NPSH

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NPSH

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The definition of NPSHA is simple: Static head + surface pressure head - the vapor

pressure of your product - the friction losses in the piping, valves and fittings.

But to really understand it, you first have to understand a couple of other concepts:

Cavitation is what net positive suction head (NPSH) is all about, so you need to

know a little about cavitation.

Vapor Pressure is another term we will be using. The product's vapor pressure

varies with the fluid's temperature.

Specific gravity play an important part in all calculations involving liquid. You

have to be familiar with the term.

You have to be able to read a pump curve to learn the N.P.S.H. required for your

pump.

You need to understand how the liquid's velocity affects its pressure or head.

It is important to understand why we use the term Head instead of Pressure when

we make our calculations.

Head loss is an awkward term, but you will need to understand it.

o You will have to be able to calculate the head loss through piping, valves

and fittings.

You must know the difference between gage pressure and absolute pressure.

Vacuum is often a part of the calculations, so you are going to have to be familiar

with the terms we use to describe vacuum.

Cavitation means cavities or holes in liquid. Another name for a hole in a liquid is

a bubble, so cavitation is all about bubbles forming and collapsing.

o Bubbles take up space so the capacity of our pump drops.

o Collapsing bubbles can damage the impeller and volute. This makes

cavitation a problem for both the pump and the mechanical seal.

Vapor pressure is about liquids boiling. If I asked you, "at what temperature does

water boil ?" You could say 212 F. or 100 C., but that is only true at

atmospheric pressure. Every product will boil (make bubbles) at some

combination of pressure and temperature. If you know the temperature of your

product you need to know its vapor pressure to prevent boiling and the formation

of bubbles. In the charts section of this web site you will find a vapor pressure

chart for several common liquids.

Specific gravity is about the weight of the fluid. Using 4C (39 F) as our

temperature standard we assign fresh water a value of one. If the fluid floats on

this fresh water it has a specific gravity is less than one. If the fluid sinks in this

water the specific gravity of the fluid is greater than one.

Look at any pump curve and make sure you can locate the values for head,

capacity, best efficiency point (B.E.P.), efficiency, net positive suction head

(NPSH), and horse power required. If you cannot do this, have someone show you

where they are located.

Liquid velocity is another important concept. As a liquid's velocity increases, its

pressure (90 to the flow) decreases. If the velocity decreases the pressure

increases. The rule is : velocity times pressure must remain a constant.

"Head" is the term we use instead of pressure. The pump will pump any liquid to

a given height or head depending upon the diameter and speed of the impeller.

The amount of pressure you get depends upon the weight (specific gravity) of the

liquid. The pump manufacturer does not know what liquid the pump will be

pumping so he gives you only the head that the pump will generate. You have to

figure out the pressure using a formula described later on in this paper.

Head (feet) is a convenient term because when combined with capacity (gallons

or pounds per minute) you come up with the conversion for horsepower (foot

pounds per minute).

"Head loss through the piping, valves and fittings" is another term we will be

using. Pressure drop is a more comfortable term for most people, but the term

"pressure" is not used in most pump calculations so you could substitute the term

"head drop" or "loss of head" in the system. To calculate this loss you will need to

be able to read charts like those you will find in the "charts you can use" section

in the home page of this web site. They are labeled Friction loss for water and

Resistance coefficients for valves and fittings.

Gage and absolute pressure. Add atmospheric pressure to the gage pressure and

you get absolute pressure.

Vacuum is a pressure less than atmospheric. At sea level atmospheric pressure is

14.7 psi. (760 mm of Mercury). Vacuum gages are normally calibrated in inches

or millimeters of mercury.

To calculate the net positive suction head (NPSH) of your pump and determine if you are

going to have a cavitation problem, you will need access to several additional pieces of

information:

The curve for your pump. This pump curve is supplied by the pump manufacturer.

Someone in your plant should have a copy. The curve is going to show you the

Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) required for your pump at a given capacity.

Each pump is different so make sure you have the correct pump curve and use the

numbers for the impeller diameter on your pump. Keep in mind that this NPSH

required was for cold, fresh water.

A chart or some type of publication that will give you the vapor pressure of the

fluid you are pumping. You can find a typical vapor pressure chart in the "charts

you can use" section in the home page of this web site

If you would like to be a little more exact, you can use a chart to show the

possible reduction in NPSH required if you are pumping hot water or light

hydrocarbons. I will cover this subject in great detail in another paper.

You need to know the specific gravity of your fluid. Keep in mind that the

number is temperature sensitive. You can get this number from a published chart,

ask some knowledgeable person at your plant, or or take a reading on the fluid

using a hydrometer.

Charts showing the head loss through the size of piping you are using between the

source and the suction eye of your pump. You will also need charts to calculate

the loss in any fittings, valves, or other hardware that might have been installed in

the suction piping. You can find these charts in the "charts you can use" section in

the home page of this web site

Is the tank you are pumping from at atmospheric pressure or is it pressurized in

some manner? Maybe it is under a vacuum ?

You need to know the atmospheric pressure at the time you are making your

calculation. We all know atmospheric pressure changes through out the day, but

you have to start somewhere.

The formulas for converting pressure to head and head back to pressure in the

imperial system are as follows:

o pressure = pounds per square inch

o head = feet

You also need to know the formulas that show you how to convert vacuum

readings to feet of head. Here are a few of them:

To convert surface pressure to feet of liquid; use one of the following formulas:

Pounds per square inch x 2.31 / specific gravity = feet of liquid

Millimeters of mercury / (22.4 x specific gravity) = feet of liquid

There are different ways to think about net positive suction head (NPSH) but they

all have two terms in common.

NPSHR (net positive suction head required)

NPSHR (net positive suction head required) is defined as the NPSH at which the pump

total head (first stage head in multi stage pumps) has decreased by three percent (3%) due

to low suction head and resultant cavitation within the pump. This number is shown on

your pump curve, but it is going to be too low if you are pumping hydrocarbon liquids or

hot water.

Cavitation begins as small harmless bubbles before you get any indication of loss of head

or capacity. This is called the point of incipient cavitation. Testing has shown that it takes

from two to twenty times the NPSHR (net positive suction head required) to fully

suppress incipient cavitation, depending on the impeller shape (specific speed number)

and operating conditions.

To stop a product from vaporizing or boiling at the low pressure side of the pump the

NPSHA (net positive suction head available) must be equal to or greater than the NPSHR

(net positive suction head required).

head - the vapor pressure of your product - loss in the piping, valves and fittings .

In the following paragraphs you will be using the above formulas to determine if

you have a problem with NPSHA. Here is where you locate the numbers to put into

the formula:

Static head. Measure it from the centerline of the pump suction to the top of the

liquid level. If the level is below the centerline of the pump it will be a negative or

minus number.

Surface pressure head. Convert the gage absolute pressure to feet of liquid using

the formula:

o Pressure = head x specific gravity / 2.31

Vapor pressure of your product . Look at the vapor pressure chart in the "charts

you can use" section in the home page of this web site. You will have to convert

the pressure to head. If you use the absolute pressure shown on the left side of the

chart, you can use the above formula

Specific gravity of your product. You can measure it with a hydrometer if no one

in your facility has the correct chart or knows the number.

Loss of pressure in the piping, fittings and valves. Use the three charts in the

"charts you can use" section in the home page of this web site

o Find the chart for the proper pipe size, go down to the gpm and read across

to the loss through one hundred feet of pipe directly from the last column

in the chart. As an example: two inch pipe, 65 gpm = 7.69 feet of loss for

each 100 feet of pipe.

o For valves and fittings look up the resistance coefficient numbers (K

numbers) for all the valves and fittings, add them together and multiply

the total by the V2/2g number shown in the fourth column of the friction

loss piping chart. Example: A 2 inch long radius screwed elbow has a K

number of 0.4 and a 2 inch globe valve has a K number of 8. Adding them

together (8 + 0.4) = 8.4 x 0.6 (for 65 gpm) = 5 feet of loss.

In the following examples we will be looking only at the suction side of the pump. If we

were calculating the pump's total head we would look at both the suction and discharge

sides.

Let's go through the first example and see if our pump is going to cavitate:

Given:

Gage pressure =The tank is at sea level and open to atmospheric pressure.

Liquid level above pump centerline = 5 feet

Piping = a total of 10 feet of 2 inch pipe plus one 90 long radius screwed elbow.

Pumping =100 gpm. 68F. fresh water with a specific gravity of one (1).

Vapor pressure of 68F. Water = 0.27 psia from the vapor chart.

Specific gravity = 1

NPSHR (net positive suction head required, from the pump curve) = 9 feet

- vapor pressure of your product - loss in the piping, valves and fittings

Atmospheric pressure = pressure x 2.31/sg. = 14.7 x 2.31/1 = 34 feet absolute

Gage pressure = 0

Vapor pressure of 68F. water converted to head = pressure x 2.31/sg = 0.27 x

2.31/1 = 0.62 feet

Looking at the friction charts:

o 100 gpm flowing through 2 inch pipe shows a loss of 17.4 feet for each

100 feet of pipe or 17.4/10 = 1.74 feet of head loss in the piping

o The K factor for one 2 inch elbow is 0.4 x 1.42 = 0.6 feet

Adding these numbers together, 1.74 + 0.6 = a total of 2.34 feet friction loss in the

pipe and fitting.

NPSHA (net positive suction head available) = 34 + 5 + 0 - 0.62 - 2.34 = 36.04 feet

The pump required 9 feet of head at 100 gpm. And we have 36.04 feet so we have plenty

to spare.

Example number 2 . This time we are going to be pumping from a tank under

vacuum.

Given:

Atmospheic pressure = 14.7 psi

Liquid level above pump centerline = 5 feet

Piping = a total of 10 feet of 2 inch pipe plus one 90 long radius screwed elbow.

Pumping = 100 gpm. 68F fresh water with a specific gravity of one (1).

Vapor pressure of 68F water = 0.27 psia from the vapor chart.

NPSHR (net positive suction head required) = 9 feet

- vapor pressure of your product - loss in the piping, valves and fittings

Static head = 5 feet

Gage pessure pressure = 20 inches of vacuum converted to head

o inches of mercury x 1.133 / specific gravity = feet of liquid

o -20 x 1.133 /1 = -22.7 feet of pressure head absolute

Vapor pressure of 68F water = pressure x 2.31/sg. = 0.27 x 2.31/1 = 0.62 feet

Looking at the friction charts:

o 100 gpm flowing through 2.5 inch pipe shows a loss of 17.4 feet or each

100 feet of pipe or 17.4/10 = 1.74 feet loss in the piping

o The K factor for one 2 inch elbow is 0.4 x 1.42 = 0.6 feet

Adding these two numbers together: (1.74 + 0.6) = a total of 2.34 feet friction loss

in the pipe and fitting.

NPSHA (net positive suction head available) = 34 + 5 - 22.7 - 0.62 - 2.34 = 13.34 feet.

This is enough to stop cavitation also.

For the third example we will keep everything the same except that we will be

pumping 180 F. hot condensate from the vacuum tank.

The vapor pressure of 180F condensate is 7 psi according to the chart. We get the

specific gravity from another chart and find that it is 0.97 sg. for 180 F. Fresh water.

- vapor pressure of your product - loss in the piping, valves and fittings

NPSHA (net positive suction head available) = 34 + 5 - 22.7 - 16.7 - 2.34 = -2.74 feet.

losses exceed the available head and that cannot happen. The rule when pumping

a boiling fluid is: The NPSHA equals the Static Suction Head minus the Suction

friction head because the suction surface pressure and the vapor pressure equalize

one another. The absolute pressure in the tank is 34 -22.7 = 11.3 ft. The vapor

pressure of the condensate in the tank converts to 16.7 ft of head (see above) so

the condensate is boiling /flashing and reaching a state of equilibrium.

When pumping a boiling liquid, the Static Head must exceed the Suction Friction

Head (2.34 feet) by the amount of NPSH Required (9 feet) or: (9 ft. + 2.34 feet =

11.34 feet.) We can do this by raising the level in the suction tank an additional

6.34 feet to get the 11.34 feet required (6.34 feet + 5 feet existing = 11.34 feet)

In some instances you could reduce the Suction Friction Head to get the same

result, but in this example there is not enough friction head available to reduce.

This example also allows you to shortcut NPSHA calculations any time you are

pumping from a tank where the liquid is at its vapor pressure. Oil refineries are

full of these applications.

If you are given the absolute and vapor pressures in psia, and you forgot how to convet to

feet of head; you can use the following formula, providing you know the specific weight

of the liquid you are pumping :

Pp = Absolute pressure expressed in psia. In an open system, Pp equals

atmospheric pressure, Pa, expressed in psia.

Pvpa = Vapor pressure expressed in psia.

W = Specific weight of liquid at the pumping temperature in pounds per cubic

foot.

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Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

A definition and an introduction to Net

Positive Suction Head - NPSH

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encounter the fluid to start boiling with

reduced efficiency

cavitation

damage

pressure in the liquid is reduced to the vapor pressure

of the fluid at the actual temperature.

To characterize the potential for boiling and

cavitation, the difference between the total head on

the suction side of the pump - close to the impeller,

and the liquid vapor pressure at the actual

temperature, can be used.

Suction Head

the fluid close to the impeller can be expressed as the

sum of the static and the velocity head:

hs = ps / + vs2 / 2 g (1)

where

to the impeller

vs = velocity of fluid

g = acceleration of gravity

can be expressed as:

hv = pv / (2)

where

hv = vapor head

pv = vapor pressure

temperature. Water, our most common fluid, starts

boiling at 20 oC if the absolute pressure in the fluid is

2,3 kN/m2. For an absolute pressure of 47,5 N/m2,

the water starts boiling at 80 oC. At an absolute

pressure of 101.3 kN/m2 (normal atmosphere), the

boiling starts at 100 oC.

expressed as the difference between the Suction

Head and the Liquids Vapor Head and expressed like

NPSH = hs - hv (3)

named NPSHr, is in general determined

experimentally by the pump manufacturer and a

part of the documentation of the pump.

the systems available NPSHa to avoid the

vaporization and cavitation of the impellers eye. The

required NPSHr should in general be significant

higher than the available NPSHa to avoid that head

loss in the suction pipe and in the pump casing, local

velocity accelerations and pressure decreases, start

boiling the fluid on the impeller surface.

square capacity.

named NPSHa. The NPSHa can be determined during

design and construction, or determined

experimentally from the actual physical system.

The available NPSHa can be calculated with the

Energy Equation. For a common application - where

the pump lifts a fluid from an open tank at one level

to an other, the energy or head at the surface of the

tank is the same as the energy or head before the

pump impeller and can be expressed as:

h0 = hs + hl (4)

where

h0 = head at surface

impeller - major and minor loss in the

suction pipe

as:

h0 = p0 / = patm / (4b)

pressure inside the tank must be used.

hs = ps / + vs2 / 2 g + he (4c)

where

he = elevation from surface to pump -

positive if pump is above the tank,

negative if the pump is below the tank

patm / = ps / + vs2 / 2 g + he + hl

(4d)

expressed as:

elevation - he - is positive and the NPSHa decreases

when the elevation of the pump increases.

the fluid starts to evaporate.

elevation - he - is negative and the NPSHa increases

when the elevation of the pump decreases (lowering

the pump).

lowering the pump (as long as the major and minor

head loss due to a longer pipe don't increase it more).

This is important and it is common to lower the

pump when pumping fluids close to evaporation

temperature.

Tank

When increasing the the elevation for a pump located

above a tank, the fluid will start to evaporate at a

maximum level for the actual temperature.

maximum elevation can therefore be expressed by

(4f):

NPSHa = patm / - he - hl - pv / = 0

major and minor head loss. The elevation head can

then be expressed as:

he = patm / - pv / (5)

tank depends on the atmospheric pressure - which in

general can be regarded as constant, and the vapor

pressure of the fluid - which in general vary with

temperature, especially for water.

20 oC is 2.3 kN/m2. The maximum theoretical

elevation height is therefore:

(2.3 kN/m2) / (9.80 kN/m3)

= 10.1 m

Due to the head loss in the suction pipe and the local

conditions inside the pump - the theoretical

maximum elevation is significantly decreased.

an open water tank at different temperatures can be

found from the table below:

(oC) (kN/m2) (m)

0 0.6 10.3

5 0.9 10.2

10 1.2 10.2

15 1.7 10.2

20 2.3 10.1

25 3.2 10.0

30 4.3 9.9

35 5.6 9.8

40 7.7 9.5

45 9.6 9.4

50 12.5 9.1

55 15.7 8.7

60 20 8.3

65 25 7.8

70 32.1 7.1

75 38.6 6.4

80 47.5 5.5

85 57.8 4.4

90 70 3.2

95 84.5 1.7

100 101.33 0.0

The net positive suction head required is a function of the pump design at the operating point on the pump

performance curve. In our example on the Centrifugal Pump Performance Curve -->page, the NPSHR by the

pump at the operating point is 5 ft.

NPSHA

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA)

The net positive suction head available is a function of the pump suction system.

The Net Positive Suction Head is the absolute total suction head in feet.

Atmospheric Pressure (- ) Vapor Pressure (+) Liquid Height (-) Friction in the Suction Line.

The NPSH available in a suction lift system is:

Atmospheric Pressure (-) Vapor Pressure (-) Liquid Ht. (-) Friction in the Suction Line.

NPSHA = Atmospheric Pressure (-) Elevation Correction (-) Vapor Pressure (+) Suction

Head

Elevation Correction for 2000 ft. = 33.96 ft. (-) 31.58 ft. = 2.38 ft.

Suction Head = 8.7 ft.

NPSHA = 33.96 ft.(-) 2.38 ft. (-) 8.56 ft. (+) 8.7 ft. = 31.72 ft.

Suction Cavitation

Discharge Cavitation

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