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K S Valdiya
lawahar Lal Nehru Centre for Adaanced Scientific Research
Bangalore

MACMILLAN
A
@ Macmillan Puhlishers India Ltd. 2010

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or


transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission. Any
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may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.

First published, 2010

MACMILLAN PUBLISHERS II{DIA LTD


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ISBN 10: 0230-32833-4


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Published by Rajiv Beri for Macmillan Publishers India Ltd


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This book has been subsidised by the Government of India, through


the National Book Trust, India, for the benefit of students.

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This book is memt for educational and leaming purposes. The author(s) ofthe book has/have
taken all reasonable care to ensure that the contents of the book do not violate any existing
copyright or other intellectual properry rights ofany person in any mamer whatsoever. In the
event the author(s) has/have been unable to track any source and if any copyright has been
inadvertently infringed, please notiS the publisher in writing for corective action.
To
my reuered teacher
the late Shri Shiuo Ballabh Bahuguna,
who showed me the path
I haue walked on
Preface

The seed of the idea of writing a book on the geology and geodynamic evolution of the Indian
continent was planted in my mind years ago, when Mrs D.N. Wadia asked me to revise that
superb work of D.N. Wadia - Geology o.f India.I had to decline. I wrote back stating that the
expansion of geological knowledge has been so vast, and so many advances in our
understanding of the geodynamic processes involved in the evolution of the crust had taken
place in last few decades that rewriting rather than revision of a book on the geology of India
rvas called for. In 1996 the then President of the Geological Society of India Dr B.P. Radhakrishna
called me telephonically to suggest that I write a textbook on the geological history of India.
Being inextricably preoccupied with neotectonic study of the Mysore Plateau, I hummed and
hawed but waited for a formal letter, which did not come. In early 2003 when the Indian National
Science Academy offered, without my asking, the Golden Jubilee Research Professorship, I made
up my mind to embark upon the venture of writing an account of the geological setting and
tectonic history of the Indian continent. The focus was to be India, but the surrounding regions
rvould have to be brought in the ambit to portray the whole picture of the evolution of the
southern part of the Asian continent.
The wonderfully great works of D.N. Wadia, M.S. Krishnan and E.H. Pascoe amply bring out
the contributions of pioneers and giants of the pre-Independence time. I have chosen to base my
accounts on the works of mainly those who explored the land of India after 1947. Exception has
been made in the case of the Himalaya province where comprehensive regional studies started
quite late - a decade or a little earlier before India's Independence. Endeavour has been made to
bring out the works of those silent geologists whose contributions have gone and remain
"'
unhonoured and unsung//.
Encompassing a broad arcay of in{ormation related to structure and tectonics, stratigraphy
anc-l palaeontology, sedimentation and palaeogeography, petrology and geochemistry,
geomorphologv and geophysics, the book presents in a concise format a simplified and coherent
sion' of the evolution of the Indian continent. Effort has been made to integrate what little I
<no\\,, desisting, however, from dwelling on arguments related to controversies (although calling
viii Preface
*a
attention to them), curtailing details of methodologies and descriptions, packing no more than is
necessary for understanding, and avoiding using jargons of stratigraphic nomenclature.
Presented in a distilled form the observations and deductions of workers on different facets of
earth science, this book is intended to instil appreciation of the geological developments that
have taken place in the making of India. A comprehensive, though selective, list of original
works would provide lead to those who seek details and wish to go into the depth of problems.
No more than an updated guide, this book is meant for readers who wish to enlarge their
scientific perception.
Curtailing unnecessary details without making them shallow and updating without being
unsympathetic to the past contributions, the diagrams are designed to depict settings and
situations rather than precise delineation of geological features.
While writing this book, words of my mentors reverberated in my mind. My college-day
teacher Shri Shiva Ballabh Bahuguna used to exhort me to see the world around with wide open
eyes and try to know about as many things as possible. "The outcrop is the finai court of appeal
where all concepts or theories must be tested" wrote Prof. F.j. Pettijohn in 7974. And to have a
close look at the outcrops, one must go "out amongst the rocks" was the message Prof. W.D.
West gave me in 1991. Fortunately, I have lived and worked all my life amongst the rocks in
different parts of India
- the Shan plateau in Myannmar, the central sector of the Himalaya, the
eastern extremety of the great mountain arc, eastern Vindhyachal, northern Bundelkhand, the
Mewar region of the Aravali, the Mysore Plateau and the central and southern Sahyadri. The
voyages of studies enabled me to carry out "conversation with rocks", which gave me an insight
and some understanding of the natural phenomena involved in the making of India. I wish to
share that understanding with students and teachers of geology and non-specialist readers.

K S Valdiya
x Achnouledgements

(Kathmandu), Dr O.N. Bhargava (Panchkula), Dr Anshu K. Sinha (Gurgaon), Prof. S.K. Shah
(Secunderabad), Prof. S.M. Casshyap (Noida), Dr R.C. Tewari (Aligarh), Prof. K.V. Subbarao
(Hyderabad), Prof. S.F.R. Sethna (Mumbai), Dr Hetu C. Sheth (Mumbai), Dr S.K. Biswas
(Mumbai), Prof. Ashok Sahni (Chandigarh), Dr H.M. Kapoor (Lucknow), Dr Rajeev Upadhyay
(Nainital), Dr S.K. Acharyya (Kolkata), Prof. S.K. Tandon (Delhi), Dr A.C. Nanda (Dehradun),
Prof. P.K. Saraswati (Mumbai), Dr A.T.R. Raju (Kakinada), Prof. M.S. Srinivasan (Varanasi), Prof.
V. Sharma (Delhi), Prof. Brahm Parkash (Roorkee), Prof. Rajiv Sinha (Kanpur), Dr D.D. Joshi
(Lucknow), Prof. L.S. Chamyal (Vadodara), Prof. Ashok Singhvi (Ahmadabad), Dr Amal Kar
(Jodhpur), Prof. S.M. Ramasamy (Tiruchirappalli), Dr R.K. Pant (Ahmadabad), Dr ].R. Kayal
(Kolkata), Dr C.P. Rajendran (Trivandrum), Dr K.S. Krishna (Dona Paula), and Dr M.V. Ramana
(Dona Paula) for critically and painstakingly going through chapters of the book and making
extremely valuable suggestions for improvement.

K S Valdiya
Contents

Preface aii
Acknowledgements ix

1. Physiographic Layout of Indian Subcontinent 1,

PhysiographicDivisions 1
TheHimalaya 1

Siwalik 2
Himachal or LesserHimalaya 4
Himadri or Great Himalaya 5
Tethys Himalaya 5
Syntaxial Bends 6
Eastern Flank 6
Himalaya in Pakistan 6
The Indo-Gangetic Plains 7
Extent 7
Ganga Plain 8
Sindhu Plain I
Thar Desert 9
The Irrawaddy Basin 9
The Peninsular India 9
Bordering Mountain Ranges 9
Uplands and Plateaus 13
The Coastal Plains 1.4
Makran Coast 14
West Coast 15
East Coast 16
xii Contents

2. Geological Terranes of Indian Continent t7


Indian Shield with Archaean Cratons 17
Early Proterozoic Mobile Belts 18
Continent-Interior Later Proterozoic Sedimentary Basins 1,9

Gondwana Basins 20
Cretaceous Volcanic Provinces 20
Pericratonic Sedimentary Basins of Peninsular India 21

Himalaya Mobile Belt 21


Indo-Gangetic Plains and Quaternary Cover of Peninsular India 22
Andaman Island Arc and Central Myanmar Plain 23
J. Archaean Craton: Southern India 25
Indian Shield 25
Dharwar Craton: Crustal Sructure 26
Faulted Terrane 28
Tectonic Boundaries 29
Intracratonic Shear Zones 30
Lithostratigraphy 31

Gorur Gneiss 32
Sargur Croup 33
Composition 33
Metamorphism 33
Age 33
Peninsular Gneiss 35
Composition 35
Age 35
Deformation 35
Dharwar Supergroup 36
Basal Unconformity 36
Lithostratigraphy and Sedimentation 37
Temporal Span 37
Structural Architecture of Western Block 39
Schist Belts in Eastern Block 47
Closepet Granite 44
Composition 44
Genesis 45
Age 45
Dharwar Batholith 45
Composition 45
Contents xiii

Origin 45
Age 47
Syenites 47
Granulite{harncckite Domain 48
Occurrence 48
Genesis of Charnockites 48
Basic-Ultrabasic lntrusiaes 50
Tectonics of Evolution of Dharwar Craton 50
Life in the Archaean Time 52
Mineral Assets 52
4. Archaean Cratons in Central, Eastern and Western India 55
Introduction 55
Bastar Craton 55
Continental Nucleus 55
Tectonic Boundaries 56
Deformation Pattern 57
Cratonic Nucleus: Marknmpara Gneiss 57
SuknmGroup 60
Bengpal Group 60
Bailadila Group 61
Amgaon Gneiss 63
BhopalpatnamGranulite 64
Mafic Dykes 64
Singhbhum Craton 64
Configuration and Characteristics 64
Tectonic Boundaries 65
Lithostratigraphic l-ayout 67
Champua Group (Older Metamorphic Group) 68
Saraikela Gneiss (Older Metamorphic Tonalite Gneiss) 69
Besoi Granite (Singhbhum Granite Type A)
71

lron Ore Group 7L


Singhbhum Granite (Type B) 74
Sukinda and Nuasahi Ultrabasic Bodies 74
Darjin Group and Tamperkola Granite 76
Geodynamic Eaolution 77
Mineral Assets 78
Bundelkhand Craton 78
Collage of Complexes 78
Geophysical Conditions 80
xiv Contents

Boundaries ofCraton 82
Lithostratigraphy 82
Mawli Gneiss 82
Mangalwar Complex (Western Block) 83
Mehroni Group (Eastern Block) 85
Banded GneissicComplex 85
Sandmata Complex 86
Hindoli Group 86
Dykes 88
Berach Granite 88
Bundelkhand Granite 88
Deformation Pattern 89
Eoolution of the Craton 89
Mineralization 90
5. I'alaeoproterozoic Mobile Belts in Peninsular India 9l
TectonicPerspective 97
Aravali Domain 93
Configuration 93
Structural Architecture 95
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 97
Basic Magmatic and Volcanic Actitsities 98
Synkinematic Nepheline Syenites 99
RegionalMetamorphism 101
Emplacement of Granites 101
Mineral Deposits 101
Delhi Domain 103
Tectonics 103
Structural History L04
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 105
Metamorphism 107
Mafic Volcanic Actiaities L07
Emplacement of Mafic-Ultramafic Bodies 107
Emplacement of Granites 109
Mineralization 109
Evolution of Aravali Orogenic Belt 109
Bijawar Basin 111
Intrauatonic Setting 1.1L
Structural Design and History 1.13
Contents xv

Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 113


Volcanic-Magmatic Actiaities 116
Emplacement of Granites 117
Mineralizqtion 11.7

Singhbhum Domain 117


Tectonic Setting 1-17
Structural Architecture 720
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation L20
Volcanic Actiaities 121
Metamorphism 122
Emplacement of Granites L23
Dyke Swarms: Newer Dolerite 123
Etsolution of Singhbhum Mobile Belt 123
Mineralization and Mineral Assets 125
Chhotanagpur Gneiss Complex 125
Southern Tectonic Boundary 125
Ultrabasic Body 126
Meghalaya Gneiss Complex 126
Bhandara Triangle 127
Tectonic Setting 1"27
Sakoli Basin 728
Structural Architecture 128
Lithostratigraphy 129
Mineralization 129
Dongargarh Domain 130
Lithology 130
Bimodal Volcanism L30
Sausar Basin 732
Structural Setup 132
Lithostratigraphy 132
Mineralization 133
MalanjkhandGranite 133
Geological Setting 133
Copper Deposit 134
6, Mesoproterozoic Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt 135
General Layout 135
Structural Architecture and Deformation History 136
Configuration 136
Deformation Pattern 1-39
xvi Contents

Lithological Assemblages and Subdiaision 140


Metamorphism: Thermobarometry and Petrogenesis 143
Multiphase Magmatic Complexes 145
Ultrabasic Layered Complexes 145
Alksline Complexes 145
Evolution of Continental Crust 147
Mineral Deposits 150

7. Southern Granulite Terrane of Pan-African Rejuvenation 151


Two Geological Domains 151
Geophysical Characteristics 752
StructuralFramework 154
Moyar-Attur Shear Zone 155
Palghat-Cauaery Shear Zone 157
Karur-Oddanchatram Shear Zone L58
Achnnkoail Shear Zone 159
Tectonics of Southern Granulite Terrane 160
Metamorphism in Madurai Block 760
Lithology L60
Metamorphic Mineral Assemblages L6L
Dynamothermal History of Trivandrum Block 762
Age of Metamorphic Rejuvenation 763
Felsic Magmatic Activity 1.65
Ultrabasic and Alkaline Rock Complexes 165
Proterozoic Terranes of Sri Lanka 168
Lithotectonic Subdiaision 168
Lithostratigraphy and Petrogenesis 170
Tectonic Framework and Structural History 171
Metamorphic and Petrological Rejuoenation 172
Magmatic Actiaity 173

8. Intracratonic Purana Basins in Peninsular India: Mesoprotetozoic History 174


Introduction 774
Twofold Subdivision of Purana Succession 776
Cuddapah Basin 176
Tectonics 17 6

Structural Architecture 176


Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 180
Igneous Actiaity 181
Life in the Cuddapah Time 182
Contents xvii

Age of the Cuddapah 1.82

Mineral Assets 182


Kaladgi Basin 183
Structural Setting L83
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 183
Bagalkot Stromatolites 185
Godavari Basin 185
Tectonics L85
Structural Design 186
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 187
Volcanic Actiaity L88
Vindhyan Basin: Semri Time 189
Tectonic Setting L89
Structural Architecture L90
Semri Sedimentation and Stratigraphy L91'

Volcanic Actioity 195


Life in the SemriTime 1.95
Age of Lower Vindhyan Semri Group 1.97

g. Neoproterozoic Intracratonic Basins in Peninsular India 198


Beginning of Neoproterozoic Era L98
Vindhyan Basin 198
Tectonic Setting L98
Stratigraphy and Sedimmtation 1'99

Palaeocurrents 20L
lgneous Actioities 201
Life in the Bhander Time 201.

Age of Upper Vindhyan 204


Mineral Resources 204
Trans-AravalilgneousAcivities 2M
Emplacement of Erinpura Granite 204
Malani Rhyolite 205
Granites of Malani Suite 206
Mineralization 207
Greater Marwar Basin 208
Nature of Basement 208
Marwar Group 208
Chhattisgarh Basin 210
Structural Setup 21-0
xviii Contents

Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 2L0


Age ofChhattisgarh Succession 213
Indravati Basin 21.4
Configuration 214
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 2L4
lgneous Actiaity 214
Mineral Resources 2L4
Sullavai Group 215
Bhima Basin 275
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 215
Mineral Resources 217
Badami Group 277
Kurnool Group 278
Tectonics 218
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation 218
Mineral Resources 218
Summing Up 220
10. Early Proterozoic in the Himalaya: Rocks, Metamorphism and
Igneous Activities 227
Tectonic Setting 221.
Triple Dioision of Early Proterozoic 222
Autochthonous Zone 223
TectonicConfiguration 223
Lithology and Depositional Emtironment 225
Volcanic Actiaities 229
Occurrence of Porplryritic Granite 230
Nappe of Epimetamorphic Rocks 230
Lithology 230
Berinag Unit: Facies, Nappe and Volcanism 232
Emplacement of Porphyritic Granites 233
Origin of Ramgarh Nappe 234
Mineralizstion 235
Nappe of Mesometamorphic Rocks 235
Lithology 235
Structural Characteristics 236
Metamorphism 237
Mineralization 237
Great Himalayan Vaikrita Group 237
Tectonic Setting 237
Contents xix

Structural Characteristics 238


Lithology 244
Metamorphism 242
Proterozoic Mogok Complex in Myanmar 242
Tectonic Setting and Structure 242
Lithology 244
Mineralization 244

11. Later Proterozoic and Early Cambrian in Himalaya 245


Tectonic Layout 245
Carbonate Sedimentation: AutochthonousZone 247
Deoban Lithostratigraphy 247
Life in the Deoban Time 247
Depositional Enaironment 2.51

Vendian Time: Mandhali Sediments 251


Transition 252
Life during the Vendian
Mandhali Enaironment of Deposition 253
Parautochthonous Krol Belt 253
Tectonic Setting 253
Lithostratigraphy 254
Lithostratigraphical Comparison of Krol Belt and Autochthonous Zone 258
Life in the lnfiaKrol - Krol Time 258
Appearance of Shelly Fauna in Tal 259
SuddenDirtersification 259
Transition in the Salt Range 259
Time of Dessication 260
Proterozoic-Lower Cambrian Transition in Tethys Domain 261'
Chaung Magyi Croup 262
Pan-African Tectonism 263
Manifestation 263
Deformation 26j
Volcanism 263
Granitic Actizsity 265
Mineralization 267

12. Himalayan Province Between Pan-African and Hercynian Tectonic Upheavals 270
Disturbed Beginning of I'alaeozoic Era 270
Cambrian Canvas of Biostratigraphy 271
Haitus 271
Situation in Eastern Wanmar 276
xx Contents

CambrianVolcanism 277
Ordovician Period 277
Central Sector 277
Short-lioed Fluoial Regime 280
Eastern Myanmar 28L
Volcanism 281.
Silurian Scenario 281.
Eastern Myanmar 281-
Main Himalaya 283
Northern Pakistan 284
Devonian Development 284
Northern Pakistan and Knshmir 284
Eastern Myanmar 284
Carboniferous Time 285
Haitus in Eastern Myanmar 285
North-eastern Nepal 285
Kumaun and Spiti Basins 285
Northern Pakistan 286
Permian Panorama 286
New Cycle of Transgression 286
Magmatic Actiaity 286
Widespread Volcanism 286
Occurrence of Terrestrial Plants 288
Interruption in Sedimentation in Spiti Basin 288
Northern and North-eastern NEal 289
'Gondwana Eringe' in Lesser Himalaya 290
Abor Volcanics 292
Eastern Myanmar 292
Palaeozoic Stratigraphy of Knrakoram 293
Palaeozoic Stratigraphy ofTibet 294
Progression ofPalaeozoic Life 295
EaolutionaryRadiation 295
Deoelopment of Chitinous and Phosphatic Shells 295
Appearance ofFish 296
Colonization of Land by Plants 296
The Coming of Land-liaing Amphibians 296
Amniote Eggs and Eaolution of Reptiles 297
Decimation of Fauna 297
Contents xxi

Disturbed End of the Palaeozoic Era 298


Rifting of Continental Margin 298
Widespread Volcanism 298
Separation of Tibetan Microcontinent 298

13. Gondwana Tectonics,Inland Sedimentation and Life 300


Hercynian Crustal Upheaval 300
Formation of Continent - Interior Basins 300
Land of Continental Glaciers 302
Drainage Pattem 304
Early Permian Marine Incursion 305
History of Sedimentation 307
General 307
Detritus ftom Glaciated Land 308
Fluoial-Alluaial Sedimentation 308
Preoalence of Dry Climate 310
Terminal Phase of Gondwana Sedimentation 31.2
Subsurface Gondwana Formations in Bangladesh 312
Igneous Activities in Grabens 313
Plant Life of the Gondwana Floodplains 315
Age of Seed-bearing Gymnosperms 315
Adaent of Flowering Angiosperms 3L6
The Animal Communities 316
Predominance of Reptiles 3L6
Eoolution of Mammals 3L8
Eaolution of Birds 31.8

Dinosaurs, the Ruling Group 318


Mineral Deposits 379
14. Cretaceous Volcanism 321
The Cretaceous Scenario 321,
Eastern Theatre of Volcanism Rajmahal Volcanic Province 323
Areal Extent
-
323
Lithostratigraphy 323
Genesis 323
Volcanism in South-west India: Saint Mary's Island 323
Deccan Volcanic Province 326
Extent and Topographic Peculiarity 326
Nature of Deccan Larsas 326
Lithostratigraphy - Magnetostratigraphy 327
xxii Conten,t.s

Strttctural Design 328


Petrochemistry and Petrogenesis 330
Origin of Acid and Alkaline Rocks 335
Ceodynamics of Deccan Volcanism 335
Feeders of Deccan Lava Flows 335
Terminal Phase of Deccan Volcanism 337
Temporal Span of Deccan Volcanism 338
Testimony of Lacustrine Fossils 341
Environment and Life during the Deccan Time 343
Sedimentation in Riaer lmpoundments 343
Dinosaurs of the Lameta Time 344
Demise of Dinosaurs 345
Connection with Eurasian Landmass 345

15. Pericratonic Basins: The Mesozoic Scenario 947


Crustal Extension in Continental Margins 347
North-easternContinentalMargin 348
Bengal Basin 348
Meghalaya Region 349
Ultrabasic-Alkaline-Carbonatite Complexes 350
Mineral Deposits 351
South-eastern Continental Margin 351
Krishna-Godaaari Basin 353
Hydrocarbon Deposits of Krishna-Godaoari Basin 353
Basin 354
Kaoeri-Palar
North-westernContinentalMargin 359
Kachchh Basin 359
laisalmer Basin 363
Northern Continental Margin 365
An Arm of Sea inside Central India 366
\{esozoic Panorama of Marine Life 367
Proli.fic and Dizterse Life 367
-1ge o.f Ammonites 367
R.it' Builders and Associated Inaertebrates 368
1.I.;,:le \lertebrates 368
15' \orthern and North-western Continental Margin: Mesozoic Stratigraphy g1g
le::--:';-. 159
3---=: C::::-::nities: Profound Changes 370
Contents

StratigraphyandSedimentation 371,

Type Areas 371.


The Triassic 373
The lurassic 378
The Cretaceous 383
Transition to Palaeogene 389
Cycles of Marine Transgression and Regression 389
Influx of Plant Debris and Volcanic Clasts: Provenance Inland 397
Plant Debris 391
Volcaniclastics 391
Volcanic Actitsity along the Periphery 393
Active Tectonic Environment in the Late Cretaceous 394
Sinking BasinFloor 394
Submarine Slides 395
Mesozoic Stratigraphy of Karakoram 395
Mesozoic Stratigraphy of Tibet 396

17. Collision of India with Asia 398


India-Asia Convergence 398
Evolution of Volcanic Island Arc 398
Kohistan Island Complex 399
Dras lsland Complex 40L
Shyok (Northern) Sutwre 404
Shigatse lsland Complex 405
Docking and Collision of India with Asia 407
Timing 407
Formation of Land Bridge 409
Deformation and Metamorphism 41.0
Irrdus Suture Zone 412
Structure and Lithology 412
Oaerthrusting of Obducted Units 41'3
Magmatic Arc North of Collision Zone 4'1,5

Oblique Convergence: Indo-Myanmar Ranges 41'6


Ophiolite Bodies in Sulaiman-Kirthar Ranges 419
KarakoramBatholith 419

18. Emergence and Evolution of Himalaya 420


Amalgamation of India with Eurasia 420
Bending and Bulging up of Leading Edge 420
Deformation 420
xxiv Contents

Metamorphism 42L
Sagging of Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone 422
Sedimentation 422
Life and Time 423
Breaking of Himalayan Crust 423
Main Central Thrust 423
Trans-Himadri Detachment Fault 426
Timing of Detachment 430
Domal Skuctures in Tethys Terrane 43L
Metamorphism in Himadri (Great Himalaya) Terrane 432
P-T Conditions 432
lnoertedMetamorphism 434
Date of Metamorphism 434
Anatexis and Emplacement of Leucogranites 435
Mode of Occurrence 435
Causes of Anatexis 435
Development of Lesser Himalaya Terrane 436
Zone 436
Northern Duplex
Far-Traaelled Nappes 438
Evolution of Syntaxial Bends ML
lmpact of Projecting Promontories 44L
Nanga Parbat Syntaxial Bend U3
Syntaxis 443
Hazara
Syntaxis 443
Siang
Oblique Thrust Ramps MS
19. Himalayan Foreland Basin 448
Origrn and Development 448
Paiaeogene Sedimentation and Stratigraphy M9
)'.:-',i-iL'estern and Western Himalaya 449
1r:r-: India 452
?i ,s.-g-" Sedimentation North of Collision Zone 453
$:.:; cf Flurial Sedimentation 453
l*;-;_.-: P,rersal 453
-ri-.-_i..-;-p5;.=--r; Himalaya 454
j-:- -i;-r--i:_sfan 456
=;
r: _G
:-w ---l; :5.
-:*:rrr-qrt:J j i:-;r, Sediments 457
-:.f,infC:ru,9,-:--=f 159
Contents xxv

Life in the Palaeogene Period 459


Paleocene-Eocene Vertebrates 459
Oligocene-Lower Miocene Fauna 459
Momentous Tectonic Events 460
Formation of Main Boundary Eault 460
Southward Relocation of Foreland Basin 460
Formation of Siwalik Basin 460
Siwalik Sedimentation 461
Lithology 461
Enaironment of DEosition 462
Rates of Sediment Accumulation 465
Extensioe Debris Flows 466
Episodes of Contemporary Volcanism 466
Prooenance of Siwalik Sediments 466
The Siwalik Life 466
Faoourable Conditions 466
Faunal Assemblages 467
FaunalTurnoaer 468
lmmigration of Exotic Quadrupeds 468
Climate Change and Intensification of Monsoon 469
Structural Development in Siwalik Terrane 471,
Reactiaation of Main Boundry Fault 471-
Structural Design in SW Nepal 471
South-western Uttarakhand 473
Salt Range - Potwar Plateau 474
Sulaiman Fold Belt 476
The Tertiary in Myanmar 477
Tectonics 477
Paleocene-Eocene Time 477
Oligocene Epoch 479
Miocene Successions 479
Mineral Assets of Foreland Basins 480
20. Tertiary Basins: Along Coasts and Offshore 487
Continental Margin 487
Dual-facies Sedimentation 488
Link with Himalayan Foreland Basin 489
Kachchh Tertiary Succession 489
Rajasthan Tertiary Basin 491
xxvi Contents
-"--a

Saurashtra Coast and Offshore 493


Sabarmati - Cambay Basin 493
Graztity Condition 493
Structure andTectonics 494
Sedimentation and Stratigraphy 496
Life in the Sabarmati Domain 497
Climate Change 499
. Bombay Offshore Basin 499
Basin Structure 499
Sedimentation History 499
Faunal Turnoaer 50L
Kerala Basin 501
Coast 501
Outcrops along
Zone 502
Offshore
Kaveri Basin 503
Krishna-Godavari Basin 503
Mahanadi Delta Domain 506
Bengal Basin 507
Evolution of Life During the Tertiary Time 507
Marine lnaertebrates 507
Terrestrial Mammals 507
Important Mineral Deposits 509
21. Andaman Island Arc and Back-Arc Sea 512
Configuration 572
Geophysical Characteristics 513
Structural Layout 51,4

StratigraphyandSedimentation 515
Port Meadow Formation 515
Baratang Group 5L7
Mithakhari Eormation 519
Port Blair Formation 519
Archipelago Formation 520
Sawai Bay Formation 520
Neill Eormation 520
Volcanics of Eastern Arc 520
Evolution of Andaman Mobile Belt 522
Mineral Assets 523
Contents xxvii
.**--^-
22. Indo-Gangetic Plains: Evolution and Later Developments 524
Formation of Foredeep 524
Floor of Indo-Gangetic Basin 525
Ganga Basin 525
Sindhu Basin 527
Brahmaputra Basin 527
Bengal Basin 527
Sedimentation in Ganga Basin 530
Growth of Deltas 532
Ganga-Brahmnputra Delta 532
Sindhu Delta 535
Physiographic Developments 535
Ganga Plain 535
Sindhu Plain 539
Brahmaputra-GangaPlain 541
Drainage: Pattern and Changes 543
Life in the Early Indo-Gangetic Time 543
23. Quaternary Cover and Tectonism: Peninsular India 545
Drainage Disruption in Indo-Gangetic Plains 546
Shifting Courses 547
Rioer Piracy 548
Western Continental Margin 553
Tectonism 553
Sedimentation 553
Fluctuation of Climate Condition 557
Lake Testimony 558
Drainage Deaiation and Disruption 559
Gujarat Coastal Belt 56L
Marine Transgression 561
Wind-xnept Coast 561
Neotectonic Deoelopment 561
The Rann 562
Narmada-Tapi Valleys, Central India 563
Tectonic Setting 563
Sedimentation 565
Episode of Volcanisrn 565
Hominid Presence 565
Konkan-Kanara Coastal Belt 568
Structure and Geomorphology 568
xxviii Conients
-___a
Eaolution of Western Ghat 570
Pediplain Laterization 570
Malabar Coast 571
Structural Layout 571
Sedimentary Coaer 571
Gold-bearing Laterite 572
Coromandal Coast 573
Kanyakumari-Rameswaram Tract 573
Eaolution of laffna Peninsula 573
Growth of Knaeri Delta 573
Human Remains 574
Deaelopment of Deltas of Godaoari and Mahanadi 574
Mysore and Maharashtra Plateaus 577
Laterite Cap of Sahyadri 577
Multiple Planation Surfaces 577
Tectonically Resurgent Mysore Plateau 577
Uplift of Deccan Plateau 579
Volcanism and Life 579
Mineral Assets 582

24. Quaternary Developments in Himalaya 583


Morphogenic Phase 583
Rapid Uplift 583
RuggedYouthful Himadri 583
Milder, Mature Lesser Himalaya 584
Resurgent Siwalik 585
River Ponding and Lake Formation 586
Fault Reactitsation 586
Palaeolakes in Tethys Terrane 586
Rber Ponding in Lesser Himalaya 588
Deaelopments in Siwalik Domain 592
Climate Change and Advent of Ice Age 594
ColdClimate 594
Dry Desertic Climate 594
The Coming of Man 595
Human Settlements 595
Migration 597
Free
lmmigration 598
Contents xxix

25. Holocene Tectonic Movements and Earthquakes 599


Strain Build-up and Relaxation 599
Conaergence of Continents 599
Uplift of Fault-bound Blocks 599
Slip along Himalayan Border 600
Extension and Uplift of Tibetan Plateau 601
Historical Earthquakes 602
Active Faults and Seismicity604
Pattem of Seismicity in Himalaya 604
Narrow Zones of Earthquakes 604
Basal Plane of Detachment 604
Clustering of Epicentres 505
Great Earthquakes 609
Seismicity at North-western Terminal 511
Seismicity in the Eastern Flank 613
Segmented Plate Margin 613
Myanmar Belts 61.3
Andaman lsland Arc and Back-arc Sea 61.4
Stable Continental Seismicity: Northem Peninsular India 615
Reactktation of Ancient Eaults 615
Delhi-Haridwar Ridge 617
Meghalaya Massif 51.7
Kachchh Domain 519
Narmada and Tapi Grabens 621
SCR Seismicity: Southem Penisular India 621'
Deccan Plateau 521.
Mysore Plateau 622
Kerala Region 625
Tectonics of the Tail-End 625

25. Ocean Around Peninsular India 527


Seafloor Structure and Morphology 627
Origin 627
Characteristic Features 627
Dffise lndia-Australia Plate Boundary 531-

Tectonics of the Bay of Bengal 631.


Plate Moaement 631-

Eaolution of Ninetyeast Ridge 63L


Structure and Origin of 85'E Ridge 633
xxx Contents

Geodlmamics of the Arabian Sea 634


Origin of Carlsberg Ridge 634
Eaolution of Laxmi Basin 634
Magmatic Rocks of the Indian Ocean 634
Deep-bed Sedimentation: Faunal Record 637
Western Part 637
Eastern Part 637
Evolution of Mid-oceanic Island Chains 639
Maldiae Coral lslands 639
Lakshadzoeeplslands 639
Submarine Sediment Fans 639
Bengal Fan 639
lndus Fan 641
Sedimentation on Continental Margin 643
Western Continentnl Margin 643
Eastern Continental Margin 645
Sedimentation off lrrawaddy Delta 645
Sea-level Change 647
Ongoing Movements and Seismicity 647
Mineral Assets 648
27. The Evolving Indian Continent 550
India, a Collage of Many Terranes 650
Formation of Continental Nucleii 650
lndian Shield 650
Deuelopments in Dharwar Craton 651
Bastar Craton 651
SinghbhumCraton 652
Bundelkhand Craton 653
Aravali-satpura Orogeny: Evolution of Palaeoproterozoic Mobile Belts 653
Rifting of Sialic Crust 653
Araoali Domain 654
Bijawar Basin 654
Singhbhum Domain 655
Bhandara Triangle 655
Crustal Accretion during Mesoproterozoic Time 655
Pan-African Rejuvenation of Southern Indian Shield 656
Dynamothermal Eoents 656
Proterozoic Terranes of Sri Lanka 657
. r_ _-.._ __ contrnt, *lli
Continental-Interior LaterProterozoicSedimentaryBasins 657
Configuration andOrigin 657
Cuddapah Basin 658
Godaoari Basin 658
Semri (Lower Vindhyan) Basin 658
Beginning of Neoproterozoic Era 659
Trans-Araoali lgneous Actiztities 659
Proterozoic Continental Margin: Himalaya Basin 660
Himalaya 660
Lesser
Himsdri (Great Himalaya) 661
Neoproterozoic Developments in Himalaya province 661,
Tectonic Layout 661
Carbonate Sedimentation 662
Appearance of Shelly Fauna 662
Pan-African Tectonic Upheaval and After 662
Hercynian Revolution and the Gondwana Time 66g
Marine Transgression 663
Widespread Volcanism 664
Formation of Grabens 664
Gondwana Palaeogeography 664
Sedimentation 665
Formation of Coal Beds 665
Animal Communities 665
Stupendous Volcanism in the Cretaceous period 666
Three Phases of Volcanism 666
Geodynamics of Deccan Volcanism 666
Age of Dinosaurs 667
Subsidence of Continental Margin during the Mesozoic Era 662
Peninsular lndia 667
Northern Continental Margin 667
lnflux of Plant Debris and Volcanic Clasts 66g
Volcanic Actiaity Along Periphery 668
Collision of India with Asia 668
Eaolution of Volcanic lsland Arc 669
Docking of lndia with Asia 669
Deformation and Metamorphism 669
Magmatic Arc North of Collision Zone 670
Emergence and Making of Himalaya Orogen 670
Sagging of ITS Zone 670
Breaking of Himalayan Crust 670
Metamorphism and Anatectic Granites in Himadri 671
Deoelopment of Lesser Himalaya Terrane 571
Formation of Syntaxial Bends 571
Himalayan Foreland Basin 672
Origin 672
Beginning of Fluaial Sedimentation 672
Formation of Main Boundary Fault 673
Tertiary Marine Transgression of Peninsular Indian Coasts 673
lnland Sabarmati-Cambay Basin 674
Bombay Offihore Basin 674
Formation of Andaman lsland Arc 674
Origin and Development of Indo-Gangetic Plains 675
Formation of Depression 675
Sedimentation in Ganga Basin 676
Tectonic Resurgence and Geomorphic Developments in the Quaternary Period 676
Western India 676
Central lndia 677
ktolution of Western Ghat 677
Plateaus of Southern Peninsular lndia 677
Faster Uplift of Himalayan Terranes 678
Formation of Lakes 678
Adaent of lce Age 678
Strain Build-up and Holocene Moaements 679

References 681

Some Books on Geology of Indian Continent 803