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An Application of Operational amplifier in the desigb of laser

Communication Link using C# programming Language


Eugene B OCa[1] , John Micheal M Claudio[2] , Allan Salvador S. Abiang [3]

Electronics Engineering Department, College of Engineering


Technological Institute of the philippines
938 Aurora Blvd, Cubao, Quezon City

1
eugenebasiliscooca@gmail.com
2
johnmichaelclaudio@gmail.com
3
yabiang@gmail.com

want their basic needs might be attended since there is poor


I. ABSTRACT communication link in those areas. Proving a communication
In this design project, an Operational amplifier was applied stations in rural areas is too expensive to be applied in rural
in the receiver Module used for amplifying signals coming areas.
from the transmitter module. A laser was used in the In order to provide a good communication system for people
transmitter module for sending the applied signal. A living in remote areas, a wireless communication that does not
photodiode was used in the receiver module for accepting the rely on satellites must be used. Providing a communication
signal coming from the transmitter. The transmitter and link will help people get their basic necessities in life and
receiver was connected via Aceduino and was programmed should cost less than building a communication link like
Using C# programming language. This design project cellular sites.
focuses on making a communication medium by means of
not using the satellite as the medium of communication. It Introducing the laser communication by using operational
solely relies on the amplification of signal through amplifier, early this generation of technology many
operational amplifier and not through cellular signals that communication devices was develops. But the one which has
most people rely on when communicating wirelessly. received major attention is the potential of the laser in the
development of high density communication system [1].

The operational amplifier has become one of the most


Keywords- Operational amplifier, laser Communication, versatile and important building blocks in analog electronics.
programming language, Comparator operational amplifier, Op-amp plays important role in analog circuit design as logic
gate plays in digital circuitry. In modern wireless
II. INTRODUCTION communication [2],
Communication is important for people whenever using it for
In this paper we present the reliability of laser communication
entertainment, emergency, updates, and any other application.
by using programming language. C# is one of the
With the help of satellites, people transmit their messages
programming languages designed for the Common Language
wirelessly and with ease. And in this generation, where
Infrastructure; the laser was quite popular by using it in any
technology upgrades all the time, many have come up with a
variant like transmit voice for miles line of sight. By this
solution to boost the communication speed furthermore as
application we developed an operational amplifier that fitted
technology advances all the time. With all these
with laser communication link.
improvements, relying solely on communication links like
The Laser Could be considered as a tool of deep space
satellites can have a huge impact especially if all these
communication system [1].
satellites went down and do not function anymore.
Here in the Philippines, an estimated of 55.63% of the
population ( 56,575,710 ) (Rural Population in the Philippines
2015)lives in rural areas where communication links like
cellular site is scarce. People living in the remote areas may
live in jeopardy especially when it comes to attending to the
physique of the population living in those areas. People that
III. PROBLEM STATEMENT
AT THE END OF THE STUDY, THE TEAM SOUGHT TO ANSWER THE
QUESTION OF HOW OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CAN BE
MANIFESTED IN LASER USING C# PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

IV. OBJECTIVES
The Team has the following objectives in the study:
1. To utilize an operational amplifier application for
solving the range of laser communication link using
Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Receiver circuit
aceduino.
2. To determine the varying effect of operational
The circuit functions as a comparator wherein the PT
amplifier in the designing of laser communication. (phototransistor) allows current to flow when there is light
3. To help other researcher or designer for their future being sensed then the potentiometer allows the user to adjust
studies and research. or calibrate the reference voltage so that when the voltage at
PT is greater than the reference voltage, the comparator will
V. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS have an output of VCC voltage.

- The researcher Use Mini Aceduino to be the transmitter


The main focus of this project was to design an of the signal.For the receiver, it was programmed by
application of operational amplifier in laser communication
C# language used for the Common Language
link by using C# as its programming language. The system
Infrastructure
will be using a transmitter and a receiver. An operational
amplifier is used in the receiver module to amplify the signal
coming from the transmitter via Laser. A C# programming
language is used to program the transmitter to convert the data [B] PCB design layout
from binary numbers to ON and OFF state of the Laser.
The project can be used in transmitting text messages
without relying on cellular sites. Some calculations,
assumptions, and selections were made as a consideration of a
proper and realistic design.

VI. METHODOLOGY

Non-linear Operational amplifier


An operational amplifier is operating in its non-linear range
when the output of the operational amplifier is not directly
proportional to the input, nonlinear operation can be result
from using components in an operational amplifier circuit that
cause the non-linear.
Non-linear operation occurs when the operational amplifier
output reaches either its maximum excursion (positive Figure 2. PCB layout Design
saturation) or its minimum possible excursion (negative
saturation) Once the schematic diagram converted to pcb design this will
be the outcome of it.
.
[C]Operational Amplifier Approach
[A] Project Construction
- The operational amplifier approach that used in the
- The Experiment was studied through research and study was Comparator []. Comparator is a specialized
actual experimentation by constructing the circuit of op-amp circuit that compares two input voltage and
the receiver circuit and transmitter circuit produces an output that is always at either one of two
sate, indicating the grater or less than relationship
between the inputs. Comparators provide very fast
switching time, and many have additional capabilities
such as fast propagation delay or internal reference Aceduino 328 (Aceduino 328)
voltages to optimize the comparison function

14 Digital Input/Output pins (6 of which are PWM


outputs)
6 Analog Input pins (with pin for Analog reference)
Different communication lines available - UART
(Rx, Tx), I2C (SDA, SCL) and ISP (MISO, MOSI,
SCL)
Figure 3. nonzero-level Comparator
On-board solderable prototyping nodes
32KB Flash Memory and automatic power selector
between USB and DC power

VII. OPERATION AND TESTING PROCEDURE

First, the user can start the software designed for the
communication device, then connect to the serial port of the
device. Once connected, the user will now be able to send
messages through the software.
The software will encode the data into binary data
that composed of ones and zeros, then the software will
forward the data through serial communication to Aceduino.
The binary data being received by the Aceduino is being NI Multisim (NI Multisim)
transmitted through the laser diode through the derived
encoding scheme. The encoding scheme is defined by the Multisim is an industry-standard, best-in-class SPICE
function = ()(1 + (2)) in seconds, where simulation environment. It is the cornerstone of the NI circuits
duration is the minimum time of laser to be at ON state, then b teaching solution to build expertise through practical
is the bit representation of the data which is 8 bits per application in designing, prototyping, and testing electrical
character. circuits. The Multisim design approach helps you save
So that the encoding scheme is just how much time prototype iterations and optimize printed circuit board (PCB)
the laser is at ON state. During the transmission, the laser designs earlier in the process.
diode has to be in its line-of-sight to refrain from data losses
since the data being transmitted is digital, every bit of it is NI Ultiboard (NI Ultiboard)
important.
For the receiver side, the receiver is a phototransistor Ultiboard is a rapid printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping
that acts as a transistor that has a base, collector, and emitter. environment used by engineering professionals, educators,
Where the base is the light sensitive part of it so the laser can makers, and students across many applications. Its seamless
trigger the base ON and OFF. Then the phototransistor is integration with Multisim helps circuit designers save hours of
directly connected to the comparator to refrain from having a development time with the ability to complete circuit
varying signal and make it only as absence and presence of the schematics, SPICE simulation, and PCB layout in the same
voltage. The threshold voltage can be adjusted through the environment.
potentiometer.
Then the comparators output is connected to the
Aceduino. The Aceduino will t hen follow the encoding
scheme to decode the light wave being transmitted into binary
data, t hen the software will decode the binary data into a raw IX. Data and Results
data.

VIII. INSTRUMENT AND TECHNIQUES USED

Figure 1 Aceduino 328


Figure 3.1 web development with console binary digit Table 3.4 innovate with console binary digit

Table 3.5 Characters with console binary digit

Figure 3.2 ELEX44 with console binary digit

Table 3.6 On/Off state with console binary digit

When the value on the graph is zero, then there is absence of


transmission, if the graph has a non-zero value, then there is
data being transmitted. If the duration of ON state is short,
then the corresponding bit would be equal to zero, if the
Figure 3.3 Hello world with console binary digit duration of ON state is long, then the corresponding bit would
be equal to 1
X. CONCLUSION [12] "Laser Communication," [Online]. Available:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-
space_optical_communication.
XI. RECOMMENDATION
For the sake of future experimentalist, researcher, and
especially student who are taking electronic circuit analysis
and design, who would like to continue or pursue further XIII. PROPONENT PROFILE
research regarding operational amplifier specification. The
Team would like to recommend the application of wireless John Micheal M. Claudio is
communication using operational amplifier in term of C# Currently Enrolled in Technological
Institute of the Philippines and a
programming language. The operational amplifier would be Fourth year Student, taking up
able to showcase its different specification further if they are Bachelor of science major in
applied in different research and experiment. electronics Engineering he is also
part of society of electronics
engineering of the Philippines, also a
member of MotoGP riders Club
XII. REFEREBCES

Eugene B. Oca Currently Enrolled in


Technological Institute of the
Philippines and a Fourth year
[1] "Rural Population in the Philippines 2015," [Online]. Student, taking up Bachelor of
Available: Science major in electronics
https://tradingeconomics.com/philippines/rural- engineering. He is an active hacker
population-percent-of-total-population-wb-data.html. who's joining outside competitions
like NASA's Space apps challenge
[2] "Importance of Laser in Communication," [Online]. with rewards Decibeled from it,
Available: https://www.online-sciences.com/the-
AteneoHacks 2015 and more, He is good in programming in
waves/the-importance-of-lasers-in-communication-and-
different platforms with a deep logic and vision in solving
advantages-of-fiber-optics-cables/.
such database-driven, android, web-based, and desktop
[3] "Operational Amplifier," [Online]. Available: applications. He is also an active member of the Microsoft
http://www.electronics- Student Partners with a position of Junior MSP. Active in
tutorials.ws/opamp/opamp_8.html. attending seminars as part of continuing education like, Linux
[4] D. J. Israel, B. L. Edwards and J. W. Staren, "Laser System Administration (Seminar), Robotics & Embedded
Communications Relay Demonstration update and the Systems Seminar, Python Programming Workshop by PhD.
path towards Optical Relay Operations," p. 1, 2016. Sony Valdez. He is also knowledgeable in Video Editing,
[5] W. Lei and S. Qiang, "Improved Timing Recovery Loop AutoCAD, Blender, Linux OS, Basic Computer Networking.
in Laser Communication," p. 1, 2016.
[6] A. A. Mohammed and S. M. Nafie, "Practical
Considerations for Interfacing Operational Amplifiers Allan S, Abiang Is Currently Enrolled
with Analog to Digital Converters in Microcontrollers," in Technological institute of the
p. 1, 2017. Philippines and a third year student,
taking up Bachelor of Science major in
[7] S. Bambey, E. Lim, K. Corley-Jory and P. Taheri, "A electronics and communication
Cost-Efficient Transceiver Prototype for Arduino-Based engineering he is also part of the
Laser Communication," p. 1. society of electronics engineering of
the Philippines.
[8] T. L. Floyd, "Comparator," in Electronic Devices,
Conventional Current Version, p. 668.
[9] "Aceduino 328," [Online]. Available:
http://www.alexan.com.ph/index.php/training-
modules/226-aceduino-328 .
[10] "NI Multisim," [Online]. Available:
http://www.ni.com/multisim/what-is/ .
[11] "NI Ultiboard," [Online]. Available:
http://www.ni.com/ultiboard/.