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(Literature Review)

Sr.no Topic Page. no

1. Overview of company 1
2. Overview of LPG sector 8
3. Training Need Analysis 13
4. Career Mapping 21

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is one of India’s largest PSU oil and
gas companies, with Fortune Global 500 rank of 287 (2008). Its corporate office is
located at Ballard Estate, Mumbai. As the name suggests, its interests are in downstream
petroleum sector. It is involved in the refining and retailing of petroleum products.

Bharat Petroleum is considered to be a pioneer in Indian petroleum industry with various

path-breaking initiatives such as Pure for Sure campaign, Petro card, Fleet card etc.

BPCL’s growth post-nationalization (in 1976) has been phenomenal. One of the single
digit Indian representatives in the Fortune 500 & Forbes 2000 listings, BPCL is often
referred to as an “MNC in PSU garb”. It is considered a pioneer in marketing initiatives,
and employs “Best in Class” practices.

The 1860s saw vast industrial development. A lot of petroleum refineries came up. An
important player in the South Asian market then was the Burmah Oil Company Ltd.
Though incorporated in Scotland in 1886, the company grew out of the enterprises of the
Rangoon Oil Company, which had been formed in 1871 to refine crude oil produced
from primitive hand dug wells in Upper Burma.

The search for oil in India began in 1886, when Mr. Goodenough of McKillop Stewart
Company drilled a well near Jaypore in upper Assam and struck oil. In 1889, the Assam
Railway and Trading Company (ARTC) struck oil at Digboi marking the beginning of oil
production in India.

While discoveries were made and industries expanded, John D Rockefeller together with
his business associates acquired control of numerous refineries and pipelines to later form
the giant Standard Oil Trust. The largest rivals of Standard Oil – Royal Dutch, Shell and
Rothschild – came together to form a single organization: Asiatic Petroleum Company to
market petroleum products in South Asia.

In 1928, Asiatic Petroleum (India) joined hands with Burmah Oil Company – an active
producer, refiner and distributor of petroleum products, particularly in Indian and
Burmese markets. This alliance led to the formation of Burmah-Shell Oil Storage and
Distributing Company of India Limited. A pioneer in more ways than one, Burmah Shell
began its operations with import and marketing of Kerosene. This was imported in bulk
and transported in 4 gallon and 1 gallon tins through rail, road and country craft all over
India. With motor cars, came canned Petrol, followed by service stations. In the 1930s,
retail sales points were built with driveways set back from the road; service stations
began to appear and became accepted as a part of road development. After the war
Burmah Shell established efficient and up-to-date service and filling stations to give the
customers the highest possible standard of service facilities.

From Burmah Shell to Bharat Petroleum

On 24 January 1976, the Burmah Shell Group of Companies was taken over by the
Government of India to form Bharat Refineries Limited. On 1 August 1977, it was
renamed Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. It was also the first refinery to process
newly found indigenous crude Bombay High, in the country. Today Bharat Petroleum
Corporation Limited has got three refineries at Mumbai, Kochi and Numaligarh. They are
also on the verge of commissioning another refinery at Bina in Madhya Pradesh

Visionary Approach

The core strength of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited has always been the ardent
pursuit of qualitative excellence for maximization of customer satisfaction. Thus Bharat
Petroleum, the erstwhile Burmah Shell, has today become one of the most formidable
names in the petroleum industry.
Bharat Petroleum produces a diverse range of products, from petrochemicals and solvents
to aircraft fuel and specialty lubricants and markets them through its wide network of
Petrol Stations, Kerosene Dealers, LPG Distributors, Lube Shoppes, besides supplying
fuel directly to hundreds of industries, and several international and domestic airlines.

The Winds of Change – A Transformed Organization Emerges

Opening up of the Indian economy in the nineties brought with it more competition and
challenges, kindled by the phased dismantling of the Administered Pricing Mechanism
(APM) and emergence of additional capacities in the region in refining and marketing.
In 1996, Bharat Petroleum went through a process of visioning, involving people at all
levels, which evolved a shared vision and a set of shared values. Based on this, the
company restructured itself, in a proactive move to adapt to the emerging competitive
scenario. The function-based structure was carefully dismantled and replaced with a
process-based one. This made the company more responsive to its customer needs.
Bharat Petroleum realizes that, in the long run, success can only come with a total
reorientation and change in approach with the customer as the focal point. Today, Bharat
Petroleum is restructured into a Corporate Centre, Strategic Business Units (SBUs) and
Shared Services and Entities. The organizational design comprising of five customers
facing SBUs, viz. Aviation, Industrial and Commercial, LPG, Lubricants and Retail and
one asset based SBU, viz. Refinery, is based on the philosophy of greater customer focus.

The Planned Approach

Increasing globalisation, new products and services, and innovative marketing have
resulted in a very market savvy consumer. The production-based success philosophy of
marketers has now been replaced by a customer-oriented philosophy. Bharat Petroleum
has taken cognisance of this situation well in time and has been taking radical steps to
keep itself attuned to the changing times, realizing that the future belongs to those who
listen and adapt to their customers.

Technological Edge

Bharat Petroleum has always been on the forefront of harnessing technology initiatives
for maximizing efficiency and achieving greater customer satisfaction.
Bharat Petroleum is the first Public Sector Oil Company to implement Enterprise wide
Resource Planning (ERP) solutions – SAP. The implementation project known as
ENTRANS (Enterprise wide Transformation) has been awarded the ‘SAP Star
Implementation Award’, with Bharat Petroleum having the distinction of executing the
largest and the most ambitious SAP project in India. The challenge of SAP
implementation was to ensure that all the integrated elements (of the complex multi-
modular integrated solutions that impact the entire workflow of the organization) work
seamlessly across the length and breadth of the country, including the remote locations.
Providing online connectivity in these remote locations, given the full-fledged IT network
infrastructure, was in itself a daunting task.
Bharat Petroleum is reaping the benefits of the integrated system in many areas of its
operations. The early gains of implementation are in the areas of tracking customer-
receivables, monitoring credit-management, inventory management, besides easing the
operations in a large number of areas.
Furthermore, Bharat Petroleum has also set up one of the biggest ‘Centres of Excellence’
in Asia to provide online support to the end users and also work towards continuous
improvement in business processes and handle product upgrades and new generation
With SAP as the IT backbone, Bharat Petroleum plans to take advantage of the Internet
based capabilities along the entire value chain with a Customer Relationship
Management solution. A large data warehouse project has also been implemented, which
facilitates access to real-time accurate information on key performance indicators at all
Bharat Petroleum locations. This enables the management to take strategic and business
decisions, thus ensuring value-added services, better customer satisfaction and enhanced
shareholder value.

People Above Oil

Over the years, Bharat Petroleum continues to meet the challenges of the rapidly
changing environment, leading to changes in the marketing of products and services. In
all these changes, only one factor has remained constant and has been the source of
Bharat Petroleum’s strength and inspiration for any future innovations – Bharat
Petroleum’s People. The feeling of ownership has facilitated all employees to understand
the complexity of the market and needs of the customers, and respond to these needs with
innovative initiatives and offerings.
For Bharat Petroleum, commitment of its employees is a critical resource. Fully realizing
that only a happy employee will put his best foot forward with the customers, Bharat
Petroleum has taken many steps to make the organization a great place to work. In a
survey conducted by Hewitt Associates for the January 2001 issue of Business Today
magazine to identify the best employers, Bharat Petroleum was ranked among the top ten
employers in India. The objective of the study was to find out which companies had
really charged the emotional and intellectual energy of their employees. The other
companies who were selected were Infosys, Hewlett-Packard, P and G, ICICI, Hughes,
LG, HLL, Compaq and Asian Paints.
Bharat Petroleum fosters effective value-based HR processes for development of people
and their organizational capabilities with a view to provide them with a competitive edge
and also to realize their personal vision in tandem with the corporate vision. The thrust
areas include:
o Performance Management which links business goals with individual
performance goals

o Recognizing competencies and capabilities of the staff through Competency

Modeling to help identify and place the right person in the right job.

o Identifying competency gaps and bridging such gaps through appropriate training
and developmental programmes.

o Multi-skilling to encourage employees to take up new initiatives in the areas of

Enhanced Fuel Proposition, Add-on Stores, One Stop Truck Shops, Grocery
and Fast Food Stores.
Bharat Petroleum has been conferred the National HRD Award – 2000 by National HRD
Network for making Outstanding Contribution to HRD.

At the National Petroleum Management Programme (NPMP) on Excellence in Creativity

and Innovation (1999-2000), Bharat Petroleum employees bagged all the three awards in
the individual category, along with four certificates of recognition in the team category.

Major Products and Services

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) refines, stores, markets and distributes
petroleum products. The company’s key product and services include the following-:


1. Petrol
2. Diesel
3. L.P.G
4. Gasoline
5. Kerosene
6. Lubricants
7. Aviation fuels
8. Fuels and Solvents


1. Convenience stores
2. ATMs
3. Car washes
4. Free air and water
5. Lubricants top-ups
6. Energy Audits
7. E-banking services
8. Consultancy and technical services
9. Online Ordering.

Bharatgas from Bharat Petroleum has dominated the LP Gas market in India for over
three decades. Today, 25 million homes in India, wake up each morning to enjoy “the cup
that cheers” prepared on Bharatgas. Similarly, hundreds of commercial and industrial
establishments start their day, confident and secure, having entrusted their LP Gas needs
to Bharat Petroleum.
A pioneer in more ways than one, Bharatgas has brought many innovative offerings to
the customers’. To name a few:

• Easy access to customers through various modes including online access

• Home delivery of cylinders
• Value added services to customers by venturing into allied business to meet
consumers’ household needs
• LP Gas supplies through pipeline to mega residential complexes
• An innovative solution to reach LP Gas supplies to rural and remote areas through
the “Rural” Marketing Vehicle
• Revolutionizing the metal cutting & brazing industry with the new product –
Bharat Metal Cutting Gas.

Awards & Accolades

Winners of Oil Industry Safety Award for the years

Oil Industry Safety Awards were instituted in order to inculcate competitiveness among
oil companies to improve their safety performance.
Safety performance of the competing organizations / installations is evaluated with the
help of a new criteria developed at OISD which takes into consideration, the total loss
concept i.e. fatalities, fires, lost time, direct & indirect losses etc. and also the hazard

Other Awards

Khurda LPG Plant received Orissa State Safety Award on Best performance in safety &
environment by Director of Factories & Boilers, Orissa on 24.05.2003

Khurda LPG Plant received Orissa State Safety Award on Lowest weighted frequency
rate of accident by Director of Factories & Boilers, Orissa on 27.11.2004

Khurda LPG Plant received Orissa State Safety Award on Lowest weighted frequency
rate of accident by Director of Factories & Boilers, Orissa on 18.12.2006

Kolkata LPG Territory received the Certificate of appreciation in the Greentech

Environment Awards in 2007

Jaipur LPG bottling plant received the safety award from British Safety Council for
the year 1991 in recognition and commendation of services rendered in the cause of

Wai LPG Plant has been awarded “Certificate of Merit” for “Meritorious performance
in Safety in the Maharastra Safety Awards Competition – 2002”.

Solapur LPG Plant has been awarded “Certificate of Merit” for “Meritorious
performance in Safety in the Maharastra Safety Awards Competition – 2002”.

Lalru LPG Plant Safety Award for the Year 2006 from Directorate of Factories, Punjab
& Punjab Industrial Safety Council.

Bangalore LPG Plant awarded Best Safe Plant? II Prize by Govt. of Karnataka,
Ministry of Labour, Depts. Factories & Boilers for the year 2006.



Customer Service

Available Pack Sizes

To match the individual needs of customers, various pack sizes have been made available.

• For Domestic kitchens – pack sizes of 14.2 kg. and 5 kg. cylinders
• For Industrial / Commercial – pack sizes of 19kg, 35 kg. and 47.5 kg. as well
as bulk LPG

Customer First

At Bharatgas, we believe that the customer comes first and so to provide convenience to the
customers, various facilities are available:

• Endeavour to Home Deliver safe and sound refill cylinders within 24 hours of booking in
normal situations and on all 7 Days of the Week.
• Home Delivery of refill cylinders as per your convenience.
• Weighment of cylinders at the customer’s premises gives customer confidence.
• Distributorships are open on Sundays to facilitate customers seeking new connections as
well as refills.
• Multiple cylinder booking channels like telephones, in person, through Internet and
unique telephone number.

Multiple Ordering Channels

24 hr. Bharatgas cylinder booking facilities on www.ebharatgas.com
The Online Customer Service permits the Bharatgas Customer, at registration, to create his / her
own Login ID and Password, which will enable him / her to interact online and access
information in a secure environment and avail of the following facilities:

• Place an order for refill cylinder ONLINE

• Suggest the preferred day and / or time of refill delivery
• Avail of the Reminder Service
• Participate in Contests / Promotions as and when organized on the site
Unique telephone number 12664

Bharatgas Customers can also book a refill cylinder or log a leakage call by dialing our telephone
number 12664. This 5-digit number is unique for BHARAT PETROLEUM. The system
functions as under:

• The customer is given the choice of language

• On selecting the same, the customer is required to say the name of
the distributor
• On confirmation by the system, the customer will key in the consumer number
• The system will confirm the booking and provide a refill-booking number.


I. Value added services

II. Customer relations centres
III. Emergency service cells
IV. Distributor locator
V. Distributor code locator

What Is Training?

Training is one of management’s most important strategies for reaching organizational

goals. When used to produce upgrade organizational skills needed to overcome gaps in
performance, training can bring back savings to an organization that are many times more
valuable than the cost of the training itself.

What Is Training Need Analysis?

Training needs analysis process is a series of activities conducted to identify problems

or other issues in the workplace, and to determine whether training is an appropriate
The needs analysis is usually the first step taken to cause a change. This is mainly
because a needs analysis specifically defines the gap between the current and the desired
individual and organizational performances.

Who Conducts Needs Analysis & Why?

An in-house trainer or a consultant performs a needs analysis to collect and document
information concerning any of the following three issues :
1. Performance problems
2. Anticipated introduction of new system, task or technology
3. A desire by the organization to benefit from a perceived opportunity

In all three situations, the starting point is a desire to effect a change. Given this, you
must know how the people who will experience change perceive it. In the absence of a
needs analysis, you may find employees resistant to change and reluctant to
training. They may be unable to transfer their newly acquired skills to their jobs because
of the organizational constraints.
A needs analysis often reveals the need for well-targeted training areas. However, we
must keep in mind that training is not always the best way to try to close a particular gap
between an organization’s goals and its actual performance. Those conducting the needs
analysis must get a clear idea of the problem, look at all possible remedies and report on
their findings to management before deciding on the best solution.

When properly done, a needs analysis is a wise investment for the organization. It saves
time, money and effort by working on the right problems. Organizations that fail to
support needs analysis make costly mistakes; they use training when another method
would have been more effective; they use too much or too little training, or they use
training but fail to follow up on it. A well-performed analysis provides the information
that can lead to solutions that focus on the areas of greatest need.
Process of conducting a training needs analysis is a systematic one based on specific
information-gathering techniques. Needs analysis proceeds in stages, with the findings of
one stage affecting and helping to shape the next one. There is no easy or short-cut
formula for carrying out this process. Each particular situation requires its own mix of
observing, probing, analyzing and deducting.



The first step is to check the actual performance of the organizations and its people
against existing standards, or to set new standards. There are two parts to this:

Current situation: One must determine the current state of skills, knowledge, and
abilities of current and/or future employees. This analysis also should examine
organizational goals, climate, and internal and external constraints.
Desired or necessary situation: We must identify the desired or necessary conditions for
organizational and personal success. This analysis focuses on the necessary job
tasks/standards, as well as the skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to
accomplish these successfully. It is important that we identify the critical tasks
necessary, and not just observe our current practices. We also must distinguish
our actual needs from our perceived needs, our wants.

The difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs,
purposes, and objectives.

What are we looking for? Here are some questions to ask, to determine where HRD may
be useful in providing solutions: (3)

Problems or deficits. Are there problems in the organization which might be solved by
training or other HRD activities?
Impending change. Are there problems which do not currently exist but are foreseen due
to changes, such as new processes and equipment, outside competition, and/or
changes in staffing?
Opportunities. Could we gain a competitive edge by taking advantage of new
technologies, training programs, consultants or suppliers?
Strengths. How can one take advantage of one’s organizational strengths, as opposed to
reacting to one’s weaknesses.
New directions. Could an employee take a proactive approach, applying HRD to move an
organization to new levels of performance? For example, could team building
and related activities help improve the productivity?
Mandated training. Are there internal or external forces dictating that whether training
and/or organization development will take place? Are there policies or
management decisions which might dictate the implementation of some
program? Are there governmental mandates to which an employee must


The first step produces a large list of needs for training and development, career
development, organization development, and/or other interventions. Now it’s
important to examine these in view of their importance to the organizational
goals, realities, and constraints. Then, determine if the identified needs are real,
if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance and urgency in view
of the organizational needs and requirements like

Cost-effectiveness: How does the cost of the problem compare to the cost of
implementing a solution? In other words, performing a cost-benefit analysis.
Legal mandates: Are there laws requiring a solution? (For example, safety or regulatory
Executive pressure: Does top management expect a solution?
Population: Are many people or key people involved?
Customers: What influence is generated by customer specifications and expectations?
If some of the needs are of relatively low importance, it would do better to devote
energies to addressing other human performance problems with greater impact
and greater value.



Now that critical organizational and personal needs have been focused and prioritized.
The next step is to identify specific problem areas and opportunities in the
organization. It’s important to know what performance requirements are, if
appropriate solutions are to be applied. The two important questions that should
be asked with respect to every identified need are:

Are the employees doing their jobs effectively?

Do they know how to do their jobs?

This will require detailed investigation and analysis of employees, their jobs, and
organization -- both for the current situation and in preparation for the future.


If people are doing their jobs effectively, perhaps they should be left undisturbed. ("If it
ain't broke, don't fix it.") However, some training and/or other interventions
might be called for if sufficient importance is attached to moving the employee
and their performance into new directions.

But if employees ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively:

Training may be the solution, IF there is a knowledge problem.

Organization development activities may provide solutions when the problem is not
based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic
change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization
restructuring, performance management and/or effective team building.
Methods of Identifying Training Needs

Training needs will differ with the backgrounds of the employees to be trained, and their
present status in the organization. Basically, a candidate for training may come from any
one of three groups:
1. New hires
2. Veteran employees
3. Trainees currently in the training pipeline (currently in the training program)

Consideration of the varying needs of these groups provides a frame of reference for
discussing and suggesting the methods of identifying training needs:

• New Hires

Addition of new employees creates high and low peaks in placing new persons into the
training program. This problem may be solved by a program where progression is made
in different sequences. It will eliminate a jam that will occur if all phases of the program
must be taken in a definite sequence.
The new employees will normally be of somewhat different backgrounds. Being new,
they are not familiar with their new employers. As a result, the earliest phases of the
training must concentrate on company orientation. During these phases, the organization
policies and administrative details should be covered. It is also a suitable time to acquaint
the trainees with what will be expected of him, and how he will be evaluated throughout
the phase of training.

• Retaining & Upgrading Veteran Employees

The people in this category offer a real challenge to the training department. Therefore
the number and amount of training required by this category should be carefully
considered. Often the retraining and upgrading of former employees can be very
rewarding for training instructors. At least two schools of thought exist as to how these
employees should be rekindled. There are advantages in keeping this group intact and
tailoring the program to their needs. On the other hand, this category of employees can
also make significant contribution to training if they are co-mingled with the new hires.

• Pipeline Employee Requirements

A good training program will normally have participants in various phases of completion.
An awareness of completion dates and how the potential employee will be employed
should be the concern of the training staff and also the employee’s supervisor. A trainee
should have a challenge in all phases of his training. All these challenges
should not be confined to those phases where the pipeline employee is sitting in a
classroom. Therefore, it is recommended that thorough interim test-work be given to
Pipeline employees in periods between formal classes. This may take the form of
solidifying what he learned in the prior phase and serve as preparation for the coming

Techniques for Determining Specific Training Needs

There are a number of practical methods that can be used to gather data about employees’
performance. Each works well in given circumstances; therefore, the decision to choose a
particular technique depends on which one fits the best. None of these methods can stand
alone. Always use at least two, to validate one’s findings. One of those which should
always be selected is observation.

1. Observation
In this approach, an employee’s performance itself is the source of information. As one
evaluate a worker’s performance through first-hand observation and analysis. This is best
accomplished by watching the worker and playing the role of non-participating observer.
It implies to watch and listen and evaluate what one sees and hears, but do not get
involved in an employee’s work process in any way.
To make this activity more productive, use a checklist that reminds one of what to look
for and take notes.
The objective during observations is to identify both the strengths to build on and the
deficiencies to overcome. A key advantage of using direct observation in the needs
analysis is that an observer gains first-hand knowledge and understanding of the job
being performed and the strengths and weaknesses of the relevant worker.

2. Interviews
The use of interviews in conducting the needs analysis is strongly urged. The prime value
of interview guides is that they ensure the same types of data from all sources. This
allows an interviewer to determine whether a piece of information is one person’s
opinion, or part of a widespread perception. Since the interview guide forces one to ask
each worker a number of predetermined questions, its important to select those questions
that are essential to what is being learnt.
Interviews allow an interviewer to meet employees face to face to discuss their
impressions of performance. Because one is in conversation with workers, it gets easy to
explore their responses in depth. An interviewer can ask for clarification of comments
and examples of what they mean. In this way, he or she obtains a full understanding of an
employee’s performance deficiencies.
Apart from these, there are other benefits that an interviewer derives from the whole
process of interacting with an employee

1. It builds credibility with interviewees by asking intelligent questions and

listening well to their answers
2. There is an increased personal involvement and commitment of employees’ to the
efforts of an interviewer.
3. There establishes a personal relationships with potential trainees who are important to
an interviewer’s success as a needs analyst and trainer

3. Questionnaires
A questionnaire is a sort of interview on paper. An analyst creates his own questionnaire
by writing down all the questions he want employees to answer for him. Then he mail it
to them and await their responses.
The key advantage of a questionnaire is that an analyst can include every person
from whom he want input. Employees can complete the questionnaire when and where
they choose. An analyst need not travel and spend time with all respondents. Every
employee is asked the identical questions, and consequently data is very easy to compile
and analyze.

Questionnaires can be useful in obtaining a ‘big picture’ of what a large number of

employees think while allowing everyone to feel that they have had an opportunity to
participate in the needs analysis process.

4. Job Descriptions

Before establishing a job description, a job analysis must be made. This job analysis
involves a thorough study of all responsibilities of the relevant job. It is company wide in
scope and should be detailed to such a degree that those conducting the training can use
the job analysis as a yardstick for their course content. After the job analysis phase
has been completed, the writing of job description and needs analysis is a relatively
simple task. When an employee’s job description has been defined, the trainer can easily
tailor his training curriculum to a very close proximity of what will be expected of the

5. The Difficulty Analysis

The Job Analysis will focus attention on enumerating the numerous duties that a worker
must perform. On the other hand, the Difficulty Analysis establishes which of the duties
cause the employee the greatest amount of troubles and how this trouble can be reduced
through better training.
A good Difficulty Analysis offers many advantages. For example ….
• It enables a needs analyst to weigh certain aspects of the training in relationship to the
expected difficulty that the worker will face in coping with those duties.
• A well thought out Difficulty Analysis will provide the training program with an
abundance of role-playing material and situations.

6. Problem Solving Conference

Another time-tested technique for gathering needs analysis material from employees is to
conduct periodic problem solving conferences which may take the form of or be part of a
plan for a new product, task or technology, or tied in with a training program It is always
helpful to utilize an outside consultant to moderate such sessions. This outside
sponsorship has a tendency of letting the workers express their feelings about his
organization, and the session can then be geared to training needs. The current problems
will evolve that represent potential areas for training.

7. Appraisal Reviews
During the periodic counseling performance interview, an employee should be
questioned regarding the duties and training of a worker. Comments rendered during the
appraisal interviews normally are genuine, and can frequently assist in establishing the
needs, variations and penetrations that a training program should include. Feed- back at
appraisal interview time is valuable since it is timely information. Training needs
differ from worker to worker, and appraisal sessions allow the employee and supervisor /
manager to uncover the cause of weaknesses in performance. These deficiencies
represent areas for training.

8. Drive Pattern Identity

The extent of an employee’s development depends on his motivations. Identifying the
forces that cause an employee to behave in a certain way may be useful in determining
his individual training needs and how to stimulate his desire to fulfill that need. An
analysis of this kind, for example, may determine that the employee has an urgent need
for self-confidence. Thus his individual program should be made to stress the importance
of attitude, skills etc., and any other assets that would give him this self- confidence.

9. Analysis of Organizational Policy

Organization policy will affect the amount of training offered. An explanation of various
policies should be covered in the training program. Of particular concern are those
policies that involve change, alteration and major revamping of training programs. In
organizations undergoing merger activity, product diversification and new penetration, a
great deal of sensitivity must be placed on policies today and expected changes in the
Whatever the method used to identify training needs, at least the following three
points must be kept in view:

1. These methods should be used in combination; that is, there should never be reliance
on only one method
2. They may be used to identify training needs of each of the various groups
of employees
3. They should be applied to individual employees since training needs will vary with the
individual employee.

Jobs come and go but people who are the “best at what they do” and who have achieved
the highest recognition for their skills and knowledge in their profession are treasured
forever. What are the critical professions and trades in your organization? Where can
employees contribute and build knowledge and skill in these core professions? What
professions and competencies are the most important for the growth of organization?
Which professions are mission-imperative?
Career Maps provide a key to these questions and others. Career Maps contain detailed
information to facilitate choices, based on individual talent and organizational needs.
Thus, they enable HR organizations and employees separately or together to choose
development paths that build intersections between career aspirations and the needs of
the business.
Career Maps display alternative routes to build mastery in the core professions. Mastery
is being the “best you can be” and those who achieve mastery of their professions or
trades are leaders, mentors and innovators. The knowledge, skills and ability that mastery
requires is enduring and guides both simple day-to-day decisions as well as complex
In today’s tumultuous times, organizational needs have turned career management topsy-
turvy. Business concerns have trampled career paths, leaving careers moving in fits and
spurts, - or gone altogether. With millions of jobs lost last year, rigid notions about career
management, with its ladders, lattices, linear and lateral career progression have been
tossed out the window or put on the back burner. Contemporary times have produced
chaotic change in human capital forcing many managers, leaders and employees to
confront a jumble of jobs and hierarchies that complicate every phase of staffing, from
recruitment to management to career development. In many cases, bottom-line numbers
masked the discussion of core and secondary professions needed to achieve organization
missions and strategies. People were tossed out independent of their wisdom and mastery.

What Is Career Mapping?

The bricks and mortar of a coherent learning and development structure are built on a
foundation of knowledge and experience required for excellence in each core profession.
Career Maps provide both organizations and employees with the tools for building and
maintaining the wisdom and know-how to confront a complicated jumble of jobs. A
Career Map is a visual, codified approach to career management. It is a masterful
roadmap to excellence in a confused and radically changing workforce.

Career Mapping begins with cataloguing the core professions of an organization. The
most effective career mapping designs are based upon professions rather than centered on
jobs and compensation schemes. Career Maps should identify key knowledge areas and
the skills and abilities to master each of the core professions. Identifying the professions
within an organization, organizing a list of core and secondary professions, and
establishing the percentages of people comprising each profession is essential and one of
the most difficult tasks in designing powerful Career Maps.

Nine Elements of a Career Map

Career maps should take into account and include the following considerations:


1. Purpose

2. Behavioral Strengths

3. Profession-centered competencies

4. Business competencies

5. Leadership competencies

6. Functional accomplishments

7. Career paths

8. Developmental experiences

9. Formal Education

1. The defining purpose function, and utility of each profession in the organization

2. Behavioral strengths traits and personal characteristics required for success in a

profession (detail-oriented, innovative, outgoing, etc.).

3. Profession-centered competencies consists of clusters of knowledge and abilities

required for excellence in a given profession or body of practice.
4. Business competencies which include skill sets, knowledge and abilities required in
order to work effectively in an organization (conflict management, cultural awareness,

5. Leadership competencies which include skill sets, knowledge and abilities required in
order to become leaders in an organization (mentoring skills, planning and organizing,

6. Functional accomplishments that signal mastery in a profession as described and

practiced by experts.
7. Career paths that follow a series of positions or projects, normally graded by
complexity, which are achieved through sequential development of competence;

8. Developmental experiences that can help one craft a smart career path and on-the-job

9. Formal education. Career Maps should define knowledge, skills and abilities within
each of the professions in an organization.

They will reflect a consensus of opinion regarding the application of all or any part of the
nine elements to each profession.

Sharing Career Maps throughout the Organization

Making career maps available and transparent to everyone in an organization is critical
because manager and employees need to see all of the career options inside of and
between professions. An organization can facilitate communicating the information
contained in Career Maps through computer career portals, which are accessed easily at
any time and from any place. The first step in understanding Career Maps can be
exploratory by learning more about the other professions in an organization. Through
computer portals, workers and managers alike have access to all the Career Maps within
an organization in exquisite detail. They can assess the elements that are important for
developing mastery in each profession. Ladders and lattices disappear. Searching the
entire system and graphically demonstrating the route traveled by other people in an
organization facilitates career exploration and encourages self-assessment and learning.
Career Maps displayed through career portals provide HR organizations, managers and
employees with powerful 21st century keys to success.
After reviewing the history and functioning of LPG sector of BPCL and contents of
training need analysis, it gets easy to lay down a basic and flexible framework that would
enable to carry out the training need analysis at the sector.
Considering the hierarchy setup involved in the functioning of the plants which is as



The operation jobs at plants basically involve filling, management of HSSE (i.e.
Health, safety, security and environment), maintenance and planning. These jobs required
high proficiency and experience. Generally the people with engineering background with
an experience of handling two or three operations are selected and employed. Since these
Engineers and operation officers pass out from good colleges, identifying their training
needs and areas apart from technological skills where they need to improve and gain
efficiency. These areas particularly can be management skills as these officers are
expected to work at plants for three years before being promoted to work as sales officer.
Hence they need to acquire managerial skills like negotiating and selling. Also they need
to be aware of safety issues arising at plants. Identifying the training needs of these three
levels by observing the working structure and environment, conducting interviews and
giving out questionnaires would help in acquiring information and thereby assimilating
that information in a well structured manner. Finally suggesting the training interventions
that can be taken up the HR DEPARTMENT at various levels in order to fill the gaps.
Along with this a small exercise of career mapping can be taken up that would help in
determining the standard career path to be followed in order to select the right candidate
at these various levels and also it would help in determining what king of training is
required for an employee to perform exceptionally well at different levels.

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