever y evening at teatime


B) On BBC one after the news on Thursday evenings

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C) At the end of ever y debate in the House of Commons
D) In the Commons Chamber ever y Wednesday at 12 noon

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7 What is devolution?


A) The pathway from ape to human



B) Something that happened in France in the 1800s
C) Voting in local government elections
D) The transfer of power from a central to a local or regional body (as in the setting

up of the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales and the Nor thern

Ireland Assembly)

8 Who do MPs represent?



A) No-one

B) Themselves
C) The Prime Minister

D) Their constituents

9 What can the House of Lords not do?


A) Travel overseas

B) Comment on and suggest changes to proposed laws


C) Delay a finance bill for more than one month


D) Eat cakes on Fridays



10 What is a select committee?


A) The group that chooses the UK Olympic team

B) A group of the most talented MPs


C) The people who decide who is going to stand for Parliament


D) A panel of MPs or Peers set up to examine government depar tments and public

bodies

11 How does someone become a Peer in Parliament?

A) They have to spend a lot of time looking down microscopes


B) Theyre elected by their constituents
C) The Prime Minister recognises them as exper ts and nominates them to be
appointed by the monarch
D) By entering Br itains Got Talent
12 In a general election, whom are you voting for?
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A) The person with the most fashionable clothes
B) The person you would like to see as Prime Minister
C) Members of the House of Lords
D) The MP who will represent your constituency in the House of Commons
13 Can a monarch change the law?
A) Yes, but only on her bir thday
B) Yes, as long as the monarch puts a good case to the government


C) No, the monarch has no power over the government



D) Yes, if the rest of the royal family agrees



how did you answer?


015: You are a political ostrich You tend to ignore things, even though they might


affect you. Get your head out of the sand and take an interest.
1625: You are a political sheep Youre happy to follow the crowd when it comes to

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most things. Why not take the lead ever y now and again?

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2634: You are a political meerkat


You are aware of your surroundings and like to know whats going on. Stay alert



and dont spend too much time hiding in your burrow!
3545: You are a political shark
You have strong views and are ruthless in expressing them and getting what you

want. Keep up the good work, but dont overdo it!

Even-numbered questions

A: score 0 C : score 2

B : score 1 D : score 3

Odd-numbered questions
A : score 1 C : score 3

B : score 2 D : score 0








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BRITISH MONARCHY




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How much do you know about The Queen and the Monarchy of the United
Kingdom? Try to answer the questions.
a. When was Queen Elizabeth II g. What is flag of Britain called and
crowned? what is the Royal Standard?
b. Who is The Queen married to? h. What is the Commonwealth?
c. What are her Official Residences? i. How is succession to the throne
d. What is The Queen's role as decided?


Monarch? j. What is Queen Elizabeth's full name?



e. What are the Crown Jewels? k. Why does The Queen have two


f. What is the British National Anthem birthdays?


called?


Match the questions in 1 with the answers below. The first one has been done for


you.

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Q: What is Queen Elizabeth's full name?
A: Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor. She belongs to Britain's Royal House

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(Family) of Windsor. Her official title is: "Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of


God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Her other



Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith."

Q: __________________________________________________________________
A: It's because of the British weather! The Monarch's official birthday is always

celebrated in June when there is less chance of rain. The Queen was born on April 21,

1926 in London.

Q: __________________________________________________________________

A: The Queen was married to Philip Mountbatten, the son of Prince Andrew of

Greece, on November 20, 1947. He is known as Prince Philip, not King Philip,
because the husband of a female monarch does not have any special status. The wife

of a male monarch, however, does take the title of Queen.


Q: __________________________________________________________________

A: The oldest son of the reigning monarch will become the next king. If there are no

sons, the oldest daughter becomes queen. The following list is the current order of

succession to the throne: 1. Prince Charles 2. Prince William 3. Prince Henry 4.


Prince Andrew 5. Princess Beatrice 6. Princess Eugenie 7. Prince Edward 8. Princess



Anne 9. Peter Phillips 10. Zara Phillips.


Q: __________________________________________________________________

A: The Queen's coronation was on June 2, 1953 in Westminster Abbey in London.


She is currently the world's second longest reigning monarch.


Q: __________________________________________________________________

A: The Queen is the highest power of Parliament, the government and the law. In

reality, she simply acts on the advice of her ministers. She has a meeting with the

Prime Minister every week. The Queen is also the head of the Church of England and
the Commander in Chief of the armed
forces. She has many ceremonial functions and she is patron of over 700
organisations. She has about 300 official engagements each year.
Q: __________________________________________________________________

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A: The Commonwealth consists of a number of states that once belonged to the
British Empire. The Commonwealth includes Australia, Canada and New Zealand
and a number of smaller states such as Jamaica, the Bahamas and Fiji. Queen
Elizabeth is Head of the Commonwealth and is also Head of State of seventeen of the
countries within the Commonwealth.
Q: __________________________________________________________________
A: The Crown Jewels have been used by English kings and queens for many


centuries. They include regalia (items used at a coronation), crowns, robes and



medals. The original collection has been kept in the Tower of London since 1303.


Q: __________________________________________________________________


A: The British National Anthem is God Save The King, which was first played in


1745 at the Theatre Royal in London. It was to show support for the King, who had


just lost an important battle. The first verse of the National Anthem is:

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God save our gracious Queen,
Long live our noble Queen,

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God save the Queen.


Send her victorious,



Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us,
God save the Queen.Worksheet C

Queen Elizabeth II and the British Monarchy

Q: __________________________________________________________________

A: The Union Jack is the national flag of the United Kingdom. It is so called because

it includes the flags of all the countries of the United Kingdom: England, Wales,

Scotland and Ireland. The Royal Standard is flown above the Royal Palaces when the
Queen is in residence and on the Queen's cars, aircraft and boats.

Q: __________________________________________________________________

A: Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle and the Palace of Holyroodhouse in


Edinburgh. She also has private residences at Sandringham in Norfolk and Balmoral

Castle in Scotland.





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EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
EDUCATIONAL ACT IN GREAT BRITAIN
While speaking of Educational Act in Great Britain one means Forster Act
(1870), Balfour (1902), Fisher Act (1918)and Bulter Act (1944). The first act of
public education was adopted in Great Britain in 1870 starting thus the state system
of school education. According to it primary education of children from 5 to 2 at



elementary school was declared compulsory. In 1902 there was promulgated an act


obliging local authorities of public education to establish state grammar schools. In


1918 the period of compulsory education was prolonged till the age of 24. The Act of


1944 extended the compulsory age range to 15. This act is in the basis of


contemporary system of public education in Great Britain. This act also provided


three stages of education: primary, secondary and further education. Since 1973 the

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years of compulsory schooling are from 5 to 16.

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SECONDARY EDUCATION



Children normally begin primary education when they are 5. Primary education

is up to about the age of 11. Nearly all the primary schools for boys and girls
together. Promoting from one class to another occurs automatically by age and not by

internal examinations. Unsuccessful pupils do not repeat a year, but are placed in a

new form, a stream of below average ability. The transfer from primary to secondary

education was traditionally made by the results of the selective eleven-plus



examination. Eleven-plus examination known as an intelligence quotient test in not


much used now as it has been criticised as not a fair, predictor or a fair measurer of
children's abilities. Officially it is a test to decide what form of secondary education is

most suitable for each individual child.




PRIMARY EDUCATION

Children normally begin primary education when they are 5. Primary education

is up to about the age of 11. Nearly all the primary schools for boys and girls

together. Promoting from one class to another occurs automatically by age and not by
internal examinations. Unsuccessful pupils do not repeat a year, but are placed in a

new form, a stream of below average ability. The transfer from primary to secondary

education was traditionally made by the results of the selective eleven-plus


examination. Eleven-plus examination known as an intelligence quotient test in not

much used now as it has been criticised as not a fair, predictor or a fair measurer of

children's abilities. Officially it is a test to decide what form of secondary education is

most suitable for each individual child.

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SECONDARY EDUCATION
Children moving from maintained primary to secondary education are still
selected for different types of schools according to their current level of academic
attainment;
1. grammar schools;
2. modern schools.
3. technical schools.



Secondary grammar schools provide a mainly academic course for selected


pupils from the age of 11 to 18 or 19. Many grammar schools in England were


formed in the 16th century or earlier. The first grammar school was founded in the


9th century in Canterbury. The subjects normally offered in grammar schools include


religious instruction, English language and literature, modern languages (French,


German, Italian, Spanish), Latin, Maths, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History,

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Geography, Art, Music.

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Secondary modern schools provide a general education up to minimum school
leaving age of 16, although their pupils can stay beyond that age. The modern school



types of children are the future unskilled workers. The general level of education in


these schools is low, concentrate for the most part on practical work. The number of

periods for practical subjects in these schools is much more greater than for academic
ones. In recent years there has been a strong trend towards the introduction of

extended vocational courses for the abler pupils of modern schools. Some of these

courses are a preparation for the examinations leading even to the General Certificate

of Education.

Secondary technical schools provide a general academic education up to the age


of 18, but put a considerable emphasis on technical subjects, on craft or trade.




COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS

Up to the 1960's there were 3 kinds state secondary schools in England:


grammar, technical and modern. The distribution of children among these schools

was on the basis of elevenplus examinations, the so-called 10 tests. In 1965 the

school system of England was reorganised and a new type of school a


comprehensive school was formed. The majority of schools are 6-year


comprehensives (from 11 to 18). The comprehensive schools were designed to


contain all kinds of children under one roof. But they were not to be all in one stream:

the comprehensives have their own grammar school classes leading to the university,

and their own technical and modern classes. The importance of comprehensives is

that they allow children to change after 11 and also to mix out of classes with other

children.

NON-MAINTAINED SCHOOLS
There are non-maintained schools in England and Wales which receive no
grants from public funds but are financed from fees and endowments. Two well-
known groups of independent schools are the rrtr schools and the public

23
schools. Most public schools are single sex, but there are some mixed schools. Pupils
are often streamed according to overall ability and, to a large extent, independent
schools concentrate their academic work on achieving results in the General
Certificate of Education (GCE - 0 - level and GCA - A - level examination). The
most famous public schools are Eaton, Harrow and Winchester. They have very high
educational standards.



GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION



Pupils at secondary school in England have two main exams to worry about,
both called General Certificate of Education. The first exam is called 0 (ordinary)



level. Most people take 0 level in about 7 or 8 different subjects. You may leave
school when you are fifteen. But if you stay at school after taking 0 level, you go


into the 6th form and start working for the second main exam: A (advanced) level.

.
Most people take A when they are about 28. It is quite a difficult exam, so people

.
don't usually take it in more than 3 subjects. Three A level are enough to get you in


to most universities. For others, such as Oxford and Cambridge you have to take



special exams as well. If you don't want to go to university, two or three A levels
can get you quite a good job.

FURTHER EDUCATION

Further education is a broad term usually taken to refer to all post-school non-

university education. There is a wide range of further education establishments: the


polytechnics colleges of technology, technical colleges, tertiary colleges, colleges of

commerce, colleges of art, agricultural colleges, adult education centres, institutes of



higher education. In addition there are many independent (private) special


establishments such as secretarial and correspondence colleges and colleges teaching


English as a foreign language, a number of voluntary and private colleges providing


cultural and general education.


These are regarded as further educational institutions, in contrasts to universities


and colleges of education which are classed as higher education institutions, because

they award degrees. But during recent years some newly polytechnics now have

higher education courses, leading to a degree. As a result only the universities are

now entirely higher education institutes.



HIGHER EDUCATION UNIVERSITIES

There are 36 universities in England and Wales and 8 in Scotland. The

universities of Oxford and Cambridge date from the 12th and 13th centuries. The
typical academic programme for university students in Great Britain is composed of a
varying number of courses or subjects within a field of specialisation. There are three
categories of academic activity - lectures, tutorials and examinations which provide
the means for preparing students in specialised fields of knowledge.

24
The University of London includes internal and external students, the latter
coming to London only to sit for their examinations. Actually most external students
at London University are living in London. The three terms into which the British
University year is divided are roughly eight to ten weeks. Each term is crowded with
activity, and the vacations between the terms -a month at Christmas, a month at
Easter and three or four months in summer - are mainly periods of intellectual
digestion and private study. A person studying for a degree at a British University is


called an undergraduate, one who has taken a degree is called graduate.



Degree titles vary according to the practice of each University. The most


common titles for a first degree are Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science
() and for a second degree Master of Arts (MA) or Master of Science (M Sc) or



Doctor of Philosophy (Ph D). Each higher degree is awarded by thesis supplemented


by an oral examination and where required, by written examination.

.
Choose the correct answer.

.
1. The period of compulsory education in Great Britain is:


a) from Still 12;



b)from 6 till 14;
c) from Still 16.

2. Unsuccessful pupils:

a) repeat a year;

b) do not repeat a year, but placed in a new form;



c) are expelled from school.



3. Secondary grammar schools provide:


a) a mainly academic course for selected pupils from the age of 11 for 18 or 19;

b) a general academic education but put a cosiderable emphasis on technical


subjects;

c) a general education, concentrating for the most part on practical work.



4. Schools which receive no grants from public funds but are financed from fees

and endowments are called:


a) non-maintained schools;

b) comprehensive schools;

c) technical schools.

5. The most important exams at secondary schools are:

a) eleven-plus examinations;
b) General Certificate of Education.

6. To get you into most universities it's necessary:


a) to pass "0" level exam;
b) to pass three "A" levels;

25
c) to pass eleven-plus exam.

7. To get into Oxford or Cambridge you have:


a) to pass 0 level exam;
b) to pass three "A" levels;
b) to pass some special exams as well.



8. The academic year in the British University is divided into:


a) three terms;


b) four terms;


c) two terms.



9. Undergraduate is a person:

.
a) who studies for a degree at British University;

.
b) who has taken a degree.



10. Further education is:


a) a term taken to university education;

b) a term taken to all educational establishments;"

c) a term taken to refer to all post-school non-university education.


Solve the crossword:



1e

2d

3 u

4
c

5 a

6 t

7 i

8 o

9 n

1. Testing of knowledge or ability.


2. Rank or grage given by a university;


3. Teaching period for a small group of university students;

4. Schools with an emphasis on technical suchnical subjects, craft, trade;

5. Well-known British University;

6. Division of a class of children in groups according to ability and itelligence;


7. Institution for anvanced teaching, conferring degrees and engaging in
academac research;
8. Money, property given to a college, etc.
9. Schools that provide all types of secondary education.

26
HOLIDAYS IN THE UK
1. Guy Fawkes Day is a public holiday
always on November 5th
when you eat turkey 8. Mothers day is
in mid-summer always on Saturday
to celebrate independence when mothers give presents



when mothers get presents


2. Boxing Day is always in May


on 26th December


on 2nd January 9. St/ Valentiness Day is


different each year to celebrate a patron saint of


once a month England

.
when you send romantic cards to
3. New Years day is

.
your loved ones


a public holiday a public holiday


only celebrated in Scotland the shortest day of the year


an ordinary working day
a holiday only for schools
10.A leap year is
when a year ends with 0 (eg


4. Easter is 1990)

on the same day every year every 5 years


when you eat pancakes a year with 366 days


always in April when there is a new King or a


when you eat chocolate eggs Queen



5. Christmas is

always on Sunday

when you make good resolutions


when you have a decorated tree


when you eat a leg of lamb



6. Good Friday is

the Friday before Christmas


the Friday before Easter


when you give presents


to celebrate the Queens birthday

7. A Bank Holiday is
only celebrated in Wales
only a holiday for people who work
in banks
when the Queen gives money to the
poor

27
Public Holidays 2012 Day Observed Date

New Years Day (*) January 1 Monday, January 2, 2012


2nd January (S) January 2 Tuesday, January 3, 2012


Saint Patrick's Day (NI) March 17 Monday, March 19, 2012



Good Friday (*) April 6, 2012 Friday, April 6, 2012


Easter Monday (ENIW) April 9, 2012 Monday, April 9, 2012



Easter Tuesday (NI) April 10, 2012 Tuesday, April 10, 2012


May Day Holiday (*) 1st Monday in May Monday, May 7, 2012

.
Victoria Day (S) 3rd Monday in May Monday, May 21, 2012

.
Spring Bank Holiday (*) Last Monday in May Monday, June 4, 2012



Queen's Diamond Jubilee June 5, 2012 Tuesday, June 5, 2012


(*)

Orangeman's Day (NI) July 12, 2012 Thursday, July 12, 2012

Orangeman's Day (NI) July 13, 2012 Friday, July 13, 2012

Summer Bank Holiday (S) 1st Monday in Monday, August 6, 2012


August

Summer Bank Holiday Last Monday in Monday, August 27, 2012


(ENIW) August


Christmas Day (*) December 25 Tuesday, December 25, 2012


Boxing Day (*) December 26 Wednesday, December 26,


2012

Key

E England

NI - Northern Ireland

S Scotland

W Wales

* - All

28
MEDIA IN THE UK
In Britain today there are four quality papers: The Times, The Daily
Telegraph, The Guardian and The Independent.
The Daily Mail, The Daily Mirror, The Sun, The Daily Express and
The Daily Star are usually considered to be populars.
The Times was founded in 1785.It is read by the minority of people today. It



has a small circulation (100,000 copies a day), but it has a great influence. It is an


establishment newspaper, read by lawyers, politicians, and businessmen, by all those


who work in the government at large.


The Daily Telegraph, founded in 1855, is a very conservative paper. It has a


circulation twice as big as that of The Times, The Guardian or The


Independent. It has a nickname The Torygraph after the nickname Tory of the

.
Conservative Party. This newspaper has rather a comprehensive news and sports

.
coverage. ( more objective reporting of world happenings).
The Guardian has a slightly bigger circulation than The Times. It is a


liberal newspaper, noted for its lively reporting and campaigning support for worthy



causes such as education, medical reforms, the problems of aging people and
retirees, protection of the environment, etc.
The Independent was founded in 1986 and has rapidly acquired a reputation

for its excellent news coverage, intelligent reports, informal commentaries, and a

good balanced sense of humour.


The Sun, founded in 1964, has a circulation of around four million and

outsells all other populars.


The Daily Mirror with a circulation of about three million, was founded in

1903 and has always traditionally supported the Labour Party.


The Daily Mail and The Daily Express have circulations of about a million

and a half, and were founded in 1900 and 1896 respectively. The Mail is the most

sophisticated. The populars express no news, though they are mass circulation

papers. There you will find leading articles about murders, games, bingo and

lotteries. Because they are in constant competition with each other, and want to sell

more copies than their competitors in an effort to increase the readership and

circulation, they actually all have nude girls in unconventional poses on page three or

seven, devote much room to advertising holidays, vacation tours, etc.



Quality Press vs. Popular Press


All newspapers in Britain, daily or Sunday ones, can broadly he divided into the

quality press and the popular press. The quality newspapers are also known as
heavies and they usually deal with home and overseas news, with detailed and

extensive coverage of sports and cultural events, financial reports, travel news and
book and film reviews.
The populars are also known as tabloids as they are smaller in size being half
sheet in format. Some people also call them the gutter press offering news for the
people less interested in daily detailed news reports. They are characterised by large
headlines, carry a lot of big photographs, concentrate on the personal aspects of news,
29
with reports of the recent sensational and juicy bits of events, not excluding the Royal
family. The language of a tabloid is much more colloquial, if not specific, than that of
quality newspapers.
http://eng.1september.ru/2002/08/1.htm

All newspapers in Britain (the quality and popular ones) have their sister Sunday


issues



The Sunday Times, founded in 1822, leads the field in the Sunday qualities. It has a


circulation of over a million and is known for its excellent reporting in eight separate



sections: a main news section and others devoted to sports news review, business, the
arts, job advertisements, fashion and travel as well as book reviews.


The Observer is the oldest Sunday paper. It was founded in 1791 and today has a

.
circulation of around half a million and is politically moderate in views.

.
The Sunday Telegraph, founded in 1961, is more right-wing and its circulation has


been steadily declining.


The News of the World has a circulation of over five million, and it has a


reputation for its detailed reports of crime and sex stories but also for its sports

coverage. Its the best-selling Sunday popular newspaper.

The Sunday Mirror offers a lot of photographs and gossip.

The Sun, which is, as it has already been stressed, a very low-quality newspaper.

FORMATS:

*Tabloid newspaper format (Ex: Daily Mail);


* "compact"(tabloid size, different name to avoid down market connotation );



*Broadsheets (Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with 'higher-quality'


journalism) ;

* Berliner (sized between the tabloid and the broadsheet)


FREQUENCY:

* daily newspapers,

* weekly or semi-weekly (tabloids);


* Sunday Papers

REMEMBER:

A Tabloid tends to sensationalize and emphasize or exaggerate sensational crime

stories, gossip columns repeating scandalous about personal lives of celebrities and

sports stars, and other so-called "junk food news". Tabloid newspapers are sometimes

pejoratively called the gutter press.


EXAMPLES:
Broadsheet format: Daily The Daily Telegraph
Financial Times
Sunday - The Daily Telegraph
- The Sunday Times

30
Berliner Format: Daily The Guardian
Sunday The Observer
Compact Format: Daily The Independent
The Times
Sunday Independent On Sunday
Tabloid - Daily Daily Star
The Daily Mirror


The Sun



The Morning Star


Daily Express *


Daily Mail *


Sunday The People


Sunday Mirror

.
The Sunday Sport
News of the World

.
Sunday Express*


*Middle-Market (entertainment + news black-top masthead,)




After reading the above information, complete the following table, also using the
statements provided below.

QUALITY PRESS POPULAR PRESS

EXAMPLES

LANGUAGE

CONTENTS

SIZE

AIMED GROUP

GENERAL

CLASSIFICATION

articles do not contain slang or colloquialisms;



Background information provided;


Formal speech;

simplified vocabulary;

aimed at an educated middle or upper-class reader;


everyday, colloquial language;

objective;

international(world news and events);

stock exchange, economy, business, housing, travel, cars, sports, culture;


everyday life (diets, real-life stories, fashion, etc);
gossip, stories involving famous people (private life and career);
partial and influenced;
slang words;
dramatic use of direct speech (not always truthful);

31
sensational language;
Precise and concise;
subjective: many quotations from witnesses and people in general;
provocative (exaggerating; sometimes offensive and insulting articles);
manipulating;
working to middle-class reader
information


entertainment




A - READ THESE NEWS: 1 AND 2.
B NOW COMPARE THEM, AND MENTION THE DIFFERENCES BASED



ON THE CUES GIVEN ABOVE.
C DONT FORGET TO SAY WHICH ONE IS A TABLOID AND WHICH IS


.
A BROADSHEET. EXPLAIN WHY.

.

TEXT 1:




The home secretary, Theresa May, said an attack in the UK by dissident
republicans is now a strong possibility. Photograph: Lewis Whyld/PA

MI5 today announced there was a "strong possibility" of an attack on the

British mainland by dissident Irish republican terrorists, in addition to the continuing


risk of al-Qaida-inspired terrorism.



The Guardian has learned of three reasons that have led the domestic

intelligence agency to raise the threat level from moderate to substantial.


There is growing concern over the sophistication of attacks being carried out in

Northern Ireland. Second, bomb makers with expertise gained from the long

Provisional IRA campaign of violence are believed to be now helping dissident


republican terrorists. And the capability of the dissidents to stage attacks is thought to

be nearly as dangerous as was that of the Provisional IRA.


Today's announcement by the home secretary, Theresa May, means MI5


believes the threat is at its highest for at least a decade. Security officials are

combating this threat, plus what is assessed to be the greater threat from al-Qaida-
inspired terrorists, who remain "highly likely" to stage an attack.

The Irish assessment was made public on the eve of the two main party

political conferences. Labour begins today in Manchester, and is followed next week

by the Conservatives in Birmingham.

Dissident republicans have for some time been assessed as wanting to attack

the mainland, and now their capability is believed by security officials to be

increasing. One source said: "It's of concern that they are getting more sophisticated
in their attacks in Northern Ireland. They are getting in former IRA people with
[explosives] expertise.
"The dissident Republicans started with crude devices. These have increased in
their level of sophistication. They are getting closer to the IRA's capability."

32
Officials added that the dissidents are not thought able to mount a sustained
campaign, but do have British economic or security targets in their sights, the kind
that the IRA chose in the early 1990s. Such targets might be banks, the City of
London, or army bases or police stations, officials added.
A counter-terrorism official said the raising of the threat level was because of
the growing ambition of the dissident Republican terrorists, although MI5 was not
aware of any specific targets being identified for attack.


Two weeks ago the Real IRA told the Guardian that future attacks would



alternate between "military, political and economic targets".


Last week MI5 head's, Jonathan Evans, opened a speech in London by warning


of the growing threat to the UK mainland from Irish-related terrorism.


May said Today: "The director-general of the security service has informed me


that he has raised the threat to Great Britain from Irish-related terrorism from

.
moderate to substantial, meaning an attack is a strong possibility. Judgments are
based on a broad range of factors, including the intent and capabilities of terrorist

.
groups.


"This is the first time we have published the Irish-related threat assessment to



Great Britain. This is in the interests of transparency and to encourage people to
remain vigilant."
May added: "We have been consistent in stating that the threat to the UK from

terrorism is real and serious.

"The balance we aim to strike is keeping people alert but not alarmed. I would

urge the public to report any suspicious activity to the police and security services in

their continuing efforts to discover, track and disrupt terrorist activity."




TEXT 2:

CHEATING soccer star Peter Crouch will wed WAG Abbey Clancy next

year on a stunning love island, The Sun can reveal.


A dream ceremony has already been booked at the magnificent Isola Del Garda

on Lake Garda in northern Italy.


The England and Spurs striker, 29, and model Abbey, 24, will exchange vows

next June in romantic scented gardens.


Their 120 guests - made up of a galaxy of footie stars - including fellow love

rat Wayne Rooney - and celebs will be ferried to the bash at the neo-Gothic villa.

Abbey, who is expecting 70,000-a-week Crouch's baby, is overseeing


preparations after forgiving him over his romps with a hooker in July.

A pal said last night: "Abbey's thrilled about the island - it's a paradise where

everything is perfect."

Decide which type of papers do these characteristics go for.

33
IT SHOWS BRIGHT AND COLOURFUL PICTURES OF FAMOUS
PEOPLE.
THE TITLES ARE QUITE SCANDELOUS AND APPEAR IN LARGE
SCALE.
THIS TYPE OF NEWSPAPER COVERS NATIONAL AND



INTERNATIONAL NEWS, USUALLY RELATED TO ECONOMY,



POLITICS, WAR.


THE NEWS IS FOCUSED ON PEOPLES LIFE.


THERE ARE SOME ARTICLES ABOUT DIFFERENT ISSUES, LIKE:


.
POLITICS, EDUCATION, ETC.

.
THE TITLES CAN BE RATHER SHOCKING.



SOME PAPERS ARE BIGGER THAN OTHERS.



THE TEXTS ARE SMALL AND QUICKLY TO READ.

THE HEADLINES ARE LONG AND ABOUT SERIOUS NEWS.

SOMETIMES NEWS IS BASED ON RUMOURS OR LIES.



THE PRICE IS MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE THEN WHEN COMPARED



TO SOME OTHER PAPERS.


THESE PAPERS ARE USUALLY BIAS.



READING THE HEADLINES IS USUALLY ENOUGH FOR THE



READERS, AS THE IMAGES AND THE ARTICLES ARE SMALL


AND THE IMAGE OCCUPIES A LOT OF SPACE


THE PRICE OF THESE PAPERS IS RELATIVELY LOW.






34