Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26
Tuckman's stages of group development The forming–storming– norming–performing model of group development was

Tuckman's stages of group development

The forming–storming– norming–performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, [1] who said that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team

to grow, face up to challenges, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results.

Group Development

Forming

plan work, and deliver results. Group Development Forming The team meets and learns about the opportunities

The team meets and learns about the opportunities and challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. Team members tend to behave quite independently. They may be motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of

the issues and objectives of the team. Team members are usually on their best behavior but very focused on themselves. Mature team members begin to model appropriate behavior even at this early phase. The meeting environment also plays an important role to model the initial behaviors of each individual. The major task functions also concern orientation. Members attempt to become oriented to the tasks as well as to one another.

Discussion centers around defining the scope of the task, how to approach it, and similar concerns. To grow from this stage to the next, each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict.

Storming

topics and risk the possibility of conflict. Storming In this stage " form opinions about the

In this stage "

form opinions about the character and integrity of the other participants and feel

participants

compelled to voice these opinions if they find someone

shirking responsibility or attempting to dominate. Sometimes participants question the actions or decision of the leader as the expedition grows harder

Disagreements and personality clashes must be resolved before the team can progress out of this stage, and so some teams may never emerge from "storming" [3] or re-enter that phase if new challenges or disputes arise. [4] In Tuckman's

[2]

1965 paper, only 50% of the studies identified a stage of intragroup conflict, and some of the remaining studies jumped directly from stage 1 to stage 3. [5] Some groups may avoid the phase altogether, but for those who don't, the duration, intensity and destructiveness of the "storms" can be varied. Tolerance of each team member and their differences should be emphasized; without tolerance and patience the team will fail. This phase can

become destructive to the team and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control. Some teams will never develop past this stage; however, disagreements within the team can make members stronger, more versatile, and able to work more effectively as a team. Supervisors of the team during this phase may be more accessible, but tend to remain directive in their guidance of decision-making and professional behaviour. The team members will therefore

resolve their differences and members will be able to participate with one another more comfortably. The ideal is that they will not feel that they are being judged, and will therefore share their opinions and views. Normally tension, struggle and sometimes arguments occur. This stage can also be upsetting.

Norming

arguments occur. This stage can also be upsetting. Norming "Resolved disagreements and personality clashes result in

"Resolved disagreements and personality clashes result in

greater intimacy, and a spirit of co-operation emerges." [2] This happens when the team is aware of competition and they share a common goal. In this stage, all team members take the responsibility and have the ambition to work for the success of the team's goals. They start tolerating the whims and fancies of the other team members. They accept others as they are and make an effort to move on. The danger here is that members may be so focused on preventing conflict

that they are reluctant to share controversial ideas.

Performing

they are reluctant to share controversial ideas. Performing "With group norms and roles established, group members

"With group norms and roles established, group members focus on achieving common goals, often reaching an unexpectedly high level of success." [6] By this time, they are motivated and knowledgeable. The team members are now competent, autonomous and able to handle the decision-making

process without supervision. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channelled through means acceptable to the team.

Supervisors of the team during this phase are almost always participating. The team will make most of the necessary decisions. Even the most high- performing teams will revert to earlier stages in certain circumstances. Many long- standing teams go through these cycles many times as

they react to changing circumstances. For example, a change in leadership may cause the team to revert to storming as the new people challenge the existing norms and dynamics of the team.

Further developments

Adjourning, transforming and mourning

Further developments Adjourning, transforming and mourning In 1977, Tuckman, jointly with Mary Ann Jensen, added a

In 1977, Tuckman, jointly with Mary Ann Jensen, added a fifth stage to the four stages:

adjourning, [7] that involves completing the task and breaking up the team (in some texts referred to as Mourning).

Norming and re- norming

some texts referred to as Mourning). Norming and re- norming Timothy Biggs suggested that an additional

Timothy Biggs suggested that an additional stage be added of Norming after Forming and renaming the traditional Norming stage Re-Norming. This addition is designed to reflect that there is a period after Forming where the

performance of a team gradually improves and the interference of a leader content with that level of performance will prevent a team progressing through the Storming stage to true performance. This puts the emphasis back on the team and leader as the Storming stage must be actively engaged in order to succeed – too many 'diplomats' or 'peacemakers,' especially in a leadership role, may prevent the team from reaching their

full potential.

Rickards and Moger proposed a similar extension to the Tuckman model when a group breaks out of its norms through a process of creative problem-solving. [8][9]

John Fairhurst TPR model

problem-solving. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] John Fairhurst TPR model Alasdair A. K. White together

Alasdair A. K. White together with his colleague, John Fairhurst, examined Tuckman's development sequence when developing the White-Fairhurst

TPR Model. They simplify the sequence and group the Forming-Storming-Norming stages together as the Transforming phase, which they equate with the initial performance level. This is then followed by a Performing phase that leads to a new performance level which they call the Reforming phase. Their work was developed further by White in his essay "From Comfort Zone to Performance Management" [10] in which he demonstrates the linkage

between Tuckman's work with that of Colin Carnall's "coping cycle" and the Comfort Zone Theory.

Leadership strategies to facilitate successful team development

strategies to facilitate successful team development A healthcare research study "Maximizing Team

A healthcare research study "Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader" [11] examined the role of nursing leaders in facilitating the development of high

performing Change teams using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. Using qualitative research techniques, these authors linked the team development stages to leadership strategies, as well as identified keys to leader success. Below are some examples from the article:

 

Leadership

 

Team Development Stage

Strategies

Keys to success

   

Purposefully picking the team

-

Forming (Setting the stage) [11]

Coordinating

Facilitate team to identify goals

-

Behaviors

 

-

Ensure the team

development of a shared mental model

   

-

Act as a resource

person to the team

Storming (Resolving conflict and tension) [11]

Coaching

-

Develop mutual trust

Behaviors

 

Calm the work environment

-

   

Get feedback from staff

-

-

Allow for the

Norming & Performing

Empowering

Behaviors

transfer of leadership

(Successfully implementing and sustaining projects) [11]

Set aside time for planning and engaging the team

-

   

Allow for flexibility in team roles

-

Outperforming & Adjourning (Expanding initiative and integrating new members) [11]

-

Assist in the timing

Supporting

and selection of new member

Behaviors

-

Create future

 

leadership

opportunities

See also

Group developmentSee also Group dynamics High-performance teams References 1. Tuckman, Bruce W (1965). "Developmental sequence in

Group dynamicsSee also Group development High-performance teams References 1. Tuckman, Bruce W (1965). "Developmental sequence in

High-performance teamsSee also Group development Group dynamics References 1. Tuckman, Bruce W (1965). "Developmental sequence in small

References

1. Tuckman, Bruce W (1965).

"Developmental sequence in small groups". Psychological Bulletin. 63 (6): 384–399. PMID 14314073 . doi:10.1037/h0022100 .

2. Leadership the Outward

Bound Way: Becoming a Better Leader in the Workplace By

Outward Bound USA, Rob Chatfield ISBN 9781594850332

3. http://study.com/academy

/lesson/stages-of-group-

development-forming-

storming-forming-performing-

adjourning.html

4.

https://www.mindtools.com

/pages/article

/newLDR_86.htm

5. Tuckman, Bruce (Spring

2001). "Developmental Sequence in Small Groups' "

(PDF). Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal: 71–72. Retrieved 2 December 2015.

6. Leadership the Outw Bound

Way: Becoming a Better Leader

in the Workplace By Outward Bound USA, Rob Chatfield ISBN 9781594850332

7. The Five Stages of Project

Team Development , Gina Abudi – Retrieved May 18th

2010

8. Rickards, T., & Moger, S.T.,

(1999) Handbook for creative

team leaders, Aldershot, Hants:

Gower

9. Rickards, T., & Moger, S.,

(2000) ‘Creative leadership processes in project team development: An alternative to Tuckman’s stage model’, British Journal of Management, Part 4,

pp273-283

10. White A, From Comfort

Zone to Performance Management, 2009, White & MacLean Publishing

11. Manges, Kirstin; Scott-

(2017-01-01). "Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader" . Nursing Forum. 52 (1): 21–29. ISSN 1744-6198 . doi:10.1111/nuf.12161 .

Further reading

Tuckman, Bruce (1965). "Developmental sequence in

Tuckman, Bruce (1965). "Developmental sequence in . Psychological Bulletin . 63 (6): 384–99. PMID

. Psychological

Bulletin. 63 (6): 384–99. PMID 14314073 . doi:10.1037/h0022100 . Retrieved 2008-11-10. “Reprinted with permission in

small groups"

PMID 14314073 . doi : 10.1037/h0022100 . Retrieved 2008-11-10. “Reprinted with permission in small groups"

Group Facilitation, Spring

2001”

White, Alasdair A. K. "From Comfort Zone to Performance Management" 2009 White & MacLean Publishing ISBN 978-2-930583-01-3 [1]

White & MacLean Publishing ISBN 978-2-930583-01-3 [1] Blanchard, Ken and Parisi- Carew, Eunice, The One Minute
White & MacLean Publishing ISBN 978-2-930583-01-3 [1] Blanchard, Ken and Parisi- Carew, Eunice, The One Minute

Blanchard, Ken and Parisi- Carew, Eunice, The One Minute Manager Builds High Performing Teams , William Morrow, 2009.' The One Minute Manager Builds High Performing Teams, William Morrow, 2009.'

Manges, K., Scott‐Cawiezell, J., & Ward, M. M. (2016, May). Maximizing Team Performance:

William Morrow, 2009.' Manges, K., Scott‐Cawiezell, J., & Ward, M. M. (2016, May). Maximizing Team Performance:

The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader. In Nursing forum.

Retrieved from

"https://en.wikipedia.org

/w/index.php?title=Tuckman%27s_

stages_of_group_development&

oldid=800371740"

Last edited 22 days ago…

Content is available under CC BY-

SA 3.0

SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.

unless otherwise noted.