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Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

97.2 Language Functions

Functions Count : 197

len()

add()

del()

sysget()

clock()

lower()

upper()

input()

ascii()

char()

date()

time()

filename()

getchar()

system()

random()

timelist()

adddays()

 

diffdays()

version()

clockspersecond()

prevfilename()

swap()

shutdown()

isstring()

isnumber()

islist()

type()

isnull()

isobject()

hex()

dec()

number()

string()

str2hex()

hex2str()

str2list()

list2str()

left()

right()

trim()

copy()

substr()

lines()

strcmp()

eval()

raise()

assert()

isalnum()

isalpha()

iscntrl()

isdigit()

isgraph()

islower()

isprint()

ispunct()

isspace()

isupper()

isxdigit()

locals()

globals()

functions()

cfunctions()

islocal()

isglobal()

isfunction()

iscfunction()

packages()

ispackage()

classes()

isclass()

packageclasses()

ispackageclass()

ismethod()

classname()

objectid()

attributes()

isprivateattribute()

isprivatemethod()

methods()

isattribute()

addattribute()

addmethod()

getattribute()

 

setattribute()

mergemethods()

packagename()

ringvm_fileslist()

ringvm_calllist()

ringvm_functionslist()

ringvm_cfunctionslist()

ringvm_traceevent()

ringvm_evalinscope()

ringvm_memorylist()

ringvm_tracefunc()

ringvm_passerror()

ringvm_classeslist()

ringvm_settrace()

ringvm_packageslist()

ringvm_tracedata()

ringvm_scopescount()

ringvm_hideerrormsg()

ringvm_callfunc()

list()

find()

min()

max()

insert()

sort()

reverse()

binarysearch()

sin()

cos()

tan()

asin()

acos()

atan()

atan2()

sinh()

cosh()

tanh()

exp()

log()

log10()

ceil()

floor()

fabs()

pow()

sqrt()

unsigned()

decimals()

murmur3hash()

fopen()

fclose()

fflush()

freopen()

tempfile()

tempname()

fseek()

ftell()

rewind()

fgetpos()

fsetpos()

clearerr()

feof()

ferror()

perror()

rename()

remove()

fgetc()

fgets()

fputc()

fputs()

ungetc()

fread()

fwrite()

dir()

read()

write()

fexists()

int2bytes()

float2bytes()

double2bytes()

bytes2int()

bytes2float()

 

bytes2double()

ismsdos()

iswindows()

iswindows64()

isunix()

ismacosx()

islinux()

isfreebsd()

isandroid()

windowsnl()

currentdir()

exefilename()

chdir()

exefolder()

loadlib()

closelib()

callgc()

varptr()

intvalue()

object2pointer()

pointer2object()

nullpointer()

ring_state_runcode()

ring_state_runfile()

ring_state_runobjectfile()

space()

ptrcmp()

ring_state_init()

ring_state_delete()

ring_state_findvar()

ring_state_newvar()

97.3 Compiler Errors

• Error (C1) : Error in parameters list, expected identifier

• Error (C2) : Error in class name

• Error (C3) : Unclosed control strucutre, ‘ok’ is missing

• Error (C4) : Unclosed control strucutre, ‘end’ is missing

• Error (C5) : Unclosed control strucutre, next is missing

• Error (C6) : Error in function name

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

• Error (C7) : Error in list items

• Error (C8) : Parentheses ‘)’ is missing

• Error (C9) : Brackets ‘]’ is missing

• Error (C10) : Error in parent class name

• Error (C11) : Error in expression operator

• Error (C12) : No class definition

• Error (C13) : Error in variable name

• Error (C14) : Try/Catch miss the Catch keyword!

• Error (C15) : Try/Catch miss the Done keyword!

• Error (C16) : Error in Switch statement expression!

• Error (C17) : Switch statement without OFF

• Error (C18) : Missing closing brace for the block opened!

• Error (C19) : Numeric Overflow!

• Error (C20) : Error in package name

• Error (C21) : Unclosed control strucutre, ‘again’ is missing

• Error (C22) : Function redefinition, function is already defined!

• Error (C23) : Using ‘(‘ after number!

• Error (C24) : The parent class name is identical to the subclass name

• Error (C25) : Trying to access the self reference after the object name”

• Error (C26) : Class redefinition, class is already defined!

97.4 Runtime Errors

• Error (R1) : Cann’t divide by zero !

• Error (R2) : Array Access (Index out of range) !

• Error (R3) : Calling Function without definition !

• Error (R4) : Stack Overflow !

• Error (R5) : Can’t access the list item, Object is not list !

• Error (R6) : Variable is required

• Error (R7) : Can’t assign to a string letter more than one character

• Error (R8) : Variable is not a string

• Error (R9) : Using exit command outside loops

• Error (R10) : Using exit command with number outside the range

• Error (R11) : error in class name, class not found!

• Error (R12) : error in property name, property not found!

• Error (R13) : Object is required

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

• Error (R14) : Calling Method without definition !

• Error (R15) : error in parent class name, class not found!

• Error (R16) : Using braces to access unknown object !

• Error (R17) : error, using ‘Super’ without parent class!

• Error (R18) : Numeric Overflow!

• Error (R19) : Calling function with less number of parameters!

• Error (R20) : Calling function with extra number of parameters!

• Error (R21) : Using operator with values of incorrect type

• Error (R22) : Using loop command outside loops

• Error (R23) : Using loop command with number outside the range

• Error (R24) : Using uninitialized variable

• Error (R25) : Error in package name, Package not found!

• Error (R26) : Calling private method from outside the class

• Error (R27) : Using private attribute from outside the class

• Error (R28) : Using bad data type as step value

• Error (R29) : Using bad data type in for loop

• Error (R30) : parent class name is identical to child class name

• Error (R31) : Trying to destory the object using the self reference

• Error (R32) : The CALL command expect a variable contains string!

• Error (R33) : Bad decimals number (correct range >= 0 and <=14) !

• Error (R34) : Variable is required for the assignment operation

• Error (R35) : Can’t create/open the file!

• Error (R36) : The column number is not correct! It’s greater than the number of columns in the list

• Error (R37) : Sorry, The command is not supported in this context

• Error (R38) : Runtime Error in loading the dynamic library!

97.5 Language Grammar

Program —> {statement} Statement —> ‘package’ <Identifier> { ‘.’ <Identifier> } [’{‘ {statement} ‘}’] [’end’|’endpackage’] Statement —> ‘class’ <Identifier> [ ‘from’|’:’|’<’ <Identifier> ] [’{‘ {statement} ‘}’][’end’|’endclass’] Statement —> ‘func’|’def’ <Identifier> [ParaList] [’{‘ {statement} ‘}’][’end’|’endfunc’] Statement —> ‘import’ <Identifier> { ‘.’ <Identifier> } Statement —> ‘private’ Statement —> ‘load’ <Literal> Statement —> ‘loadsyntax’ <Literal>

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

Statement —> ‘changeringkeyword’ <OldKeyword> <NewKeyword>

Statement —> ‘changeringoperator’ <OldOperator> <NewOperator>

Statement —> ‘see’|’put’ <Expr>

Statement —> ‘give’|’get’ <Identifier>

Statement —> ‘if’ <Expr> [’{‘] {statement} [ {‘but’|’elseif’ <Expr> {Statement} } ] [’else’ {Statement} ] ‘ok’|’end’|’}’

Statement —> ‘Switch’ <Expr> [’{‘] { ‘on’|’case’ <Expr> {statement} } [’other’ {Statement} ] ‘off’|’end’|’}’

Statement —> ‘for’ <Identifier> ‘=’ <Expr> ‘to’ <Expr> [ ‘step’ <Expr> ] [’{‘] {Statement} ‘next’|’end’|’}’

Statement —> ‘for’ <Identifier> ‘in’ <Expr> [ ‘step’ <Expr> ] [’{‘] {statement} ‘next’|’end’|’}’

Statement —> ‘while’ <Expr> [’{‘] {statement} ‘end’|’}’

Statement —> ‘do’ {statement} ‘again’ <Expr>

Statement —> ‘try’ {statement} [’{‘] ‘catch’ {statement} ‘done’|’end’|’}’

Statement —> ‘return’ <Expr>

Statement —> ‘bye’

Statement —> ‘exit’

Statement —> ‘loop’

Statement —> <Expr>

Statement —> epslion

ParaList —> epslion

ParaList —> [’(‘] <Identifier> [{ ‘,’ <Identifier> }] [’)’]

Expr —> <LogicNot> [{ ‘and’|’or’ <LogicNot> }]

LogicNot –> [’not’] <EqualOrNot>

EqualOrNot –> [ ‘=’|’!=’ ] <Compare>

Compare —> <BitOrXor> [ { ‘<’ | ‘>’ | ‘<=’ | ‘>=’ <BitOrXor> } ]

BitOrXor —> <BitAnd> [ { ‘|’ | ‘^’ <BitAnd> } ]

BitAnd —> <BitShift> [ { ‘&’ <BitShift> } ]

BitShift —> <Arithmetic> [ { ‘<<’ | ‘>>’ <Arithmetic> } ]

Arithmetic —> <Term> [ { ‘+’ | ‘-‘ <Term> } ]

Term —> <Range> [ { ‘*’ | ‘/’ | ‘%’ <Range> } ]

Range —> <Factor> [ ‘:’ <Factor> ]

Factor —> <Identifier> [ {Mixer} ] [ ‘=’ <Expr> ]

Factor —> <Number>

Factor —> <Literal>

Factor —> ‘:’ <Identifier>

Factor —> ‘-‘ <Expr>

Factor —> ‘(‘ <Expr> ‘)’

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

Factor —> <List> Factor —> ‘new’ <Identifier> Factor —> <AnonymousFunction> Factor —> ‘call’ <identifier> { ‘.’ <Identifier> } ‘(‘ <Parameters> ‘)’ List —> ‘[’ [ <Expr> { ‘,’ <Expr> } ] ‘]’ Mixer —> { ‘.’ <Identifier> } Mixer —> ‘[’ <Expr> ‘]’ Mixer —> ‘(‘ [ <Expr> [ { ‘,’ <Expr> }] ] ‘)’ Mixer —> ‘{‘ {Statement} ‘}’ AnonymousFunction —> ‘func’|’def’| [<ParaList>] ‘{‘ {Statement} ‘}’

97.6 Virtual Machine (VM) Instructions

Definitions :-

• VM : Virtual Machine

• Stack : VM Stack

• IR : Instruction Register

• PC : Program Counter

• VP : Variable Pointer

• Stack[nSize] : Last Item in the Stack (Last In - First Out)

• VV : Variable Value (We have a Pointer to a variable, And we access this variable value) (Stack and Variables)

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

Operation

Description

ICO_PUSHC

Add string from the IR to the stack

 

ICO_PUSHN

Add number from the IR to the stack

 

ICO_PUSHV

Replace VP in the stack[nSize] with the variable value

ICO_LOADADDRESS

Read variable name from the IR, push VP to the stack

 

Stack[nSize-1]

VV

=

Stack[nSize]

VV

 

POP

ICO_ASSIGNMENT

,

 

Stack[nSize]

ICO_INC

Increment Number in Stack[nSize] by 1

 

ICO_LOADAPUSHV

The same as ICO_LOADADDRESS then ICO_PUSHV

ICO_NEWLINE

Store new line number (debug info)

 

ICO_FREESTACK

Remove all items from the stack , nSize = 0

 

ICO_FILENAME

Store the source code file name (debug info)

 

ICO_FREELOADASCOPE

Free the Scope List of the current Expression

 

(Jump)

Operation

Description

• ICO_JUMP

Set PC to new value from the IR

• ICO_JUMPZERO

If Stack[nSize] is a number = 0 then Set PC to new value from the IR

• ICO_JUMPFOR

End of for loop

• ICO_JUMPONE

If Stack[nSize] is a number = 1 then Set PC to new value from the IR

• ICO_JUMPZERO2

As ICO_JUMPZERO but add 1 to the stack (required for many ‘AND’ conditions)

• ICO_JUMPONE2

As ICO_JUMPONE but add 1 to the stack (required for many ‘OR’ conditions)

(Compare)

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

Operation

Description

ICO_LESSEQUAL

If stack[nSize-1] <= stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize], set Stack[nSize-1] = 1 else set Stack[nSize-1] = 0

ICO_EQUAL

If stack[nSize-1] = stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize], set Stack[nSize-1] = 1 else set Stack[nSize-1] = 0

ICO_LESS

If stack[nSize-1] < stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize], set Stack[nSize-1] = 1 else set Stack[nSize-1] = 0

ICO_GREATER

If stack[nSize-1] > stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize], set Stack[nSize-1] = 1 else set Stack[nSize-1] = 0

ICO_GREATEREQUAL

If stack[nSize-1] >= stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize], set Stack[nSize-1] = 1 else set Stack[nSize-1] = 0

ICO_NOTEQUAL

If stack[nSize-1] != stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize], set Stack[nSize-1] = 1 else set Stack[nSize-1] = 0

(Math)

Operation

Description

ICO_SUM

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] + Stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize]

ICO_SUB

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] - Stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize]

ICO_MUL

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] * Stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize]

ICO_DIV

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] / Stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize]

ICO_MOD

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] % Stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize]

ICO_NEG

Stack[nSize] = - Stack[nSize-1]

ICO_PLUSPLUS

Stack[nSize] = Stack[nSize] + 1

ICO_MINUSMINUS

Stack[nSize] = Stack[nSize] - 1

(Logic)

Operation

Description

ICO_AND

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] && Stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize]

ICO_OR

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] || Stack[nSize] , POP stack[nSize]

ICO_NOT

Stack[nSize] = ! Stack[nSize]

(Lists)

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

Operation

Description

• ICO_LISTSTART

Start New List in Temp. Memory

• ICO_LISTITEM

Add List Item

• ICO_LISTEND

End List

• ICO_LOADINDEXADDRESS

Stack[nSize-1] = Stack[nSize-1] VV [ Stack[nSize] ] , POP stack[nSize]

(Functions)

Operation

Description

 

• ICO_LOADFUNC

Find function

 

• ICO_CALL

Call function

 

• ICO_RETURN

Return from function

 

• ICO_RETNULL

Return NULl from function

 

• ICO_RETFROMEVAL

Return after eval()

 

• ICO_RETITEMREF

Return the list item reference - not the value

 

• ICO_NEWFUNC

Start new function

 
 

Flag

to

determine

where

to

jump

later

(after

• ICO_BLOCKFLAG

ICO_RETURN)

 

• ICO_FUNCEXE

Start executing function

 

• ICO_ENDFUNCEXE

End function execution

 

• ICO_ANONYMOUS

Anonymous function

 

(User Interface)

Operation

Description

• ICO_PRINT

Print value to the standard output

• ICO_GIVE

Get input from the keyboard

(End Program/Loop)

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

Operation

Description

• ICO_BYE

End execution of VM

• ICO_EXITMARK

Place to exit to from a loop

• ICO_POPEXITMARK

Remove exit mark

• ICO_EXIT

Break from one loop or more

• ICO_LOOP

Continue to next loop

(For Better Performance)

Operation

Description

• ICO_PUSHP

Push pointer to the stack

• ICO_INCP

Increment variable value using pointer

• ICO_PUSHPV

Push value of variable using variable pointer

• ICO_INCJUMP

Increment then jump

• ICO_INCPJUMP

Increment using pointer then jump

• ICO_JUMPVARLENUM

Jump if variable value is <= numeric value

• ICO_JUMPVARPLENUM

Jump if variable value (using pointer) <= numeric value

• ICO_LOADFUNCP

Push function pointer

• ICO_PUSHPLOCAL

Push pointer to local variable

• ICO_INCLPJUMP

Increment value using pointer to local variable then jump

• ICO_JUMPVARLPLENUM

Jump if the variable value (using pointer) <= numeric value

• ICO_INCPJUMPSTEP1

Increment value using variable pointer then jump (for loop step = 1)

• ICO_JUMPVARPLENUMSTEP1

Increment value using variable pointer then jump (for loop step = 1)

(Try-Catch-Done)

Ring Documentation, Release 1.5

Operation

Description

• ICO_TRY

Start try region

• ICO_DONE

End try region

(Duplicate and Range)

 

Operation

Description

ICO_DUPLICATE

Duplicate stack value

ICO_RANGE

Create list from value to value

(OOP)

Operation

Description

ICO_NEWOBJ

Create new object, get class name from the IR, push ob- ject pointer to the stack.

ICO_SETSCOPE

Called after creating new object, set the active scope to be the object scope.

ICO_LOADSUBADDRESS

Get object attribute, push the pointer to the stack.

ICO_LOADMETHOD

Find object method

ICO_AFTERCALLMETHOD

Used after calling a method - normal case

ICO_AFTERCALLMETHOD2

Used after calling a method - second case

ICO_NEWCLASS

Start new class region

ICO_BRACESTART

Open brace

ICO_BRACEEND

End brace

ICO_IMPORT

Import package

ICO_PRIVATE

start private attributes region

ICO_SETPROPERTY

set attribute value - check for setter.

ICO_CALLCLASSINIT

call call init() method.

(Other)